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Il buongoverno nel pensiero di Einaudi e Mosca: tra governo della legge e governo degli uomini

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Italian Abstract: Con questo saggio intendo fare luce sulla presenza e la rilevanza teoretica dell’idea del buongoverno nel pensiero di Einaudi, attraverso un confronto con il pensiero di Mosca basato su identità e differenze tra le loro concezioni del governo della legge, l'opinione pubblica, il governo misto, il ruolo del ceto medio, la teoria delle élites e il modo in cui fecero i conti con le istanze democratiche. Mostrerò come il buon governo sia una nozione chiave per comprendere il liberalismo di Einaudi. English Abstract: With this essay I aim to shed light on the presence and the theoretical relevance of the idea of good government in Einaudi's thought through a comparison with Mosca's thought based on similarities and differences between their conceptions of the rule of law, public opinion, the mixed government, the role of the middle class, the theory of elites and the way in which they faced the nascent democratic demands. I will show how good government is a key concept to understand Einaudi's liberalism.
... On the elite theory and its developments in the Italian tradition of public finance, see Silvestri, 2006, Forte, Silvestri 2013 In this perspective Einaudi inverts the assumptions of the theorists of the élites: on condition that the governing class is acknowledged (and governs) in the name of shared values, such class is a third figure that lies beyond the mere legality or positivity of the law and guarantees the balance of the system and its legitimacy, including the legitimacy of taxes. As Einaudi writes in the final words of Myths and Paradoxes of Justice in Taxation: "Any ruler is perfectly capable of coercing people into paying taxes. ...
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Can taxation and the redistribution of wealth through the welfare state be conceived as a modern system of circulation of the gift? But once such a gift is institutionalized, regulated and sanctioned through legal mechanisms, does it not risk being perverted or corrupted, and/or not leaving room for genuinely altruistic motives? What is more: if the market's utilitarian logic can corrupt or 'crowd out' altruistic feelings or motivations , what makes us think that the welfare state cannot also be a source of corruption? To explain the standard answers to the abovementioned questions as well as their implications I will first reexamine two opposing positions assumed here as paradigmatic examples of other similar positions: on the one hand, Titmuss's work and the never-ending debate about it; on the other, Godbout's position, in-so-far as it shows how Titmuss's arguments can easily be turned upside down. I will then introduce and reinterpret Einaudi's "critical point" theory as a more complex and richer anthropological explanation of the problems and answers considered herein. Through the analysis of these paradigmatic positions I will develop two interrelated arguments. 1) The way these problems are posed as well as the standard answers to them are: a) subject to fallacies: the dichotomy fallacy and the fallacy of composition; b) too reductive and simplistic: we should at least try to clarify what kind of ‘gift’ or ‘corruption’ we are thinking about, and who or what the ‘giver’, the ‘corrupter’, the ‘receiver’ and/or the ‘corrupted’ party are. 2) The answers to these problems cannot be found by merely following a theoretical approach, nor can they be merely based on empirical evidence; instead, they need to take into account the forever troublesome, ambiguous and unpredictable matter of human freedom.
... On the topic of the elite and its developments in the Italian tradition of financial science, seeSILVESTRI, 2006, FORTE -SILVESTRI 2013 ...
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Can taxation and the redistribution of wealth through the welfare state be conceived as a modern system of circulation of the gift? But once such a gift is institutionalized, regulated and sanctioned through legal mechanisms, does it not risk being perverted or corrupted, and/or not leaving room for genuinely altruistic motives? In this paper I will develop two interrelated arguments. 1) The way these problems are posed as well as the standard answers to them are: a) subject to fallacies: the dichotomy fallacy and the fallacy of composition; b) too reductive and simplistic: we should at least try to clarify what kind of 'gift' or 'corruption' we are thinking about, and who or what the 'giver', the 'corrupter', the 'receiver' and/or the 'corrupted' party are. 2) The answers to these problems cannot be found by merely following a theoretical approach, nor can they be merely based on empirical evidence; instead, they need to take into account the forever troublesome, ambiguous and unpredictable matter of human freedom. To explain the standard answers to the abovementioned questions as well as their implications I will first reexamine two opposing positions assumed here as paradigmatic examples of other similar positions: on the one hand, Titmuss' work and the never-ending debate about it; on the other, Godbout's position, in-so-far as it shows how Titmuss' arguments can easily be turned upside down. I will then introduce and reinterpret Einaudi's "critical point" theory as a more complex and richer anthropological explanation of the problems and answers considered herein.
... For a recent re-reading of these issues starting from the Italian tradition in public finance, see Giurato (2009). 10 On Einaudi's theory of elites and the differences among Einaudi, Mosca and Pareto, see Forte, Silvestri (2013), Silvestri (2006. ...
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ITALIAN ABSTRACT In questa voce di dizionario mi concentrerò sulla storia del concetto di Buon governo soffermandomi soprattutto sulla reinterpretazione di esso da parte di alcuni studiosi appartenenti alla storia del liberalismo Italiano. In particolare analizzerò: 1) Il buon governo come problema e come ricerca; 2) Significati classici del buongoverno; 3) Reinterpretazioni del buon governo nella modernità; 4) Il problema del buon governo in Cattaneo, Mosca e Rossi; 5) Einaudi: buon governo, liberalismo, libertà. ENGLISH ABSTRACT In this dictionary entry I will focus on the history of the concept of Good Governanment focusing especially on its reinterpretation by some scholars (loosely) belonging the history of Italian liberalism. In particular I will analyze: 1) Good government as a problem and as a re-search; 2) Classic meanings of good government; 3) Reinterpretations of good government in modernity; 4) The issue of good government in Cattaneo, Mosca and Rossi; 5) Einaudi: good government, liberalism, freedom.
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