Extensive research supports an association between radiation exposure and cataractogenesis. New data suggests that radiation-induced cataracts may form stochastically, without a threshold and at low radiation doses. We first review data linking cataractogenesis with interventional work. We then analyze the lens dose typical of various procedures, factors modulating dose, and predicted annual dosages. We conclude by critically evaluating the literature describing techniques for lens protection, finding that leaded eyeglasses may offer inadequate protection and exploring the available data on alternative strategies for cataract prevention.