ArticlePDF Available

How French Subjects Describe Well-Being from food and Eating Habits? Development, and Scoring Definition of the well-Being Related to food Questionnaire (Well-Bfq©)



Providing well-being and maintaining good health are main objectives subjects seek from diet. This manuscript describes the development and preliminary validation of an instrument assessing well-being associated with food and eating habits in a general healthy population. Qualitative data from 12 groups of discussion (102 subjects) conducted with healthy subjects were used to develop the core of the Well being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ). Twelve other groups of discussion with subjects with joint (n = 34), digestive (n = 32) or repetitive infection complaints (n = 30) were performed to develop 36 items specific to these complaints. Five main themes emerged from the discussions and formed the modular backbone of the questionnaire: “Grocery shopping”, “Cooking”, “Dining places” "Commensality”, “Eating and drinking”. Each module has a common structure: items about subject’s food behavior and items about immediate and short-term benefits. An additional theme - “Eating habits and health” - assesses subjects’ beliefs about expected benefits of food and eating habits on health, disease prevention and protection, and quality of ageing. A preliminary validation was conducted with 444 subjects with balanced diet; non-balanced diet; and standard diet. The structure of the questionnaire was further determined using principal component analyses exploratory factor analyses, with confirmation of the sub-sections food behaviors, immediate benefits (pleasure, security, relaxation), direct short-term benefits (digestion and satiety, energy and psychology), and deferred long-term benefits (eating habits and health). Thirty-three subscales and 14 single items were further defined. Confirmatory analyses confirmed the structure, with overall moderate to excellent convergent and divergent validity and internal consistency reliability. The Well-BFQ is a unique, modular tool that comprehensively assesses the full picture of well-being related to food and eating habits in the general population
This paper introduces the conceptualization and measurement of quality of life, well-being, and wellness. Wellness, quality of life and well-being refer to the positive, subjective state that is opposite to illness. Thus, wellness is not the just absence of disease and the absence of illness; it is a separate positive state. Quality of life, well-being, and wellness are often discussed and described in terms of a multidimensional model. The strongest dimensions are physical, social, emotional/psychological, intellectual, and spiritual. The measurement of these positive dimensions of health have produced literally thousands of different measures, but most of them have been developed in a clinical setting and have been applied to specific disease conditions. Many of the existing clinical measures of wellness, well-being, and quality of life are very long, often over 100 items, and not suited to consumer research. Measures of quality of life and of well-being have focused on overall functioning. Quality of life of measures have been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and translated in many languages. Subjective well being has been defined as the combination of positive-negative affect balance and satisfaction with life, and is measured with two standard measures of these attributes. Wellness has largely been measured in the fields of clinical and counseling psychology; one new product oriented measure is the WellSense™ Profile (King et al., 2015). Wellness, well-being, and quality of life can be important additions to the measures studied in consumer perception of food and other consumer products.
Following on from the success of the first edition, John Coveney traces our complex relationship with food and eating and our preoccupation with diet, self-discipline and food guilt. Using our current fascination with health and nutrition, he explores why our appetite for food pleasures makes us feel anxious. This up-to-date edition includes an examination of how our current obsession with body size, especially fatness, drives a national and international panic about the obesity 'epidemic'. Focusing on how our food anxieties have stemmed from social, political and religious problems in Western history, Food, Morals and Meaning looks at: The ancient Greeks' preoccupation with eating. Early Christianity and the conflict between the pleasures of the flesh and spirituality. Scientific developments in eighteenth and nineteenth century Europe and our current knowledge of food. The social organization of food in the modern home, based on real interviews. The obesity 'epidemic' and its association with moral degeneration. Based on the work of Michel Foucault, this fresh and updated edition explains how a rationalization food choice - so apparent in current programmes on nutrition and health - can be traced through a genealogy of historical social imperatives and moral panics. Food, Morals and Meaning is essential reading for those studying nutrition, public health, sociology of health and illness and sociology of the body.