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The irreversible effects of modern therapies and increasing drug resistance have augmented our reliance on medicinal plants for herbal remedy against the deadly and infectious diseases. Hypericum perforatum or St. John’s wort (SJW) family Clusiaceae has been used to treat depression, mental disorders, wounds, peptic ulcers, malaria, gout and arthritis. Various compounds of the plant are known as sedative, diuretic and expectorant according to their effects. The flowers and the aerial parts are commonly used in the preparations of traditional medicines. Hypericum perforatum with identified active compounds like Hypericines, Hyperforins is being studied for its anti-depressant activity in both humans and animals. It is also used in the treatment of pulmonary complaints, bladder troubles in suppression of urine, dysentery, worms, diarrhoea, hysteria and other haemorrhages and jaundice. Most of its therapeutic effects with mechanism of action are critically reviewed in the present paper.
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Shrivastava and Dwivedi, IJPSR, 2015; Vol. 6(12): 1000-07. E-ISSN: 0975-8232; P-ISSN: 2320-5148
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 1000
IJPSR (2015), Vol. 6, Issue 12 (Review Article)
Received on 30 May, 2015; received in revised form, 24 July, 2015; accepted, 29 September, 2015; published 01 December, 2015
Mansi Shrivastava* and L. K. Dwivedi
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi-284128, UP, India.
ABSTRACT: The irreversible effects of modern therapies and
increasing drug resistance have augmented our reliance on medicinal
plants for herbal remedy against the deadly and infectious diseases.
Hypericum perforatum or St. John’s wort (SJW) family Clusiaceae has
been used to treat depression, mental disorders, wounds, peptic ulcers,
malaria, gout and arthritis. Various compounds of the plant are known
as sedative, diuretic and expectorant according to their effects. The
flowers and the aerial parts are commonly used in the preparations of
traditional medicines. Hypericum perforatum with identified active
compounds like Hypericines, Hyperforins is being studied for its anti-
depressant activity in both humans and animals. It is also used in the
treatment of pulmonary complaints, bladder troubles in suppression of
urine, dysentery, worms, diarrhoea, hysteria and other haemorrhages
and jaundice. Most of its therapeutic effects with mechanism of action
are critically reviewed in the present paper.
INTRODUCTION: The Genus Hypericum L.
(Guttiferae/Clusiaceae/Hypericaceae) containing
465 species globally 41, 48, 49 is a large family of
plants with potential medicinal value. However, H.
perforatum is mainly studied for its bioactivities
due to its popularity among the depression patients.
Hypericum perforatum commonly known as St.
John’s wort is named so because of the traditional
collection of its flower at the feast of St. John the
Baptist on June 24th 48. It is a perennial herb native
to Asia and Europe 4, 38 but known globally for its
traditional and modern uses. The use of this species
as an herbal remedy to treat a variety of internal
and external ailments dates back to the time of the
ancient Greeks.
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Since then, it has remained a popular treatment for
anxiety, infection, and wound healing 38, 56, 57. In
last couple of decades, the majority of research on
H. perforatum was based on its use as anti-
depressant, which has expanded its popularity and
made it among the top selling dietary supplements
in the market 4, 14. Pharmaceutical companies,
particularly in Europe, prepare standard
formulations of this herb that are taken by millions
of people. Moreover, it has also attracted the
scientists’ brain for its anti-inflammatory and anti-
microbial properties against the inflammatory
diseases 14, 24.
Recent research suggests the effectiveness of this
herb in treating other ailments including cancer,
inflammation related disorders, and bacterial and
viral diseases, and used as an antioxidant and
neuro-protective agent. Of the total 400 species,
distributed in the temperate regions of the world,
about 25 species are found in the Indian Himalayan
Region (IHR). Amongst the species, Hypericum
perforatum, grows in Himalayas at higher altitudes
Hypericum perforatum, St. John’s
wort, Anti-depressant agent,
Hypericines, Hyperforins.
Correspondence to Author:
Mansi Shrivastava
Institute of Biomedical Sciences,
Bundelkhand University, Jhansi-
284128, UP, India
Shrivastava and Dwivedi, IJPSR, 2015; Vol. 6(12): 1000-07. E-ISSN: 0975-8232; P-ISSN: 2320-5148
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 1001
and in the hills of central parts of the country is a
prospective herb to be used as a anti-depressant,
anti-cancer, anti-tumour and anti-viral agent.
Considering its anti-viral property, the plant is
widely studied for its effect against the HIV
species. Some biologically active constituents like
hyperforin and adhyperforin (phloroglucinols),
hypericin and pseudohypericin
(naphthodianthrones), flavonoids, xanthones,
oligomeric procyanidines, and amino acids have
been detected in Hypericum 4, 38.
Botanical Description:
The genus name Hypericum is derived from the
Greek words hyper (above) and eikon (picture), in
reference to the plant's traditional use in warding
off evil by hanging plants over a religious icon in
the house during St John's day (24th June). The
species name perforatum refers to the presence of
small oil glands in the leaves that look like
windows, which can be seen when they are held
against the light 33. Hypericum consists of herbs
and shrubs having yellow or coppery flowers with
four to five petals, numerous stamens, and a single
pistil 10 and free branching typically range from 40
to 80 cm in height16, 36. The stems and branches are
densely covered by oblong, smooth margined
leaves that range from 1 to 3 cm long and 0.3-1.0
cm wide. The leaves are interrupted by minute
translucent spots that are evident when held up to
the light. The upper portions of mature plants can
produce several dozen five petaled yellow flowers
that are typically 1.0-2.0 cm wide. The edges of the
petals are usually covered with black dots. Crushed
flowers produce a blood red pigment. By late
summer, the flowers produce capsules that contain
dozens of tiny, dark brown seeds. It thrives in poor
soils, and is commonly found in meadows, fields,
waste areas, roadsides, and abandoned mines and
quarries 16, 27, 36. Due to concerns over phototoxicity
to livestock, H. perforatum is listed as a noxious
weed in seven western states in the United States.
Programs promoting its eradication are underway
in Canada, California, and Australia.
Chemical Constituents:
Chemical investigations have detected seven
groups of medicinally active compounds in H.
Perforatum 38. They include naphthodianthrones,
phloroglucinols, and flavonoids (such as
phenylpropanes, flavonol glycosides, and
biflavones), as well as essential oils 2, 4, 11, 46. There
two major active constituents have been identified:
hypericin (a naphtodianthrone) and hyperforin (a
The class of compounds isolated from H.
perforatum which is the most researched is the
naphthodianthrones 17, 18, 47. They include
hypericin, pseudohypericin, isophypericin, and
protohypericin 2, 11. Of these, hypericinan
anthraquinone derived pigment that is responsible
for the red color of SJW oils. Hypericin is found in
the flowers in the form of black dots that are
located along the petals. Due to its chemical
structure, hypericin is highly photoreactive.
Flavonoids in SJW range from 7% in stems to 12%
in flowers 11 and leaves 18. Flavonoids include
flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin), flavones
(luteolin), glycosides (hyperside, isoquercitrin, and
rutin), biflavones (biapigenin), amentoflavone,
myricetin, hyperin, oligomeric proanthocyanadins,
and miquelianin, all of which are biogenetically
related 2, 47.
Lipophilic compounds:
Extracts of SJW contain several classes of
lipophilic compounds with demonstrated
therapeutic value, including phloroglucinol
derivatives and oils. Hyperforin, isolated in
concentrations of 24.5% 8, 47, is a prenylated
phloroglucinol. Hyperforin is unstable in the
presence of both light and oxygen 23. Other
phloroglucinols include adhyperforin (0.2%1.9%),
furohyperforin, and other hyperforin analogs 2, 11, 18,
21. Essential oils are found in concentrations
ranging from 0.05% to 0.9% 21. They consist
mainly of mono and sesquiterpenes, specifically 2-
methyloctane, nnonane, α and β pinene, α terpineol,
geranil, and trace amounts of myrecene, limonene,
and caryophyllene 21, 46.
Additional compounds:
These include tannins (ranging from 3% to 16%),
xanthones (1.28 mg/100g), phenolic compounds
(caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and pcoumaric
acid), and hyperfolin. Additional compounds
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International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 1002
include acids (nicotinic, myristic, palmitic, and
stearic), carotenoids, choline, pectin, hydrocarbons,
and long chain alcohols 11.
Pharmacological activities:
St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) has been
used for centuries to treat a number of common
ailments (such as neuralgia, sleep disorders, wound
healing, and hemorrhoids), but it is best known for
its use in the treatment of mild to moderate
depression 39.
Responsible Compounds:
SJW is known to have several active ingredients
including cyclopseudohypericin, hypericin,
hyperforin, isohypericin, protohypericin,
pseudohypericin and several other flavonoids 5, 13.
Each of these active components appears to have
differing levels of contribution to its anti-
depressant properties 5.
Mechanism of action: One of the proposed
mechanisms of St. John's wort in the treatment of
depression is the inhibition of the uptake of
serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA) and
norepinephrine (NE) from the synaptic cleft of
interconnecting neurons 8, 40. A second contributing
mechanism is the ability to bind to the major neuro-
inhibitory receptor, gamma amino butyric acid
(GABA A and GABA B) receptors, to block the
binding of GABA3, 54. This reduction in GABA
ligand binding results in decreased central nervous
system (CNS) depression. A third mechanism is an
increase in the number or density of 5HT2
receptors in the frontal cortex of the brain, which is
potentially beneficial when treating depression 37.
A fourth and possibly fifth separate contributing
mechanism is St. John's wort ability to inhibit the
activity of both monoamine oxidase (MAO) and
catechol O-methyl transferase (COMT) enzymes 37,
55. Active form of both of these CNS enzymes
metabolize dopamine precursors into inactive
products and allows dopamine to metabolized to
norepinephrine (NE) in the brain. Thus, inhibition
of these enzymes in the CNS favors the metabolism
of Dopamine and the formation of NE (Fig.1).
Anti-bacterial and anti-viral:
Extracts of H. perforatum have been used to treat
cuts, abrasions, and other wounds for thousands of
years. It is useful in reducing inflammation and is
well known for its ability to serve as an
antibacterial agent. Hyperforin, the main
antibacterial component was determined to inhibit
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International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 1003
the growth of certain types of microorganisms
especially for all Gram positive bacteria. However,
no growth inhibitory effects were seen in the gram
negative bacteria 6.
The SJW extracts have long been regarded as being
effective against various classes of viruses.
Flavonoid and catechin containing fractions of SJW
are active against influenza virus 34. Hypericin
inactivates enveloped viruses at different points in
their life cycle 28, and their fusion with cell
membranes 10, 28. Considering to that Hypericin is
used as natural candidate to inactivate several
enveloped viruses present in human blood and to
treat Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(AIDS) patients 22, 33. Other reverse-transcribed
viruses like hepatitis virus B and C (HBV and
HCV) have been found to be inhibited by hypericin
in vitro 37, 55. It was found hypericin ineffective
against the hepatitis C virus in a doses study 25.
Some recent reports showed that isoquercetrin in H.
perforatum extract could inhibit H1N1 influenza
virus replication in MDCK cells. However, most
observations of anti-viral activity of Hypericum
were acquired from in vitro studies and a limited
number of animal studies, while human clinical
trials often showed little or no significant effect.
Studies on other viruses have shown the hypericin
induced in-vitro inactivation of Bovine Diarrhea
Virus (BVDV) in the presence of light 43.
Anti HIV Property:
Hypericin induced changes in p24 protein and the
p24 containing gag precursor, p55 and the
formation of an anti p24 immuno-reactive material
which inhibit the release of reverse transcriptase
activity 10. However, in a phase I clinical trial, it
was found that hypericin had no beneficial effect
on administration to 30 HIV infected patients with
CD4 counts less than 350 cells/mm3 20. Recently, in
a study, 3hydroxy lauric acid was found in the field
grown H. perforatum which has shown better anti
HIV activity 43.
Mechanism of action:
With no apparent effect on viral nucleotide,
transcription and translation being observed, the
authors speculated that the anti-viral mechanism of
the Hypericum was having a direct interference
with virus infection and shedding, or inactivation of
virus, or disruption of virus lipid membrane.
However, conclusive clinical evidence has yet to be
found to support the in vivo efficacy of hypericin
and H. perforatum against HIV.
The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators
of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway are
responsible for transmitting signals from a myriad
of cytokine and hormone receptors 45. Negative
regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway is carried out
through suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)
proteins, whose transcription is controlled by
STATs 44. Although SOCSs are important to
contain inflammation, they are also manipulated by
pathogens such as influenza virus regulating
SOCS3 expression by the biological components
found in H. perforatum extract may inhibit the viral
Hyperforin and hypericin have also been examined
for their anticancer properties. Hyperforin inhibits
tumor cell growth in vitro 51. Studies demonstrated
that hyperforin in conjunction with polyphenolic
procyanidin B2 effectively inhibited the growth of
leukemia in K562 and U937 cells, brain
glioblastoma cells LN229, and normal human
astrocytes 23. Hypericin also inhibits the growth of
cells derived from a variety of neoplastic tissues,
including glioma, neuroblastoma, adenoma,
mesothelioma, melanoma, carcinoma, sarcoma, and
leukemia15. Hypericin being photodynamic
compound whin photoactivated with white light or
ultraviolet light or both could induce nearly
complete apoptosis (94%) in malignant cutaneous
T cells and lymphoma T cells 15. Exposing tumors
cells to hypericin in conjunction with laser
irradiation led to toxic effects on human prostatic
cancer cell lines 9, human urinary bladder
carcinoma cells 26, and pancreatic cancer cell lines
29 in in-vitro systems.
As a matter of attention, hypericin alone has only a
weak inhibitory effect on cancerous cell growth,
whereas methanolic extract of SJW together with
hypericin leads to long lasting inhibition of cell
growth, induces apoptosis, and decreases
phototoxicity 50, 52. Considering the encouraging
results of hyperforin and hypericin as anticancer
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International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 1004
agents, more research is needed to evaluate their
efficacy, mode of action, and adverse interactions.
Mechanism of action: The mechanism involves
induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death)
through the activation of caspases, which are
cysteine proteases that trigger a cascade of
proteolytic cleavage in mammalian cells. Hypericin
with its greater photodynamic properties1 acts as a
powerful natural photosensitizer in the presence of
oxygen and light. It generates superoxide radicals
that form peroxide or hydroxyl radicals, or singlet
oxygen molecules that kill tumor cells. Hence, in
future, hypericin can be used as a component of
photodynamic therapy (PDT).
H. perforatum serves as a neuroprotective agent
against MPTP (1methyl 4phenyl 1,2,3,6
tetrahydropyridine) induced Parkinson's disease in
mice 35. H. perforatum extract led to the inhibition
of MAOB activity and decreased astrocyte
activation in striatal area of (MPTP) induced mice.
The flavonols quercetin and kaempferol provide
neuroprotective action by decreasing oxidation of
the mitochondrial lipid membrane and maintaining
mitochondrial transmembrane electric potential 53.
They lower the ability of mitochondria to absorb
calcium. Extracts of SJW protect against cell death
caused by amyloid P peptides (Abeta) that form
plaques in the brains of those suffering from
Alzheimer's disease. Hypericin may interfere with
the processes of polymerization of the beta-amyloid
peptide responsible for the onset of Alzheimer’s
diseas 19.
Other Activities:
H. perforatum shows promise as an anti-
inflammatory agent. Rats fed doses of SJW showed
decreased levels of blood and bowel enzymes
associated with colonic inflammation 12, and had
lower incidences of gastric ulcers 12.
The extracts of H. perforatum decrease oxidative
stress and consequently prevent neurotoxicity,
inflammation, and gastrointestinal problems. H.
perforatum extract has been used over thousands of
years as a wound healing agent. The chicken
embryonic fibroblasts exposed to SJW extract
enhanced collagen production, followed by the
polygonal shape activation of fibroblast cells that is
responsible for wound closure 42.
Future Perspectives:
In recent years, many studies have proven the
efficacy of some HP extracts in the treatment of
depression, bacterial and viral infection,
neurological disorders, etc. It has also received
special attention due to its pharmacological
properties, including antiseptic, spasmolytic, tonic,
diuretic and anesthetic remedies. Despite the
dozens of clinical, in vivo, and in vitro studies
conducted on the medicinal attributes of SJW,
several unanswered questions still prevail regarding
its therapeutic value, mechanisms of action, and
adverse interactions. The future research must
focus on resolving the apparent contradictions
related to this herbal plant. Additional research is
needed regarding the therapeutic value of SJW as
anti-cancerous, anti-HIV, immuno-modulatory
agent and so on. Moreover, the potency of
hypericin, hyperforin, and flavonoids must be
further elucidated.
Anti-bacterial property of SJW is reported against
the gram positive bacteria but it is still to be
thoroughly studied against the gram negative
bacteria. Hypericin was tested as anti-HIV drug,
but some more studies are required to understand
its mechanism of action and efficacy in serious
AIDS patients. The anti-retroviral activity of 3-
hydroxy lauric acid reported to be found in the field
grown SJW extract may further be studied for its
in-vivo effects. As anti-cancer agent evaluation of
efficacy, mode of action and adverse effects of
hypericin and hyperforin is needed.
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Shrivastava M and Dwivedi LK: Therapeutic Potential of Hypericum Perforatum: A Review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2015; 6(12): 1000-
07.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.6(12).1000-07.
... These components are also used to treat anxiety and certain types of insomnia. Other, more common active metabolites are phenolic compounds such as the flavonoids quercetin (with high antioxidant capacity), biapigenin and kaempferol, as well as chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid (Kasper et al., 2012;Russo et al., 2014;Shrivastava and Dwivedi, 2015). Oilbased extracts of the herb are used externally to treat wounds, burns, swellings and skin bruises. ...
... Recently it was established that the plant's extracts possess antibacterial effects, including against mycobacteria, and they are also efficient against certain types of viruses, such as the influenza virus and retroviruses (Avato et al., 2004;Mortensen et al., 2012). Furthermore, hypericins and hyperforins were effective in the in vitro inhibition of tumor cell divisions and in the induction of apoptotic cell death in lymphomas (Shrivastava and Dwivedi, 2015). ...
... Because the highest amounts of hypericins, hyperforins and other pharmacologically active secondary metabolites accumulate in leaves, especially in the large intercellular spaces that develop in the mesophyll (Shrivastava and Dwivedi, 2015), the influence of the two growth regulators on the total leaf biomass of each plant was also evaluated (Fig. 3). Tria did not cause a significant increase in the fresh biomass of leaves as compared to the control group, the exogenous application of 2 µM BA as foliar spray caused a moderate, but statistically significant decrement in the leaf biomass value per plant, and the only increment of this growth parameter was obtained when a combined treatment was applied with Tria and BA. ...
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Treatment of St. John's wort plantlets with 1 µM triacontanol and 2 µM benzyladenine stimulates growth and metabolic processes, being an environmental-friendly approach for optimizing the cultivation of these valuable medicinal plants under controlled conditions. When the two growth regulators (a bioactive cuticular wax constituent and a cytokinin) are applied simultaneously, they act synergistically, enhancing each other's effect on the biomass accumulation and on certain parameters of the photosynthetic light use efficiency, such as the effective quantum yield of photosystem II and the overall vitality index of the photosynthetic apparatus which performs the conversion of light energy into usable forms for carbon dioxide assimilation. The results concerning the interactions between the two externally applied growth regulators during the early development of St. John's wort plants may lead to a more efficient cultivation of this herbal medicinal product, including the possibility to modulate the production of pharmacologically active metabolites.
... Hypericum species have very valuable phytochemical properties. That's why Hypericum species are widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of depression, type II diabetes, wound healing, muscle aches, and treatment of burns [5,6]. Hypericum perforatum contains hyperforin, hypericin, quercetin, epicatechin, catechin, tannins, resveratrol, biapigenin, porphyrins, flavonoids, flavonoid derivatives, and xanthone derivatives. ...
... As we know, these compounds exhibit antioxidant activity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and free radical scavenging properties [7]. Many clinical trials have shown that consuming nutritional supplements, protective foods, phytochemicals, and modified diets regularly can help prevent damaged cells and many cancer types [5,8]. The purpose of this study is to see if methanol and aqua plant extracts from Hypericum perforatum can protect human mononuclear leukocytes from oxidative stress and DNA damage caused by H2O2 using the single-cell alkaline gel electrophoresis method. ...
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Oxidative stress is the state of the formation of some pathophysiological condition with the excessive increase of the normal amount of free radicals in the organism. In this study, the in vivo genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of methanol and water extract and phenolic content of Hypericum perforatum flower, fruit, and seed methanol extracts were analyzed. HPLC was used to evaluate the quantities of 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, O-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and catechin in the methanol extracts. The alkaline comet test was used to assess the DNA damage and protective effects of H. perforatum flower fruit, seed methanol, and water extract on human mononuclear leukocytes. The amounts of catechin and caffeic acid in seed methanol extract were found as quite high when compared to other extracts. The highest protective effects were seen at 10 and 50μg/ml concentrations of seed methanol extract. The optimum doses of fruit, flower, and seed extracts obtained from H. perforatum neutralized the genotoxic effect. This effect is stronger in seed methanol extract than other extracts. We suggest that more research is needed to evaluate the effects of H. perforatum phytochemicals in vitro and in vivo. [Med-Science 2022; 11(2.000): 784-8]
... Plants have an essential role in maintaining human health and well-being; this is based on the idea that plants contain natural substances that can help human health as a preventive and curing disease (Jangde, 2015). Therefore, plants that have the potential as drugs have curative properties due to various phytochemicals, such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, essential oils, and glycosides (Shrivastava & Dwivedi, 2015). Phytochemicals are biologically active chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants, so they have a role as a natural defense system for host plants and provide aroma, taste, and color to these plants (Arts & Hollman, 2005). ...
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Ziziphus mauritiana is an edible fruiting plant commonly found in Asia. In Indonesia, this plant grows wild and thrives on the islands of Bali, Lombok, and Sumbawa. Although it is edible and has good potential as food and medicinal ingredient, in Indonesia, the fruits of Z. mauritiana are underutilized and have almost no economic value. Information about the bioactivity and chemical content of the fruit is limited. To evaluate its possibility of being developed as functional food, a GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis was carried out to identify the phytochemical content of the fruit juice. From the GC-MS chromatogram, four compounds were identified with a quality match of 85% and above. The compounds were 5-( hydroxymethyl)-2–furancarboxaldehyde (43.45%), 5, 5'-(oxybis(methylene)) bis-2- furancarbox-aldehyde (25.99%), 2,3–dihydro-3,5–dihydroxy–6–methyl-4H–pyran–4-one (6.05%), and hexadecanoic acid (2.16%). The result of the LC-MS/MS analysis showed 42 peaks of different chemical compounds and included several groups of compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, terpenoids, and organic acids. From these results, it can be concluded that Ziziphus mauritiana fruit juice contains various chemical compounds that are likely to have medicinal activity and therefore has good potential to be used and developed as a functional food.
... The medicinal parts of the plant are flowers and twigs [3]. The extracts, products and chemical components of this plant have shown antiepileptic, anti-schizophrenic, anti-migraine, analgesic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant effects in various clinical studies [4,5]. Additionally, new research have interestingly revealed its encouraging effects in the treatment of nicotine and alcohol addiction [6]. ...
Aims: Hypericum perforatum L., known as “Hofarighun” is a widely used herbal drug in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). Detection of non-relevant plants, instead of this species, in the herbal market encourages the need for the establishment of it’s chemical authentication and standardization, through implying rapid and efficient phytochemical techniques. Study Design: Twelve Hypericum samples were acquired from traditional medicine markets of different regions of Iran (Tehran, Sanandaj, Mashhad, Kerman, Bandar Abbas, Ahvaz, Yazd, Babol, Yasuj, Shiraz (Chehel Giah), Shiraz (Kazerun Gate), and Shiraz (Adloo Zerehi), based on microscopic characterization. Positive control was taken in the form of cultivated specimen of H. perforatum. Place and Duration of Study: Study was performed in Medicinal plants processing Research Center, SUMS, Shiraz in the months between February to December 2021. Methodology: Essential oil samples were injected into a gas chromatograph (GC) and compounds were identified as per the spectra obtained. Total phenol, flavonoid and HPTLC analysis of samples were also done. Results: α-pinene was found in highest proportion in majority of samples i.e. 35.55-63.69%. However other compounds such as 1-dodecanol (10.82%), caryophyllene (15.87%) and β-cubebene (15.14%) were also analyzed in samples and the cultivated sample respectively. Total phenol and flavonoid content among the Hypericum extracts were found to be between 50.31±3.22 to 262.76±8.12 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/g of Ext. and 13.47±1.68 to 79.26±5.78 mg Quercetin Equivalent (QE)/g of Ext., respectively. Conclusion: The noticeable findings of present study can be used as a framework for authentication of Hypericum perforatum samples. The methods used were found to be feasible and efficient in detection of adultrations and may contribute to minimize the safety and efficacy concerns over the samples available in the traditional herbal pharmacies.
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Ethanol extracts of three widely growing plants were added to silica sol–gel solutions, which were subsequently applied as wall surface modifiers in inner quartz capillaries. Modified capillaries were used for open-tubular capillary electrochromatographic separation of nucleotides and amino groups containing biological compounds (neurotransmitters, amino acids and oligopeptides). The experiments were performed at physiological pH 7.40, and eventual changes of effective mobilities were calculated. Specific compounds characteristic for each plant were tested as sol–gel additives as well, and thus-modified capillaries were used for the separations of the same analytes under identical conditions. The aim of this study was to find out possible interactions between physiological compounds and extracts of freely available plants anchorded in the sol-gel stationary phase in the flowing system. Even though the amount of the modifier in each capillary is very small, basic statistical evaluation showed some not negligible changes in effective mobility of tested analytes. These changes were bigger than ± 5% for separations of nucleotides in capillaries with curcuma, Moringa or the mixture of synthetic additives as the sol-gel aditive, and for separations of amino compounds where these changes varying by additive, analyte by analyte.
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Hypericum perforatum is a medicinal plant of the genus Hypercasia with phenolic and flavonoid compounds with high antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The present study was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of the methanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum on food-borne bacteria. The aerial part of Hypericum perforatum was prepared from the research farm, and after approval by experts, it was dried and powdered and used to prepare the methanolic extract. The diameter of the growth inhibition zone of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed using disk diffusion and compared with antibiotics. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bacterial Concentration (MBC) of methanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum were evaluated on the target bacteria using an ELISA plate. The diameter of the growth inhibition zone of bacteria against the methanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum ranged from 9.33±0.45 to 15.28±0.60 mm. Application of 100 mg/ml concentration of methanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum caused the highest diameter of the growth inhibition zone of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.27±0.53 mm), Escherichia coli (13.20±0.59 mm), and Staphylococcus aureus (15.28±0.60 mm). The antimicrobial effects of methanolic extract of fenugreek were dose-dependent (P <0.05). The lowest and highest levels of MIC and MBC of methanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum were obtained for Staphylococcus aureus (0.0010 and 0.0019, respectively) and Escherichia coli (0.50 and 1.00, respectively). The diameter of the growth inhibition zone of bacteria treated with methanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum was higher than some antibiotic discs.
Similar to other neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been extensively investigated with respect to its neuropathological background and possible treatment options. Since the symptomatic outcomes are generally related to dopamine deficiency, the current treatment strategies towards PD mainly employ dopaminergic agonists as well as the compounds acting on dopamine metabolism. These drugs do not provide disease modifying properties; therefore alternative drug discovery studies focus on targets involved in the progressive neurodegenerative character of PD. This study has aimed to present the pathophysiology of PD concomitant to the representation of drugs and promising molecules displaying activity against the validated and non-validated targets of PD.
The eye, nose, and throat (ENT)-related diseases are a great problem in the pediatric population, but the mortality is low, whereas complication rates are increasing in spite of the improvements in health care facilities. In children, middle ear infection is the most common disease, the reason being alterations in the eustachian tube anatomy, being straighter in children than adults. Nearly 42 million people (age >3 years) are facing a hearing loss, mainly because of otitis media, second only to the common cold as a cause of infection in kids, also the commonest cause of mild-to-moderate hearing impairment in industrializing countries. In the population above 5 years of age, nearly 16% suffer from this disorder and more than 55% of these cases occur in school-going children, generally from the lower socioeconomic class (Idu et al. 2008; Baldry and Hind 2008; Zumbroich 2009; Nepali and Sigdel 2012). Respiratory tract symptoms such as cough, sore throat, and earache are also frequent in children. Upper respiratory tract infections predispose a child to complications such as otitis media, tonsillitis, and sinusitis. Tonsillitis most often occurs in children, a condition rarely appreciated in kids below 2 years. Viral tonsillitis is more common in younger children, while tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus species typically occurs in children aged 5–15 years (Nepali and Sigdel 2012).
Plants are widely used to treat diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Every year, thousands of people die from HIV/AIDS, which reinforces the urgent need for innovative health technologies, including new medicines. Patents may be consulted in free databases, such as Espacenet of the European Patent Office. These documents are classified according to the International Patent Classification (IPC) of the World Intellectual Property Organization. The classification A61K36/00 refers to Medicinal preparations of undetermined constitution containing material from algae, lichens, fungi or plants, or derivatives thereof. The study aim was to carry out an initial review of patent applications of medicinal preparations/phytochemicals used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS under the classification IPC-A61K36/00. Patents relevant to IPC-A61K36/00 containing the keyword “HIV” in the title or abstract were browsed in Espacenet to identify patent applications over ten years between 2007 and 2017. Inclusion criteria: patent applications describing pharmaceutical preparations/phytochemicals used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Exclusion criteria included repeated applications. In total, 33 results were retrieved: 12 (36.4%) were excluded and 21 (63.6%) were selected and analyzed. Selected patents (n = 21) were classified as follows: from a single bioactive compound/phytochemical (n = 7), containing multiple bioactive compounds/phytochemicals (n = 10) and/or preparations for co-administration with other HIV treatments or for treating HIV/AIDS-related health problems (n = 4). Despite the few identified patents on this topic, bioactive compounds may be useful in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Additional research is recommended.
In the treatment of cancer, the use of ionizing radiation is an important modality. However, on the downside, radiation, when used for curative purposes, causes acute dermatitis or radiodermatitis at the site of radiation in most individuals. From a clinical viewpoint, severe dermatitis causes a burning and itching sensation is very painful, and severely affects the quality of life of the individual undergoing treatment. In worse situations, acute radiation dermatitis can cause gaps or breaks in the planned treatment and this can adversely affect the treatment objective and outcome. Background In various traditional and folk systems of medicine, plants and plant products have been used since time immemorial for treating various skin ailments. Further, many cosmeceutical creams formulated based on knowledge from ethnomedicinal use are marketed and used to treat various ailments. In the current review, an attempt is made at summarizing the beneficial effects of some plants and plant products in mitigating acute radiation dermatitis in humans undergoing curative radiotherapy. Additionally, the emphasis is also placed on the mechanism/s responsible for the beneficial effects. Objective The objective of this review is to summarize the clinical observations on the prevention of radiodermatitis by plant products. In this review, the protective effects of Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L.) bran extract, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Cucumis sativus, green tea constituent the epigallocatechin-3-gallate, honey, Achillea millefolium, Matricaria chamomilla, olive oil and some polyherbal creams are addressed by also addressing on the mechanism of action for the beneficial effects. Methods Two authors’ data mined for information in Google Scholar, PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library for publications in the field from 1901 up to July 2020. The focus was on acute radiation dermatitis, ionizing radiation, curative radiotherapy, human cancer. The articles were collected and analyzed. Results For the first time, this review addresses the usefulness of natural products like adlay bran, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Cucumis sativus, green tea constituent the epigallocatechin-3-gallate, honey, Achillea millefolium, Matricaria chamomilla, olive oil and some experimentally constituted and commercially available polyherbal creams as skincare agents against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on the skin. The protective effects are possibly due to the free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and skin protective effects. Conclusion The authors suggest that these plants have been used since antiquity as medicinal agents and require in-depth investigation with both clinical and preclinical validated models of study. The results of these studies will be extremely useful to cancer patients requiring curative radiotherapy, the dermatology fraternity, agro-based and pharmaceutical sectors at large.
Continuing in the tradition of the acclaimed first edition, Pharmacodynamic Basis of Herbal Medicine, Second Edition examines in extensive detail the physiologic effects of complimentary and alternative therapies, foods, supplements, vitamins, and traditional herbal remedies. The author considers the site, mode, and mechanism of action to explain the desired and adverse effects and interactions of each herb, drug, and food in an encyclopedic volume. Today's Questions Devoting entire chapters to the most influential herbal remedies, the text either endorses or debunks popular conceptions with pure scientific data. The author provides answers to today's naturopathic questions by paying particular attention to the chronic diseases engendered by obesity, as well as Alzheimer's, cancer, imbalances of neurotransmitters such as Parkinson's, and depression. The Latest Research Incorporating current research on the devastating role of chronic systemic inflammation and the cumulative effect of poor oxygen metabolism and free radicals on changes in mitochondrial DNA, enzyme activity, and accelerations in the aging process, the text bridges the gap between ancient remedies and modern knowledge Effective Treatment Deconstructing the molecular mystery that is the interaction among herbal properties, physiology, and disease, Pharmacodynamic Basis of Herbal Medicine, Second Edition opens the door to successful herbal treatment.
Hypericum perforatum, besides the hypericins (protohypericin, pseudohypericin, cyclopseudohypericin, hypericin), contains additional supposed biologically active compounds such as hyperoside, rutin, quercitin, and chlorogenic acid. As mechanisms for the antidepressant action of Hypericium, an increase in the number of neurotransmitters, an inhibition of type A monoamine oxidase (MAO), an inhibition of catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT), a modulation of cytokine expressivity, hormonal effects, and photodynamic effects have been discussed. It is still not possible to assign the antidepressant effects of Hypericum perforatum to specific constituents. Following the inhibition of MAO and COMT by the hypericins, it would seem unlikely that inhibition of these enzymes is the main active antidepressant principle of Hypericum. Some experiments suggest that the flavonoids are also involved in the action of the total extract. From recent investigations it can be concluded that the dopaminergic system is involved in the activity of Hypericum extract.
H. perforatum is a medicinal plant which has been known in traditional medicine as antiinflammatory and healing agent. Nowadays purified extracts of its aerial parts are used for their antidepressant activity. Furthermore the antiviral activity of hypericin is currently under investigation. This review deals with the botany, chemistry, pharmacology and the clinical efficacy of H. perforatum extracts and of their active constituents, namely hypericin and pseudohypericin.