Introducing Global Englishes
This is an author version of the book’s table of contents
and front matter (preface), included here with permission
from the publisher. For the full book, please visit the
publisher’s website or ask your local retailer.
Introducing Global Englishes
Nicola Galloway and Heath Rose
Nicola Galloway was an English language teacher for ten years. She currently works as a
Lecturer in Education (TESOL) at The University of Edinburgh, where she teaches a course
on Global Englishes. She is currently working on several publications related to Global
Englishes, particularly in relation to English language teaching.
Heath Rose in an Associate Professor of Applied Linguistics at The University of Oxford.
Heath holds a PhD from the University of Sydney, and has taught for 17 years in Australia,
Japan, and Ireland. Recent publications include articles in Applied Linguistics and Modern
First published 2015
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
and by Routledge
711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
© 2015 Nicola Galloway and Heath Rose
The right of Nicola Galloway and Heath Rose to be identified as author of this work has been asserted
by him/her in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by
any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying
and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from
Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are
used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
ISBN: 978-0-415-83531-2 (hbk)
ISBN: 978-0-415-83532-9 (pbk)
ISBN: 978-1-315-73434-7 (ebk)
Typeset in [font]
List of Figures and Tables
Book structure and coverage
List of Acronyms
Chapter 1: The History of English
1a: The origins of the English language
1b: The early spread of English around the world
1c: The rise of the world’s lingua franca
1d: Representing English speakers
Chapter 2: Language change and variation
2a: Language change and contact
2b: Levels of variation
2c: Pidgins and creoles
2d: Standard language ideology, ownership and identity
Chapter 3: English as a global language: issues and attitudes
3a: The advantages of the global spread of English
3b: The dark side of the global spread of English: Is English a killer language?
3c: Linguistic imperialism and the creation of inequalities by the global spread of English
3d: The politics of the spread of English: Influences on language policy and planning
Chapter 4: Variation in ‘Native’ Englishes
4a: English in the British Isles
4b: English in Canada and The USA
4c: English in Australia and New Zealand
4b: English in The Caribbean
Chapter 5: The ‘New’ Englishes
5a: English in South Asia
5b: English in South-East Asia
5c: English in Africa
5d: The status of New Englishes - recognition, invisibility and acceptability
Chapter 6: English in Global Contexts
6a: English as a lingua franca in Europe
6b: English in East Asia: China, Japan and Korea
6c: ASEAN in the expanding circle
6d: ELF in global contexts – prevalence, issues and attitudes
Chapter 7: English as a Lingua Franca
7a: A growing research paradigm
7b: Understanding and ELF: pragmatics
6c: English in the workplace
7d: ELF: Future directions
Chapter 8: Attitudes to English varieties and ELF
8a: The importance of language attitudes and factors influencing attitudes
8b: Attitudes: methods and studies investigating attitudes towards native and non-native English
8c: Attitude studies related to the pedagogical context of English language teaching
8d: Attitudes Towards English as a Lingua Franca
Chapter 9: English language teaching
9a: Striving to become a ‘native’ English speaker
9b: Global Englishes Language Teaching
9c: Previous studies on attitudes towards English teachers and the influence of Global Englishes
9d: Barriers to innovations in English language teaching
Chapter 10: The future of English as a global language
10a: The future of English in a globalised culture
10b: The future of English in ‘international’ education
10c: The future of English: Spread, recession or reconceptualisation?
10d: The future of English: convergence, divergence or adaptation?
English is now a globalised phenomenon and the numbers of English speakers around the globe have risen
dramatically. Today, non-native English speakers outnumber native English speakers (terms problematized in
this book), and English has become the world’s foremost lingua franca, dominating the world stage in a number
of domains. The English language has transcended its original boundaries, resulting in more contact with other
languages than any other language in the world. Of course, language change and variation is a natural
occurrence and happens to all languages, but the spread of English is a rather unique phenomenon. English
language contact is occurring on a global platform, due to its inextricable connection to globalisation, which is
at the heart of the current spread of the language and its rise as a worldwide lingua franca. There has been an
explosive growth in the number of English speakers, and such increased usage on a global level has resulted in
innovations in use, as it is used by speakers from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds and assumes
distinct functions and forms in different contexts. It is no longer relevant to associate English purely with native-
speaking nations; today, English is spoken by a global community and, therefore, is a language with a global
ownership. Such changes also have a number of implications for the way the language should be taught, given
the fact that the majority of English learners will likely use the language as a lingua franca with fellow non-
native English speakers, rendering models based on native English somewhat irrelevant for many. It is no
surprise that the changing sociolinguistic uses of the English language have resulted in a wealth of research that
investigates topics such as the history of English, language change, language variation, language attitudes, and
English language teaching.
Both authors have experience in English language education in a traditionally English as a ‘foreign’ language
setting. Over the years, interest grew in the growth of English language users worldwide; the role of, and use of,
the language in our teaching contexts; our students’ needs as future users of the language; the relevance of
traditional English language teaching approaches and materials and, our own roles as native English speaking
teachers. Such interest culminated in a series of research projects (Galloway, 2013; forthcoming; Galloway and
Rose, 2013, 2014), including a PhD thesis on the topic of Global Englishes (Galloway, 2011). We were
fortunate enough to be able to design and teach a university course on Global Englishes, and to integrate a
global perspective into English language courses. It soon became apparent to us the courses had a motivating
influence on students, possibly better preparing them for their future use of English as a lingua franca. It also
became clear that many colleagues shared an interest in the topic and desired to learn more. However, at the
same time, we soon realised that, whilst the pedagogical implications of the global spread of English are
increasingly being discussed at the theoretical level, there is a severe lack of materials on Global Englishes
available for teachers and students, and, also, for scholars in the field. Of course, a variety of reference materials
have been published over the years on the historical spread of English, the current use of English, World
Englishes, English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and English as an International Language (EIL), but, at the time of
writing, there was no comprehensive introductory resource that covered the topic of Global Englishes, which we
view as including all of the above. As teacher educators, we also desired a resource that could bring all of these
strands together. And so, this project was born.
Several key themes underpin this book’s positioning of Global Englishes:
1. Language change is natural and normal;
2. Languages are in contact with one another, especially English, which is used in more language-contact
situations than any other;
3. Ownership of English should be viewed as a global concept;
4. English is adaptable, fluid and ever-changing; its code gets appropriated and adapted in varied contexts of
5. Many English users have a multilingual or translingual repertoire, which they utilise to successfully
communicate in English; knowledge of another language is a help, not a hindrance;
6. Meaning is achieved through communication and negotiation, and not through adherence to a native
English speaking norm.
This book sets out to portray the English language as a malleable construct, bringing into question notions of
English varieties, or Englishes, with linguistic boundaries. Readers will gain an understanding of the
development of English, in relation to historical, social and economic forces, and will be familiar with key
issues in the field of Global Englishes.
It is important to clarify some of the terminology used in this book, beginning with the very term, Global
Englishes. As defined previously (Galloway, 2013), Global Englishes includes the concepts of World Englishes,
which focuses on the identification and codification of national varieties of English, and ELF, which examines
English use within and across such borders, as well as focusing on the global consequences of English’s use as a
world language. Global Englishes extends the lens of these fields, to incorporate many peripheral issues
associated with English such as globalisation, linguistic imperialism, education, language policy and planning.
We present World Englishes and ELF research separately in this book, given that the first focuses on the
documentation of the distinct features of national varieties in the areas of phonology, lexis, grammar and
pragmatics in the ‘New’ Englishes, while ELF research examines the use of English as a contact language, both
within and across Kachru’s (1985, 1992) Inner, Outer and Expanding circles. In ELF, communication is seen as
a more fluid and changing phenomenon, used in “communities of practice” (Lave & Wenger, 1991) as opposed
to fixed geographical settings, involving a process of ongoing linguistic accommodation, where language is
appropriated by speakers in response to situational demands. Despite their differences, there are similarities
between the two research paradigms, based on a similar underlying ideology. Both:
• view English as a pluricentric notion
• focus on the use of English by non-native English speakers, emphasising the influence of linguistic
• focus on the global ownership of English independent of native English norms
• have implications for teaching the language.
Thus, ELF forms “part of the wider WE [World Englishes] research community” (Seidlhofer, 2009, p. 243).
Because of these similarities, and a “shared endeavor” (Seidlhofer, 2009, p. 243), together, they form part of the
broader Global Englishes paradigm. We also see the shared ideologies of EIL falling under the Global Englishes
umbrella term. At the Centre for Global Englishes launch, at The University of Southampton in May, 2012,
Barbara Seidlhofer discussed two kinds of EIL: localised EIL, which includes World Englishes and nation-based
varieties and globalised EIL, involving international communication, characterised by hybrid ways of speaking
and de-territorialised speech events. However, given the definitions of EIL in the literature, which are, often,
exclusionary of many concepts in ELF that we want to represent in this book, and which are discussed below,
the term EIL is avoided and Global Englishes is used. Global Englishes, however, can also be viewed as
including both localised EIL (World Englishes and nation-based varieties, thus including varieties from the
Inner, Outer and Expanding circles) and globalised EIL (henceforth ELF).
Our adoption of the term Global Englishes does not mean that we are ignoring, or even underestimating, the
importance of the work by scholars who choose to position their work within the field of EIL. In our opinion,
what many EIL scholars have described as EIL fits within the Global Englishes framework, and we aim to be
inclusive of such work. Sharifian (2009), for example, defines EIL as referring “to a paradigm for thinking,
research and practice” (p. 2), as does Global Englishes, in relation to the global spread of English. EIL also
“marks a paradigm shift in TESOL [Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages], SLA [Second
Language Acquisition] and the applied linguistics of English” (Sharifian, 2009, p. 2), as does Global Englishes,
or, more specifically, Global Englishes Language Teaching (GELT), introduced in Galloway (2011) and
discussed in chapter nine of this book. Furthermore, Sharifian (2009) notes that it “does not refer to a particular
variety of English” (p. 2).
It is important to note that Global Englishes is a very different concept to Globish, which represents a reduced
and simplified variety of English and, different to the term Global English, which represents an ideological
world standard. “One of the central themes of EIL as a paradigm is its recognition of World Englishes,
regardless of which ‘circles’ they belong to” (ibid, p. 2). Although we have pluralised English in our coverage of
World Englishes, we also want to recognise that ELF research does not assume a single variety and, indeed,
challenges the very notion that such a thing exists. Further similarity between Global Englishes and EIL is found
in the comments: and “The EIL paradigm also emphasises the relevance of World Englishes to ELT” (ibid, p.
However, EIL differs from Global Englishes in its understanding and treatment of ELF, which is problematic at
times. In Sharifian’s (2009) positioning of EIL, it is suggested that ELF research can “broadly be associated
with the EIL paradigm” (p. 6), but there is a misguided assumption that ELF researchers are only focused on the
linguistic code and not the “political/ideological dimensions of native/non-native distinction” (ibid, p. 6), which
is, most certainly, not the case. Further problems stem from the fact that the term is often used differently. In the
same book as Sharifian (2009), Holliday (2009, p. 21) suggests that EIL is synonymous with ESOL (English for
Speakers of Other Languages). Leung and Street (2012, p. 85) argue that EIL is “closely related” to ELF and
Lingua Franca English, and Gu (2012) uses EIL and ELF synonymously. Much EIL literature seems to dismiss
ELF research, or posit it as the study of English use in the Expanding Circle (e.g. Alsagoff, 2012), or the study
of “short contact situations, such that fleeting English norms are in operation” (House, 2012, p. 187). It is for
these reasons, among others, that we have not used the term EIL. However, we hope that EIL scholars will find
that their work fits nicely under the Global Englishes umbrella term.
We are not the first to use the term Global Englishes. The University of Southampton established a Centre for
Global Englishes in 2007; Widdowson (2012) noted that, “ELF is part of the Global Englishes paradigm” (p.
22), concurring with our definition. Pennycook (2007) has also written extensively on Global Englishes, which
he notes “might suggest a blend on the one hand of critical theories of globalization, where globalization is seen
as an inherently destructive force homogenizing the world, and world Englishes on the other, where English is
seen as a pluralized entity” (p. 18). He posits the term captures both of these polarities to a certain extent, that is
a critical perspective of globalisation and a plurised concept of English. Here, we would agree with him.
However, he also distances himself from both views, pointing out that the former could be seen as imperialist
and the second as pluralist—these notions are, also, explored throughout our book and become increasingly
relevant in our final chapter.
As will be discussed, the Global Englishes paradigm challenges the notions of geographic linguistic boundaries
and distinct language varieties, and, instead, emphasise the pluricentricity and fluidity of English. As Pennycook
(2007) points out, “English is closely tied to processes of globalization: a language of threat, desire, destruction
and opportunity. It cannot be usefully understood in modernist states-centric models of imperialism of world
Englishes, or in terms of traditional, segregationist models of language” (p. 5). Pennycook then feels that, while
the pluralisation strategy of World Englishes is useful, he prefers to locate Englishes “within a more complex
vision of globalization” (p. 5), that is one that views the role of English critically and in complexity.
Our definition of Global Englishes also resonates, in many ways, with Canagarajah’s (2013) notion of
translingual practice, which showcases the increasing linguistic hybridity. His points regarding the difference
between the multilingual orientation (as an extension of the monolingual paradigm) and his translingual
orientation (which conceives language in more dynamic terms) also resemble Global Englishes, as defined in
this book. For example, amongst other things, he points out that:
• Languages are in contact with others and the separation of languages with different labels needs to be
• Users treat all available codes as a repertoire, which are not separated according to their labels and they
don’t have separate competences, but an integrated proficiency.
• Languages can complement each other in communication, allowing for more creativity.
• With such linguistic diversity, meaning arises through negotiation in local situations, not adherence to a
common grammatical system or norm.
• Grammatical norms are open to renegotiation and reconstruction, as users communicate in new
contexts for varied purposes.
(summarised from Canagarajah, 2013, pp. 6-7).
Thus, we believe our definition of Global Englishes compliments previous publications that have used the term.
However, it is important to point out that Canagarajah (2013), himself, stresses the differences between his
translingual approach and World Englishes, ELF and EIL. Pennycook (2007) also distances Global Englishes
from World Englishes, when he states that “we need to move beyond arguments about homogeneity or
heterogeneity, or imperialism and nation states, and, instead, focus on translocal and transcultural flows. English
is a translocal language, a language of fluidity and fixity that moves across, while becoming embedded in, the
materiality of localities and social relations” (pp. 5-6). While our book endeavours to be inclusive of much
World Englishes research (especially in chapters four and five), we do this as an acknowledgement of the
important research conducted in World Englishes, which has helped form the broader Global Englishes
The book is divided into ten chapters, with each consisting of four sub-sections. This facilitates opportunities for
a collaborative teaching approach. The companion website also contains lecture slides, audio materials, research
tasks, tutorial worksheets and numerous links for students to find further information. We estimate there to be
70-80 hours of additional classroom materials.
Chapter one offers readers a historical perspective on the spread of English and describes how it is used today.
Chapter two introduces key concepts and theories related to language change and variation as a backdrop to
subsequent chapters. Our aim is to make readers aware that, understanding of some of the more recent changes
in English use, as well as attitudes towards it, needs to be grounded in history. We aim to highlight that language
change is both a natural and normal phenomenon, and change to the English language is, most certainly, not a
new occurrence. We also introduce the concept of standard language ideology, another concept that needs a
historical perspective, to gain a full understanding of the attachments towards the concept of ‘standard’ English.
Chapter three takes the reader to the political side of the global spread of English, exploring the advantages and
disadvantages of a global lingua franca. It also examines approaches to language policy and planning in varied
contexts. Chapters four and five return to the topic of variation, the former focusing on variation in ‘Native’
Englishes and the latter on the ‘New’ Englishes, or, rather, Kachru’s Inner and Outer Circles. Chapter five
showcases work in the World Englishes paradigm, although we acknowledge the inherent problems in the use of
‘native’, ‘non-native’, ‘inner circle’ and ‘outer circle’, as well as the problems associated with whether or not it
is even possible to establish a variety in today’s increasingly global world, where communities of practice may
be a more relevant term, something emphasised in the ELF research paradigm. The problems regarding
terminology are addressed throughout the book, and, thus, our adoption of certain terms does not always
indicate our full compliance with them, especially regarding the terms: the Inner, Outer and Expanding Circle
(see section 1d for discussion); ‘Standard’ English; and ‘Native’ and ‘New’ Englishes. By the end of the book,
we have, also, questioned terms such as ‘variety’, ‘language’, ‘culture’ and ‘English’. Nevertheless, such terms
are in common usage and so are used throughout this book, but not without question. To not cover the important
research that has been conducted within the World Englishes paradigm would do our readers an injustice, as
much of Global Englishes has been built on this foundation. This, however, does not assume that we claim to be
geographically representative of our summary of World Englishes research; to do so would be an impossible,
and undesirable, task. However, whilst it may not be a completely ‘global’ coverage, many of those that we
have included are relevant beyond their specific contexts, and the reader is pointed to more comprehensive
resources for further reading. In Chapter six, we move on to look at English in global contexts, or the expanding
circle, where we focus more on the history of, the roles of, and attitudes towards English. We also introduce and
define the notion of ELF, given that a lot of ELF usage takes place within this context. Chapter seven then
provides a comprehensive coverage of ELF research. In Chapter eight, we move on to look at attitudes towards
English, and provide an overview of the various studies that have been conducted. Chapter nine focuses on the
debates surrounding English language teaching, outlining a new approach to English Language Teaching (ELT),
outlining GELT in depth. Chapter ten ends with a look at the future of English, focusing on changing domains
of English use in an emerging global culture, the internationalisation of higher education, before looking at
predicted directions of English language use as a world lingua franca.
Courses in World Englishes have been growing, and, in recent years, many universities are including Global
Englishes components to their course offerings. More than a decade ago, Gorlach (1997) noted that no TESOL
development course should be without a course in World Englishes, and we hope that this text on Global
Englishes will be a useful resource. We are aware that reference materials have grown over the years, but this
book differs, in that it covers not only the theoretical and descriptive interest, but also the pedagogical interest.
The very existence of a global language presents a number of challenges, and it is such challenges that this book
hopes to address. The chapters are primarily addressed to researchers and undergraduate and graduate students
in the field of applied linguistics and language teaching, but will also be of interest to those studying linguistics,
international business, international relations, politics, or any field where English has made inroads as a contact
language. We also believe it will serve as a foundation text for research students in any number of fields within
the field of Global Englishes.