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Abstract

We detail an empirical animation study to assess how display design and user spatial ability and training might influence visuo-spatial decision-making with animated displays showing aircraft movements. We present empirical results of a visuo-spatial detection task with moving objects, based on response accuracy, response time, including a descriptive eye movement analysis. We found significant differences in a visuo-spatial detection task of moving objects across animation design types and domain expertise levels based on viewers’ visuo-spatial skill differences. With this empirical approach, we hope to better understand how users explore and extract information from animated displays. Based on these results, we aim to further develop empirically validated animation display design guidelines to increase their efficiency and effectiveness for decision-making with and about moving objects.

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... Maps are no longer simply seen; they are heard, they change over time, and they are interactive (Krygier, 1994;MacEachren, 1995;Maggi, Fabrikant, Imbert, & Hurter, 2016;Magnusson et al., 2009). Maps are often multi-sensory devices that require users to see, hear, and move in ways they have not done previously. ...
... Much of this research has looked at spatially representing emotion or using maps to collect information about emotions (Griffin & McQuoid, 2012). Little work has been done to assess emotional responses to maps, or how these responses interact with analytical reasoning processes, and the work that exists has largely involved theoretical studies rather than empirical measurement of map readers' emotional responses (but see Frei, Richter, & Fabrikant, 2016;Maggi et al., 2016). Other types of visual stimuli have been shown to arouse emotions in ways that are designed to change people's attitudes and behaviors (Joffe, 2008;Lang, Greenwald, Bradley, & Hamm, 1993). ...
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The explosion of map use in the past few decades as part of everyday activities, accelerated through the digital production and dissemination of maps and the availability of low-cost, location-aware devices, has made the job of cartographers and map display designers more challenging. Yet, how do these recent changes affect effective map design? Can we accurately predict which designs will work for a given context? We investigate the concepts of design transferability and context and their potential to help us create map design outcomes that are effective for varying map use situations. We then present a model for operationalizing map use context to support evaluating map design transferability and pose several open research questions that need to be answered to support operationalizing map use context. This is followed by a research agenda that identifies research opportunities related to key research needs that will underpin transferable map design.
... Visualization researchers have also started to include psycho-physiological and neuro-biological measures to study the effectiveness and efficiency in their visualization evaluations. Measures include eye tracking, galvanic skin response measures (GSR) [60], and Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings [59]. Video cameras help further assess the process with which participants arrive at a certain response. ...
... Peck et al. [74] argue that functional, near-infrared spectroscopy is a viable technology for understanding the effect of visual design on a person's cognition processes. Fabrikant et al. [35,[58][59][60] measured the emotional responses of participants in a cartographic experiment about interactions with maps, using sensors that monitor psycho-physiological responses and eye movement data. Novel approaches to include eye tracking methodologies [53,96] also in crowdsourcing contexts provide interesting future possibilities in the assessment toolbox of the empirical visualization researcher. ...
Chapter
Crowdsourcing offers great potential to overcome the limitations of controlled lab studies. To guide future designs of crowdsourcing-based studies for visualization, we review visualization research that has attempted to leverage crowdsourcing for empirical evaluations of visualizations. We discuss six core aspects for successful employment of crowdsourcing in empirical studies for visualization – participants, study design, study procedure, data, tasks, and metrics & measures. We then present four case studies, discussing potential mechanisms to overcome common pitfalls. This chapter will help the visualization community understand how to effectively and efficiently take advantage of the exciting potential crowdsourcing has to offer to support empirical visualization research.
... Animation is typically used for illustrating spatio-temporal phenomena, such as moving objects (e.g. Maggi, Fabrikant, Imbert, & Hurter, 2016) and environmental events (e.g. Saint-Marc, Villanova-Oliver, Davoine, Capoccioni, & Chenier, 2017), and sometimes also non-temporal spatial phenomena (Peterson, 1996). ...
... Jenny, Liem, Avri, & Putman, 2016), and empirical evaluations of animated applications (e.g. Maggi et al., 2016). Our study aimed to fill this gap in research and provide guidelines for choosing parameter values for animated streamlets. ...
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Animations have become a frequently utilized illustration technique on maps but changes in their graphical loading remain understudied in empirical geovisualization and cartographic research. Animated streamlets have gained attention as an illustrative animation technique and have become popular on widely viewed maps. We conducted an experiment to investigate how altering four major animation parameters of animated streamlets affects people's reading performance of field maxima on vector fields. The study involved 73 participants who performed reaction-time tasks on pointing maxima on vector field stimuli. Reaction times and correctness of answers changed surprisingly little between visually different animations, with only a few occasional statistical significances. The results suggest that motion of animated streamlets is such a strong visual cue that altering graphical parameters makes only little difference when searching for the maxima. This leads to the conclusion that, for this kind of a task, animated streamlets on maps can be designed relatively freely in graphical terms and their style fitted to other contents of the map. In the broader visual and geovisual analytics context, the results can lead to more generally hypothesizing that graphical loading of animations with continuous motion flux could be altered without severely affecting their communicative power.
... Other studies are concerned with comparing effectiveness against static maps [23,24]. Part of the research is related to searching for the most efficient solution in animated map design [25,26]. These studies focus on perception issues, e.g., change blindness [27][28][29][30]. ...
Article
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Animated cartographic visualization incorporates the concept of geomedia presented in this Special Issue. The presented study aims to examine the effectiveness of spatial pattern and temporal trend recognition on animated choropleth maps. In a controlled laboratory experiment with participants and eye tracking, fifteen animated maps were used to show a different spatial patterns and temporal trends. The participants’ task was to correctly detect the patterns and trends on a choropleth map. The study results show that effective spatial pattern and temporal trend recognition on a choropleth map is related to participants’ visual behavior. Visual attention clustered in the central part of the choropleth map supports effective spatio-temporal relationship recognition. The larger the area covered by the fixation cluster, the higher the probability of correct temporal trend and spatial pattern recognition. However, animated choropleth maps are more suitable for presenting temporal trends than spatial patterns. Understanding the difficulty in the correct recognition of spatio-temporal relationships might be a reason for implementing techniques that support effective visual searches such as highlighting, cartographic redundancy, or interactive tools. For end-users, the presented study reveals the necessity of the application of a specific visual strategy. Focusing on the central part of the map is the most effective strategy for the recognition of spatio-temporal relationships.
... To this end, new functions have been developed, e.g., multi-scale traversal routes in a simultaneous representation, reducing the need to zoom in and out for orientation [32]. The extent of a visualization task's performance depends on expertise [33][34][35] and emotional context [36]. (c) GIDs should support the user's mental representation of the variety of spatial conditions that can be used during navigation [27]. ...
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Driving is based on effective navigation. When using a navigation device, the user interface, the amount and quality of the underlying data and its representation all effect the quality of navigation. This study evaluates whether drivers in three different countries consider these devices to be useful and what functionality they would prefer. An online questionnaire was used to assess built-in navigation systems. The findings from 213 respondents show that current car GPSs are overloaded with features. Regardless of country, drivers simply require more basic functionality in the interface. It was also noted that the embedded functions in these devices are not fully utilized. In addition, many people use the navigation service to enter a new address while the car is moving. It may be worth examining how this option can be better implemented.
... Animated maps can be identified as a third research topic in eye tracking on maps. While on the one hand, animations may simply serve as an attention grabbing element, animations may on the other hand be used for conveying information about complex spatio-temporal phenomena (Andrienko et al., 2010), which includes spatial depictions in real-time surveillance (Maggi et al., 2016). Therefore, most eye-tracking studies on animated maps have one of two main purposes: ...
Article
Spatial information acquisition happens in large part through the visual sense. Studying visual attention and its connection to cognitive processes has been the interest of many research efforts in spatial cognition over the years. Recent technological developments have led to an increasing popularity of eye-tracking methodology for investigating research questions related to spatial cognition, geographic information science (GIScience) and cartography. At the same time, eye trackers can nowadays be used as an input device for (cognitively engineered) user interfaces to geographic information. We provide an overview of the most recent literature advancing and utilizing eye-tracking methodology in these fields, introduce the research articles in this Special Issue, and discuss challenges and opportunities for future research.
... Besides being an analytical method, exploratory data visualisation is an interactive way for model communication. Visualisation techniques for spatio-temporal data include spatio-temporal density mapping (Peters and Meng, 2014), visualisation in a space-time cube (Demšar et al., 2015a) and map animation (Maggi et al., 2016). Although real-time exploratory tools can greatly support intuitive understanding of model outcomes, they have been integrated into simulation modelling workflows and tools only recently (Breslav et al., 2015;Jin et al., 2016). ...
Article
Spatial Simulation is a spatially explicit, bottom-up modelling approach that includes individual-based models and cellular automata. While spatial heterogeneity and individual variation have been considered as noise in the past, this is exactly what has become the centre of interest of the individual-based paradigm in ecology. According to Individual-based Ecology, the interaction and behaviour of individual organisms leads to the emergence of macro-level patterns on the system scale. Although individual-based models have almost always been spatially explicit, the focus was commonly given to temporal processes and behavioural rules over spatial aspects. Today, the wide availability of spatial data and ever increasing computational power together with a strive for realistic models has renewed the attention to spatial aspects in simulation modelling. This review provides an overview of the state of the art of Spatial Simulation modelling in Ecology, reviews its limitations and open issues and it discusses future research avenues by taking an explicit geospatial perspective. The main avenues that are discussed revolve around the role of spatial context to determine the structure of living systems, potentials of hybrid top-down/bottom-up model designs to integrate hierarchical, spatial and temporal scales of ecological systems, and current trends in the representation and analysis of simulated spatio-temporal (big) data.
... The reason for posing this question was that spatio-temporal maps are mostly available on the Internet. As it turns out, experience in reading animated maps is an important factor [64]; that was why the participants were asked how much experience they had with animated maps and where they usually encountered them. Most of the subjects (85%) admitted to rarely using such maps; others (15%) to hardly ever using them or not using them at all. ...
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The article investigates the possibility of using cartographic redundancy to reduce the change blindness effect on spatio-temporal maps. Unlike in the case of previous research, the authors take a look at various methods of cartographic presentation and modify the visual variables in order to see how those modifications affect the user’s perception of changes on spatio-temporal maps. The study described in the following article was the first attempt at minimizing the change blindness phenomenon by manipulating graphical parameters of cartographic visualization and using various quantitative mapping methods. Research shows that cartographic redundancy is not enough to completely resolve the problem of change blindness; however, it might help reduce it.
... Maggi et al. [99] compare animations with different characteristics for an air traffic control task where airplanes are depicted as squares. Participants have to find the airplane that is accelerating. ...
Thesis
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GIS experts often need to relate and compare heterogeneous geographical representations of the same region. For example, existing maps are compared to recent satellite imagery to update geographic databases, like OpenStreetMap. The means to do so, are, however often limited to data agnostic techniques such as overlaying the representations with some degree of translucency or swiping between layers. These techniques do not support users effectively in their tasks in domains such as crime analysis or urban planning. This thesis aims at proposing new interactive transitions to combine those multiple representations into one, either spatially (spatial multiplexing) or temporally (temporal multiplexing).To better understand the limits of existing approaches, this thesis first contribution is an evaluation of five interactive map comparison techniques. We characterise these techniques in terms of visual interference, user attention and scanning strategy. We evaluate them by asking participants to find differences between real satellite imagery and topographic maps, that we purposefully modified introducing six kinds of differences. Results suggest that techniques that superimpose the layers are more efficient than techniques that juxtapose them and that having a more motor driven scanning strategy can be beneficial for some tasks. Drawing from the evaluation results and interviews with GIS experts, the second contribution of this thesis is MapMosaic: a novel spatial multiplexing technique to combine geographical layers. This dynamic compositing model enables users to interactively create and manipulate local composites of multiple vector and raster map layers, taking into account the semantics and attribute values of objects and fields. We evaluate MapMosaic using two approaches: first we compare MapMosaic’s interaction model to QGIS’ (a widely used desktop GIS) and MAPublisher’ (a professional cartography tool) using the ‘Cognitive Dimensions’ framework and through an analytical comparison, suggesting that MapMosaic’s model is more flexible and can support users more effectively in their tasks. Secondly, we report on feedback obtained from experts, which further confirms the potential of MapMosaic, by describing precise scenarios where it could be useful. Spatial multiplexing can be very useful when comparing different geographical layers. However, time multiplexing might be more suitable to represent dynamics, as changes can be animated. This can be particularly useful when presenting evolution across satellite images, to illustrate effects of climate change or a natural disaster’s impact. Thus, the third contribution of this thesis is Baia: a framework to create advanced animated transitions, called animation plans, between pairs of before-and-after images. Baia relies on a pixel-based transition model that gives authors much expressive power, while keeping animations for common types of changes easy to create thanks to predefined animation primitives. We describe the model and the associated animation editor. We also report on two user studies: the first one suggests that advanced animations are perceived as more realistic and better at focusing viewer’s attention than monolithic blending, and the second one gathers feedback about the usability of Baia’s animation editor prototype.
... Different methods such as questionnaires, user observations, thinking aloud, and eye-tracking can be used to estimate a usability measure [17][18][19][20][21]. The influence of display design and user characteristics for geovisual application using eye-tracking were investigated by Maggi et al. [22]. Several studies compared the usability of the space-time cube and other visualization techniques, such as animations [23], single static maps [23,24], multiple static maps [23], two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) visualizations [25,26], dot animation, and density maps [27]. ...
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Change acts as an inherent characteristic of the landscape, and expresses dynamic interactions between its tangible and intangible elements. While the documentation and analysis of spatiotemporal patterns have been broadly discussed, major challenges concern the design of task-oriented, user-friendly landscape visualizations. Geographic information system (GIS) techniques and approaches from visual analytics may bring solutions to those questions. This paper considers the milestone documents for the representation of cultural heritage, and proposes a workflow for assessing the feasibility of the space–time cube concept in landscape representation. The usability of the visualization was examined during the interview with domain experts and potential interdisciplinary users. The evaluation session covered benchmark tasks, feedback, and eye-tracking. The performance of the space–time cube was compared with another spatiotemporal visualization technique and measured in terms of correctness, response time, and satisfaction. The Royal Castle in Warsaw, which was registered in 1980 as a part of Warsaw’s World Heritage Site of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), served as the case study. The user tests show that the designed space–time cube excels for the completion rate; however, more time is required to provide answers to question tasks focusing on comparisons. Together, the case study and feedback from domain experts and participants demonstrate the benefit of the space–time cube concept in designing landscape visualizations.
... Some researchers [3][4][5][6] consider VGEs as a new generation of geographic analytical tools that provide an open digital window into the real world as a means of understanding human cognition and behavior in geographical issues. VGEs can be relevant tools in fields such as urban planning [7,8], crisis management [5,9,10], air traffic control [11], or generally speaking, fields that require support for quick and adequate human decision-making processes based on spatial reasoning. ...
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Featured Application: Methods of analyzing user behavior in virtual environments, such as spatial movement and interaction patterns in individuals or within groups, user interface usage. Abstract: Human performance and navigation activity in virtual environments can be measured and assessed with the aim to draw specific conclusions about human cognition. This paper presents an original virtual geographic environment (VGE) designed and used for this purpose. The presented research is rooted in an interdisciplinary approach combining knowledge and principles from the fields of psychology, cartography, and information technologies. The VGE was embedded with user logging functionality to provide a basis from which conclusions about human cognitive processes in a VGE could be drawn. The scope of this solution is introduced, described, and discussed under a behavioral measurement framework. An exploratory research design was adopted to demonstrate the environment's utility in proof-of-concept user testing. Twenty participants were observed in interactive, semi-interactive and non-interactive tasks, their performance and individual differences were analyzed. The behavioral measurements were supplemented by Object-Spatial Imagery and a Verbal Questionnaire to determine the participants' cognitive styles. In this sample, significant differences in exploration strategies between men and women were detected. Differences between experienced and non-experienced users were also found in their ability to identify spatial relations in virtual scenes. Finally, areas for future research areas and development were pinpointed.
... Semi-static and dynamic animations have been analysed in numerous studies [27,29]. Analysis of eye-tracking data revealed that the viewing behaviour of respondents for both map types (animation and semi-static animation) are surprisingly similar [30]. ...
Article
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Weather is one of the things that interest almost everyone. Weather maps are therefore widely used and many users use them in everyday life. To identify the potential usability problems of weather web maps, the presented research was conducted. Five weather maps were selected for an eye-tracking experiment based on the results of an online questionnaire: DarkSky, In-Počasí, Windy, YR.no, and Wundermap. The experiment was conducted with 34 respondents and consisted of introductory, dynamic, and static sections. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of recorded data was performed together with a think-aloud protocol. The main part of the paper describes the results of the eye-tracking experiment and the implemented research, which identify the strengths and weaknesses of the evaluated weather web maps and point out the differences between strategies in using maps by the respondents. The results include findings such as the following: users worked with web maps in the simplest form and they did not look for hidden functions in the menu or attempt to find any advanced functionality; if expandable control panels were available, the respondents only looked at them after they had examined other elements; map interactivity was not an obstacle unless it contained too much information or options to choose from; searching was quicker in static menus that respondents did not have to switch on or off; the graphic design significantly influenced respondents and their work with the web maps. The results of the work may be useful for further scientific research on weather web maps and related user issues.
... The extent to which one visualization leads to better performance on a particular task than another visualization also depends largely on expertise [35,22,54] and emotional context [14]. Expertise may even influence the definition of a particular visualization as simple or sophisticated. ...
Chapter
With the development of modern geovisual analytics tools, several researchers have emphasized the importance of understanding users’ cognitive, perceptual, and affective tendencies for supporting spatial decisions with geographic information displays (GIDs). However, most recent technological developments have focused on support for navigation in terms of efficiency and effectiveness while neglecting the importance of spatial learning. In the present paper, we will envision the future of GIDs that also support spatial learning in the context of large-scale navigation. Specifically, we will illustrate the manner in which GIDs have been (in the past) and might be (in the future) designed to be context-responsive, personalized, and supportive for active spatial learning from three different perspectives (i.e., GIScience, cartography, and cognitive science). We will also explain why this approach is essential for preventing the technological infantilizing of society (i.e., the reduction of our capacity to make decisions without technological assistance). Although these issues are common to nearly all emerging digital technologies, we argue that these issues become especially relevant in consideration of a person’s current and future locations.
... The assertion that research into new visualisation technologies is sparse is supported by a recent review of visualisation technologies (Pfeiffer, Müller & Rosenthal, 2015) that only cites six articles published since 2010 with none focusing on truly immersive VR technologies. A more recent article is focused on identifying how information is extracted from traditional animated displays (Maggi, Fabrikant, Imbert & Hurter, 2016) which suggests that consideration of VR is an advancement of current knowledge and just being considered by researchers (Cordeil, Dwyer & Hurter, 2016), though the concept of the remote tower is clearly in the formative stage and not supported by a user evaluation. The research in this thesis is therefore a timely addition to the current body of knowledge related to understanding how VR can impact information processing in ATC systems. ...
... [1] to make the impression of dynamic change of visual variables such as the movement of point symbols [2,3]. Nowadays, popular information (e.g., The Guardian, Business Insider) and educational services (e.g., openculture.com, ...
Article
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There is no consensus on the importance of satellite images in the process of memorizing a route from a map image, especially if the route is displayed on the Internet using dynamic (animated) cartographic visualization. In modern dynamic maps built with JavaScript APIs, background layers can be easily altered by map users. The animation attracts people’s attention better than static images, but it causes some perceptual problems. This study examined the influence of the number of turns on the effectiveness (correctness) and efficiency of memorizing the animated route on different cartographic backgrounds. The routes of three difficulty levels, based on satellite and road background, were compared. The results show that the satellite background was not a significant factor influencing the efficiency and effectiveness of route memorizing. Recordings of the eye movement confirmed this. The study reveals that there were intergroup differences in participants' visual behavior. Participants who described their spatial abilities as “very good” performed better (in terms of effectiveness and efficiency) in route memorizing tasks. For future research, there is a need to study route variability and its impact on participants’ performance. Moreover, future studies should involve differences in route visualization (e.g., without and with ephemeral or permanent trail).
... User studies show that extracting multivariate spatiotemporal patterns is more difficult in separated views than in integrated ones (Andrienko et al., 2010;Windhager et al., 2020). Prior empirical research suggests different constraints of the human information processing system that may explain this effect: (1) split attention (especially with animated views) (Opach et al., 2014;Maggi et al., 2016), (2) inattentional blindness (Shipley et al., 2013), (3) change blindness (Rensink, 2002;Fabrikant, 2005), (4) cognitive load (Sweller, 1988;Sweller et al., 2011), and (5) generally the lack of support for incremental construction of mental models, missing gradual augmentation of users' conceptual models Ceneda et al., 2017;Windhager et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Visualizing big and complex multivariate data is challenging. To address this challenge, we propose flexible visual analytics (FVA) with the aim to mitigate visual complexity and interaction complexity challenges in visual analytics, while maintaining the strengths of multiple perspectives on the studied data. At the heart of our proposed approach are transitions that fluidly transform data between user-relevant views to offer various perspectives and insights into the data. While smooth display transitions have been already proposed, there has not yet been an interdisciplinary discussion to systematically conceptualize and formalize these ideas. As a call to further action, we argue that future research is necessary to develop a conceptual framework for flexible visual analytics. We discuss preliminary ideas for prioritizing multi-aspect visual representations and multi-aspect transitions between them, and consider the display user for whom such depictions are produced and made available for visual analytics. With this contribution we aim to further facilitate visual analytics on complex data sets for varying data exploration tasks and purposes based on different user characteristics and data use contexts.
... Including "moving" and "painting," animation is a means as well as a method, in which "moving" is the purpose and "painting" is the means. This kind of "movement" can represent the movement of a virtual character; the change of object shape, structure, and color; and the dynamic change of natural phenomenon [3][4][5]. Digital film refers to the film and television works that are filmed, produced, and stored by digital technology and equipment and transmitted through physical media such as satellites, optical fibers, disks, and optical discs, to restore digital signals to images and sounds that conform to film technology standards and are projected on the screen. So, we can define animation as an artistic effect that people show the motion process of fictitious characters, animals, or other things in the brain one by one through anthropomorphism, exaggeration, and other methods; the movement process of fictional characters, animals, or other things in the brain is shown one by one in the form of paint-ing, and then, the method of frame by frame shooting is adopted, and then play at the speed of 24 frames to get an artistic effect [6][7][8][9]. ...
Article
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With the rapid development of digital art and machine science and technology, the production form of modern animation tends to be diversified, and with the important role of animation color in the animation film foil and rendering, more and more attention was paid by the animation design industry. Computer graphic technology is a new type of artistic creation method, and its birth and development are closely related to computer technology. The purpose of this paper is to make some analysis and induction from the perspective of science and technology and culture and to explore the application of Photoshop graphics and image processing technology in the field of animation. First, the definition of “animation” and the extension of the animation category are introduced. Then, the main functions of Photoshop image processing technology are described in detail. According to the research content, this paper designs a self-made experimental short film “future city.” After the simulation of experimental animation film and the setting and positioning of the experimental scene, Photoshop software was used to show the animation scene. The experimental results show that the color changes in the short film “future city.” After the saturation of sunny scenery is reduced by 3 points and the brightness is reduced by 20 points and the filter, mode change, and color adjustment are carried out, a complete rainy scenery can be obtained. The self-made experimental short film has guiding significance for the creation and practice.
... This reduced the demand to zoom in and out in order to orient (Delikostidis, Van Elzakker and Kraak, 2016). It was also shown that the extent of a visualisation task's performance depends on expertise (Scaife and Rogers, 1996;Hegarty et al., 2009;Maggi et al., 2016) and emotional context (Gardony et al., 2011). c) GIDs should support the user's mental representation of the diversity of spatial relations that can be applied during navigation (Thrash et al., 2019). ...
Article
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A proper navigation experience is essential while driving. A navigation device has not only to provide the driver with the right amount of information to find the ideal route (shortest, most spectacular, fastest), but also has to make driving safer. Since the driver looks at the user interface of navigation devices only for a few seconds, it is essential that the appropriate amount of information is in the right place. There are many options for drivers to navigate with: mobile phone app, PDA (Personal Digital Assistant)/PNA (Portable Navigation Assistant) or a built-in GPS Navigation System. The presented research examined the driving and navigation habits of 116 Austrian drivers by considering the differences between the devices they use.
Thesis
Räumlich-zeitliche Daten sind Daten, welche sowohl einen Raum- als auch einen Zeitbezug aufweisen. So können beispielsweise Zeitreihen von Geodaten, thematische Karten die sich über die Zeit verändern, oder Bewegungsaufzeichnungen von sich bewegenden Objekten als räumlich-zeitliche Daten aufgefasst werden. In der heutigen automatisierten Welt gibt es eine wachsende Anzahl von Datenquellen, die beständig räumlich-zeitliche Daten generieren. Hierzu gehören beispielsweise Verkehrsüberwachungssysteme, die Bewegungsdaten von Menschen oder Fahrzeugen aufzeichnen, Fernerkundungssysteme, welche regelmäßig unsere Umgebung scannen und digitale Abbilder wie z.B. Stadt- und Landschaftsmodelle erzeugen, sowie Sensornetzwerke in unterschiedlichsten Anwendungsgebieten, wie z.B. der Logistik, der Verhaltensforschung von Tieren, oder der Klimaforschung. Zur Analyse räumlich-zeitlicher Daten werden neben der automatischen Analyse mittels statistischer Methoden und Data-Mining auch explorative Methoden angewendet, welche auf der interaktiven Visualisierung der Daten beruhen. Diese Methode der Analyse basiert darauf, dass Anwender in Form interaktiver Visualisierung die Daten explorieren können, wodurch die menschliche Wahrnehmung sowie das Wissen der User genutzt werden, um Muster zu erkennen und dadurch einen Einblick in die Daten zu erlangen. Diese Arbeit beschreibt ein Software-Framework für die Visualisierung räumlich-zeitlicher Daten, welches GPU-basierte Techniken beinhaltet, um eine interaktive Visualisierung und Exploration großer räumlich-zeitlicher Datensätze zu ermöglichen. Die entwickelten Techniken umfassen Datenhaltung, Prozessierung und Rendering und ermöglichen es, große Datenmengen in Echtzeit zu prozessieren und zu visualisieren. Die Hauptbeiträge der Arbeit umfassen: - Konzept und Implementierung einer GPU-zentrierten Visualisierungspipeline. Die beschriebenen Techniken basieren auf dem Konzept einer GPU-zentrierten Visualisierungspipeline, in welcher alle Stufen -- Prozessierung,Mapping, Rendering -- auf der GPU ausgeführt werden. Bei diesem Konzept werden die räumlich-zeitlichen Daten direkt im GPU-Speicher abgelegt. Während des Rendering-Prozesses werden dann mittels Shader-Programmen die Daten prozessiert, gefiltert, ein Mapping auf visuelle Attribute vorgenommen, und schließlich die Geometrien für die Visualisierung erzeugt. Datenprozessierung, Filtering und Mapping können daher in Echtzeit ausgeführt werden. Dies ermöglicht es Usern, die Mapping-Parameter sowie den gesamten Visualisierungsprozess interaktiv zu steuern und zu kontrollieren. - Interaktive Visualisierung attributierter 3D-Trajektorien. Es wurde eine Visualisierungsmethode für die interaktive Exploration einer großen Anzahl von 3D Bewegungstrajektorien entwickelt. Die Trajektorien werden dabei innerhalb einer virtuellen geographischen Umgebung in Form von einfachen Geometrien, wie Linien, Bändern, Kugeln oder Röhren dargestellt. Durch interaktives Mapping können Attributwerte der Trajektorien oder einzelner Messpunkte auf visuelle Eigenschaften abgebildet werden. Hierzu stehen Form, Höhe, Größe, Farbe, Textur, sowie Animation zur Verfügung. Mithilfe dieses dynamischen Mappings wurden außerdem verschiedene Visualisierungsmethoden implementiert, wie z.B. eine Focus+Context-Visualisierung von Trajektorien mithilfe von interaktiven Dichtekarten, sowie einer Space-Time-Cube-Visualisierung zur Darstellung des zeitlichen Ablaufs einzelner Bewegungen. - Interaktive Visualisierung geographischer Netzwerke. Es wurde eine Visualisierungsmethode zur interaktiven Exploration geo-referenzierter Netzwerke entwickelt, welche die Visualisierung von Netzwerken mit einer großen Anzahl von Knoten und Kanten ermöglicht. Um die Analyse von Netzwerken verschiedener Größen und in unterschiedlichen Kontexten zu ermöglichen, stehen mehrere virtuelle geographische Umgebungen zur Verfügung, wie bspw. ein virtueller 3D-Globus, als auch 2D-Karten mit unterschiedlichen geographischen Projektionen. Zur interaktiven Analyse dieser Netzwerke stehen interaktive Tools wie Filterung, Mapping und Selektion zur Verfügung. Des weiteren wurden Visualisierungsmethoden für verschiedene Arten von Netzwerken, wie z.B. 3D-Netzwerke und zeitlich veränderliche Netzwerke, implementiert. Zur Demonstration des Konzeptes wurden interaktive Tools für zwei unterschiedliche Anwendungsfälle entwickelt. Das erste beinhaltet die Visualisierung attributierter 3D-Trajektorien, welche die Bewegungen von Flugzeugen um einen Flughafen beschreiben. Es ermöglicht Nutzern, die Trajektorien von ankommenden und startenden Flugzeugen über den Zeitraum eines Monats interaktiv zu explorieren und zu analysieren. Durch Verwendung der interaktiven Visualisierungsmethoden für 3D-Trajektorien und interaktiven Dichtekarten können Einblicke in die Daten gewonnen werden, wie beispielsweise häufig genutzte Flugkorridore, typische sowie untypische Bewegungsmuster, oder ungewöhnliche Vorkommnisse wie Fehlanflüge. Der zweite Anwendungsfall beinhaltet die Visualisierung von Klimanetzwerken, welche geographischen Netzwerken in der Klimaforschung darstellen. Klimanetzwerke repräsentieren die Dynamiken im Klimasystem durch eine Netzwerkstruktur, die die statistische Beziehungen zwischen Orten beschreiben. Das entwickelte Tool ermöglicht es Analysten, diese großen Netzwerke interaktiv zu explorieren und dadurch die Struktur des Netzwerks zu analysieren und mit den geographischen Daten in Beziehung zu setzen. Interaktive Filterung und Selektion ermöglichen es, Muster in den Daten zu identifizieren, und so bspw. Cluster in der Netzwerkstruktur oder Strömungsmuster zu erkennen.
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Revisions of achievements of empirical studies in cartography focused on describing main research themes and diagnosing challenges to be approached. Intriguingly, there is no analysis of maps used as a stimuli in these experiments. In order to fill existing scarcity, this paper presents the analysis of the content of four journals affiliated by the International Cartographic Association. Four features (map medium, reactiveness, method of cartographic presentation, users familiarity with the depicted data) are described based on 103 papers presenting empirical studies. Types of maps were identified in scope of every feature. Most frequently used ones are displayed on the screen, non-interactive, depicting qualitative data and area unfamiliar for the participant of the study.
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How to effectively and efficiently represent the dynamics of spatial phenomena and processes has been a long-standing research question in geographic information science (GIScience). In a digital information age, computer-generated animations that depict movement data have become increasingly popular, as they apparently visualize real-world spatio-temporal movement changes with corresponding changes over time in a moving display. Animation thus seems to be a suitable display method for facilitating the recognition of spatio-temporal movement patterns and the prediction of future spatio-temporal events. However, the manner by which animations are designed may limit the effectiveness and efficiency of visuospatial decision-making. Furthermore, the specific decision-making task or context of use, as well as the viewer’s perceptual, cognitive and affective background might also influence visuospatial decision-making with animations. These factors are not well understood to date. More empirical studies, as well as new methods to evaluate animations, are thus needed. This work proposes a user-centred empirical approach to evaluate animation design characteristics for space-time decision-making with movement data. Two experiments are conducted with the overall aim of answering the following main research question: How should animations of real-time movement data be designed considering the task and/or use contexts, and user characteristics? More specifically, we test the influence of the three main visual analytics (VA) dimensions on viewer spatio-temporal decision-making with animations: (1) the use context and respective task characteristics, (2) the animation display design, and (3) user characteristics. To test each respective dimension, we undertook the following investigations: (1) Using current air traffic control (ATC) scenarios and existing ATC displays we empirically investigated how aircraft movement changes and future aircraft movement patterns can be visualized for effective and efficient decision-making in ATC. (2) We empirically investigated how movement characteristics (i.e., acceleration, heading direction, etc.) can be depicted, and how animation design (i.e., continuous vs. semi-static animations) might influence viewer task performances. (3) We empirically investigated how perceptual, cognitive, and affective characteristics of viewers (i.e., expertise, spatial abilities, stress or motivation) might influence visuospatial decision-making with animations. We approached these questions through novel empirical data triangulation that integrates psychophysical sensing (i.e., electrodermal responses (EDA)), brain activity (i.e., electroencephalography (EEG)), and eye tracking (ET) with standardized questionnaires. The results of the experiments showed that these three factors (i.e., the use context and respective task characteristics, the animation display design, and the user characteristics) indeed influence visuospatial decision-making using animations of aircraft movement data. We found that viewer decision-making was affected by animation design depending on expertise and task type. Unsurprisingly, ATC experts performed typical ATC tasks more accurately compared to novices. However, the task performance of the experts differed between continuous animation and semi-static animation designs depending on the ATC task. Surprisingly, experts responded more accurately with the novel continuous animation designs compared to the semi-static animations that are more familiar to them in critical ATC tasks for predicting future aircraft movements. In apprehension tasks of aircraft movement changes, experts performed in similar ways with both animation designs. Moreover, viewer characteristics, such as spatial abilities and emotional aspects including engagement or motivation, seemed to affect viewer task performances as well. Higher-spatial and more engaged (or more motivated) viewers performed both tasks more effectively than lower-spatial decision makers and less-engaged (or less-motivated) viewers. Overall, our unique empirical results related to the depiction of real-time movement data contribute to GIScience and cartography in two important ways. First, we are beginning to better understand how viewer mental processes, including perception and cognition, as well as their affective states might influence the effectiveness and efficiency of visuospatial decision-making with animations. Second, we are now able to derive empirically validated design guidelines for perceptually salient, affectively engaging, and cognitively inspired animations.
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Behavioral performance metrics employed to assess the usability of visual displays are increasingly coupled with eye tracking measures to provide additional insights into the decision-making processes supported by visual displays. Eye tracking metrics can be coupled with users' neural data to investigate how human cognition interplays with emotions during visuo-spatial tasks. To contribute to these efforts, we present results of a study in a realistic air traffic control (ATC) setting with animated ATC displays, where ATC experts and novices were presented with an aircraft movement detection task. We find that higher stationary gaze entropy – which indicates a larger spatial distribution of visual gaze on the display – and expertise result in better response accuracy, and that stationary entropy positively predicts response time even after controlling for animation type and expertise. As a secondary contribution, we found that a single component comprised of engagement, measured by EEG and self-reported judgments, spatial abilities, and gaze entropy predicts task accuracy, but not completion time. We also provide MATLAB open source code for calculating the EEG measures utilized in the study. Our findings suggest designing spatial information displays that adapt their content according to users’ affective and cognitive states, especially for emotionally laden usage contexts.
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Individuals with different characteristics exhibit different eye movement patterns in map reading and wayfinding tasks. In this study, we aim to explore whether and to what extent map users’ eye movements can be used to detect who created them. Specifically, we focus on the use of gaze data for inferring users’ identities when users are performing map-based spatial tasks. We collected 32 participants’ eye movement data as they utilized maps to complete a series of self-localization and spatial orientation tasks. We extracted five sets of eye movement features and trained a random forest classifier. We used a leave-one-task-out approach to cross-validate the classifier and achieved the best identification rate of 89%, with a 2.7% equal error rate. This result is among the best performances reported in eye movement user identification studies. We evaluated the feature importance and found that basic statistical features (e.g. pupil size, saccade latency and fixation dispersion) yielded better performance than other feature sets (e.g. spatial fixation densities, saccade directions and saccade encodings). The results open the potential to develop personalized and adaptive gaze-based map interactions but also raise concerns about user privacy protection in data sharing and gaze-based geoapplications.
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Human-computer interaction has entered the 3D era. The most important models representing spatial information — maps — are transferred into 3D versions regarding the specific content to be displayed. Virtual worlds (VW) become promising area of interest because of possibility to dynamically modify content and multi-user cooperation when solving tasks regardless to physical presence. They can be used for sharing and elaborating information via virtual images or avatars. Attractiveness of VWs is emphasized also by possibility to measure operators’ actions and complex strategies. Collaboration in 3D environments is the crucial issue in many areas where the visualizations are important for the group cooperation. Within the specific 3D user interface the operators' ability to manipulate the displayed content is explored regarding such phenomena as situation awareness, cognitive workload and human error. For such purpose, the VWs offer a great number of tools for measuring the operators’ responses as recording virtual movement or spots of interest in the visual field. Study focuses on the methodological issues of measuring the usability of 3D VWs and comparing them with the existing principles of 2D maps. We explore operators’ strategies to reach and interpret information regarding the specific type of visualization and different level of immersion.
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Human-computer interaction has entered the 3D era. The most important models representing spatial information — maps — are transferred into 3D versions regarding the specific content to be displayed. Virtual worlds (VW) become promising area of interest because of possibility to dynamically modify content and multi-user cooperation when solving tasks regardless to physical presence. They can be used for sharing and elaborating information via virtual images or avatars. Attractiveness of VWs is emphasized also by possibility to measure operators’ actions and complex strategies. Collaboration in 3D environments is the crucial issue in many areas where the visualizations are important for the group cooperation. Within the specific 3D user interface the operators' ability to manipulate the displayed content is explored regarding such phenomena as situation awareness, cognitive workload and human error. For such purpose, the VWs offer a great number of tools for measuring the operators’ responses as recording virtual movement or spots of interest in the visual field. Study focuses on the methodological issues of measuring the usability of 3D VWs and comparing them with the existing principles of 2D maps. We explore operators’ strategies to reach and interpret information regarding the specific type of visualization and different level of immersion.
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We present a cross-validation approach to assess animations of movement data. Specifically, we investigate if and how display design, data complexity and user background and training might influence participants’ decision-making with animated designs. Our triangulation approach is based on eye-tracking records, galvanic skin conductance responses, and electroencephalography data. We raise data analysis issues and data synchronization challenges for discussion at the workshop relating to data integration at various resolutions. With this empirical triangulation approach, we hope to better understand user decision-making with animated displays, and aim to develop sound animation design guidelines.
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Abstract. In this work in progress paper we present a long-term empirical, embodied research framework to evaluate dynamic visuo-spatial displays representing movement data within the use case of Air Traffic Control (ATC). We conducted a human-subject experiment with eighteen ATC experts and nineteen ATC novices to assess how display- (i.e., semi-static vs. continuous aircraft movements), aircraft data- (i.e., varying speeds and number of displayed aircraft), and user-related factors (i.e., ATC expertise and psycho-physiological state) might influence decision making with animations. Our empirical approach is based on a methodological triangulation that couples eye movement data with electrodermal activity (EDA), electroencephalography (EEG), and traditional questionnaires. We present first evidence that suggests significant inter-relationships between display design, users' expertise, and users' psycho-pyshisological state when making visuo-spatial decisions with animated ATC displays.
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This section considers the application of eye movements to user interfaces—both for analyzing interfaces, measuring usability, and gaining insight into human performance—and as an actual control medium within a human-computer dialogue. The two areas have generally been reported separately; but this book seeks to tie them together. For usability analysis, the user’s eye movements while using the system are recorded and later analyzed retrospectively, but the eye movements do not affect the interface in real time. As a direct control medium, the eye movements are obtained and used in real time as an input to the user-computer dialogue. They might be the sole input, typically for disabled users or hands-busy applications, or they might be used as one of several inputs, combining with mouse, keyboard, sensors, or other devices. Interestingly, the principal challenges for both retrospective and real time eye tracking in humancomputer interaction (HCI) turn out to be analogous. For retrospective analysis, the problem is to find appropriate ways to use and interpret the data; it is not nearly as straightforward as it is with more typical task performance, speed, or error data. For real time use, the problem is to find appropriate ways to respond judiciously to eye movement input, and avoid over-responding; it is not nearly as straightforward as responding to well-defined, intentional mouse or keyboard input. We will see in this chapter how these two problems are closely related. These uses of eye tracking in HCI have been highly promising for many years, but progress in making good use of eye movements in HCI has been slow to date. We see promising research work, but we have not yet seen wide use of these approaches in practice or in the marketplace. We will describe the promises of this technology, its limitations, and the obstacles that must still be overcome. Work presented in this book and elsewhere shows that the field is indeed beginning to flourish.
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Holmqvist, K., Nyström, N., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., & Van de Weijer, J. (Eds.) (2011). Eye tracking: a comprehensive guide to methods and measures, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
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Scientists visualize data for a range of purposes, from exploring unfamiliar data sets to communicating insights revealed by visual analyses. As the supply of numerical environmental data has increased, so has the need for effective visual methods, especially for exploratory data analysis. Map animation is particularly attractive to earth system scientists who typically study large spatio-temporal data sets. In addition to the "visual variables" of static maps, animated maps are composed of three basic design elements or "dynamic variables"–scene duration, rate of change between scenes, and scene order. The dynamic variables can be used to emphasize the location of a phenomenon, emphasize its attributes, or visualize change in its spatial, temporal, and attribute dimensions. In combination with static maps, graphs, diagrams, images, and sound, animation enhances analysts' ability to express data in a variety of complementary forms.
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Simple motion has great potential for visually encoding information but there are as yet few experimentally validated guidelines for its use. Two studies were carried out to look at how efficiently simple motion cues were detected and how distracting they were in different task contexts. The results show that motion outperforms static representations and identify certain types of motions which are more distracting and irritating than others.
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We propose a research agenda for empirically assessing the effectiveness of dynamic displays with the eye-movement data collection method. The proposed framework is based on the relationship between perceptual salience and thematic relevance in static (e.g., visual variables: color hue, color value and orientation) and animated displays (e.g., dynamic variables including transitions). The proposed empirical studies adhere to experimental design standards in cognitive psychology, but are additionally grounded on a solid dynamic design framework borrowed from cartography, computer graphics and cinematography, to investigate how different dynamic and visual variables, and various levels of interactivity affect people's knowledge construction processes from dynamic displays as compared to static displays. We propose a research agenda to empirically investigate how different dynamic visual variables and various levels of interactivity affect people's learning and knowledge construction processes from dynamic displays, as compared to static displays. We were inspired by the research challenge proposed by the International Cartographic Association's Commission on Visualization and Virtual Environments "to develop a theoretical framework based on cognitive principles to support and assess usability methods of geovisualization that take advantage of advances in dynamic (animated and highly interactive) displays" (MacEachren and Kraak, 2001: 8). The proposed framework will be refined and validated through a series of experiments with dynamic displays using the eye-movement data collection method. RELATED WORK
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Geographic phenomena exist within a multi-dimensional space–time continuum. Dynamic geographic phenomena at all levels of scale can be con-ceptualized and represented as spatiotemporal patterns, space–time processes, or events—changes within or between objects that are experienced as bounded by psychologically discreet beginnings and ends. Humans rarely care about spatio-temporal entities in isolation. Visualization and analysis approaches that focus on individual spatiotemporal phenomena in isolation are likely doomed to failure because they miss the relational structure humans use to process and reason about events. We contend that a static and geometric decompositional approach to spatiotemporal patterns and processes limits the tools that can be applied to a broad class of spatiotemporal data that are important to users. This class includes events where there is a spatiotemporal coordination among or within objects, such as a car changing its movement direction because of an approaching car, or a hurricane not making landfall because of changing atmospheric conditions. Often such coordination allows inferences about causal relations among the components of an event. In this chapter we argue for the need for perceptually salient and cognitively inspired animated displays that help humans more effectively and efficiently detect relationships in complex events.
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Supported by eye-movement data collected during a controlled experiment on small-multiple map displays, a new concept coined inference affordance aimed at overcoming drawbacks of traditional empirical 'success' measures when evaluating static visual analytics displays and interactive visual analytics tools is proposed. Then, a novel visual analytics research methodology is outlined to quantify inference affordance, taking advantage of the well-known sequence alignment analyses techniques borrowed from bioinformatics. The presented visual analytics approach focuses on information reduction of large amounts of fine-grained eye-movement sequence data, including sequence categorisation and summarisation.
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Eye movements were recorded while participants viewed line-drawing pictures of natural scenes in preparation for a memory test (Experiment 1) or to find a target object (Experiment 2). Initial saccades in a scene were not controlled by semantic information in the visual periphery, although fixation densities and fixation durations were affected by semantic consistency. The results are compared with earlier eye-tracking studies, and a qualitative model of eye movement control in scene perception is discussed in which initial saccades in a scene are controlled by visual but not semantic analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The importance of spatial ability in educational pursuits and the world of work was examined, with particular attention devoted to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) domains. Participants were drawn from a stratified random sample of U.S. high schools (Grades 9-12, N = 400,000) and were tracked for 11+ years; their longitudinal findings were aligned with pre-1957 findings and with contemporary data from the Graduate Record Examination and the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth. For decades, spatial ability assessed during adolescence has surfaced as a salient psychological attribute among those adolescents who subsequently go on to achieve advanced educational credentials and occupations in STEM. Results solidify the generalization that spatial ability plays a critical role in developing expertise in STEM and suggest, among other things, that including spatial ability in modern talent searches would identify many adolescents with potential for STEM who are currently being missed.
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Most designers know that yellow text presented against a blue background reads clearly and easily, but how many can explain why, and what really are the best ways to help others and ourselves clearly see key patterns in a bunch of data? This book explores the art and science of why we see objects the way we do. Based on the science of perception and vision, the author presents the key principles at work for a wide range of applications--resulting in visualization of improved clarity, utility, and persuasiveness. The book offers practical guidelines that can be applied by anyone: interaction designers, graphic designers of all kinds (including web designers), data miners, and financial analysts.
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This paper explores research issues and methods for experimentally assessing the effectiveness of interactive and dynamic geographic visualization displays for knowledge discovery and knowledge construction. Based on a research framework from cognitive science, and utilizing the eye- movement data collection approach, a series of controlled animation experiments are proposed. These empirical studies adhere to experimental design standards in cognitive psychology, but are additionally grounded on a solid dynamic design framework borrowed from cartography, computer graphics and cinematography, to investigate how different dynamic visual variables, and various levels of interactivity affect people's knowledge construction processes from dynamic displays as compared to static displays.
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Despite the ubiquitous use of motion in animated displays, its impact may be minimal unless the motion can highlight task-relevant features. An examination of static vs. dynamic route presentations revealed that a continuous motion of routes in animated displays inhibited encoding of task- relevant landmarks - i.e. landmarks at turns - because the continuous motion focused participants' attention more equally across critical and less important landmarks along the route. These findings are relevant in research on air traffic controller displays. Current displays represent airplanes as "dots" that move at the radar update rate, typically every twelve seconds. With an upcoming GPS- based technology, some planes will be capable of providing aircraft position information at much faster update rates. The faster update rates have two potential implications for the display design. First, it is an open question whether a display with fast update rates, which resembles a dynamic motion display, will be better than a display with slower update rates that presents traffic information as a sequence of static images. Second, a mixture of aircraft with different update rates will be likely in the airspace until all aircrafts migrate to GPS-based technology, which may disrupt controllers' cognitive model of the airspace. This paper discusses these issues and some of the solutions considered by designers, users, and researchers in this field.
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To make sense from large amounts of movement data (sequences of positions of moving objects), a human analyst needs interactive visual displays enhanced with database operations and methods of computational analysis. We present a toolkit for analysis of movement data that enables a synergistic use of the three types of techniques.
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Visual analytics aims to combine the strengths of human and electronic data processing. Visualisation, whereby humans and computers cooperate through graphics, is the means through which this is achieved. Seamless and sophisticated synergies are required for analysing spatio-temporal data and solving spatio-temporal problems. In modern society, spatio-temporal analysis is not solely the business of professional analysts. Many citizens need or would be interested in undertaking analysis of information in time and space. Researchers should find approaches to deal with the complexities of the current data and problems and find ways to make analytical tools accessible and usable for the broad community of potential users to support spatio-temporal thinking and contribute to solving a large range of problems.
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Movement is important to all organisms, and accordingly it is addressed in a huge number of papers in the literature. Of nearly 26,000 papers referring to movement, an estimated 34% focused on movement by measuring it or testing hypotheses about it. This enormous amount of information is difficult to review and highlights the need to assess the collective completeness of movement studies and identify gaps. We surveyed 1,000 randomly selected papers from 496 journals and compared the facets of movement studied with a suggested framework for movement ecology, consisting of internal state (motivation, physiology), motion and navigation capacities, and external factors (both the physical environment and living organisms), and links among these components. Most studies simply measured and described the movement of organisms without reference to ecological or internal factors, and the most frequently studied part of the framework was the link between external factors and motion capacity. Few studies looked at the effects on movement of navigation capacity, or internal state, and those were mainly from vertebrates. For invertebrates and plants most studies were at the population level, whereas more vertebrate studies were conducted at the individual level. Consideration of only population-level averages promulgates neglect of between-individual variation in movement, potentially hindering the study of factors controlling movement. Terminology was found to be inconsistent among taxa and subdisciplines. The gaps identified in coverage of movement studies highlight research areas that should be addressed to fully understand the ecology of movement.
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Spatial transformation skills are an essential aspect of cognitive ability. These skills can be improved by practice, but such improvement has usually been specific to tasks and stimuli. The present study investigated whether intensive long-term practice leads to change that transcends stimulus and task parameters. Thirty-one participants (14 male, 17 female) were tested on three cognitive tasks: a computerized version of the Shepard-Metzler (1971) mental rotation task (MRT), a mental paper-folding task (MPFT), and a verbal analogies task (VAT). Each individual then participated in daily practice sessions with the MRT or the MPFT over 21 days. Postpractice comparisons revealed transfer of practice gains to novel stimuli for the practiced task, as well as transfer to the other, nonpracticed spatial task. Thus, practice effects were process based, not instance based. Improvement in the nonpracticed spatial task was greater than that in the VAT; thus, improvement was not merely due to greater ease with computerized testing.
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A model of the cognitive activities of experienced air traffic controllers is presented as an example of the challenging theoretical task to model mental processes in a dynamic task environment. Owing to the continuous changes in the task environment and the demand for the temporal co-ordination of activities in air traffic control, the model pays special attention to the mental representation of the situation. This unit of the model plays a salient role in maintaining situational awareness, in anticipating future states, and in co-ordinating simultaneously ongoing events. The assumptions about the mental representation of the changing task environment are discussed within the mental model approach. Its realization within the proposed model is outlined. The model has been developed on the basis of experimental research with air traffic controllers. Brief outlines of the experiments on information intake, and the mental representation as examples of the empirical investigation are presented. In an experiment on information intake, controllers with different levels of experience had to control a traffic scenario while the information on the radar screen and on the flight-strips were masked. The frequencies of unmasking showed that the controller's picture is built up by means of a considerable reduction of information regardless of the level of experience. However, less experienced controllers used more planning data, especially information needed for short-term anticipation. A card-sorting task was used to investigate the underlying dimensions for situation assessment. A measure for correspondence between classifications and multidimensional scaling established that situation assessment is based not only on anticipation, but also on the evaluation of further information processing requirements. The influence of the empirical results on the model is discussed.
Chapter
We propose a research agenda for empirically assessing the effectiveness of dynamic displays with the eye-movement data collection method. The proposed framework is based on the relationship between perceptual salience and thematic relevance in static (e.g., visual variables: color hue, color value and orientation) and animated displays (e.g., dynamicvariables including transitions). The proposed empirical studies adhere to experimental design standards in cognitivepsychology, but are additionally grounded on a solid dynamic design framework borrowed from cartography, computer graphics and cinematography, to investigate how different dynamic and visual variables, and various levels of interactivity affect people’s knowledge construction processes from dynamic displays as compared to static displays.
Chapter
Introduction Animations are increasingly used to present complex information in technical and educational settings. One reason for the rising popularity of these representations has been advancing technology that has greatly facilitated the authoring, presentation, and dissemination of animated displays. Another reason is the widespread assumption that animations are an intrinsically effective way of presenting information, especially subject matter in which dynamics play an important role. However, findings from recent research have cast doubt on the assumed universal effectiveness of animations. Much of this research has been conducted in the field of education, where there is a growing reliance on the use of animations in multimedia learning materials (Höffler and Leutner, 2007). Too often, the effectiveness of animations as tools for explanation has fallen well short of educators’ expectations. It is becoming clear that some of the shortcomings of explanatory animations originate in the perceptual challenges they can pose to learner processing. This chapter examines evidence for the importance of perception in the processing of animations with a particular focus on the methodologies used to produce that evidence. Animations in Real-World Contexts Dynamic graphic displays have become a routine way of presenting information in a wide variety of workplaces. Rather than dealing with information only in its original numerical form, it is now common practice to convert it into graphic displays to provide new affordances that can foster understanding of how information changes over time. The sophisticated visualisation opportunities offered by today’s powerful graphics-oriented computers allow real-time monitoring of such changes as well as retrospective analysis of historical data for predictive purposes. One example of using dynamic graphic displays for “online” monitoring involves the displays used in industrial process control. In this application, animated diagrams are presented on computer screens to depict the events in an industrial plant as they are actually occurring. This allows plant operators to adjust the component production processes so that cost effectiveness can be maximised and safety hazards minimised. Another example is in meteorology, where weather centre staff rely on multiple visualisations of real-time data from various types of sensors to develop their warnings about potentially catastrophic weather events.
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We present a novel set of techniques for visualization of very large data sets encoding flight information obtained from Air Traffic Control. The aims of our visualization are to provide a smooth way to explore the available information and find outlier spatio-temporal patterns by navigating between fine-scale, detail, views on the data and coarse overviews of large areas and long time periods. To achieve this, we extend and adapt several image-based visualization techniques, including animation, density maps, and bundled graphs. In contrast to previous methods, we are able to visualize significantly more information on a single screen, with limited clutter, and also create real-time animations of the data. For computational scalability, we implement our method using GPU-accelerated techniques. We demonstrate our results on several real-world data sets ranging from hours over a country to one month over the entire world. Copyright © 2014 SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications. All rights reserved.
Article
Geographic phenomena exist within a multi-dimensional space-time continuum, at various levels of detail. Dynamic geographic phenomena can be generally conceptualized and represented as spatiotemporal patterns (e.g., trajectories of people or animals, flows of chemicals, or movements of eyes over maps), space-time processes (climate change, urban growth, human spatial cognition) or spatiotemporal events (e.g., earthquakes, Winter Olympics, or human eyes fixating on a perceptually salient object in a scene). Humans rarely care about spatiotemporal entities in isolation. Visualization and analysis approaches that focus on individual spatiotemporal phenomena in isolation are likely doomed to failure because they miss the relational structure humans use to process and reason about events. This idea may be counter intuitive and thus counter to a scientist’s natural inclination to analyze a phenomenon to its elements. Only a few researchers have looked specifically at modeling and visualizing relationships of spatiotemporally coordinated events (Laube et al. 2005; Andrienko & Andrienko 2007; Stewart Hornsby & Yuan 2008), and even fewer have done so using animated displays to depict spatiotemporal information in a perceptually salient and cognitively inspired manner (Fabrikant & Goldsberry 2005; Griffin et al. 2006; Klippel, 2009). We contend that a static and geometric decompositional approach to spatiotemporal patterns and processes limits the field’s ability to develop tools that can be applied to a broad class of spatiotemporal data, or events, that are important to users. This class represents spatiotemporally coordinated events (a car changing movement direction because of road works, a hurricane not making landfall because of changing wind direction, etc.). In this position paper we argue for the need for perceptually salient and cognitively inspired animated displays that help humans to more effectively and efficiently detect relationships in complex spatiotemporally coordinated events.
Book
We effortlessly remember all sorts of events - from simple events like people walking to complex events like leaves blowing in the wind. We can also remember and describe these events, and in general, react appropriately to them, for example, in avoiding an approaching object. Our phenomenal ease interacting with events belies the complexity of the underlying processes we use to deal with them. Driven by an interest in these complex processes, research on even perception has been growing rapidly. Events are the basis of all experience, so understanding how humans perceive, represent, and act on them will have a significant impact on many areas of psychology. Unfortunately, much of the research on event perception - in visual perception, motor control, linguistics, and computer science - has progressed without much interaction. This book brings together computational, neurological, and psychological research on how humans detect, classify, remember, and act on events.
Stress is an important aspect of operational settings. This article presents two studies providing initial psychometric and validation evidence of a short multidimensional self-report measure of stress state, the Short Stress State Questionnaire (SSSQ) based on the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire (DSSQ; Matthews et al., 1999, 2002). The first study involved the construction and exploration of the factor structure of the SSSQ using data pooled from three samples. These factor analyses differentiated three aspects of subjective stress similar to the DSSQ: Task Engagement, Distress, and Worry. The second study aimed at providing validity information on the SSSQ in regards to its sensitivity to task-stressors. Different task conditions elicited unique patterns of stress state on the three factors of the SSSQ in line with predictions. The 24-item SSSQ appears to be a useful measure of stress state based on the substantially longer DSSQ from which it was derived.
Article
Maps provide a means for visual communication of spatial informa-tion. The success of this communication process largely rests on the design and symbolization choices made by the cartographer. For static mapmaking we have seen substantial research in how our design deci-sions can influence the legibility of the map's message, however, we have limited knowledge about how dynamic maps communicate most effectively. Commonly, dynamic maps communicate spatiotemporal information by 1) displaying known data at discrete points in time and 2) employing cartographic transitions that depict changes that occur between these points. Since these transitions are a part of the commu-nication process, we investigate how three common principles of static map design (visual variables, level of measurement, and classed vs. unclassed data representations) relate to cartographic transitions and their abilities to congruently and coherently represent temporal change in dynamic phenomena. In this review we find that many principles for static map design are less than reliable in a dynamic environment; the principles of static map symbolization and design do not always ap-pear to be effective or congruent graphical representations of change. Through the review it becomes apparent that we are in need of addi-tional research in the communication effectiveness of dynamic thematic maps. We conclude by identifying several research areas that we believe are key to developing research-based best practices for communicating about dynamic geographic processes.
Article
Large display screens are common in supervisory tasks, meaning that alerts are often perceived in peripheral vision. Five air traffic control notification designs were evaluated in their ability to capture attention during an ongoing supervisory task, as well as their impact on the primary task. A range of performance measures, eye-tracking and subjective reports showed that colour, even animated, was less effective than movement, and notifications sometimes went unnoticed. Designs that drew attention to the notified aircraft by a pulsating box, concentric circles or the opacity of the background resulted in faster perception and no missed notifications. However, the latter two designs were intrusive and impaired primary task performance, while the simpler animated box captured attention without an overhead cognitive cost. These results highlight the need for a holistic approach to evaluation, achieving a balance between the benefits for one aspect of performance against the potential costs for another. Practitioner summary: We performed a holistic examination of air traffic control notification designs regarding their ability to capture attention during an ongoing supervisory task. The combination of performance, eye-tracking and subjective measurements demonstrated that the best design achieved a balance between attentional power and the overhead cognitive cost to primary task performance.
Conference Paper
The paper introduces a two-step method of quantifying eye movement transitions between Areas of Interests (AOIs). First, individuals' gaze switching patterns, represented by fixated AOI sequences, are modeled as Markov chains. Second, Shannon's entropy coefficient of the fit Markov model is computed to quantify the complexity of individual switching patterns. To determine the overall distribution of attention over AOIs, the entropy coefficient of individuals' stationary distribution of fixations is calculated. The novelty of the method is that it captures the variability of individual differences in eye movement characteristics, which are then summarized statistically. The method is demonstrated on gaze data collected during free viewing of classical art paintings. Shannon's coefficient derived from individual transition matrices is significantly related to participants' individual differences as well as to their aesthetic experience of art pieces.
Article
The effects of computer animations and mental animation on people's mental models of a mechanical system are examined. In 3 experiments, students learned how a mechanical system works from various instructional treatments including viewing a static diagram of the machine, predicting motion from static diagrams, viewing computer animations, and viewing static and animated diagrams accompanied by verbal commentaries. Although students' understanding of the system was improved by viewing both static and animated diagrams, there was no evidence that animated diagrams led to superior understanding of dynamic processes compared to static diagrams. Comprehension of diagrams was enhanced by asking students questions that required them to predict the behavior of the machine from static diagrams and by providing them with a verbal description of the dynamic processes. This article proposes that predicting motion from static diagrams engages students' mental animation processes, including spatial visualization, and provides them with information about what they do and do not understand about how the machine works. Verbal instruction provides information that is not easily communicated in graphics and directs students' attention to the relevant information in static and animated diagrams. The research suggests that an understanding of students' mental animation abilities is an important component of a theory of learning from external animations.
Article
Spatial representation and thinking have evolutionary importance for any mobile organism. In addition, they help reasoning in domains that are not obviously spatial, for example, through the use of graphs and diagrams. This article reviews the literature suggesting that mental spatial transformation abilities, while present in some precursory form in infants, toddlers, and preschool children, also undergo considerable development and show important individual differences, which are malleable. These findings provide the basis for thinking about how to promote spatial thinking in preschools, at home, and in children's play. Integrating spatial content into formal and informal instruction could not only improve spatial functioning in general but also reduce differences related to gender and socioeconomic status that may impede full participation in a technological society.
Article
The construction of a high quality mental model from a complex visual display relies the capacity of learners to extract appropriate information from that display. Beginning students of meteorology complied written records of generalisations extracted from animated weather map sequences in order to prepare themselves for a subsequent prediction task. Analysis of these records revealed that much of the information extracted was perceptually salient rather than thematically relevant. This perceptual dominance effect was found for both visuospatial and temporal aspects of the display. The statements produced were deficient with regard to the causal explanations that would be necessary to build a satisfactory mental model of the depicted situation. These deficiencies involved both the proportion of causal material recorded and the attribution of causality on an everyday rather than a domain-appropriate basis. The limitations of the information extracted were interpreted as evidence of subjects' use of selective attention to control cognitive load in a complex, demanding processing situation and the effects of their lack of domain-specific background knowledge. Contrary to prevailing orthodoxies, the results raise the possibility that in some circumstances, animations may not be instructionally superior to static depictions because the processing demands involved can have negative effects on learning.
Article
If one looks at research in progress regarding the phenomenon of traffic crashes, it can be seen that little of this work relates to the analysis of geographic patterns of traffic crashes. The geographic approach involves the analysis of patterns of data in a two dimensional spatial domain utilizing points and lines as primitives. Broadly speaking, the approaches which are applicable here are distributional, residual and cluster analyses in one and two dimensions.The purpose of a computer animated film is to display the object(s) of analysis in a dynamic temporal setting. Scientific applications of this technique are beginning to see use in a large variety of areas since it is often far easier to display complicated spatiotemporal processes than to describe them either verbally or in mathematical terms. Uses of such a tool in a geographical setting are fundamentally twofold. Initially the film can be used as a cognitive device to aid the research person in perceiving the spatiotemporal dynamics of the process as represented by the patterns. Secondly, the film may be used as an heuristic device to aid in suggesting hypotheses which later may be tested in the data.An example of this approach is a film which displays traffic crashes occurring in Washtenaw County, Michigan during the years of 1968–1970. Two scenes are displayed, collapsed real time and a composite week each representing different temporal frequencies as defined by the sampling theorem. Both scenes prove useful as a cognitive and hypothesis formulating device. The film is in color and of seven minutes duration.
Article
To evaluate how top-down and bottom-up processes contribute to learning from animated displays, we conducted four experiments that varied either in the design of animations or the prior knowledge of the learners. Experiments 1–3 examined whether adding interactivity and signaling to an animation benefits learners in developing a mental model of a mechanical system. Although learners utilized interactive controls and signaling devices, their comprehension of the system was no better than that of learners who saw animations without these design features. Furthermore, the majority of participants developed a mental model of the system that was incorrect and inconsistent with information displayed in the animation. Experiment 4 tested effects of domain knowledge and found, surprisingly, that even some learners with high domain knowledge initially constructed the incorrect mental model. After multiple exposures to the materials, the high knowledge learners revised their mental models to the correct one, while the low-knowledge learners maintained their erroneous models. These results suggest that learning from animations involves a complex interplay between top-down and bottom-up processes and that more emphasis should be placed on how prior knowledge is applied to interpreting animations.
Article
Two experiments used eye tracking to investigate a novel cueing approach for directing learner attention to low salience, high relevance aspects of a complex animation. In the first experiment, comprehension of a piano mechanism animation containing spreading-colour cues was compared with comprehension obtained with arrow cues or no cues. Eye tracking data revealed differences in learner attention patterns between the different experimental conditions. The second experiment used eye tracking with synchronized and non-synchronized cues to investigate the role of dynamic direction of attention in cueing effectiveness. Results of Experiment 1 showed that spreading-colour cues resulted in better targeting of attention to thematically relevant aspects and in higher comprehension scores than arrow cues or no cues. For Experiment 2, superior comprehension after the synchronized version together with eye tracking data indicated that cue effectiveness depended on attention direction being spatially and temporally coordinated with onsets of animation events having high thematic relevance to the learning task. The findings suggest the importance of perceptual cues and bottom-up processing.
Article
Graphics have been used since ancient times to portray things that are inherently spatiovisual, like maps and building plans. More recently, graphics have been used to portray things that are metaphorically spatiovisual, like graphs and organizational charts. The assumption is that graphics can facilitate comprehension, learning, memory, communication and inference. Assumptions aside, research on static graphics has shown that only carefully designed and appropriate graphics prove to be beneficial for conveying complex systems. Effective graphics conform to the Congruence Principle according to which the content and format of the graphic should correspond to the content and format of the concepts to be conveyed. From this, it follows that animated graphics should be effective in portraying change over time. Yet the research on the efficacy of animated over static graphics is not encouraging. In cases where animated graphics seem superior to static ones, scrutiny reveals lack of equivalence between animated and static graphics in content or procedures; the animated graphics convey more information or involve interactivity. Animations of events may be ineffective because animations violate the second principle of good graphics, the Apprehension Principle, according to which graphics should be accurately perceived and appropriately conceived. Animations are often too complex or too fast to be accurately perceived. Moreover, many continuous events are conceived of as sequences of discrete steps. Judicious use of interactivity may overcome both these disadvantages. Animations may be more effective than comparable static graphics in situations other than conveying complex systems, for example, for real time reorientations in time and space.
Conference Paper
The ability to characterize visualizations would bring several benefits to the design process. It would help designers to assess their designs, reuse existing designs in new contexts, communicate with other designers and write compact and unambiguous specifications. The research described in this paper is an initial effort to develop a theory-driven approach to the characterization of visualizations. We examine the Card and Mackinlay characterization tool and we show its limitations when it comes to performing a complete characterization.
Article
The present study developed and validated a stochastic model of overt attention within a visual workspace. Technical specifications and recommended practices for the design of visual warning systems emphasize the role of alert salience. Task demands and display context can modulate alert noticeability, however, meaning that salience alone does not guarantee attention capture. A stochastic model integrated elements from existing models of visual attention to predict attentional behavior in dynamic environments.Validation studies tested the predictions of the new model against scanning data from a high-fidelity simulator study and behavioral data from an alert detection experiment. The model accurately predicted the steady-state distribution of attention within a simulated cockpit as well as the effects of color similarity, eccentricity, and dynamic visual noise on miss rates and response times in the alert detection task. The model successfully predicts attentional behavior in complex visual workspaces with the use of parameter values selected by either the modeler or a subject matter expert. The model provides a tool to test the effectiveness of visual alerts in various display configurations and with varying task demands.
Article
A general framework for the study of maps and map use. Ten chapters examine the nature of maps in detail, with main themes being: a scientific approach to map representation and design; information processing and visual cognition; eye-brain, and perceptual issues; knowledge structures, cognition, and mental schema; semiotics and signs; semantics and syntactics of map design; a lexical approach to map representation; geographic visualisation, 2D, 3D, time; space and time; "truth' and map perception. -after Author
Article
Attention allows us to monitor objects or regions of visual space and select information from them for report or storage. Classical theories of attention assumed a single focus of selection but many everyday activities, such as video games, navigating busy intersections, or watching over children at a swimming pool, require attention to multiple regions of interest. Laboratory tracking tasks have indeed demonstrated the ability to track four or more targets simultaneously. Although the mechanisms by which attention maintains contact with several targets are not yet established, recent studies have identified several characteristics of the tracking process, including properties defining a 'trackable' target, the maximum number of targets that can be tracked, and the hemifield independence of the tracking process. This research also has implications for computer vision, where there is a growing demand for multiple-object tracking.
An Infovis Approach to Compare ATC Comets
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Hurter, C., S. Conversy, and V. Kapp. 2008. ''An Infovis Approach to Compare ATC Comets. '' 3rd International Conference on Research in Air Transportatoin ICRAT 2008. Fairfax, VA, USA.
Moving Icons: Detection and Distraction
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Attentional Costs and Failures in Air Traffic Control Notifications
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The Potential Uses of a Computer Animated Film in the Analysis of Geographic Patterns of Traffic Crashes
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