© 2015 Nabaweya A. Ibrahim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License -NonCommercial-
ShareAlikeUnported License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 5 (01), pp. 006-012, January, 2015
Available online at http://www.japsonline.com
Chemical Composition, Antiviral against avian Influenza (H5N1)
Virus and Antimicrobial activities of the Essential Oils of the Leaves
and Fruits of Fortunella margarita, Lour. Swingle, Growing in Egypt
Nabaweya A. Ibrahim1, Seham S. El-Hawary2, Magdy M. D. Mohammed1,*, Mohamed A. Farid3, Nayera A. M. Abdel-
Wahed3, Mohamed A. Ali4, Eman A. W. El-Abd1
1 Pharmacognosy Department, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research Center, Dokki-12311, Cairo, Egypt.
2 Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. 3Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Department,
Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research Center, Dokki-12311, Cairo, Egypt. 4Center of Scientific Excellence for
Influenza Viruses, National Research Center, Dokki-12311, Cairo, Egypt.
Received on: 28/10/2014
Revised on: 10/11/2014
Accepted on: 05/12/2014
Available online: 30/01/2015
Essential oils of the fresh leaves and fruits of Fortunella margarita
Lour. Swingle (Family: Rutaceae) were
prepared by hydrodistillation method, which resulted with 0.27 and 0.30% respectively. The resulted oils of both
organs were analyzed by GC/MS whi
ch revealed the presence of twenty compounds in the leaves oil representing
86.96% of the oil, from which gurjunene, eudesmol and muurolene were identified as major compounds. The
fruit’s oil was found to contain fourteen compounds representing 77.77% of the oil, of which terpineol, t-
limonene, muurolene and cadinene represented the major compounds. The antiviral activity of the essential oils
of both leaves and fruits was tested against avian influenza-A virus (H5N1), and the results revealed high
potency of fruits oil. Moreover, the essential oils of the leaves and fruits were investigated for their antimicrobial
and antifungal activities. The oil of the leaves showed antimicrobial activity higher than that of the fruits at
dilution (1:50 v/v) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina luta and Streptococcus faecalis
it has a moderate activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsilla pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. On the
other hand, the antifungal activity of the leaves and
fruits revealed that the fruits exhibited higher activity than
that of the leaves against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans.
Fortunella margarita Lour.
Swingle; Rutaceae; essential
oil; antiviral; antimicrobial.
Kumquats (Fortunella spp.) belong to the Citrus genus;
their fruits are usually eaten raw as a whole fruit together with
the peel, excluding the seeds. The peel is sweet and edible with a
typical aroma due to the presence of flavonoids and terpenoids
(Koyasako and Bernhard, 1983). Fortunella margarita Lour.
Swingle (Rutaceae) is an evergreen tree native to Southeastern
Asia and more precisely to China. It is also known as the oval or
nagami kumquat. The genus Fortunella has been used in folk
medicine to treat fevers, gallstones, indigestion, hernial pain,
* Corresponding Author
Dr. Magdy Mostafa Desoky Mohammed, Ph.D.
Department of Pharmacognosy, National Research Center, Dokki
12311, Cairo, Egypt. Tel.: +202-33371718; Fax: +202-33370931
-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (Magdy M. D. Mohammed).
stomachache, hepatitis, high blood pressure, prolapse of the uterus
and anus, asthma, catarrhal cough, pneumonia, respiratory
congestion and whooping cough (Khaleel et al., 2001). Certain
Fortunella species were reported to be used as haemostatic,
antiasthmatic and in treatment of diarrhea, Fortunella margarita
Lour. Swingle is cultivated in Egypt for ornamental purposes
(Khaleel et al., 2001). Kumquats are also an excellent source of
nutrients and phytochemicals, including ascorbic acid, carotenoids,
flavonoids and essential oils (Wang et al., 2012) i.e., 3´,5´-di-C-β-
glucopyranosyl phloretin, which is a characteristic flavonoid in F.
margarita and all other Fortunella species (Ogawa et al., 2001).
Some Fortunella species i.e., F. japonica (round), F. margarita
(oval or nagami) and F. crassifolia (jingdan or meiwa) are
commonly cultivated in the Southern region of China. Most of
Fortunella species can be used for the preparation of marmalade,
fruit salad and as food preservative.
Ibrahim et al. / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 5 (01); 2015: 006-012 07
As a result of inadequate use of antiviral drugs, influenza
viruses are mutating and mutant variants are evolving. To control
the spread of these viruses as well as the expected and unexpected
mutant variants, we have a great challenge to find out more potent
antiviral agents. Plant and marine extracts, synthetic compound
and target directed compounds are the main sources of these
Antiviral and antimicrobial drugs are subject to microbial
resistance, and this has become a growing public problem all over
the world. Therefore, ample research to discover potent new
antibiotics is compulsory. Since many essential oils have been
reported to possess strong antimicrobial effects (Nakatsu et al.,
2000, Rios and Recio, 2005, Koch et al., 2008), the aims of the
present study were conducted to investigate the chemical
composition of the essential oils of both leaves and fruits of
Fortunella margarita, then the antiviral activity against pathogenic
avian influenza virus (H5N1), and also the antimicrobial, and
antifungal activities were performed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Fortunella margarita fruits and leaves were collected
from Egypt green farm at Cairo-Alexandria agriculture road.
Leaves were collected at the flowering stage while fruits were
collected in February 2007. The plant was kindly identified by
Mrs. Theresa Labib, consultant of taxonomy at the ministry of
agriculture and the former director of El-Orman botanical garden.
Voucher specimen of the whole plant (000120FC 04-09-06-25)
was kept at the garden.
Essential oil isolation
The essential oils were extracted from fresh fruits and
leaves of F. margarita by hydrodistillation method (ShunZhen et
al., 2012). The oil content of each sample was determined as mean
of triplicate. The collected oils were subjected to GC/MS analysis.
Qualitative and quantitative identification of the oil constituents
were carried out by comparing the retention times and mass
fragmentation pattern with the previously published data (Adams,
1989, Walter and Takayuki, 1980).
Analysis of the essential oil
GC/MS conditions; the compounds were separated on an
HP-5-MS fused silica capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm ID x 0.25
μm (film thickness), Agilent, Palo Alto, CA, USA).
Helium 5.0 was used as a carrier gas at a constant flow rate of 1.5
mL/min. The GC was operated in split less injection mode and
the PTV injector was programmed from 60 to 285 ºC
(1.1 min) at 14.5 ºC/s at an injection volume of 1 micro
Litter (Ligon et al., 2008). The Trace MS Plus detector was
operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode at the
ionization energy of 70 eV. The transfer line between GC
and MS was kept at 250 ºC and the ion-source temperature
was kept at 200 ºC. The MS calibration was done by auto-tuning.
Virus and cells
Reasserted avian influenza A virus (H5N1) previously
isolated from Egypt in 2006 (rgA/chicken/Egypt/1/2006), was
used in this study to evaluate antiviral activity of the studied
extracts. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells used for virus
propagation were friendly obtained from St. Jude Children’s
Research Hospital. The MDCK cells were routinely passaged in
Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) containing 10%
fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic mixture
(penicillin- streptomycin-amphotericin B).
MTT assay (Cytotoxicity assay)
The stock samples were diluted with Dulbecco's
Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) to desired concentrations.
Stock solutions of the test compounds were prepared in DMSO at
a concentration of 10% in dH2O (distilled H2O). The cytotoxic
activity of the extracts were tested in MDCK cell line by using the
(MTT) method (Hayden et al., 1980, Mossman, 1983) with minor
modification. Briefly, the cells were seeded in 96-well plates (100
μL/well at a density of 3×105 cells/mL) and treated with various
concentrations of the sample solutions. After 24 h, cells were
washed with sterile phosphate buffer (PBS) 3 times and the
supernatant was discarded. MTT solution (20 μL of 5 mg/mL) was
added to each well and incubated at 37 °C for 4 h.
% Cytotoxicity =
(Absorbance of cell without treatment – Absorbance of cell with treatment) ×100
Absorbance of cell without treatment
Then the medium was aspirated. In each well, the formed
formazan crystals were dissolved with 200 μL of acidified
isopropanol (0.04 M HCl in absolute isopropanol). An absorbance
of formazan was detected by a dual wavelength UV spectrometer
at 540 nm with 620 nm reference wavelength. The percentage of
cytotoxicity compared to the untreated cells was determined with
the equation given above. The plot of % cytotoxicity versus
sample concentration was used to calculate the concentration
which exhibited 50% cytotoxicity (TC50).
Five Gram-positive bacteria strains viz; (Bacillus subtilis
NRRL 543, Staphylococcus aureus NRRL B-313, Sarcina luta
NRRL B-1018, Streptococcus faecalis NRRL 537, Arthobacter
citreus NRRL B-1258) and three Gram-negative bacteria strains
viz; (Escherichia coli NRRL B-210, Klebsilla pneumonia NRRL
B-117 and Pseudomonas aeroginosa NRRL B-23) were obtained
from both of the Northern Utilization Research and Development
Division, United State Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois,
USA and the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of pharmacy
Cairo university, Egypt. The bacterial strains were revived for
bioassay by sup-culturing in fresh nutrient broth medium for 24
hours before test.
et al. /
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 5 (01); 2015: 006-012
The tested fungi including Aspergillus niger NRRL-599
and Candida albicans NRRL Y-477 were cultured on potato
dextrose agar (PDA) (2.5% agar) for 7 days at 28 °C before the
experiment was carried out.
Preparation of plates
The antibacterial and antifungal tests of the essential oils
were tested using agar diffusion method (Linday, 1962), the ready-
made nutrient agar medium (for bacterial strains) and PDA (for
fungal strains) were suspended in distilled water and autoclaved at
pressure of 1.5 atm. For bacterial strains a suspension of tested
microorganisms (0.1 mL of about 106 cells/mL) was seeded on
solid media plates (9 cm diameter) and uniformly spread with a
sterile spreader. Six to eight wells (8 mm) were made on the solid
medium with a sterile cork borer. To each well, fixed volume (0.1
mL) of diluted essential oil and carefully was placed in each well.
For fungal strains seven days old cultures of test organisms
(0.1 mL) were used. Controls were maintained with paraffin oil
Antimicrobial activity of the oils
The antibacterial and antifungal tests of the essential
oils were tested using the agar diffusion method (Linday, 1962).
The treated and the controls were kept in an incubator at
37 °C for bacterial strains and at 28 °C for 24 to 72 hours. The
zones of inhibition for each well were measured.
Nystatin, erythromycin, oxacillin, methcilin and bacitracin were
included in the test as references. At the end of incubation
period, the diameter (mm) of the inhibition zones was
measured. Plates were done in triplicate and an average + SD was
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
The stock solutions of the oils were diluted and
transferred into the first tube, and serial dilutions were performed
so that concentrations in the range of 0.001-0.02 µL/mL were
obtained. A 10 µL spore suspension of each test strain was
inoculated in the test tubes in nutrient medium and incubated for
24-72 hours at 37 °C. The control tubes containing the same
medium were inoculated only with bacterial strains suspension.
The minimal concentrations at which no visible growth was
observed were defined as the MICs which were expressed in (v/v
Spore germination assay
Spore germination assay was carried out according to
(Rana et al., 1997). Three concentrations (4, 2, and 1% v/v) of
each oil sample, together with two controls (one sterile distilled
water and other of 0.1 % (v/v) methanol in sterile distilled water)
were tested for spore germination of Aspergillus niger and
Aliquots of 0.1 mL from each sample were mixed with
fungal spores obtained from 10 days old cultures of the tested
fungi and placed on separate glass slides in triplicate. Slides
containing the spores were incubated in a moist chamber at 28 °C
for 24h. Each slide was then fixed in lactophenol-cotton blue and
observed under the microscope for spore germination.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Essential oils of the fresh leaves and fruits of Fortunella
margarita Lour. Swingle (Family: Rutaceae) were prepared by
hydrodistillation method, and resulted with a mean percentage of
three replicates of 0.27 and 0.30 % respectively (Table 1). The oils
of both organs were analyzed by GC/MS using the previously
mentioned conditions, which revealed the presence of twenty
compounds in the leaves representing 86.96% of the total leaves
oil, from which the major compounds were eudesmol (36.66%),
muurolene (10.26%), and gurjunene (9.98%).
The oil of the fruits were found to contain fourteen
compounds representing 77.77% of the total fruits oil, terpineol
(55.47%), t-carveol (5.51%), limonene (1.67%), muurolene
(5.51%) and cadinene (2%) represented the major compounds.
Terpineol is a naturally occurring monoterpene alcohol that has
been isolated from a variety of sources such as cajuput oil, pine
oil, and petitgrain oil (Merck Index). There are three isomers,
alpha-, beta-, and gamma-terpineol, the last two differing only by
the location of the double bond. Terpineol is usually a mixture of
these isomers with alpha-terpineol as the major constituent. It has
a pleasant odor similar to lilac and is a common ingredient in
perfumes, cosmetics, and flavors. α-Terpineol is one of the two
most abundant aroma constituents of lapsang souchong tea; the α-
terpineol originates in the pine smoke used to dry the tea (Yao et
Previous reports by ShunZhen et al., (2012) of the
essential oil composition isolated from the leaves and fruit peels of
F. margarita revealed the presence of 27 compounds in the leaves
with 91.37%, while 34 compounds were identified from fruit peels
sample with 96.23%. The main components of both organs were
different, except only 13 components i.e., α-pinene, linalool, β-
caryophyllene etc., were the same but with different content.
On the other hand the volatile compositions of three
varieties of kumquats; F. crassifolia, F. margarita and F. japonica
were determined by using headspace solid phase micro-extraction
(HS-SPME) coupled with GC-MS. Twenty-eight components in
the three tested kumquat varieties were identified, with D-
limonene is the major component with 50.40%, 55.43% and
Furthermore, α-pinene, D-limonene, cis-α-cadinene, δ-
cadinene, iso-caryophyllene, β-elemene and acetic acid esters were
common in all samples. In addition, each kumquat variety contains
its peculiar components, i.e., F. crassifolia Swingle contains 4-
carene, F. margarita Swingle contains D-germacrene, cedrene and
linalool and F. japonica (Thunb.) Swingle contains limonene,
ocimene, 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl-heptadecanoic, cuba ene, 2,6-di-
tert-butyl-4-butyl phenol and isopropyl palmitate (Zhonghai et al.,
Ibrahim et al. / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 5 (01); 2015: 006-012 09
Fig.1 Gas ion chromatogram of the essential oil of Fortunella margarita fruits.
Fig. 2 Gas ion chromatogram of the essential oil of Fortunella margarita leaves
et al. /
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 5 (01); 2015: 006-012
Table 1: GC/MS of the essential oil of F. margarita fruits and leaves
Peak no. Rt Components RRt (min.) of
fruits Conc.% of
fruits RRt (min.) of
leaves Conc.% of leaves
1 5.11 Linalool 0.98 0.84 - -
2 5.17 Unknown 0.99 5.51 - -
3 5.22 α-Terpineol 1 55.47 - -
4 5.38 Carveol 1.03 5.51 - -
5 5.55 Carvone 1.06 5.68 - -
6 5.78 Limonene 1.1 1.67 - -
7 6.21 Dihydrocarveol - - 0.69 2.4
8 6.41 Citronellal 1.23 5.01 - -
Sesquiterpenes and others
9 6.5 α-Cubebene - - 0.72 0.07
10 6.57 δ-Cadinene 1.25 0.67 - -
11 6.6 β-Bourbonene - - o.73 2.89
12 6.66 Bisabolene trans-gamma 1.28 0.67 - -
13 6.85 δ-Elemene - - 0.76 5.32
14 6.91 β-Cubebene - - 0.77 0.6
15 6.95 α-Gurjunene - - 0.77 0.37
16 7.1 Bisabolene - - 0.79 0.89
17 7.26 γ-Muurolene 1.39 5.51 - -
18 7.33 γ-Muurolene - - 0.82 6.53
19 7.33 Germacren B 1.4 1.75 - -
20 7.38 α-Guaiene - - 0.82 1.26
21 7.41 α-Humulene - - 0.83 2.41
22 7.51 α-Cadinene 1.44 1.34 - -
23 7.54 γ-Cadinene - - 0.84 1.55
24 7.67 γ-Eudesmol - - 0.85 0.6
25 7.88 Unknown - - 0.88 7.71
26 7.96 Unknown - - 0.89 1.88
27 8.05 Diethylphthalate 1.54 2.26 - -
28 8.14 δ-Cadinene - - 0.9 1.29
29 8.24 Unknown - - 0.91 3.01
30 8.3 Cadinol - - 0.92 2.04
31 8.34 Unknown 1.6 2.34 - -
32 8.38 β-Cedrene - - 0.94 1.89
33 8.64 Unknown 1.66 2.51 - -
34 8.7 β-Gurjunene - - 0.97 9.98
35 8.72 α-Muurolene - - 0.97 10.26
36 8.82 Cedrol 1.69 1.5 - -
37 8.89 β-Eudesmol - - 1 28.25
38 9.02 γ-Eudesmol - - 1.004 8.41
39 9.11 Germacren D-4-ol - - 1.02 0.42
40 10.72 Unknown 2.05 0.75 - -
41 11.7 Galaxolide 1.24 1 - -
RRt: Relative Retention Time to α-Terpineol in Fruits and to β-Eudesmol in Leaves
Table 2: Antiviral activity of F. margarita fruits and leaves.
Oils TC50 (µg/mL) H5N1
Initial Viral Count PFU/ml Conc. Of Sample(µg) % of reduction IC
F. margarita fruits 239.54
8.2 X 105
5 60.97 6.77 10 70.73
F. margarita leaves 185.47 5 39.02 38.89 10 41.46
TC50: It is the Half Maximal (50%) Toxic Concentration of the Sample on Cell Line under Examination.
PFU: Plaque Forming unit: Refers to One Infectious Virion that Is Capable of Initiation of Infection in One Cell Rises into a Plaque after Incubation.
IC50: It Is the Half Maximal (50%) Inhibitory Concentration (IC) of the Sample Reducing
Table 3: MICs of the essential oils from F. margarita fruits and leaves.
Test organism MIC (% v/v) Oil of fruits MIC (%v/v) Oil of leaves
1- Bacillus subtilis
2- Escherichia coli
3- Aspergillus niger
4- Candida albicans
ND: Not Determined
Ibrahim et al. / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 5 (01); 2015: 006-012 011
Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease of
poultry caused by influenza viruses type-A of the family
Orthomyxoviridae. The rapid rate of spread and the high potential
for genetic alterations of the virus has raised the spectra of wide
spread human infection and the possibility of a pandemic. With
emergence and multi-regional spread of AI especially highly
pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of H5 and H7 subtypes in
poultry, the epizootic has altered the world to the prospects of a
potentially devastating human health challenge. The HPAI (H5N1)
subtype virus has caused disease outbreaks in poultry in several
countries in Asia including India. The role of antivirals is
considered critical in preparedness for avian flu originated
pandemic. Several at-risk nations and WHO have stored strategic
stockpiles of antivirals especially oseltamivir to be used at the face
of influenza pandemic. However, resistance to oseltamivir in the
H5N1 subtype in Vietnam and other human influenza A viruses
has become a cause for worry as far as pandemic preparedness is
concerned. Therefore, searching for alternatives for antivirals that
can effectively inhibit H5N1 or other influenza A viruses, and/or
act in synergy with available antivirals, is an urgent need of the
hour. Several novel antiviral agents that may be effective against
influenza virus especially H5N1 avian flu virus, are currently
under development. Among these, are plant-derived extracts,
which have become the focus of many studies due to their proven
beneficial health effects in several disease problems (Sood et al.,
2012). In the present study the essential oils of both organs
(leaves and fruits) of F. margarita were tested for the first time for
their antiviral activity against avian influenza (H5N1) virus, the
obtained results (Table 2) revealed that the fruits essential oil was
more effective (80% virus inhibition) that of the leaves, this was
attributed to the presence of α-terpineol as a major component in
fruits oil. Our obtained results comes in accordance with the
previous study by (YaDong et al., 2009) which investigated the
antiviral effect of Curcuma zedoaria volatile oil and Hypericin
perforatum liquid extract on H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) in
MDCK cell line and non-AIV-immunized chickens, and attributed
the virucidal activity to the presence of curcumenol and hypericin.
Antimicrobial and Antifungal activity
The essential oils of both organs (fruits and leaves)
showed antimicrobial properties (Table 3) with regard to their
inhibition zone (IZ) ranging from 16 to 31 mm. Fruits oil was
active against Gram +ve, Gram -ve, yeast and fungi. The diameter
of inhibition zone was ≥25mm at 100 µL oil concentration against
Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsilla pneumonia, Pseudomonans
aeroginosa, Asperigillus niger, and Candida albicans.
Asperigillus niger, and Candida albicans were the most
susceptible microorganisms inhibited by fruits oil, followed by the
Gram +ve bacteria Streptococcus faecalis, Gram -ve bacteria
Klebsilla pneumonia, Pseudomonans aeroginosa. However, the
fruits oil being less active (IZ < 25) against Bacillus Subtilis,
Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina luta, Anthrobacter and
Escherishia coli. Moreover, the leaves oil showed significant
activity against all tested microorganisms except Streptococcus
faecalis and Klebsilla pneumonia, with inhibition zone ≥ 25
observed for Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina luta, Staphylococcus
aureus. This can be attributed to the presence of eudesmol as a
major component of leaves oil which was reported to have a strong
Table 4: Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from F. margarita fruits and leaves.
Fruits oil(a) Leaves oil(a) Erythromycin 150
µg/mL Methicillin 50
µg/mL Oxacillin 10
100 µg/mL Nystatin 100
Gram +ve bacteria
Bacillus subtilis 21 31 26 14 -ve 18 11
Staphylococcus aureus 22 28 16 -ve -ve 12 12
Sarcina luta 20 32 25 24 24 26 -ve
Streptococcus faecalis 25 -ve 20 -ve -ve 19 -ve
Anthrobacter 18 19 28 19 24 12 12
Gram -ve bacteria
Escherichia coli 16 16 16 11 12 12 -ve
Klebsilla pneumonia 25 -ve -ve 12 14 -ve -ve
Pseudomonas aeroginosa 25 19 35 17 15 12 -ve
Yeast and Fungi
Aspergillus niger 29 25 -ve -ve -ve -ve 15
Candida albican 29 17 -ve -ve -ve -ve 15
a: 0.1 mL of Diluted Essential Oil (1:50 v/v)
Table 5: Effect of essential oils from F. margarita fruits and leaves on spore germination of A. niger and F. oxysporum.
Essential oil Conc. of oil (%v/v) Aspergillus niger Fusarium oxysporum
Oil of fruits 4
Oil of leaves 4
+ve Effect: Refers to Germination of the Fungal Strain after 24 and 48 Hours
et al. /
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 5 (01); 2015: 006-012
antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities (Amezouar et
al., 2012). To the best of our knowledge the IZ for both oils were
higher than that of the reference drug.
The minimum inhibitory concentrations of both oils of
Fortunella margarita obtained by the agar diffusion method are
shown in (Table 4). Both oils inhibited Asperigillus niger and
Candida albicans at 0.01% v/v. Fruits oil inhibited Bacillus
Subtilis and Escherishia coli at 2 and 1% respectively, while
leaves oil inhibited Gram +ve bacteria Bacillus Subtilis at 0.01
%v/v. The results in (Table 5) revealed that the fruits oil
completely inhibited the germination of Aspergillus niger and
Fusarium oxysporum spores at all concentrations tested except for
Fusarium oxysorum at 1% (v/v). On the other hand, leaves oil has
no inhibitory effect on seed germination of the tested fungal
strains. A separate two control run simultaneously in the present
study showed that it did not inhibit spore germination.
The mode of action of antimicrobial action of essential
oil may be due to inhibition of respiration and disrupting the
permeability barriers of the cell membrane structures (Cox et al.,
The biological activity of these essential oils is due to the
presence of synergistic effect of mixture of volatile compounds or
their major constituents. The strong antiviral activity against
pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1), and the broad spectrum of
antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the essential oils against
variety of bacterial and fungal strains so we can recommend that
the essential oil of F. margarita can be incorporated in different
pharmaceutical preparations for the first time.
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How to cite this article:
Nabaweya A. Ibrahim, Seham S. El-Hawary, Magdy M. D.
Mohammed, Mohamed A. Farid, Nayera A. M. Abdel-Wahed,
Mohamed A. Ali, Eman A. W. El-Abd. Chemical Composition,
Antiviral against avian Influenza (H5N1) Virus and Antimicrobial
activities of the Essential Oils of the Leaves and Fruits of
Fortunella margarita, Lour. Swingle, Growing in Egypt. J App
Pharm Sci, 2015; 5 (01): 006-012.