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Effect of Biofield Treatment on Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristic of Provindencia rettgeri

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Providencia rettgeri (P. rettgeri) is a clinically significant Gram-negative bacterium of genus Providencia, and commonly associated with hospital-acquired infection like urinary tract infection (UTI), gastroenteritis, and ocular infections. Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on P. rettgeri against antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reaction pattern, biotype number, and 16S rDNA sequence. The samples of P. rettgeri (ATCC 9250) were divided into three groups: Gr.I (control), Gr.II (treatment, revived), and Gr.III (treatment, lyophilized). The Gr.II and III were treated with Mr. Trivedi's biofield, and then subsequently characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype numbering. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. rettgeri with other bacterial species. The treated cells of P. rettgeri showed an alteration in susceptibility of about 50% and 53.3% tested antimicrobials of Gr.II on day 5 and 10, respectively; and 53.3% of tested antimicrobials of Gr.III on day 10. MIC results showed a significant decrease in MIC values of 53.1, 56.3, and 56.3% antimicrobials in Gr.II on day 5, Gr.II on day 10, and Gr.III on day 10, respectively, as compared to control. The significant changes in biochemical reactions and biotype numbers were also observed in all the treated groups of P. rettgeri. Based on nucleotides homology and phylogenetic analysis the P. rettgeri was found to be Proteus mirabilis (GenBank Accession Number: AY820623) and nearest homolog species was found to be Proteus vulgaris (Accession No. DQ499636). These findings suggest that biofield treatment can prevent the emergence of absolute resistance of existing antimicrobials to P. rettgeri.
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Mol Biol
ISSN: 2168-9547 MBL, an open access journal
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ISSN: 2168-9547
Molecular Biology
Trivedi et al., Mol Biol 2015, 4:2
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2168-9547.1000129
Research Article Open Access
Effect of Biofield Treatment on Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristic
of
Provindencia rettgeri
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi1, Shrikant Patil1, Harish Shettigar1, Khemraj Bairwa2 and Snehasis Jana2*
1Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA
2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal- 462026, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Providencia rettgeri (P. rettgeri) is a clinically signicant Gram-negative bacterium of genus Providencia, and
commonly associated with hospital-acquired infection like urinary tract infection (UTI), gastroenteritis, and ocular
infections. Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of bioeld treatment on P. rettgeri against antimicrobial
susceptibility, biochemical reaction pattern, biotype number, and 16S rDNA sequence. The samples of P. rettgeri (ATCC
9250) were divided into three groups: Gr.I (control), Gr.II (treatment, revived), and Gr.III (treatment, lyophilized). The
Gr.II and III were treated with Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld, and then subsequently characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility,
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype numbering. The 16S rDNA sequencing
was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. rettgeri with other bacterial species. The treated cells of
P. rettgeri showed an alteration in susceptibility of about 50% and 53.3% tested antimicrobials of Gr.II on day 5 and 10,
respectively; and 53.3% of tested antimicrobials of Gr.III on day 10. MIC results showed a signicant decrease in MIC
values of 53.1, 56.3, and 56.3% antimicrobials in Gr.II on day 5, Gr.II on day 10, and Gr.III on day 10, respectively, as
compared to control. The signicant changes in biochemical reactions and biotype numbers were also observed in all
the treated groups of P. rettgeri. Based on nucleotides homology and phylogenetic analysis the P. rettgeri was found to
be Proteus mirabilis (GenBank Accession Number: AY820623) and nearest homolog species was found to be Proteus
vulgaris (Accession No. DQ499636). These ndings suggest that bioeld treatment can prevent the emergence of
absolute resistance of existing antimicrobials to P. rettgeri.
*Corresponding author: Dr. Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research
Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad
Rd., Bhopal- 462026, Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel: +91-755-6660006; E-mail:
publication@trivedisrl.com
Received July 03, 2015; Accepted July 20, 2015; Published July 27, 2015
Citation: Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of Bioeld
Treatment on Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristic of Provindencia rettgeri.
Mol Biol 4: 129. doi:10.4172/2168-9547.1000129
Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Keywords: Providencia rettgeri; Bioeld treatment; Antimicrobial
susceptibility; Biotype; 16S rDNA sequencing
Introduction
Presently, several microbes have been acquired the resistance
to number of antimicrobial agents that were successfully treat the
microbial infections earlier. e antimicrobial resistant microbes
whether bacteria, fungi, viruses or parasites can survive in regular
antimicrobial drugs therapy. e frequent and improper use and misuse
of antimicrobial drugs accelerate the emergence of drug-resistant
microbes, which were further spread by poor sanitary conditions and
meager infection control [1]. Antimicrobial drugs prescribed in nearly
all Providencia infections caused by ve species: Providencia rettgeri, P.
alcalifaciens, P. rustigianii, P. stuartii, and P. heimbachae. e P. rettgeri
is a clinically signicant, urease-producing, Gram-negative Bacillus
and usually found in both water and land atmospheres. It is generally
associated with opportunistic infections in humans such as traveler’s
diarrhea, urinary tract infections (UTI), skin infection, gastroenteritis,
conjunctivitis, and endophthalmitis. e occurrence of P. rettgeri
infection is common throughout the world with 6–33% of mortality
rate, which is even greater in polymicrobial infection [2,3]. Recently,
P. rettgeri has acquired antimicrobial resistance due to producing
β-lactamase enzymes [4,5]. erefore, due to the clinical signicance
of P. rettgeri, development of eective antimicrobial therapy is very
needful for human health. As such, no medication is available to cure
the resistant strain of microbe but an alternative approach known
as bioeld treatment is recently reported to alter the antimicrobial
sensitivity in dierent microorganism [6].
e law of mass-energy inter-conversion is existed in the literature
for more than 300 years, and the thought was initially reported by
Hasenohrl followed by Einstein [7,8]. However, the conversion of mass
into energy is well established, but its inversion i.e., energy into mass
has not yet proven scientically. Furthermore, the energy can exists in
several forms such as kinetic, potential, electrical, magnetic, and nuclear.
Similarly, the human nervous system consists the energy in the form
of electrical signals [9,10]. us, human has the ability to harness the
energy from environment or universe and can transmit into any leaving
or nonliving object(s) around the Globe. e objects always receive the
energy and responding into useful way that is called bioeld energy and
the process is known as bioeld treatment. Whenever these electrical
signals uctuate with time, the magnetic eld generates as per the
Ampere-Maxwell law, and cumulatively known as electromagnetic eld.
Hence, the electromagnetic eld being generated from the human body
is known as bioeld [11]. Mr. Mahendra Trivedi’s bioeld treatment has
shown to transform the characteristics non-living and living things in
several elds such as material science [12–17], agriculture [18–20], and
biotechnology [21,22]. e bioeld treatment has considerably altered
the sensitivity of antimicrobials to some microbes [6,23,24].
By conceiving the challenges of antimicrobial resistance in P.
rettgeri, and advantages of bioeld treatment; this work was undertaken
to evaluate the eects of bioeld treatment on antimicrobials sensitivity,
biotype number based on various biochemical reactions, and 16S rDNA
gene sequencing of P. rettgeri.
Materials and Methods
e sample vial of P. rettgeri [American Type Culture Collection
(ATCC) 9250] was procured from MicroBioLogics, Inc., USA, and
Volume 4 • Issue 2 • 1000129
Mol Biol
ISSN: 2168-9547 MBL, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of Bioeld Treatment on Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristic of
Provindencia rettgeri. Mol Biol 4: 129. doi:10.4172/2168-9547.1000129
Page 2 of 6
stored as per the suggested storage conditions until further use. e
antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions, and biotype
number were evaluated on MicroScan Walk-Away® (Dade Behring
Inc., West Sacramento, CA) using Negative Breakpoint Combo 30
(NBPC30) panel. e 16S rDNA sequencing study was carried out in
Gr. III sample using Ultrapure Genomic DNA Prep Kit; Cat KT 83
(Bangalore Genei, India).
Bioeld treatment
e samples of P. rettgeri was divided in three groups: Gr.I
(control), Gr.II (treatment, revived), and Gr.III (treatment, lyophilized).
Subsequently, t he treatment groups (Gr. II and III) were received bioeld
treatment. e treatment groups were in sealed pack and handed over
to Mr. Trivedi for bioeld treatment under laboratory condition. Mr.
Trivedi provided the treatment through his energy transmission process
to the treated groups without touching the samples. Treated samples
were assessed for antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical reactions, and
biotyping of P. rettgeri. e assays for Gr.II were assessed on day 5 and
10, and Gr.III was assessed on day 10. e 16S rDNA gene sequencing
of P. rettgeri was also carried out.
Evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of P. rettgeri
Investigation of antimicrobial sensitivity of P. rettgeri was carried
out with the help of automated instrument, MicroScan Walk-
Away® using Negative Breakpoint Combo 30 (NBPC30) panel, as
per the manufacturer’s instructions [25]. e minimum inhibitory
concentration (MIC) and a qualitative susceptibility like resistant
(R), intermediate (I), susceptible (S), or inducible β-lactamases (IB)
were determined by observing the lowest antimicrobial concentration
showing growth inhibition [26]. e antimicrobial sensitivity study was
carried out using following antimicrobials like amikacin, amoxicillin/
K-clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, ampicillin, aztreonam,
cefazolin, cefepime, cefotaxime, cefotetan, cefoxitin, ceazidime,
cefuroxime, ceriaxone, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, ciprooxacin,
gatioxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, levooxacin, meropenem,
moxioxacin, nitrofurantoin, noroxacin, piperacillin, piperacillin/
tazobactam, tetracycline, ticarcillin, tobramycin, and trimethoprim/
sulfamethoxazole. All these antimicrobials were purchased from
Sigma-Aldrich, USA.
Biochemical studies
e biochemical studies of P. rettgeri were performed on MicroScan
Walk-Away® [27,28]. Biochemical reactions patterns were carried out using
32 biochemicals viz. acetamide, adonitol, arabinose, arginine, cetrimide,
cephalothin, citrate, colistin, esculin hydrolysis, nitrofurantoin, glucose,
hydrogen sulde, indole, inositol, kanamycin, lysine, malonate, melibiose,
nitrate, oxidation-fermentation media, galactosidase, ornithine, oxidase,
ranose, Rhamnose, sorbitol, sucrose, tartarate, tryptophan deaminase,
tobramycin, urea, and Voges-Proskauer. All these biochemical were
procured from Sigma-Aldrich, USA.
Biotype number
e biotype numbers of P. rettgeri was determined by automated
MicroScan Walk-Away® processed panel data utilizing biochemical
reactions [25].
Amplication and gene sequencing of 16S rDNA
Genomic DNA was isolated and puried from treated group of P.
rettgeri cells by using genomic purication Kit, as per the manufacturer’s
instructions. e 16S rDNA gene (~1.5 kb) was amplied employing
universal primers forward 5’-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGC-3’ and reverse
5’-GGTTACCTTGTTACGACTT-3’. Aer that, the amplied products
were subjected to gel electrophoresis on 1.0% agarose gel, stained with
ethidium bromide, and visualized under UV light in a gel documentation
unit (BioRad Laboratories, USA). e amplied fragment of PCR was
puried from the agarose gel by DNA Gel Extraction Kit. Sequencing of
amplied product was carried out on commercial basis from Bangalore
Genei, India. e obtained 16S rDNA sequences data were aligned
and compared with the sequences, available in Gene Bank database
of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) using
the algorithm BLASTn program. e multiple sequence alignment/
phylogenetic tree were constructed using MEGA 3.1 soware using
neighbour joining method [29].
Results
Evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility
e results of bioeld treatment on P. rettgeri in relation to sensitivity
pattern and MIC of tested antimicrobials are summarized in Table 1
and 2, respectively. e bioeld treated cells of P. rettgeri exhibited an
alteration in susceptibility of 50% and 53.3% of total antimicrobials
in Gr.II on day 5 and 10, respectively; and alteration of 53.3% of total
antimicrobials in Gr.III on 10th day, with about 2–4 folds decrease in the
MIC values of respective antimicrobials. Briey, amikacin, cefepime,
chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tobramycin were converted from
S. No. Antimicrobial Gr.I
Control
Gr.II
day 5
Gr.II
day 10
Gr.III
day 10
1Amikacin R S S S
2Amoxicillin/K-clavulanate IB IB IB IB
3 Ampicillin/Sulbactam I IB IB IB
4Ampicillin R R I IB
5Aztreonam R IB IB IB
6Cefazolin I IB IB IB
7 Cefepime R S S S
8Cefotaxime R IB IB IB
9Cefotetan R IB IB IB
10 Cefoxitin R IB IB IB
11 Ceftazidime R IB IB IB
12 Cefuroxime R IB IB IB
13 Ceftriaxone IB IB IB IB
14 Cephalothin R IB IB IB
15 Chloramphenicol R S S S
16 Ciprooxacin S S S S
17 Gatioxacin S S S S
18 Gentamicin R S S S
19 Imipenem S S S S
20 Levooxacin S S S S
21 Meropenem S S S S
22 Moxioxacin S S S S
23 Nitrofurantoin RRRR
24 Noroxacin S S S S
25 Piperacillin IB IB IB IB
26 Piperacillin/Tazobactam IB IB IB IB
27 Tetracycline R R R R
28 Ticarcillin I IB IB IB
29 Tobramycin R S S S
30 Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole S S S S
Gr: Group; I: Intermediate; S: Susceptible; R: Resistant; IB: Reduced Activity of
Inducible β-lactamase
Table 1: Effect of bioeld treatment on Providencia rettgeri to susceptibility pattern
of selected antimicrobials.
Volume 4 • Issue 2 • 1000129
Mol Biol
ISSN: 2168-9547 MBL, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of Bioeld Treatment on Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristic of
Provindencia rettgeri. Mol Biol 4: 129. doi:10.4172/2168-9547.1000129
Page 3 of 6
resistant (control) to susceptible in treated groups (Gr.II and Gr.III in
all assessment). Similarly, cefotetan, cefoxitin, ceazidime, cefuroxime,
cefotaxime, cephalothin, and aztreonam were changed from resistant
to inducible β-lactamase in entire treated groups. e sensitivity of
ampicillin was altered from resistant to intermediate and inducible
β-lactamase in Gr.II and III, respectively on day 10. Further, the
ampicillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, and ticarcillin were converted from
intermediate to inducible β-lactamase in all the treated groups. e
MIC of all the above-mentioned antimicrobials were decreased about
2-folds except the ticarcillin and cefotaxime that showed about 4-folds
decrease in MIC value.
Organism identication by biochemical reactions
e biochemical reactions of P. rettgeri are reported in Table 3,
revealed an alteration in biochemical reaction pattern as 12.1% of total
biochemicals in Gr.II on day 5 and 10, and 48.5% of total biochemicals
in Gr.III on day 10. Briey, the cephalothin, kanamycin, and tobramycin
biochemical reactions were converted from positive to negative reaction
in entire treated groups (Gr.II on day 5 and 10 and Gr.III on day 10).
Biochemicals such as arabinose, hydrogen sulde, lysine, malonate,
melibiose, galactosidase, ornithine, ranose, Rhamnose, sorbitol,
sucrose, and Voges-Proskauer were changed from positive to negative
reaction only in Gr.III on day 10 with respect to control. Further,
tartarate was converted from negative to positive reaction in Gr.II on
day 5 only, and tryptophan was converted from negative to positive in
Gr.II and Gr.III on day 10, as compared to control.
Eect of bioeld treatment on biotype number
e biotype numbers of P. rettgeri was determined on MicroScan
Walk-Away® processed panel, using biochemical reaction data. e
result exhibited alteration in biotype number of P. rettgeri in the entire
treated groups (on all assessment day) as compared to control (Table 4).
16S rDNA gene sequencing
e 16S rDNA sequence was determined in P. rettgeri. e
S. No. Antimicrobial Gr.I
Control
Gr.II
day 5
Gr.II
day 10
Gr.III
day 10
1Amikacin >32 ≤16 ≤16 ≤16
2Amoxicillin/ K-clavulanate ≤8/4 ≤8/4 ≤8/4 ≤8/4
3 Ampicillin/Sulbactam 16/8 ≤8/4 ≤8/4 ≤8/4
4Ampicillin >16 >16 16 ≤8
5Aztreonam >16 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
6Cefazolin 16 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
7 Cefepime >16 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
8Cefotaxime >32 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
9Cefotetan >32 ≤16 ≤16 ≤16
10 Cefoxitin >16 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
11 Ceftazidime >16 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
12 Cefuroxime >16 ≤4 ≤4 ≤4
13 Ceftriaxone ≤8 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
14 Cephalothin >16 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
15 Chloramphenicol >16 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
16 Ciprooxacin ≤1 ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
17 Gatioxacin ≤2 ≤2 ≤2 ≤2
18 Gentamicin >8 ≤4 ≤4 ≤4
19 Imipenem ≤4 ≤4 ≤4 ≤4
20 Levooxacin ≤2 ≤2 ≤2 ≤2
21 Meropenem ≤4 ≤4 ≤4 ≤4
22 Moxioxacin ≤2 ≤2 ≤2 ≤2
23 Nitrofurantoin >64 >64 >64 >64
24 Noroxacin ≤4 ≤4 ≤4 ≤4
25 Piperacillin ≤16 ≤16 ≤16 ≤16
26 Piperacillin/Tazobactam ≤16 ≤16 ≤16 ≤16
27 Tetracycline >8 >8 >8 >8
28 Ticarcillin 64 ≤16 ≤16 ≤16
29 Tobramycin >8 ≤4 ≤4 ≤4
30 Trimethoprim/
Sulfamethoxazole ≤2/38 ≤2/38 ≤2/38 ≤2/38
31 ESBL-a Scrn >4 ≤4 ≤4 ≤4
32 ESBL-b Scrn >1 ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Gr: Group; MIC data are presented in µg/mL; ESBL-a, b Scrn: Extended-Spectrum
β-Lactamase Screen
Table 2: Effect of bioeld treatment on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of
Providencia rettgeri.
S. No. Code Biochemical Gr.I
Control
Gr.II
day 5
Gr.II
day 10
Gr.III
day 10
1 ACE Acetamide - - - -
2ADO Adonitol + + + +
3ARA Arabinose + + + -
4 ARG Arginine - - - -
5 CET Cetrimide - - - -
6 CF8 Cephalothin +- - -
7CIT Citrate + + + +
8 CL4 Colistin + + + +
9 ESC Esculin hydrolysis + + + +
10 FD64 Nitrofurantoin + + + +
11 GLU Glucose + + + +
12 H2S Hydrogen sulde + + + -
13 IND Indole + + + +
14 INO Inositol + + + +
15 K4 Kanamycin + - - -
16 LYS Lysine + + + -
17 MAL Malonate + + + -
18 MEL Melibiose + + + -
19 NIT Nitrate + + + +
20 OF/G Oxidation-fermentation + + + +
21 ONPG Galactosidase + + + -
22 ORN Ornithine + + + -
23 OXI Oxidase - - - -
24 P4 Penicillin + + + +
25 RAF Rafnose + + + -
26 RHA Rhamnose + + + -
27 SOR Sorbitol + + + -
28 SUC Sucrose + + + -
29 TAR Tartarate - +- -
30 TDA Tryptophan deaminase - - + +
31 TO4 Tobramycin + - - -
32 URE Urea + + + +
33 VP Voges-Proskauer + + + -
Gr: Group; - (Negative); + (Positive)
Table 3: Effect of bioeld treatment on Providencia rettgeri to biochemical reactions.
Feature
Gr.I
Control
Gr.II
day 5
Gr.II
day 10
Gr.III
day 10
Biotype 7776 5376 7776 5374 7776 5774 4064 0644
Organism
Identication Name P. rettgeri P. rettgeri P. rettgeri P. rettgeri
Gr: Group
Table 4: Effect of bioeld treatment on Providencia rettgeri to biotype.
Volume 4 • Issue 2 • 1000129
Mol Biol
ISSN: 2168-9547 MBL, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of Bioeld Treatment on Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristic of
Provindencia rettgeri. Mol Biol 4: 129. doi:10.4172/2168-9547.1000129
Page 4 of 6
alignment and assessment of the gene sequences data were performed
by comparing with the sequences available in gene bank database of
NCBI, using the algorithm BLASTn program. e phylogenetic tree
was constituted using BLAST-Webpage (NCBI). Based on nucleotides
homology and phylogenetic analysis, the Sample 3A (P. rettgeri) showed
the genetic similarity with Proteus mirabilis (GenBank Accession
Number: AY820623) with 100% identity of gene sequencing data.
Ten dierent related bacterial species and P. rettgeri were considered
as Operational Taxonomic Unites (OTUs) in order to investigate the
phylogenetic relationship of P. rettgeri among other ten related species
(Figure 1). Total 1495 base nucleotide of 16S rDNA gene sequences
were analysed by multiple alignments using ClustalW of MEGA3.1
program [29]. Numbers of base substitutions per site from pairwise
distance analysis between sequences (11 sequences) are shown in
Table 5. Based on the phylogenetic tree and 16S rDNA sequencing, the
nearest homolog genus-species of P. rettgeri was found to be Proteus
vulgaris (Accession No. DQ499636). Some other close homologs of P.
rettgeri can be found from the alignment as indicated in Table 5.
Discussion
Discovery of antimicrobial was a turning point in human history
that revolutionized medication in several aspects, and saved the
countless lives so far. Unfortunately, these wonder drugs have been
accompanied by the quick emergence of resistant microbes. e
extended spectrum ß-lactam (ESBL) antibiotics were widely used to
cure the severe Gram-negative infections but due to production of
extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in the microorganism these
ESBL antibiotics are now almost ineective [30,31]. Similarly, the P.
rettgeri has also acquired the antimicrobial resistance due to producing
of β-lactamase enzyme and become a considerable threat to the human
beings [4].
Research study suggests that most of the clinical isolates of P. rettgeri
were found resistant to older cephalosporin, penicillin, fosfomycin
and to antibiotics to which other Enterobacteriaceae species are also
resistant [32]. Our experimental control sample (P. rettgeri) showed
similar sensitivity and resistant pattern of tested antimicrobials. e
treated sample of P. rettgeri exhibited the alteration in antimicrobial
susceptibility from resistant to susceptible or inducible β-lactamases.
e antimicrobials like amikacin, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin
were converted from resistant (control) to susceptible with about
2-folds decrease in the MIC values. Likewise cefoxitin, ceazidime,
cephalothin, and aztreonam were converted from resistant to inducible
β-lactamase, in entire treated groups with about 2-folds decrease in
the MIC values. e highest decrees (i.e., 4-folds) in MIC value were
observed for cefotaxime and ticarcillin in the entire treated sample.
Overall, dierent class of antimicrobials showed signicant eect aer
AN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
DQ499636
0.981
0.993
0.964
0.992
0.963
0.991
0.951
0.948
0.992
0.991
DQ885259
0.019
0.983
0.963
0.983
0.962
0.982
0.957
0.953
0.985
0.982
AF008582
0.007
0.017
0.962
0.992
0.960
0.998
0.954
0.951
0.992
0.998
DQ205449
0.036
0.037
0.038
0.961
0.999
0.960
0.949
0.947
0.962
0.960
DQ885262
0.008
0.017
0.008
0.039
0.960
0.990
0.951
0.948
0.999
0.990
DQ205448
0.037
0.038
0.040
0.001
0.040
0.959
0.948
0.945
0.960
0.959
AY820623
0.009
0.018
0.002
0.040
0.010
0.041
0.952
0.948
0.991
1.000
AM040489
0.049
0.043
0.046
0.051
0.050
0.052
0.048
0.988
0.951
0.952
AM040490
0.052
0.047
0.050
0.053
0.052
0.055
0.052
0.013
0.948
0.948
DQ885257
0.008
0.015
0.008
0.038
0.001
0.040
0.009
0.050
0.052
0.991
Sample 3A
0.009
0.018
0.002
0.040
0.010
0.041
0.000
0.048
0.052
0.009
AN, GenBank Accession Number
Figure 1: Distance matrix based on nucleotide sequence homology (Using Kimura-2 Parameter).
Alignment View ID Alignment results Sequence description
3A 0.93 Sample studied
AY820623 0.93 Proteus mirabilis
AF008582 0.94 Proteus mirabilis
DQ499636 0.94 Proteus vulgaris
DQ885262 0.98 Proteus hauseri strain NCTC 4175
DQ885257 0.98 Proteus vulgaris strain ATCC 29905
DQ885259 0.92 Proteus myxofaciens strain NCIMB 13273
DQ205449 0.9 Xenorhabdus hominickii strain KR05
DQ205448 0.89 Xenorhabdus hominickii strain KR01
AM040489 0.93 Providencia rustigianii type strain DSM 4541
AM040490 0.88 Providencia heimbachae type strain DSM 3591
Table 5: The closest sequences of Providencia rettgeri from sequence alignment using NCBI GenBank and ribosomal database project (RDP).
Volume 4 • Issue 2 • 1000129
Mol Biol
ISSN: 2168-9547 MBL, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of Bioeld Treatment on Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristic of
Provindencia rettgeri. Mol Biol 4: 129. doi:10.4172/2168-9547.1000129
Page 5 of 6
bioeld treatment viz. β-Lactam penicillin (ampicillin/sulbactam),
cephalosporin (cefazolin, cefepime, cefotetan, and cefuroxime),
monobactum (azetronan), and aminoglycosides (tobramycin and
amikacin). In addition, the treated sample of P. rettgeri also showed the
considerable alteration in biochemical reactions patterns. e biotype
number of P. rettgeri was also changed from 7776 5376 (control) to 7776
5374, 7776 5774, in Gr.II on day 5 and 10, respectively, and 4064 0644
in Gr.III on day 10 (Table 4). Based on the BLASTn analysis, the sample
3A was identied as P. mirabilis with 100% similarity in gene sequence.
e phylogenetic tree diagram (Figure 2) anticipated the closest species
of P. rettgeri to be as Proteus vulgari. e present study revealed that
bioeld treatment could alter the sensitivity of antimicrobials against P.
rettgeri. Based on these results, it seems that bioeld treatment can be a
better alternate of existing drug therapy in future.
Conclusions
Altogether, these results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld treatment
has a signicant impact on antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC value,
biochemical reactions pattern, and biotype number of P. rettgeri.
Acknowledgement
Authors gratefully acknowledged the whole team of PD Hinduja National
Hospital and MRC, Mumbai, Microbiology Lab for their support.
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Volume 4 • Issue 2 • 1000129
Mol Biol
ISSN: 2168-9547 MBL, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of Bioeld Treatment on Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristic of
Provindencia rettgeri. Mol Biol 4: 129. doi:10.4172/2168-9547.1000129
Page 6 of 6
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Citation: Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Effect of
Bioeld Treatment on Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristic of Provindencia
rettgeri. Mol Biol 4: 129. doi:10.4172/2168-9547.1000129
... Providencia rettgeri is a Gram-negative bacterium that is commonly found in both water and land environments (Triverdi et al., 2015). A strain of P. rettgeri was isolated from wastewater and solid water compost in Tunisia, and it showed tolerance to chromium, copper and other heavy metals (Das and Osborne, 2018). ...
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The current study investigated the bioremediation abilities of bacteria on non-essential heavy metals in treated wastewater irrigated fields. Two fields, namely, cultivated field and fallowed field, each being 4 ha, were divided into 40 equal grids, for soil sample collection. Samples were analysed for five non-essential heavy metals namely arsenic, aluminium, cadmium, chromium, and lead. The isolated bacteria were identified as Providencia rettgeri, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus cereus and Arthrobacter aurescens. The bacteria were cultured and inoculated into heavy metal-contaminated soils and incubated for 12 weeks. Results showed that gram positive bacteria reduced concentrations of non-essential heavy metals separately and combined, especially in fallowed field. Cadmium and lead were significantly reduced by the combination of gram-positive bacteria by 95% and 83% respectively. Among the selected non-essential heavy metals chromium was the one which was most efficiently bioremediated with a 100% removal by Providencia rettgeri in cultivated field. No reduction was observed for cadmium by Arthrobacter aurescens in fallowed field. This study proved that bioremediation coupled with fallowing could be considered a solution in ameliorating heavy metal toxicity while naturally improving the quality of the soil.
... Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi's unique Biofield Energy (The Trivedi Effect ® ) has been scientifically studied and reported with significant outcomes in living organisms and nonliving materials in a different manner. The results of The Trivedi Effect ® have been reported in the field of microbiology [19][20][21][22] , agriculture [23,24] , livestock [25] , pharmaceutical sciences [26][27][28][29] , and materials sciences [30][31][32][33] . With the increased number of growing acceptance of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment as a CAM, present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) on HFF-1 cell line and DMEM for skin health and aging potential with respect to the cellular proliferation assay and collagen level. ...
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... Mr. Mahendra Trivedi's unique Biofield Energy (The Trivedi Effect ® ) has been scientifically studied and reported with significant outcomes in living organisms and nonliving materials in a different manner. The results of The Trivedi Effect ® have been reported in the field of microbiology [14][15][16], agriculture [17][18][19], livestock [20], pharmaceutical sciences [21][22][23][24], and materials sciences [25][26][27][28]. ...
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... Mr. Mahendra Trivedi's unique Biofield Energy (The Trivedi Effect ® ) has been scientifically studied and reported with significant outcomes in living organisms and nonliving materials in a different manner. The results of The Trivedi Effect ® have been reported in the field of microbiology [14][15][16], agriculture [17][18][19], livestock [20], pharmaceutical sciences [21][22][23][24], and materials sciences [25][26][27][28]. With the increased number of growing acceptance of Biofield Energy Healing as a conventional medicine, present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) on HFF-1 cell line and DMEM for skin health and aging potential with respect to cellular proliferation assay and effect on collagen level. ...
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... The National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) has been recognized and accepted Biofield Energy Healing as a Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) health care approach in addition to other therapies, medicines and practices such as natural products, deep breathing, yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, meditation, massage, special diets, homeopathy, progressive relaxation, guided imagery, acupressure, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, hypnotherapy, healing touch, movement therapy, pilates, rolfing structural integration, mindfulness, Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese herbs and medicines, naturopathy, essential oils, aromatherapy, Reiki, cranial sacral therapy, and applied prayer (as is common in all religions, like Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism) [25]. The Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) has been extensively studied with significant outcomes in many scientific fields such as cancer research [26]; altered antimicrobial sensitivity of pathogenic microbes in microbiology [27][28][29], biotechnology [30,31], genetics [32,33]; altered structure of the atom in relation to the various metals, ceramics, polymers and chemicals materials science [34][35][36]; altered physical and chemical properties of pharmaceuticals [37,38], nutraceuticals [39,40], organic compounds [41][42][43]; and improved overall growth and yield of plants in agricultural science [44,45]. Herbal extracts and it's formulations despite of their outstanding in vitro results exhibited poor or negligible in vivo activity, because of their low lipid solubility or improper molecular size, causing in deprived absorption and thus poor bioavailability [1]. ...
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Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract contains lot of biologically active metabolites, which have a broad range of pharmacological activities. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on the physical, spectroscopic, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment and another part was treated with the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the treated and control samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 of the treated sample were decreased by 8.41%, 0.51%, and 7.88%, respectively compared with the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 5% compared to the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated the alteration of the force constant for the functional groups of the treated sample in comparison to the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.3 and 205.0 nm, respectively. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss was decreased by 0.65% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis indicated that the onset, peak, and endset vaporization temperature of the treated sample were significantly increased by 41.97%, 23.51%, and 8.82%, respectively as compared to the control sample. The latent heat of vaporization (∆H) of the treated (239.96 J/g) sample was significantly increased by 39.84% compared with the control (171.60 J/g) sample. This indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The current findings suggested that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, absorption, dissolution, and bioavailability of ashwagandha root extract in various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
... The National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) has been recognized and accepted Biofield Energy Healing as a Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) health care approach in addition to other therapies, medicines and practices such as natural products, deep breathing, yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, meditation, massage, special diets, homeopathy, progressive relaxation, guided imagery, acupressure, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, hypnotherapy, healing touch, movement therapy, pilates, rolfing structural integration, mindfulness, Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese herbs and medicines, naturopathy, essential oils, aromatherapy, Reiki, cranial sacral therapy and applied prayer (as is common in all religions, like Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism) [25]. The Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) has been extensively studied with significant outcomes in many scientific fields such as cancer research [26]; altered antimicrobial sensitivity of pathogenic microbes in microbiology [27][28][29], biotechnology [30,31], genetics [32,33]; changing the structure of the atom in relation to the various metals, ceramics, polymers and chemicals materials science [34][35][36]; altered physical and chemical properties of pharmaceuticals [37,38], nutraceuticals [39,40], organic compounds [41][42][43]; and improved overall growth and yield of plants in agricultural science [44,45]. Herbal extracts and herbal drugs despite of their outstanding in vitro results exhibited poor or negligible in vivo activity, because of their reduced lipid solubility or improper molecular size, causing in deprived absorption and Spectroscopic, and Thermal Properties of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract thus poor bioavailability [1]. ...
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Full-text available
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract and their active metabolites possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The current study aimed to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physical, spectroscopic, and thermal properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the treated and control samples were amorphous in nature. The particle sizes at d10, d50, and d90 values of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 12.23%, 10.97%, and 1.25%, respectively with respect to the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 14.29% as compared to the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated the alteration of the force constant for the functional groups of the treated sample in comparison to the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.8 and 206.0 nm, respectively. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss was decreased by 0.70% in the treated sample as compared to the control sample. This indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis indicated that the melting point of the treated sample (190.48°C) was decreased by 4.91% than the control sample (203.45°C). The latent heat of fusion of the treated (4.94 J/g) sample was significantly decreased by 42.96% compared with the control (8.66 J/g) sample. The current findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, absorption, dissolution, and finally, bioavailability of ashwagandha root extract in various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
... National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) has been recognized and accepted Biofield Energy Healing as a Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) health care approach in addition to other therapies, medicines and practices such as natural products, yoga, deep breathing, meditation, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, special diets, massage, homeopathy, progressive relaxation, acupressure, guided imagery, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, hypnotherapy, pilates, healing touch, rolfing structural integration, movement therapy, mindfulness, Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese herbs and medicines, essential oils, naturopathy, aromatherapy, cranial sacral therapy, Reiki, and applied prayer (as is common in all religions, like Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism, and Judaism) [25]. The Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® ) has been extensively studied with significant outcomes in many scientific fields such as biotechnology [26,27], cancer research [28], genetics [29,30], microbiology [31][32][33], altered structure of the atom with respect to the various polymers, metals, ceramics, and chemicals in materials science [34][35][36], altered physico-chemical properties of organic compounds [37][38][39], nutraceuticals [40,41], pharmaceuticals [42,43], and improved overall growth and yield of plants in agricultural science [44,45]. Herbal extracts and their formulations despite their outstanding in vitro results exhibited poor in vivo activity, because of their low lipid solubility or improper molecular size, causing in deprived absorption and thus poor bioavailability. ...
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Ashwagandha root extract is useful as an herbal medicine and nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the physico-chemical, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size distribution analysis (PSD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, and another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis concluded that both the control and treated samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 36.78%, 15.18%, and 5.06%, respectively compared with the control sample. Likewise, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 85.14% compared to the control sample. FT-IR results showed a small impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the phytoconstituents of ashwagandha root extract to reduce the force constant of O-H (str.) bond. UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance (λmax) of both the samples was at 206.4 in methanol. TGA revealed the three steps of thermal degradation and the total weight loss was decreased by 0.73% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. Consequently, the maximum thermal degradation temperature was found at 272.53°C and 393.35°C for two broad peaks in the treated sample was increased by 0.05% and 0.08%, respectively compared to the control the sample (272.67°C and 393.66°C). The DSC analysis indicated that the evaporation temperature and latent heat of vaporization were lowered significantly by 4.98% and 35.67%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current outcomes suggested that the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might have the amazing capacity to enhance the solubility, dissolution, absorption, bioavailability and thermal stability of ashwagandha root extract in the various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the Biofield Energy Treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, sexual disorders, arthritis, stress, cancer, ageing, diabetes, and other chronic infections.
... Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment) has been reported with significant results in nonliving materials and living organisms. The Trivedi Effect ® has been reported with significant outcome in the field of microbiology [21][22][23], agriculture science [24][25][26], biotechnology [27,28], and materials science [29][30][31]. Based on the outstanding applications of Biofield Energy Treatment and use of herbomineral formulation in skin care treatment, present work was designed to evaluate the Biofield Energy Healing based herbomineral formulation against various skin parameters in human foreskin fibroblast (HFF-1), human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and mouse melanoma cell lines (B16-F10). ...
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®- Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment based herbomineral formulation on various skin parameters using HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F1 cell lines. The test formulation was composed of minerals (zinc, selenium, and molybdenum), and L-ascorbic acid along with the mixture of Centella asiatica extract and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). Test formulation and DMEM were divided into two equal parts, one was treated with the Biofield Energy Treatment by Bonnie P. Hegarty-Diaz and denoted as treated, while other part was coded as untreated groups. MTT assay result showed that the test formulation was found safe and nontoxic at tested concentration 40 µg/mL. Fibroblast cell proliferation assay showed significant increased cell proliferation by 26.83% at 8.75 µg/mL in BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. The level of collagen was significantly increased by 22.05% and 22.24% (at 2.5 µg/mL) in BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively. However, collagen amount was increased by 11.08% and 9.52% in BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 1.25 µg/mL, compared to untreated group. Similarly, elastin synthesis was increased in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group by 19.98%, 72.54% and 105.04% at the concentrations 10, 5, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated group. However, level of hyaluronic acid was increased by 5.19% at 0.625 µg/mL in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Besides, melanin synthesis inhibition was found to be inhibited by 14.80% and 17.40% at 0.125 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared with the untreated group in B16-F10 melanoma cell line. Anti-wrinkling activity in HFF-1 cells showed improve cell viability in all the groups at various concentrations, i.e. in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group by 10.69%, 6.9%3, and 11.86%, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. In addition, wound healing scratch assay data suggest significantly higher cellular migration of fibroblast and keratinocytes cells in HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines, respectively. In conclusion, Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) based test formulation and DMEM could be beneficial against various skin disorders such psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer, rashes from bacterial or fungal infections and can be significantly used as anti-wrinkling, skin-whitening, anti-ageing, and rejuvenating action.
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With its theoretical basis firmly established in molecular evolutionary and population genetics, the comparative DNA and protein sequence analysis plays a central role in reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and multigene families, estimating rates of molecular evolution, and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and genomes. The scope of these investigations has now expanded greatly owing to the development of high-throughput sequencing techniques and novel statistical and computational methods. These methods require easy-to-use computer programs. One such effort has been to produce Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, with its focus on facilitating the exploration and analysis of the DNA and protein sequence variation from an evolutionary perspective. Currently in its third major release, MEGA3 contains facilities for automatic and manual sequence alignment, web-based mining of databases, inference of the phylogenetic trees, estimation of evolutionary distances and testing evolutionary hypotheses. This paper provides an overview of the statistical methods, computational tools, and visual exploration modules for data input and the results obtainable in MEGA.
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Recent studies report the effect of biofield treatment on changes in structural characteristics of organic and inorganic matter, on cancer cells in vitro and on overall plant development. This study tested the impact of the same treatment applied to lettuce and tomato seeds and transplants (Lactuca sativa var. capitata and Lycopersiconesculentum var. Roma) in commercial plantings with and without fertilizers and pesticides, in relation to yield, quality, and pest inhibition. Treated lettuce plants with fertilizer and pesticide applications were more vigorous, exhibited less incidence of soil-borne fungal wilt, and subsequent yield was statistically greater 43% compared to untreated plants. Treated plants with no fertilizer or pesticide applications in the field behaved similarly to untreated plants that received routine fertilizer and pest control inputs. Similarly, fertilizer applied and fertilizer non-applied treated tomato plants exhibited a 25% and 31% increase in total observable yields respectively. Treated tomato and lettuce plants also measured higher in total leaf tissue chlorophyll content. The combination of biofield treatment along with administration of chemical additives demonstrated the best results with statistically increased yields and higher pest resistance in both test cropping systems. The specific mechanisms that lead to these preliminary results have yet to be determined.
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Pogostemon cablin is a known aromatic plant which is cultivated for its essential oil widely applicated in perfumery and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the effect of biofield treatment was studied on the growth of P. cablin. For this study an in vitro culture system was set up in two groups, viz., control and treatment, each of which was derived from three different explant sources, namely leaf, node and petiole. Further these in vitro plantlets were hardened and transferred to external environment. The stomatal cells and epidermal hair growth were also studied at various morphogenetic stages. The study revealed that a single spell of biofield energy treatment produced significant increase in growth in treated group throughout all the morphogenetic phases from in vitro to in vivo level. A remarkable increase in stomatal cells and epidermal hair was also seen in treated group.
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