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Competencies required for managing outsourced maintenance: case study in a Dutch hospital

Abstract and Figures

Outsourcing business activities is a trend that has been around for many decades. It has continually increased in popularity due to improvements in IT and communication, but also under the pressure of rising global competition. In some cases a business process is only partially outsourced, subsequently altering the expectations and skillset required from any remaining employees that used to be responsible. The aim of this study is to discover competencies required for the remaining workforce to effectively manage an outsourced activity. To achieve this, a case study was performed within the maintenance department of a Dutch hospital. In this hospital maintenance tasks were outsourced and executed through contracts with external parties. To provide background information for the actual research a literature review was conducted, resulting in a theoretical framework describing factors impacting effectiveness of this hospital maintenance department. A qualitative research approach was applied to derive results for this study. Using quota sampling, fifteen participants were selected for this research. Semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were used to collect data. The interviews were recorded on audio tape and field notes were taken. Transcripts from these interviews combined with the analyses of internal documentation resulted in competencies themes for the functions control room technician, locally deployed technician and contract manager. Based on the research results, an overview of competencies for the three functions was created. In addition, it is concluded that these competencies are currently undeveloped or absent among a majority of the existing workforce. Recommendations to increase effectiveness for management of outsourced maintenance are provided.
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Competencies outsourced maintenance 1
Competencies required for managing outsourced maintenance:
case study in a Dutch hospital
Msc Business Administration
Chris Jansen, University of Twente
June 26th, 2015
Supervisors
Dr. ir. Jan de Leede, University of Twente
Dr. Anna Bos-Nehles, University of Twente
Competencies outsourced maintenance 2
Abstract
Outsourcing business activities is a trend that has been around for many decades. It
has continually increased in popularity due to improvements in IT and communication, but
also under the pressure of rising global competition. In some cases a business process is only
partially outsourced, subsequently altering the expectations and skillset required from any
remaining employees that used to be responsible.
The aim of this study is to discover competencies required for the remaining
workforce to effectively manage an outsourced activity. To achieve this, a case study was
performed within the maintenance department of a Dutch hospital. In this hospital
maintenance tasks were outsourced and executed through contracts with external parties. To
provide background information for the actual research a literature review was conducted,
resulting in a theoretical framework describing factors impacting effectiveness of this hospital
maintenance department.
A qualitative research approach was applied to derive results for this study. Using
quota sampling, fifteen participants were selected for this research. Semi-structured
interviews with open-ended questions were used to collect data. The interviews were recorded
on audio tape and field notes were taken. Transcripts from these interviews combined with the
analyses of internal documentation resulted in competencies themes for the functions control
room technician, locally deployed technician and contract manager.
Based on the research results, an overview of competencies for the three functions
were created. In addition, it is concluded that these competencies are currently undeveloped or
absent among a majority of the existing workforce. Recommendations to increase
effectiveness for management of outsourced maintenance are provided.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 3
Table of Contents
1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 6
1.1. Outsourcing requires unique skills .................................................................................. 6
1.2. The organization .............................................................................................................. 8
1.2.1. Maintenance department .......................................................................................... 8
1.2.2. Developments for Gebouwbeheer ............................................................................ 9
1.2.3. New organizational structure and outsourcing ....................................................... 10
1.3. Research question .......................................................................................................... 11
2. Literature review: factors influencing outsourced maintenance ...................................... 13
2.1. Value of human resources: resource-based view .......................................................... 13
2.1.1. Human resources affect firm performance ............................................................. 15
2.1.2. Competencies: Knowledge, skills and behavior .................................................... 17
2.2. Importance of building maintenance ............................................................................. 18
2.3. Management of maintenance ........................................................................................ 20
2.4. Risks and rewards of maintenance outsourcing ............................................................ 25
3. Research model ................................................................................................................ 27
4. Research Design ............................................................................................................... 29
4.1. Research methodology .................................................................................................. 29
4.2. Data collection ............................................................................................................... 29
4.3. Data analysis and interpretation .................................................................................... 32
5. Results .............................................................................................................................. 34
Competencies outsourced maintenance 4
5.1. Function control room technician ................................................................................. 34
5.1.1. Descriptive quotes control room technician ........................................................... 40
5.1.2. Conclusion control room technician competencies ................................................ 44
5.2. Function contract manager ............................................................................................ 44
5.2.1. Descriptive quotes contract manager ..................................................................... 48
5.2.2. Conclusion contract manager competencies .......................................................... 49
5.3. Function locally deployed technician ............................................................................ 50
5.3.1. Descriptive quotes locally deployed technician ..................................................... 53
5.3.2. Conclusion locally deployed technician competencies .......................................... 55
5.4. General and supervision competencies ......................................................................... 56
5.4.1. Descriptive quotes general and supervision competencies .................................... 58
5.4.2. Conclusion general and supervision competencies ................................................ 60
5.5. Results external interviews ............................................................................................ 61
5.5.1. Descriptive quotes project leader MST .................................................................. 61
5.5.2. Descriptive quotes HR advisor MST ..................................................................... 63
5.5.3. Descriptive quotes business manager Enexis ......................................................... 64
6. Discussion of results ......................................................................................................... 66
6.1. Undeveloped and absent competencies ......................................................................... 66
6.2. Self-management issues control room technicians ....................................................... 67
6.3. Ambiguity deployment local technician ....................................................................... 68
6.4. Relations between functions .......................................................................................... 69
6.5. Supervision responsibilities ........................................................................................... 70
Competencies outsourced maintenance 5
6.6. Internal career opportunities .......................................................................................... 71
6.7. Involvement internal clients .......................................................................................... 71
6.8. Applicability of competency-index MST ...................................................................... 72
6.9. Limitations and future research ..................................................................................... 73
7. Conclusion & recommendations ...................................................................................... 75
8. Appendix A: Interview protocols ..................................................................................... 81
General ..................................................................................................................................... 82
Department Gebouwbeheer ...................................................................................................... 83
Competencies ........................................................................................................................... 84
Function Contract manager ...................................................................................................... 84
Function control room technician ............................................................................................ 86
Function locally deployed technician ....................................................................................... 88
General competencies .............................................................................................................. 90
Supervision external contractors .............................................................................................. 91
Other Questions ........................................................................................................................ 92
9. Reference list .................................................................................................................... 95
Competencies outsourced maintenance 6
1. Introduction
1.1. Outsourcing requires unique skills
An organization’s capability to manage change has become progressively more
important over the past decades. Two main causes often mentioned are globalization and
intensifying competition, but other political, technological and economic developments also
contribute to the tumultuous environment. Whether these developments are international or
local, organizational adaptability is key for a firm to thrive and survive in their environment
full of uncertainties. This adaptability or organizational change means the firm must be able to
adjust structures and business processes to remain successful or achieve a competitive
advantage.
A common approach to achieving such a beneficial position is through assessment of
the essential activities of an organization, also called the core business or competencies.
Prahalad and Hamel (1990) discuss core competencies for organizations as a means to enter
new markets. Core competencies can be defined as the resources and capabilities within an
organization that are valuable, rare or inimitable (Ireland & Hitt, 2005). Within these core
competencies lie the main advantages or strengths of an organization and a strategic choice
can then be made to either dispose of or outsource non-essential activities.
Outsourcing basically means an organization hires external parties to execute activities
for the firm instead of performing these internally. Frequently mentioned advantages of
outsourcing include cost reduction, improved customer service, gain competitive advantage
and more recently achieve operational flexibility (Deloitte, 2014). Some examples of often
outsourced business activities are information technology, accounting, production and
facilities management (see Figure 1).
Competencies outsourced maintenance 7
Figure 1. Global outsourcing trends (Deloitte, 2012)
Although outsourcing can be an effective solution, it is not immediately the holy grail
of cost reducing strategies or organizational success. There are multiple risks involved that
could lead to failure, e.g. outsourcing the wrong activity, losing control over the outsourced
activity, loss of communication, loss of critical skills and overlooking personnel issues
(Barthelemy, 2003; Tsang, 2002). A majority of these risks seem to be employee-related, a
decisive factor could be how the internal workforce is involved with the outsourced activity.
In fact, Lepak and Snell (1999) state that effective management of employment has become
more complicated and is more directly related to organizational effectiveness due to increased
outsourcing. The role of the employee changes from providing the service, towards being an
interface between external providers and internal users. What skillset does the employee need
to make the outsourcing decision a success?
In this study the focus will be on discovering competencies – the skillset - required for
internal employees to effectively manage a (partially) outsourced business process. In
Competencies outsourced maintenance 8
addition, other factors that influence effective management of this particular business process
are investigated and discussed. A case study will be done at the maintenance department of a
Dutch hospital, Medisch Spectrum Twente, where the decision has been made to outsource
the majority of maintenance tasks.
1.2. The organization
Medisch Spectrum Twente (MST) is a specialized medical organization tasked with
the improvement and care of the health for ~ 264.000 Dutch citizens in the region of
Enschede in the Netherlands. It is one of the largest non-academical hospitals in the country.
It provides specialized medical care and treatment from hospital locations in Enschede and
Oldenzaal, and from polyclinics in Haaksbergen and Losser.
Table 1: MST figures per year
Hospital beds
Admissions
Day Admission
Nursing Days
Polyclinic visits
Amount
1070
30.100
33.100
172.000
472.000
Retrieved from http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medisch_Spectrum_Twente
MST has permission to provide facilities for general care, dialysis center, trauma
center, thorax center, radiotherapeutical center and a HIV-treatment center. To provide these
services, MST has approximately 4000 employees, among them are 240 medical specialists.
The hospital has access to a helipad to ensure fast transportation of organ transplants,
neonates and patients in a critical state. MST works with a yearly budget of roughly €325
million to finance their organization.
1.2.1. Maintenance department
The maintenance department, named Gebouwbeheer, is allocated with the task of the
maintenance of buildings, green space and installations. This responsibility is split over three
locations: one in Oldenzaal and two in Enschede, i.e. Haaksbergerstraat (69.207 m²) including
Competencies outsourced maintenance 9
the parking garage Haaksbergerstraat (24.041 m²) and Ariensplein (49.291 m²). In total, this
means that currently 32 employees (29.2 FTE) are responsible for the maintenance of a floor
area of 142.539 m² and the accompanying installations.
1.2.2. Developments for Gebouwbeheer
In recent years the department was forced to operate under difficult conditions.
Throughout the organization cutbacks were required and a halt on recruitment was issued. In
response to this, the department has been professionalizing its service provision. As a
consequence, the focus has been put on reducing the execution of facility services internally.
In practice, this means that service execution is preferably outsourced to external parties but
managed and controlled internally. For Gebouwbeheer this means maintenance tasks are
increasingly outsourced to external contractors and managing these contracts raises new
challenges (Lammers & Overkamp, 2011).
In addition to these changes, construction on a new hospital site for MST has been
started in May 2012 and the new building is expected to be put into use in the first quarter of
2016. The location Ariensplein will be used up to 2018, after which activities should be
transferred to the new location or Haaksbergerstraat. For Gebouwbeheer this means a rise in
maintenance responsibility of 78.400 m² in addition to the current 142.539 m², an increase of
55% in volume. It is also expected that the workload will experience spikes until Ariensplein
is removed from the building roster and location Haaksbergerstraat has been renovated.
Simultaneously, Gebouwbeheer will be experiencing a significant natural decline in
personnel. From 37 employees in 2011, this is expected to drop to 27 employees in 2016. The
average age of the unit is 48.2 years, with 63.5 the highest and 22.3 the youngest ages. Other
major developments that impact the unit are:
Competencies outsourced maintenance 10
Rising demands on quality control for multiple systems approaching similar levels to those of
medical technology.
Available and fitting technical personnel will be scarce to find.
More intensive use of the buildings increases the pressure to provide services beyond standard
office hours.
The end-user experiences the path towards the technician that solves the problem to be too
long-winded and outdrawn.
The feedback from Gebouwbeheer towards the end-user is considered to be sub-standard.
1.2.3. New organizational structure and outsourcing
In the past, employees of Gebouwbeheer were personally responsible and deployed to
solve (technical) issues in and around the hospital. The shift towards outsourcing, expanding
building roster, more stringent regulations and other developments demand changes in the
way the unit is organized. In addition, the amount and composition of the workload for certain
functions will be reformed. This led management of the department to the decision to create a
new organizational structure. Part of the solution for Gebouwbeheer was the investment in
better maintenance planning and the other part was sought in a two-way pilot.
The unit launched a pilot using a control room to manage external parties that perform
daily maintenance tasks in and around the hospital locations. In this control room crucial and
important installations are monitored and technical supervision on external contractors is
performed. All contractors receive work permits from the control room and also sign off there
when tasks are completed. In addition, a pilot was started where technicians were deployed
locally within the hospital. These technicians can be addressed by clients to perform certain
corrective maintenance tasks autonomously, without going through the usual procedure of
reporting disturbances.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 11
1.3. Research question
The maintenance department of the hospital developed a new organizational structure
to accommodate the outsourcing decision. Job descriptions for three new internal positions
have been formulated, but an overview of the necessary skillsets is lacking. In this study these
three job positions within the unit Gebouwbeheer will be analyzed regarding their required
competencies. : The respective functions are control room technician, contract manager and
locally deployed technician. Other job positions are excluded from this research. The
proposed organizational structure (i.e. use of a control room and local service provision) is
leading, alternative solutions will not be considered. In addition recommendations to improve
the effectiveness of the maintenance department will be provided based on the research, but a
full transition plan is not within the scope of the assignment.
The developments for Gebouwbeheer lead to the following main research question:
Which competencies are needed for the functions control room technician, contract manager
and locally deployed technician so the department Gebouwbeheer can manage outsourced
maintenance effectively?
To answer the main question two sub-questions are formulated within the given scope:
- Which major aspects influence effective management of outsourced hospital
maintenance?
- Which competencies are required for the control room technician, the contract
manager and the locally deployed technician?
To ensure the main research question is answered satisfactorily, a literature review will
be performed and field research will be conducted in the form of interviews. The literature
review will focus specifically on the principal themes resource-based view, competencies,
Competencies outsourced maintenance 12
outsourcing and effective (hospital) maintenance. Multiple semi-structured interviews will be
held with management, technicians and other relevant employees to discover the
competencies required in practice. Combining the literature review and interviews allows for
the competencies to be mapped accurately and recommendations to be created for aspects
influencing effective management of outsourced maintenance for the department
Gebouwbeheer.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 13
2. Literature review: factors influencing outsourced maintenance
Proper research requires context and direction, therefore literature on topics
concerning this case study will be reviewed. The focal point of this study is the existing
workforce, therefore the worth and impact of the employee for a firm in general is
investigated to start with. These employees operate in a relatively unique environment, thus
exploring how hospital maintenance can be organized and which factors affect effectiveness
is a logical next step. Finally, outsourcing the majority of maintenance can yield both
advantageous and detrimental results, uncovering the nuances helps in developing the best
approach.
2.1. Value of human resources: resource-based view
Determining the factors that influence long-term profitability and thus survivability of
a firm has been a hotly debated topic for many decades among managers and academics. Two
of the most well-known frameworks in strategic management literature are those introduced
by Michael Porter and Jay Barney. (Porter, 1979) discussed five external forces impacting
competitive power and organizational strategy; supplier bargaining power, buyer bargaining
power, threat of new entrants, threat of substitute products/services and competitive rivalry.
Barney provided a more internally focused theoretical tool, his resource-based view (RBV)
argued that a firms resources, strategy and its performance are interrelated (Barney, 1991).
According to both authors, sustained competitive advantage is the key to a successful
organization. RBV proponents, such as Barney and Wright (1998) state that for a firm to
obtain this kind of advantage, it must have access to a combination of resources that are
valuable, rare, inimitable and have organizational support (see Figure 2).
Competencies outsourced maintenance 14
Figure 2. The VRIO Framework (Barney & Wright, 1998)
In theory, this ensures that competitors are unable to copy or easily acquire a similar
advantage. Barney (1991) identified three resource categories; namely physical capital,
organizational capital and human capital. Physical capital resources include the buildings,
equipment, physical technology and access to raw resources. Organizational capital resources
encompass a firm’s structure, planning, coordinating and controlling systems. The human
capital resources comprises training, skills, experience, intelligence and insights of a firm’s
managers and employees. The RBV discusses how to achieve superior performance on the
most compounded organizational level, namely that of the whole firm. This study focuses on
the performance of the maintenance department within a Dutch hospital. Whether RBV is also
applicable on departmental level remained unclear in the first decade of research on this topic.
In 2004 a group of researchers investigated the viability of business process
performance as the dependent variable and examined which resources could generate a
competitive advantage from this perspective. Their study confirmed that RBV is also
applicable on the business process level and thus that departmental performance depends on
the mix of capital resources and chosen strategy (Ray et al., 2004). Although all three
resource categories can lead towards an advantage, both the physical capital and
Competencies outsourced maintenance 15
organizational capital resources are set in stone within the hospital this case study is held.
Therefore, the human capital resources are of primary interest for this research.
2.1.1. Human resources affect firm performance
“Human resources always are a potential source of sustained competitive advantage”
(Wright et al., 1994, p. 29). How to extract this advantage from human resources is the
practical dilemma faced by managers. Human capital resources are not synonymous or
limited to a firm’s total number of employees, it also includes human resource (HR) practices.
Before discussing how human capital resources can result in a competitive advantage, a
definition of its components is required. In conformity with Wright et al. (1994), human
resources are defined as “the pool of human capital under the firm’s control in a direct
employment relationship” (p. 7). Additionaly, HR practices are defined as “the
organizational activities directed at managing the pool of human capital and ensuring that
the capital is employed toward the fulfillment of organizational goals” (p. 7).
In short, Wright et al. (1994) conclude in their paper that to develop a source of
sustainable competitive advantage, the human resources must have high levels of knowledge,
skill and abilities (KSA) combined with the motivation to behave productively (see Figure 3).
Competencies outsourced maintenance 16
Figure 3. Human Capital Resources (Wright et al., 1994)
Solely ensuring employees possess the appropriate competencies or KSA to perform
required tasks is not enough, it is essential that their behavior contributes towards
organizational goals. Without such value-added behavior, attaining any advantage through
human capital resources will be difficult. For example, during routine inspection a
maintenance employee notices that a machine is close to failure, but still functioning. The
employee can decide to wait for the machine to break down or to schedule repairs to prevent a
potential shutdown. One of these choices might be preferred, depending on the critical role of
the machinery. Therefore, the competencies combined with the behavior of human resources
affect the firm’s performance. In addition, Barney & Wright (1997) state that sustainable
competitive advantage is achievable through constant training and development of employees
to perform firm-specific work processes and procedures. HR practices still have an important
function on moderating the human resources and their behavior to achieve a sustainable
competitive advantage, yet they are often not rare enough or easily duplicated and thus
provide no such advantage in itself.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 17
2.1.2. Competencies: Knowledge, skills and behavior
From a HR perspective, competencies are viewed as the capabilities or characteristics
of an individual that relate to effective job performance. Enhancing a firm’s performance
through human capital resources, employees require the proper knowledge, skills and abilities
(KSA) while exhibiting behavior that contributes towards organizational goals. Knowledge is
defined as an organized body of information of a factual or procedural nature that can be
applied to the performance of a job. In short it is the employee’s familiarity with the subject
matter. Skills are defined as the level of proficiency and expertise in a specific learned task
and there are three main categories; physical skills, verbal skills and mental skills. Abilities
refer to the capacity to perform an observable activity at the present time or produce an
observable product. This often requires a combination of knowledge and skill; some examples
are running a marathon within four hours or producing accurate, monthly reports. Behavior is
defined as the way one acts or conducts oneself towards others and behaves or responds to a
particular situation or stimulus.
Human capital theory differentiates between general skills and firm specific skills of
human resources (Flamholtz & Lacey, 1981). General skills are possessed by individuals and
provide value to a firm but are transferrable across various organizations, e.g. reading
proficiency, mathematical knowledge. In contrast, firm specific skills only provide value to a
particular organization and usually are worthless to other firms (e.g. knowledge of a firms
policies, skillful use of firm-specific IT). Multiple HR academics propose that sustainable
competitive advantage is mapped through the uniqueness and value of employee skills
(Barney & Wright, 1998; Lepak & Snell, 1999). Often this means firm-specific skills, yet it
should be stressed that general skills are required to maintain competitive parity. Although
general skills are important and add value, they are easily duplicated or recruited and thus can
Competencies outsourced maintenance 18
only result in a temporary advantage. Therefore it is important to ensure that HR have the
required general skills, but also develop firm-specific skills in the long run.
Although it is clear that the human capital pool and its behavior are variables that
impact organizational success, in this case study, the department is responsible for
maintenance and operates in an outsourcing setting. It would be insufficient to not discuss the
influence of this context on the effectiveness of the maintenance department. Accordingly, the
next sections will explore maintenance and outsourcing literature to identify factors affecting
this effectiveness.
2.2. Importance of building maintenance
Preliminary design, construction and maintenance; these are the three phases that are
crucial in determining the longevity of buildings. Correspondingly, Shohet (2006) states that
these are the salient phases which are decisive for the effectiveness of a buildings’
maintenance management. The importance of the first two phases is frequently recognized,
whereas maintenance is often undervalued. In a perfect world a building that slides into ruin
and loses its functionality would simply be replaced. Unfortunately this is often not an option
due to many constraints in the real world, e.g. time, government regulations or money.
Therefore, to ensure that performance (= functionality) of a building meets expectations over
the years, maintenance in some form or another is desirable.
In general terms maintenance can be described as a combination of all technical,
administrative and managerial actions during the life cycle of an item intended to retain it in,
or restore it to, a state in which it can perform the required function (EN13306, 2010). More
specifically, building maintenance is defined as the art of controlling the rate at which
structures deteriorate towards a state of unserviceability and collapse (Smith, 2002). For this
Competencies outsourced maintenance 19
study, the term maintenance encompasses both this general description and that of building
maintenance.
Whereas certain building types can remain highly functional with low demands on
maintenance (e.g. storage facilities, car parks), more complex types require a more stringent,
continuous and recurring approach (e.g. a nuclear plant or the international space station).
According to Kobus (2008) hospitals can be put in the complex category; the performance of
hospital buildings and components depend to a large degree on maintenance and issues
concerning the management of maintenance have a major impact on the performance of
constructed facilities (Amaratunga et al., 2002).
Before exploring factors influencing the effectiveness of a maintenance department, it
should be discussed what effective maintenance is. According to Dekker (1996) the main
question faced by maintenance management is whether output is produced efficiently and
effectively, in terms of manpower/materials used and in terms of contribution to company
profits. This implies that a skilled workforce with access to the proper equipment and
materials is crucial for efficient and effective results, but does not elaborate on what effective
or efficient maintenance is. Márquez et al. (2009) argue that maintenance effectiveness
translates into firm satisfaction through the condition and capacity of its assets or the
reduction of overall costs due to availability of assets when required. In a more recent study,
Barberá et al. (2012) suggest that good maintenance management reduces overall cost of
productive activity (efficiency) and ensures correct performance of equipment and its
functions (effectiveness) while reducing the level of risk to people and negative effects on the
environment (effectiveness). This last approximation of effective maintenance will be adopted
for this study. Ensuring that buildings and machinery run smoothly while retaining minimal
down-time is crucial to the production processes. Even more so, for a hospital it could be
Competencies outsourced maintenance 20
disastrous if an operation room had to be shut down unexpectedly, negatively affecting
production (potential surgeries) and possibly endangering patient health.
The final argument underlining the importance of effective maintenance is a financial
one, calculations have shown that the costs for maintenance and operation of a building in
general comprise 80% of total life cycle costs of buildings (Kirk & Dell'Isola, 1995). From a
total production costs perspective, maintenance is also a large culprit for various industries,
amounting to between 15% and 40% percent in total (Al-Najjar & Alsyouf, 2003).
Hassanain et al. (2013) support this statement for hospitals in particular; “the cost of
maintenance in buildings, and particularly in hospitals constitute a major part of the total
costs of the facility” (p.12).
To summarize, these studies stress that due to potentially high cost and complexity,
organizing maintenance properly and effectively is an important issue. For a hospital in
particular, to maintain high operational levels and functionality, maintenance should be a key
part within the organization. Aside from the importance of functional mechanical, electrical
and medical systems in a hospital, the quality of the physical environment also has impact on
the recovery rate of patients, employee satisfaction and organizational productivity.
Therefore, it is essential to discover which elements impact effective maintenance and how
these can be managed.
2.3. Management of maintenance
Modern maintenance management is defined as all the activities of management that
determine the maintenance objectives or priorities, strategies and responsibilities and
implement them by means such as maintenance planning, maintenance control and
supervision (EN13306, 2010). Although maintenance is usually not core business but a
Competencies outsourced maintenance 21
supportive process for an organization, good maintenance management can be a large
contributor to the profitability and sustainability of an organization.
After reviewing 142 papers, Garg and Deshmukh (2006) classified six areas of interest
for maintenance management, namely maintenance optimization models, maintenance
techniques, maintenance scheduling, maintenance performance measurement, maintenance
information systems and maintenance policies. Although these classifications are of academic
interest, it is a reflection of the issues relevant to maintenance in practice. Indeed, in a more
strategic approach Tsang (2002) distinguishes four dimensions covering similar themes of
importance for organizing maintenance: namely service-delivery options, organizational
design, maintenance methodology and the infrastructure of support systems. In their endeavor
to develop a framework for maintenance management, Márquez et al. (2009) incorporate
comparably themed factors to these strategic dimensions and provide examples of
implementation methods. Additionally, Barberá et al (2012) proposed a general maintenance
management model which emphasizes that it is not an isolated process but depends on many
compounding factors (e.g. customer requirements and satisfaction, resources, infrastructure,
support systems, business goals and suppliers). An overview of the most impactful factors
described by these authors will be presented below.
First of all, the decision which maintenance techniques to adopt is crucial, since there
is a diversity to choose from and implementation requires diverse strategies. In their review
on maintenance management literature, Garg and Deshmukh (2006) classified ten categories
to distinguish these maintenance techniques. In another study, Al-Najjar et al. (2003)
discerned six major approaches to maintenance. Additionally, Tsang (2002) suggests there are
four basic forms of maintenance. In essence these authors agree on a trio of techniques that
form the foundation; these are corrective, preventive and condition based maintenance. The
earliest maintenance technique used is simply called run-to-failure or corrective maintenance
Competencies outsourced maintenance 22
(CM). CM is maintenance in its most basic form; when a machine/system fails or breaks
down, tasks are performed to bring it back to operational levels or replace it if necessary. CM
has been the starting point from which new techniques flowed and one of these was a more
time-based approach, namely preventive maintenance (PM); it can be defined as ‘a series of
tasks performed at a frequency dictated by the passage of time, the amount of production,
machine condition that either extend the life of an asset or detect that an asset had critical
wear and is going to fail or break down’ (Garg & Deshmukh, 2006, p. 10). Simultaneous to
the popularity of preventive maintenance, products and production techniques became more
complex, while expectations on quality and reliability also kept rising. Due to this, preventive
maintenance became a major expense for many organizations (Jardine et al., 2006). The key
to the solution for a more efficient technique was found in condition based maintenance
(CBM). CBM is not time-based or predetermined, but revolves around monitoring operating
levels of a system and engaging in maintenance tasks when predetermined limits are
exceeded. In addition to these well-known techniques, there are a plethora of approaches that
expand or specialize further. Of particular interest for this study is an approach called
maintenance outsourcing, this involves the employment of external companies which are then
(partially) responsible for specific maintenance tasks. Goals often pursued with this technique
are to lower costs, achieve higher quality, reduce workforce size and focus business resources
on the core competencies. Obviously the list of applicable maintenance techniques is diverse
and lengthy, but it is arguably important to select and implement the right techniques for
optimal and effective maintenance management.
A second recurring factor of importance are the choices on the service-delivery
options; this pits the possibilities of internal provision of maintenance against outsourcing
these tasks. Outsourcing maintenance enables certain benefits but risks are involved that have
to be handled properly, these are discussed in a later section. Decisions on organizational
Competencies outsourced maintenance 23
design includes workforce specialization, location, composition and flexibility of the
workforce. Specialized machinery requires specific knowledge and skills and having a
multitude of these systems might lead to the preference for job specialization, whereas a
multi-skilled workforce can ensure more flexibility and be more efficient. A decentralized,
localized workforce could be preferred depending on the necessary response time and depth
of knowledge.
Another important factor influencing organizational design is the type of maintenance
work that is required and this strongly correlates with the choices in service-delivery.
Maintenance methodology concerns decision-making on which techniques and maintenance
policies to apply. Tsang (2002) distinguishes four basic approaches to maintenance: run-to-
failure/corrective maintenance, preventive maintenance, condition-based maintenance and
design improvement. This is similar to the techniques discussed earlier, except for the latter
which emphasizes the importance of enhancing chosen techniques to reduce resource
requirements, amount of maintenance or improve reliability.
Finally, to effectively manage maintenance, Tsang (2002) argues proper support
systems are required. These encompass strategic choices on topics such as communication,
maintenance information systems, reward and recognition, education and training, and
performance measurement. Various authors emphasize the need for these support systems. To
be able to effectively organize, budget and schedule maintenance activities within a hospital,
performance evaluation of the maintenance department is a vital tool. Identification of
performance indicators can provide maintenance managers with essential information to
improve their strategic and tactical decision making. Based on preceding research, Shohet
(2006) defined four key performance indicators affecting the implementation of maintenance
within a hospital. These indicators include composition of labor, organizational effectiveness,
maintenance efficiency and building performance.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 24
The merits of documentation and proper maintenance information systems are often
mentioned. For effective maintenance management, administration of the maintenance
department and their strategies concerning maintenance techniques are vital components
(Horner et al., 1997). In addition, proper administration of maintenance work can prevent high
costs of maintenance in the future. According to Colen and Lambrecht (2012), properly
trained maintenance personnel is a requirement for optimal maintenance execution. Defective
or poor solutions can lead to higher future maintenance costs. On the organizational front,
Adenuga (2012) argues that maintenance managers require certain skills and attitude success
factors to effectively manage maintenance operations in a hospital. Iyagba (2005) supports
this and states that the quality of the maintenance manager affects staff performance,
productivity and turnover.
An abundance of elements influencing maintenance management effectiveness have
been discussed, yet it is not an isolated process; internal and external factors to the
organization also have an impact. In their study, Barberá et al. (2012) depict the context,
processes and resources of the maintenance system including these internal/external factors in
an effort to develop an advanced maintenance management model. The external factors
outside the system include customers and suppliers of the maintenance department, where the
customer requirements and satisfaction are of consequence combined with supplier
requirements and concerning outsourcing of tasks.
There are numerous similarities between the categories found in the literature review
performed by Garg and Deshmukh (2006), maintenance modeling literature Barberá et al.
(2012) and the strategic dimensions deemed crucial for maintenance management by Tsang
(2002). Through key decisions in the discussed areas combined with fitting competencies
within the human capital pool and the right HR behavior, excellence in maintenance
operations can potentially be achieved. Since the service delivery option, namely maintenance
Competencies outsourced maintenance 25
outsourcing, plays an important role in this study and has been depicted as an influential
variable, this is discussed more thoroughly in the next section.
2.4. Risks and rewards of maintenance outsourcing
In many areas of healthcare, outsourcing has become a common strategy for the
execution of non-core activities by external contractors who are specialized in these activities
(Langston & Lauge-Kristensen, 2013). Independent of the manpower sources (in-house or
outsourced), successful execution of maintenance tasks depends on properly detailed
specifications, good planning and supervision (Seeley, 1987). According to Adenuga and
Ibiyemi (2012), the success of the maintenance operation relies on adequate supervision and
quality control. Outsourcing maintenance can be a beneficial policy; it opens up possibilities
for cost savings, improved quality, operational flexibility, reduces staff numbers and
facilitates the transferal of knowledge from external specialists onto internal personnel.
Outsourcing can be particularly interesting for hospital organizations, where expertise on
many (medical) systems is required for proper maintenance. On first glance, it can be enticing
to attract specialized external partners to maintain these systems.
However, multiple authors recognize certain risks related to outsourcing; some of
which are employee-related issues, loss of critical skills, lack of internal expertise to manage
external contractors and potential loss of control (Campbell, 1995; Quinn & Hillmer, 1995;
Shohet, 2006). Tsang (2002, p. 16) mentions similar risks and stresses that “it is extremely
risky to outsource work when the company does not have the competence either to assess or
monitor suppliers, or when it lacks the expertise to negotiate a sound contract”. Iyagba
(2005) states that there might also be less obvious disadvantages. One of those is that long-
term exclusive outsourcing contracts create a dependency on that contractor and that might
isolate the organization from the market. In the long run outsourcing vital maintenance tasks
can create dependency on external parties: “by giving up the vendor exclusive right to
Competencies outsourced maintenance 26
understand one’s business, one may be making it harder in the long term to terminate the
relationship” (Adenuga & Ibiyemi, 2012, p. 2).
Keeping maintenance activities in-house has its own benefits, including familiarity
with the assets, how assets operate, awareness of maintenance requirements, quick response
time in case of emergencies, personal commitment and loyalty to the hospital. Some
disadvantages of in-house deployment are that full training is required, sufficient work must
be available to utilize their full potential, less flexibility in the workforce and monotonous
work can reduce their motivation (Adenuga & Ibiyemi, 2012).
To summarize, outsourcing maintenance services is like wielding a double-edged
sword. As discussed above it has potential benefits, but to fully reap the benefits the various
disadvantages and risks have to be considered carefully. When outsourcing maintenance
activities is a given, it is important that measures are taken to reduce the risks involved.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 27
3. Research model
From the combined literature review, a multitude of factors have been identified that
impact the effectiveness of a hospital’s maintenance department. This provides a valuable
framework within which to investigate the required competencies for the department. Full
implementation of a maintenance model is beyond the scope of this study and is also difficult
to implement in reality. Lopez and Crespo Márquez (2009) acknowledge this by stating that
‘maintenance deals with highly diverse problems even in firms within the same productive
sector, due to this it is very difficult to design an operating methodology of general
applicability’ (p. 5).
Because this study is concerned with the effectiveness of the maintenance department
of a Dutch hospital, and the impact of human resources in particular, influencing factors
derived from the literature are specifically modeled for the maintenance department of this
hospital (see Figure 4).
Competencies outsourced maintenance 28
Figure 4. Theoretical Model of factors impacting the department’s effectiveness
Competencies outsourced maintenance 29
4. Research Design
4.1. Research methodology
This study is focused on answering an exploratory question; through discovery of
factors that influence management of maintenance outsourcing, to ultimately identify and
interpret optimal competencies for the existing workforce. Although the literature review
uncovers multiple factors that influence effectiveness of a maintenance department, the
review also shows a lack of specific solutions or implementations for the effectiveness of such
a department in a hospital. Therefore, no hypothesis or theories have been tested, but the
specific situation of this case study is examined and analyzed. Due to the unique requirements
and setting of this study, the explorative nature of qualitative research is most suitable in
discovering the necessary data (Creswell, 2013).
4.2. Data collection
The approach to research in this study was qualitative and the main method used to
collect data was in-depth interviews. Eight distinct interview protocols were developed to
query the selected participants. The disparity in background and depth of knowledge among
participants was the reason for the diversity in protocols. Each protocol was semi-structured
and contained open-ended questions to optimally explore the experiences, ideas and opinions
of the participants (Creswell, 2013). The specific questions used can be found in Appendix A.
In addition, internal documentation was analyzed to supplement findings from the interviews
(see Table 2).
Table 2: Internal documentation and purpose of analysis
Document
Purpose of analysis
Function profile
‘Regiekamertechnicus’
Identification of predetermined goals and competencies for the
control room technician
Competencies outsourced maintenance 30
Function profile
‘Technisch medewerker’
Identification of predetermined goals and competencies for the
locally deployed technician
Function profile
‘Contract manager’
Identification of predetermined goals and competencies for the
contract manager
Index of general competencies
MST
Map the research results onto competency definitions used
within the hospital.
The sample population was mainly restricted to employees of the hospital and its
maintenance department in particular. Another condition for subgroups of participants was
that they had to be employed in specific functions of interest for this study, namely control
room technician, contract manager and locally deployed technician. Using quota sampling,
fifteen respondents divided over eight roles were selected to participate (see Table 3).
Table 3: Roles and number of respondents
Respondent role
# of respondents
Employee function ‘control room technician
4
Employee function ‘contract manager
2
Employee function ‘locally deployed technician
2
Management department Gebouwbeheer
3
HR-advisor department Gebouwbeheer
1
Projectleader MST
1
Business manager Enexis
1
External contractor
1
The decision to include these roles seems straightforward, nonetheless the arguments
will be provided. The function roles, i.e. Employee function ‘control room technician’,
‘contract manager’ and locally deployed technician’, are the new main job functions,
therefore employees operating in the pilot have vital knowledge and experience to share.
Management department Gebouwbeheer comprises a departmental manager, an external
interim manager and a maintenance engineer (responsible for maintenance planning and
policies). Their direct involvement and responsibility for the organizational change makes
Competencies outsourced maintenance 31
their perspective invaluable. The HR-advisor department Gebouwbeheer played a role in
developing the new job descriptions and the hospital’s competencies chart, thus could provide
important contextual information. Due to heavy involvement of maintenance employees in
hospital-wide projects, the Projectleader MST involved with the department possesses
valuable knowledge on the requirements of these employees. The function ‘control room
technician’ has similarities to employees in the control room of the Dutch electricity network
provider Enexis, therefore the Business manager Enexis can provide useful insights on
required competencies and behavior from their perspective. Finally, external firms have
intensive interaction with the maintenance employees and perform a great part of maintenance
tasks, thus an interview with an ‘External Contractor’ can help develop an understanding of
desired competencies and behavior from an outsider’s perspective.
In an ideal scenario, sampling continues until information redundancy or saturation is
achieved, the point at which additional research does not result in new information or themes.
In reality, sampling is constrained by population size and allotted time (Shadish et al., 2002).
Five participant roles had a significantly small number of eligible respondents, e.g.
management, projectleader and hr-advisor, making selection a simple task. The Employee
Function ‘locally deployed technician’, had four candidates of which only two participated
due to time constraints. As external contractor, an employee of the largest and longest
involved maintenance firm was interviewed. For the biggest sample pool, i.e. Employee
Function ‘control room technician’, the choice was made to diversify over respondent
skillsets. This allowed for a broader spectrum of relevant data discovery, while the higher
number of respondents increases information saturation and completeness of the data.
Before each interview, the respondents were introduced to the goal of the interview
and ensured that their answers were confidential and would only be used for this research.
The interviews held with the respondents were recorded on an audio device to ensure
Competencies outsourced maintenance 32
accuracy and completeness of the data. In addition to the audio recordings, field notes were
taken each interview to highlight important observations or remarks during the interviews.
4.3. Data analysis and interpretation
The analysis of the gathered data consisted of two separate tasks before joining the
results, namely transcribing the audio files and examining the internal documentation. The
transcription was done for each interview recording individually, resulting in fifteen
transcriptions. The transcribing process was not done literally but verbally, since the results
required were content-based and not dependent on punctuation or pronunciation. Descriptions
and themes involving competencies or KSA from each transcription were coded and
interrelated into an overview for all transcriptions. This provided a clear picture on which to
interpret the meaning of the data. To increase validity and accuracy of the data, participants
had the opportunity to review their own transcripts and comment on the interpretation.
Internal documents were provided by management of the maintenance department at
MST (see Table 2 above). Three documents cover the new function profiles, including
definitions, responsibilities and competency descriptions. These documents were created by
management of Gebouwbeheer for three reasons: to inform the board of the new
organizational structure, as input to determine required competencies and allow the current
workforce to apply for the new positions. The fourth document was an index containing
general competency definitions, which the hospital intended to apply to all functions
organization-wide.
The patterns and themes emerging from both the interview data and document data
were combined to provide a complete overview of the data researched. The competency
descriptions were then mapped onto the competency-index provided by the hospital and the
Competencies outsourced maintenance 33
results can be found below. These results are then discussed and conclusions or
recommendations are drawn.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 34
5. Results
For all functions (control room technician, contract manager and locally deployed
technician) the goals as stated in internal documentation supplemented with findings from the
interviews are given. This provides the necessary context to interpret the competency themes
resulting from the data. These competencies will be presented in separate tables for the three
functions and also for the combined general and supervisory competencies.
In each table the first column ‘MST function profile’ consists of competency
descriptions derived from the internal MST documentation, the second column ‘Results from
interviews’ represents the interview results and the third column ‘MST Competency-index’
maps these on the general competency-index provided by the hospital. The results of
interviews also shows a tally (x#), this stands for how often the competency theme was
identified over all interviews.
Throughout the results important descriptive quotes are provided as context for the
competency themes and subsequent discussion. Subsequently, for each function results from
the interviews are compared with the predetermined competency requirements. Finally,
quotes from external interviewees that provide vital context are summarized.
5.1. Function control room technician
“Dit is het kloppend hart van de TD [Technische Dienst]” said one respondent,
stressing how vital this function is to the maintenance department. According to the function
description created by management, the goal of this function is threefold: 1) safeguarding the
quality of installations, 2) monitoring the performance of installations and operate them to
optimally reduce disruptions, 3) rectify disruptions to the installations. These installations all
have electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and building engineering components.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 35
They range from the fire alarm system, heat provision and electrical network to sterile
airflows for the operating rooms.
One of the current control room technicians described their job like this: “Bewaken
van de installaties via GebouwBeheerSysteem (GBS), storingen preventief afvangen.
Daarnaast rondes lopen om storingen voor te zijn/op te sporen. Daarnaast externe partijen
begeleiden.”. The safeguarding and monitoring of installations is done through computer
software (GBS) that receives information via multiple sensors and additionally the control
room technicians perform routine check-ups: “Vanuit de regiekamer preventief de rondes
gelopen moeten worden en metingen gedaan moeten worden op de installatie om te kijken of
het niet anders klinkt of anders ruikt dan het normaal moet doen. Dat is echt de
machinekamer, ketelhuis etc.” Disruptions are mostly rectified by external contractors and the
supervisory role for the control room technician is often mentioned: “Bewaken dat de juiste
firma’s met de juiste mensen komen werken en dat de juiste veiligheidsmaatregelen worden
getroffen.” This supervision was previously absent, according to the majority of respondents:
“Controle op werk, aanwezigheid en veiligheid door externen ontbrak, nu via de
regiekamertechnicus beter georganiseerd.”
Comparing the function profile and interview results so far, identical goals were found
in the data. However, there was one additional task frequently mentioned in the interviews,
participation in projects by control room technicians. One respondent formulated the need for
this project participation as follows:“Bij verbouwingen is de vakinhoudelijke kennis nodig om
goed de projecten uit te kunnen voeren en de kennis uit het project kan de
regiekamertechnicus zo ook weer terugsluizen naar de technische dienst. The role of the
control room technician in projects was stressed by another: “Om gebouwdelen anders in te
richten voor andere functie of gebruik, of een medische invalshoek waar vernieuwingen in
nodig zijn. De input hoe dat er dan uit moet zien, waar moet de nieuwe ruimte aan voldoen,
Competencies outsourced maintenance 36
welke technische infrastructuur is nodig, daar moet dan de technische input door
regiekamertechnici op worden geleverd. In summary, for their specific disciplines and
installations, the control room technician can be involved in project groups to design and/or
modify certain areas of the hospital. This fourth task combined with the previously mentioned
tasks and associated responsibilities, led the respondents to describe the competencies found
in Table 4 below.
It is important to note that the department also makes a distinction between control
room technician A and B, this is shown by the label RKT-A in Table 4. The distinction is
described by one respondent as follows: “Daar staat dat regiekamertechnicus A een
installatieverantwoordelijke is die aangeeft hoe de infrastructuur van je ziekenhuis is, zodat
geborgd is dat het aan alle eisen en normering voldoet. Feitelijk verlang ik van deze functie
dat die de eerst aangewezene is die hier keuzes in maakt en anderen meeneemt in die visie en
anderen delen daarvan kan laten uitvoeren binnen de totale bandbreedte/kaders van zijn
visie.” This implies that A is responsible for certain installations whereas B is not. Another
respondent argues that the required competencies are essentially the same, except for
documentation skills and experience: “Qua competenties zijn in aanleg hetzelfde; diepgang
van technische kennis. Vaardigheden qua rapporteren kan een stukje naar beneden [voor B].
Voor de rest is het in essentie hetzelfde, maar zit het verschil in de vakvolwassenheid. Van
regiekamertechnicus A vraag je grote zelfstandigheid en B mag vaker bij A aankloppen.” In
conclusion, it is stated that B should be seen as a junior or development position: “Het
[regiekamertechnicus B] is ook bedoeld als een instroom- of groeifunctie, dus meer op de
regiekamer zitten en monitorende taken en ze hebben nog niet de vaardigheid om de
installatie te monitoren naar de toekomst of kennis van alle zorgprocessen.“ One respondent
emphasized the difficulty of recruiting control room technicians due to the multi-skilled
demands: “je zoekt communicatief-vaardige technici die ook nog zin hebben in verslaglegging
Competencies outsourced maintenance 37
en op hun vakgebied ook nog eens vrij breed zijn. Dus dat zijn al schaap met vijf poten
risico’s, dus dat betekent dat je een aantrekkelijke werkgever moet zijn om dat soort mensen
in de toekomst uit de markt te halen.”
Competencies outsourced maintenance 38
Table 4: Competencies function control room technician
MST function profile
Results of interviews
MST Competency-index
Knowledge
Technical certificate (MBO4-5)
Health care processes MST
Composition and function of all installations
Effect of installations on health care processes
Legal regulations concerning installations
Safety regulations & environmental legislation
Deep understanding installations (RKT-A)
Additional courses (RKT-A)
Knowledge
Composition and function of all installations x10
Deep understanding installations x8 (RKT-A)
Health care processes MST x8
Technical certificate MBO4+ x5
Legal & Safety regulations x5
Trends & developments x2(RKT-A)
Protocols DBS
Leidinggeven 1 (Besluitvaardigheid)
Leidinggeven 3(Delegeren)
Leidinggeven 6 (Plannen & Organiseren)
Leidinggeven 7 (Voortgangscontrole)
Ondernemen 8 (Marktgerichtheid)
Ondernemen 9 (Netwerken)
Ondernemen 11 (Patiënt-/Klantgerichtheid)
Analyse & besluitvorming 12 (Conceptueel Vermogen)
Analyse & besluitvorming 13 (Creativiteit)
Analyse & besluitvorming 14 (Oordeelsvorming)
Analyse & besluitvorming 15 (Omgevingsbewustzijn)
Analyse & besluitvorming 16 (Organisatiesensitiviteit)
Analyse & besluitvorming 17 (Probleemanalyse)
Communicatie 19 (Inlevend Vermogen)
Communicatie 20 (Luisteren)
Communicatie 21 (Mondeling communiceren)
Communicatie 22 (Onderhandelen)
Communicatie 23 (Overtuigingskracht)
Communicatie 24 (Presentatie)
Communicatie 25 (Samenwerken)
Skills & behavior
Independent
Analytical skills
Discipline
Persuasiveness
Written & oral communication (RKT A > RKT B)
Acuity
Solution driven
Systematical
Accurate
Perseverance
Patience
Skills
Written & oral communication x8
Time management x7
Analytical skills x5
Perseverance x5
Delegate & Coordination skills x5
Independent x5
Solution driven x4
Project skills x4
Documentation skills x4
Accurate x3
Computer Skills
Organizational sensitivity
Competencies outsourced maintenance 39
Negotiation skills (RKT-A)
Creating policies (RKT-A)
Decisive
Mobility
Resourcefulness
Communicatie 26 (Schriftelijk communiceren)
Communicatie 28 (Representativiteit)
Motivatie 29 (Ambitie)
Motivatie 30 (Discipline)
Motivatie 31 (Initiatief)
Motivatie 32 (Integriteit)
Motivatie 33 (Inzet)
Motivatie 34 (Leervermogen)
Motivatie 35 (Kwaliteitsgerichtheid)
Motivatie 36 (Resultaatgerichtheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 38 (Accuratesse)
Persoonlijk gedrag 39 (Assertiviteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 40 (Durf)
Persoonlijk gedrag 41 (Flexibiliteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 43(Mentale weerbaarheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 44 (Onafhankelijkheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 45 (Organisatieloyaliteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 46 (Stressbestendigheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 47 (Vasthoudendheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 48 (Verantwoordelijkheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 49 (Zelfstandigheid)
Behavior
Proactive x7
Studious x6
Stress resistant x5
Team spirit x5
Customer-oriented x4
Professional attitude x3
Flexible x3
Integrity x3
Empathy
Enthusiastic
Collective responsibility
Competencies outsourced maintenance 40
5.1.1. Descriptive quotes control room technician
Clear examples on the importance of deep understanding of the installations were
provided: “Als er op radiologie twee extra versnellers worden bijgeplaatst, zo’n
regiekamertechnicus A moet dan kunnen zeggen dat is prima, maar dat betekent voor mij dat
de hoofdspanningsring moet worden verzwaard en daar komen investeringen bij kijken.”
Others stress the need to understand the impact of installations on healthcare processes: een
elektrotechnische installatie in het ziekenhuis heel anders is dan een installatie in een
winkelcentrum, omdat hier mensenlevens afhankelijk zijn van de elektrotechnische
installaties.”
The need for control room technician A to develop documentation skills originates
from his installation responsibility: “Vastlegging en rapportage is heel nadrukkelijk wel
voor regiekamertechnici A, want die moet een veranderingsvoorstel aan zijn installatie wel
goed op tafel kunnen leggen. Hij hoeft niet dikke vette beleidsstukken voor de raad van
bestuur kunnen schrijven, maar wel goed kunnen verwoorden. Dus op enig abstractie niveau
over de toekomst kunnen nadenken.”
Multiple respondents emphasize stress resistant traits and communication skills,
especially in case of calamities: “Als het werkelijk misgaat, staan zij direct vooraan. Bij een
calamiteit zijn dit de mannen die zonder trillende handjes door kunnen pakken en
besluitvaardig zijn. Als het misgaat staat iedereen naar die mannen te kijken tot aan de raad
van bestuur.” “Stressbestendig. Kalmte is wel een waardevol iets, je moet echt proberen het
overzicht te houden, rustig zijn en goed nadenken wat de gevolgen zijn van je handelen tijdens
een storing. Niet blindelings iets gaan doen, een stapje terug en eventueel een kop koffie erbij
als het een grote storing is. Wat ga je doen? Wat is het plan? Dus ook communicatieve
vaardigheden, want je moet ook mensen in het veld aansturen.”
Competencies outsourced maintenance 41
The coordination role and delegating others internally during calamities is often
discussed: “Bij een calamiteit de leidende rol op zich nemen, mensen aansturen, informatie
verzamelen en vooral niet zelf de storing oplossen maar een stap terugdoen en het overzicht
houden, dat is een belangrijke capaciteit. Daarnaast moeten ze met zijn 2-en, de ene
storingsgericht en de andere communicatief gericht, de boel snel oplossen.”
In case of disruptions control room technicians tend to lapse into their old fix-it
technician role instead of coordinating others: “Niet zelf direct storingen willen oplossen,
coordinerende/leidinggevende rol aannemen als je op regiekamer zit”.During a major
calamity this was shown to be true as well: “Bij grote calamiteit is de regiekamer het centrum
waar informatie bij elkaar komt. Nu rent iedereen als kip zonder kop alle kanten op. Iedereen
moet eigenlijk in de koffiekamer verzamelen en de regiekamer coordineert de boel.”
One respondent reflected on the lack of knowledge among majority of control room
technicians to be responsible for installations: “bij menigeen ontbreekt kennis over alle
installaties, omdat ze uit de apparatuur komen. Ongeveer zes hebben installaties onder zich,
en twee of drie hiervan kennen alle installaties en de rest komt niet uit installaties. Totaal
zouden acht personen installatieverantwoordelijk worden en eigenlijk moeten twaalf personen
de basiskennis hebben, dat zijn er nu drie.“ Another respondent is concerned with the lack of
broad knowledge on installations among control room technicians: “Intern is weinig brede
basiskennis over de installaties (bijv. verpleegoproep), dat moet er wel komen.”
The group control room technicians is expected to be mainly self-managed: “Een
regiekamertechnicus moet het zelf kunnen regelen en alleen als hij daar niet uitkomt dat hij
opschaalt naar contractmanager of naar de manager. Zelfstandigheid moet dus hoger zijn
dan nu. Veel meer toe naar kaders waarbij ze zelf de verantwoordelijkheid oppakken. De
regiekamer belangrijk zelfsturend team, daar hoeft weinig toezicht en sturing op plaats te
Competencies outsourced maintenance 42
vinden.” However, some respondents support the notion that current fit between function and
employee is insufficient: Dat gaat mis op technische kennis, zelfstandigheid en
zelfsturendheid. In mijn ogen zijn er weinig mensen nu in de pilot die aan de omschrijving
voldoen, omdat het grotendeels techneuten zijn die altijd werkbonnen kregen en met een
karretje rondreden en nu heel andere dingen moeten doen. Daar is nog een hele uitdaging in
te vinden.” Multiple respondents recommend an educational level above MBO4, because of
the desired autonomous group behavior: “De HBO’er kijkt meer naar het geheel en heeft vaak
betere communicatieve vaardigheden en kan daardoor beter minder technisch onderlegde
mensen overtuigen van zaken. Je moet ook scenario’s uit kunnen werken en ja, ik denk dat
daar HBO voor nodig is.”
Several respondents mention that the general behavior of some control room
technicians does not contribute towards an autonomous, self-regulating group:”Verkeerde
houding, instelling van ‘het-niet-willen-en-op-eigen-manier-doen’. Je zit in een team,
behandel elkaar met respect maar wees wel eerlijk en spreek elkaar op zaken aan en
accepteer kritiek. One respondent was displeased by the lack of eagerness to learn:Als het
rustig is, zit ik ook wel eens op internet. Maar pak dan ook eens het GBS erbij of verdiep je
eens in de documentatie van installaties die je nog niet goed kent. Niet zo van lang leve de
lol”Another respondent describes control room technicians should be more disciplined:
Sommige mensen houden zich ook niet aan afspraken en fietsen overal tussendoor;
bijvoorbeeld geldigheidsdatum werkvergunning aanpassen omdat dit makkelijker is.”
Acknowledging the difficulties of identifying current levels of competence and
developing those necessary, a respondent said the following:“Hoe gaan we zo beoordelen of
iemand geschikt is als rol voor installatieverantwoordelijke of voor de regiekamer? Wat moet
je doen om je op de gebieden die ondermaats zijn te ontwikkelen? Hoe toets je of iemand
Competencies outsourced maintenance 43
communicatief vaardig is? Laat je een brief schrijven, laat je een mail sturen? Wellicht met
scenario’s gaan werken om te kunnen beoordelen.”
Another respondent emphasizes the next step that should be taken by management
after mapping these competencies; create a clear development program for the competencies
required from control room technicians: “Elk jaar cursussen op het vakgebied waar men
verantwoordelijk voor is. Voor iedereen sowieso enkele basiscursussen, zoals
stoomketeloperator, brandmeldinstallatie. Ook de protocollen kennen van alles, bijv lift/heli-
dek protocollen, of operatiekamer-luchtbehandelingskasten. Deze protocollen staan in DBS.
Er moet duidelijk zijn wat de basiscursussen zijn naast de opleiding. Er moet een duidelijke
structuur komen in opleidingsmethodiek. Basiskennis voor ketelhuis is bijvoorbeeld cursus
Keteloperator.”
Concerning the relations between the three functions, the control room technician and
locally deployed technician are said to be the most interconnected:Regiekamertechnicus en
technisch medewerker hebben de belangrijkste relatie: technisch medewerker ziet wat op de
werkvloer gebeurd en regiekamertechnicus wat in de installatie gebeurd. Zij zijn samen de
ogen en de oren op de werkvloer.” However, the difference in output expectations is striking:
Verder is het verschil wel groot, de regiekamertechnici zijn de machinisten en de technisch
medewerkers zijn de butlers. One respondent accurately described the parting line in
responsibilities between these two functions is anything related to installations: “Zodra het
installaties betreft moet de RKT erbij betrokken worden of als een opdracht teveel tijd kost.
Zij[technisch medewerker] moeten aandacht hebben voor alles wat in het zicht ligt en als hier
wat aan moet gebeuren moeten zij dat doen. Zodra het achter de muren verdwijnt, in de
technische ruimtes, dan moeten ze dat doorschakelen naar de regiekamer.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 44
5.1.2. Conclusion control room technician competencies
Comparing the knowledge requirements, the competency themes from documentation
and interviews are almost identical. A minority of themes are distinct between transcript
results and function profile, i.e. additional courses (RKT-A), trends & developments
discipline and protocols DBS [document administration system].
Concerning skills, the contrast between themes from the function profile and
interviews is more prominent. Certain commonly sought-after skills from the document were
not mentioned in the interviews, namely discipline, persuasiveness, patience and acuity. The
respondents on the other hand, were more elaborate in describing a variety of specific skills
not found in the function profile. Frequently mentioned themes are time management,
delegate/coordination skills, project skills and documentation skills.
Finally, behavior was not explicitly described in the internal documents, yet
respondents were asked specific questions on this topic. The data shows a multitude of
behavioral expectations. Frequent recurring themes are proactive, studious, stress resistant,
team spirit and customer-oriented behavior.
5.2. Function contract manager
The internal documentation provides a brief description of two goals for the contract
manager. The primary goal of this function concerns contracting, planning, and managing
activities for external contractors. A secondary aim is to plan and schedule the employees of
the maintenance department.
One respondent emphasized contract management: “Bewaken van de voortgang en de
inhoud van de contracten met externe partijen.Another argues that the contract manager is
an agent translating the hospital’s maintenance requests towards external contractors:”De
contractmanager is de intermediar tussen wensen MST en de zakelijke partners. Omdat we
Competencies outsourced maintenance 45
veel gebruik maken van externe partners, zijn er nogal wat contracten die geregeld moeten
worden. Dus de dagelijkse aansturing nu geschied met werkvoorbereiders, dat gaat zometeen
iets anders, door zogenaamde contractmanagers. Die de balans in de dagelijkse
werkvoorraad in combinatie met onze externe partners moeten zien te borgen.” The results
show agreement with the documentation on the goals for the contract manager. These two
tasks and corresponding responsibilities led the respondents to the competency themes found
in Table 5 below.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 46
Table 5: Competencies function contract manager
MST function profile
Results of interviews
MST Competency-index
Knowledge
Technical certificate (HBO)
Health care processes MST
Composition and function of all installations
Effect of installations on health care processes
Legal regulations concerning installations
Safety regulations & environmental legislation
Additional business courses
Knowledge
Contract management x8
Effect of installations on health care processes x6
Composition and function of all installations x5
Market conformity x4
Safety & Legal regulations installations x2
Technical certificate x2
No technical certificate x2
Business certificate (HBO)
Negotiation knowledge
Leidinggeven 1 (Besluitvaardigheid)
Leidinggeven 3 (Delegeren)
Leidinggeven 6 (Plannen & Organiseren)
Leidinggeven 7 (Voortgangscontrole)
Ondernemen 8 (Marktgerichtheid)
Ondernemen 9 (Netwerken)
Ondernemen 11 (Patiënt-/Klantgerichtheid)
Analyse & besluitvorming 13 (Creativiteit)
Analyse & besluitvorming 14 (Oordeelsvorming)
Analyse & besluitvorming 15 (Omgevingsbewustzijn)
Analyse & besluitvorming 16 (Organisatiesensitiviteit)
Analyse & besluitvorming 17 (Probleemanalyse)
Analyse & besluitvorming 18 (Visie)
Communicatie 19 (Inlevend Vermogen)
Communicatie 20 (Luisteren)
Communicatie 21 (Mondeling communiceren)
Communicatie 22 (Onderhandelen)
Communicatie 23 (Overtuigingskracht)
Communicatie 24 (Presentatie)
Skills & behavior
Independent
Analytical skills
Planning
Discipline
Written & oral communication
Persuasiveness
Acuity
Systematical
Accurate
Negotiation skills
Skills
Written & oral communication x9
Negotiation skills x6
Relations management x5
Perseverance x4
Thoroughness x3
Persuasiveness x3
Planning x2
Control external parties
Computer skills
Assessment skills
Organizational sensitivity
Systematical
Competencies outsourced maintenance 47
Perseverance
Patience
Documentation skills
Communicatie 25 (Samenwerken)
Communicatie 26 (Schriftelijk communiceren)
Communicatie 28 (Representativiteit)
Motivatie 29 (Ambitie)
Motivatie 30 (Discipline)
Motivatie 31 (Initiatief)
Motivatie 32 (Integriteit)
Motivatie 33 (Inzet)
Motivatie 34 (Leervermogen)
Motivatie 35 (Kwaliteitsgerichtheid)
Motivatie 36 (Resultaatgerichtheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 38 (Accuratesse)
Persoonlijk gedrag 39 (Assertiviteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 41 (Flexibiliteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 43 (Mentale weerbaarheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 45 (Organisatieloyaliteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 46 (Stressbestendigheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 47 (Vasthoudendheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 48 (Verantwoordelijkheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 49 (Zelfstandigheid)
Behavior
Stress resistant x5
Positive attitude x2
Integrity x2
Driven
Studious
Collective responsibility
Professional attitude
Humor
Competencies outsourced maintenance 48
5.2.1. Descriptive quotes contract manager
The need for good planning skills combined with knowledge of installations and their
impact on healthcare processes is made clear in this example: “Niet dat je hoogzomer de
koeltorens gaat onderhouden of in de winter het ketelhuis. Daarmee zou je de boel ontregelen
en belangrijke processen in het ziekenhuis platleggen.”
Another respondent provides an example of why basic knowledge of installations
combined with communication skills is required: “Als je kijkt naar operatiekamers, zo zijn er
meer belangrijke ruimtes binnen een ziekenhuis. Dan moet de contractmanager weten wil je
daar de luchtbehandeling regelen, dat het aan een aantal elektrotechnische en
werktuigbouwkundige systemen vast zit waar ook een besturingssysteem op zit. Hij hoeft dit
systeem niet te kunnen gebruiken, maar moet wel goed weten dat als er een koelwater
probleem is de operatiekamer buiten werking is. En dat op het moment dat er onderhoud
gedaan moet worden, dat dit gevolgen heeft voor gebruikers. Hij moet weten dat op het
moment dat er werkzaamheden gepland zijn en dat heeft consequenties voor bijvoorbeeld
hygiënische randvoorwaarden van een afdeling, dat daar mee gecommuniceerd wordt.”
Additionaly, their overall installation knowledge has to be broad but not exceptionally
deep:“Ik denk dat ze niet zo diep hoeven, dat is de taak van de regiekamertechnicus en
maintenance engineer. Ze moeten wel een basiskennis hebben, maar verder meer op de
contracten zitten.”
A number of respondents describe the need for the contract manager to know market
conformity and develop relations to act as a mediator between different stakeholders: Moet op
de hoogte zijn van marktconformiteit. Moet een speler zijn die mensen kan binden, partijen
kan binden. Maar die ook draagvlak kan krijgen van het werk van MST voor een externe
partij, maar ook wat een externe partij doet binnen het MST. Communication skills are
important due to the diversity in negotiating partners: “Hij moet op verschillende niveaus
Competencies outsourced maintenance 49
kunnen communiceren, met zowel teamhoofd, arts en monteur kunnen praten om tot de juiste
contracten en afspraken te komen.”
In addition, one respondent mentions the need to remain persistant: In tegenstelling
tot een huismeester[technisch medewerker], dat moeten teddyberen zijn, moet de
contractmanager niet anders worden als hij een boos iemand tegenover zich heeft en
vasthouden aan zijn gewenste contract afspraken.”
Another respondent argued that the contract manager should be more focused on
contracts and less on supervision: “Veel meer in de contracten zitten en kennis van de
contracten hebben. Ze gaan nu nog veel te veel het huis in om met contractanten mee te lopen
en dat moet minder zometeen, dat zou de regiekamer moeten doen.”
5.2.2. Conclusion contract manager competencies
Comparing the knowledge requirements, the competency themes from documentation
and interviews show some differences. Major themes only found in the transcript results are
contract management and market conformity. In addition, the interview results indicate
ambiguity on whether the contract manager requires a technical certificate.
Concerning skills, the similarities between themes from the function profile and
interviews are more prominent. Still, the respondents agreed on the importance of two themes
not found in the documentation, i.e. relations management and thoroughness. In conformity
with results for the control room technician, the function profile describes commonly sought-
after skills which respondents did not explicitly mention, i.e. independent, analytical,
discipline, accurate, patience and acuity.
Finally, behavior was not explicitly described in the internal documents, yet
respondents were asked specific questions on this topic. The interview results show a
diversity of behavioral expectations. Frequent recurring theme was stress resistant behavior.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 50
5.3. Function locally deployed technician
According to the function description the goal is threefold. First, the local technician
exists to support the user through solving disruptions and execution of minor adjustments of
the building, installations and machinery. In addition, he or she performs inspections and
surveys the assigned building section. Finally, the technician provides support and supervises
external contractors that are working in his/her section of the hospital.
One respondent described the role of locally deployed technician as the lubricating oil
in service of other hospital departments: “smeerolie voor de afdelingen; wij zetten een aantal
technici lokaal in. Die zijn direct benaderbaar en dichtbij de daadwerkelijke gebruiker, op het
moment dat deze technische problemen ervaart dan kan die technisch medewerker direct
benaderen en die hem dan direct helpt met het oplossen van het probleem.” Another stresses
their role as technical observer in the field: “Ze zijn de ogen en oren in het veld en moeten dus
aandacht hebben voor wat er in de ruimtes technisch niet helemaal goed is en dat of zelf
oppakken of zorgen dat het gebeurd.” Multiple respondents describe that this locally deployed
technician is expected to be multi-skilled: Het moet een handige harry zijn. Eigenlijk ben je
timmerman, elektricien en loodgieter en is hij dus allround.”
Based on these three tasks and corresponding responsibilities, the respondents mentioned
competency themes found in Table 6 below.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 51
Table 6: Competencies function locally deployed technician
MST function profile
Results of interviews
MST Competency-Index
Knowledge
Practical technical knowhow
Health care processes MST
Effect of installations on health care processes
Specific knowledge assigned building areas
Knowledge
Broad basic technical knowhow x9
Health care processes MST x4
Service provision of Facilitair Bedrijf x4
No technical knowledge x2
Specific knowledge assigned building areas x2
Leidinggeven 6 (Plannen & Organiseren)
Ondernemen 11 (Patiënt-/Klantgerichtheid)
Analyse & besluitvorming 13 (Creativiteit)
Analyse & besluitvorming 16 (Organisatiesensitiviteit)
Communicatie 19 (Inlevend Vermogen)
Communicatie 20 (Luisteren)
Communicatie 21 (Mondeling communiceren)
Communicatie 24 (Presentatie)
Communicatie 25 (Samenwerken)
Communicatie 28 (Representativiteit)
Motivatie 30 (Discipline)
Motivatie 32 (Integriteit)
Motivatie 33 (Inzet)
Motivatie 34 (Leervermogen)
Motivatie 35 (Kwaliteitsgerichtheid)
Motivatie 36 (Resultaatgerichtheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 37 (Aanpassingsvermogen)
Persoonlijk gedrag 39 (Assertiviteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 41 (Flexibiliteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 42 (Fysieke belastbaarheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 43 (Mentale weerbaarheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 45 (Organisatieloyaliteit)
Skills
Independent
Solution driven
Discipline
Customer-oriented
Oral communication
Mobility
Quality-oriented
Acuity
Perseverance
Patience
Skills
Oral communication x10
Customer-oriented x7
Resourcefulness x6
Independent x4
Systematical x4
Solution driven x2
Mobility x2
Quality-oriented
Analytical skills
Behavior
Positive attitude x6
Professional attitude x5
Patient-oriented x4
Empathic 3x
Proactive x2
Competencies outsourced maintenance 52
Flexible x2
Stress resistant
Persoonlijk gedrag 46 (Stressbestendigheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 48 (Verantwoordelijkheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 49 (Zelfstandigheid)
Competencies outsourced maintenance 53
5.3.1. Descriptive quotes locally deployed technician
Some respondents say this function requires a jack-off-all-trades with little to no
technical schooling: “Het is nu van simpel monodisciplinair, naar simpel multidisciplinair.
Beste definitie van de technisch medewerker als het om vakinhoud gaat: “Wat hij thuis kan,
kan hij hier ook.” Other respondents argue that technical knowledge is important for this
function: “Technische opleiding; tot MTS-niveau. Basiskennis van gebouw en techniek in
gebouw. Technisch medewerker moet toch wel MBO-niveau zijn. Goed technisch onderlegt,
maar niet op universitair niveau.One respondent strongly disagrees with stripping away
technical tasks and concludes that if this would be the case, the function should be changed to
that of janitor: “Maar als je die jongens een mopkar geeft, dan kan je ze beter concierge
maken.” Another respondent shared their concern about the impact of this decision on career
opportunities and internalizing firm-specific knowledge: “Doorgroei wordt wel lastig, omdat
de huismeester[technisch medewerker] deels wordt uitgekleed en niet mag sleutelen aan
installaties, belangrijk wel zorg te dragen voor goede doorstroom. Hoe doen ze dan nog
benodigde kennis op?”
The locally deployed technicians come from various disciplines (e.g. carpenter and
gardener) which currently leads too distinct differences in output and expectations: “En de
verschillende kennisniveaus, waardoor verschillende verwachtingen worden gewekt bij de
verschillende gebouwdelen. Dan gaat de klant denken: ‘Ja de vorige TM loste alles op en
deze TM die constateert alleen wat ik zelf al doe, dat kan ik dan ook wel’. De mensen die er
nu zitten hebben niet de juiste opleiding, als je een timmerman en tuinman daar plaatst is het
niet goed – moet een MBO-er opzitten. De technisch medewerker moet zelf ook initiatief
tonen, niet alleen afwachten tot iemand een storing meldt.”
Another respondent argues that the absence of a clear framework of responsibilities
combined with the diversity in expertise makes it hard to expect standardized output: “De
Competencies outsourced maintenance 54
proef loopt heel anders dan ze in eerste instantie bedoelden. Er zijn geen kaders aangegeven
en ze hebben er een timmerman neergezet maar ook iemand die regeltechnisch heel erg goed
onderlegt is. Als er temperatuur klachten zijn dan loopt de timmerman naar de ruimte en zegt:
“Ja dat klopt”. Terwijl de regeltechnicus die gaat alles bijregelen, haalt meters op en stelt de
temperaturen en regeltechniek zelf bij. Zo trekt de ene direct aan de bel bij de regiekamer en
de ander loopt vrolijk zelf in de installatie te klussen. Dat lijkt me niet de bedoeling.”
The merit of keeping this function in-house to retain specific behavior and skills
required within this hospital is often mentioned: eerstelijnsopvang, dan hebben we het veelal
over simpel werk – een lampje indraaien, rammelende deurklink, helpen een bureau te
versjouwen. Daarvan hebben we gezegd dat moeten mensen van het ziekenhuis zijn, niet
omdat dit enorm rendabel is of complex, maar dat vraagt gevoel met het ziekenhuis en de
patiënt. Een leverancier heeft hier ook niet veel toegevoegde waarde, want het indraaien van
een lamp is niet kennis intensief of kapitaal intensief. Je kunt daarmee wel heel dichtbij de
zorg veel aandacht geven, het zijn de ambassadeurs van de technische dienst.”
One respondent provides a comical example why firm-specific knowledge is needed to
operate in assigned building areas: “Een technisch medewerker op radiologie moet op de
hoogte zijn van speciale voorschriften; dat hij niet met zijn gereedschapskist even de MRI
binnenwandelt. Doet hij dat wel dan is hij die kist snel kwijt en een onderhoudsklus rijker.”
Multiple respondents argue that due to the flexible and undocumented nature of the
function, a systematic approach is essential: “Goed georganiseerd kunnen werken, zit een
grote uitdaging in dat niets geregistreerd wordt wat de technisch medewerker gaat doen. Ik
weet niet hoe dat zou moeten, er wordt nu niets geregistreerd, maar als een technisch
medewerker op vakantie gaat of ziek wordt moeten ze onderling wel iets bedenken waardoor
Competencies outsourced maintenance 55
ze van elkaar op de hoogte zijn waar ze mee bezig zijn. Dat is moeilijk omdat er niets wordt
geregistreerd, terwijl we daar wel een mooi systeem voor hebben.”
Empathic and patient-oriented behavior is often mentioned, locally deployed
technician works in many different environments: “aan de ene kant heb je de verloskamers
daar is iedereen vrolijk want hier worden kinderen geboren en aan de andere kant hebben ze
de oncologie waar mensen doodziek zijn, daar moet je je wel kunnen inleven.” Another
respondent emphasizes this patient- & customer-oriented behavior: “Hij moet ook prettig in
de omgang zijn. Er loopt nu een technisch medewerker rond en dat is net een knuffelbeer,
iedereen vindt hem altijd aardig en dat is wat je zoekt. In zo’n ambassadeursrol heb je dat wel
nodig.”
5.3.2. Conclusion locally deployed technician competencies
Comparing the knowledge requirements, the competency themes from documentation
and interviews show some discord. One major theme frequently mentioned by respondents is
knowledge of all service provision by Facilitair Bedrijf. This is the business unit the
maintenance division is a part of and which provides several supportive services for the other
hospital departments. Additionally, the interview results indicate ambiguity on whether the
locally deployed technician requires any technical knowledge.
Concerning skills, the similarities between themes from the function profile and
interviews is apparent. Still, the respondents agreed on the importance of two themes not
found in the documentation, i.e. resourcefulness and systematical. In harmony with the other
functions, the internal profile describe generically sought-after skills left unmentioned by
respondents, such as discipline, perseverance, acuity and patience.
Finally, behavior was not explicitly described in the internal documents, yet
respondents were asked specific questions on this topic. The interview results show a
Competencies outsourced maintenance 56
diversity of behavioral expectations. Frequent and notable recurring themes were a positive &
professional attitude and patient-oriented behavior.
5.4. General and supervision competencies
Across the three function profiles found in the documentation, some competency
themes are recurring for all functions. The internal documentation did not provide separate
information on supervision competencies. Although it is understandable that the department
makes no distinction in their job descriptions, this research emphasizes the merit of managing
external contractors properly.
A respondent describes this general need for supervision: “In verleden kon een firma
binnenlopen via hoofdingang, bezig gaan en vertrekken en dan wisten we pas dat ze bezig
waren geweest toen de factuur op de mat viel.” Another respondent formulated the
supervisory task in a nutshell: “Zorgen dat de juiste bedrijven met juiste mensen voor de
juiste taken met de juiste bevoegdheden binnenkomen om de werkzaamheden uit te komen
voeren en daar moeten wij op bewaken.” The oursourced maintenance is mainly of preventive
and specialistic nature; “In hoofdlijn de bulk van de planbare sleutelwerkzaamheden,
complexe/specialistische 2e lijnstoringen. Dan bedoel ik daar waar speciaal gereedschap of
certificaten nodig zijn.”Other respondents acknowledge that almost all maintenance is done
externally:Eigenlijk al het sleutelwerk. Alles waar gereedschap voor nodig is, zowel
preventief en steeds meer correctief.” In contrast, this respondent mentions that it is important
to not outsource everything: “Alles wat in communicatieve zin nodig is om de techniek in het
gebouw te laten werken. Organisatie sensibiliteit, communicatie zin en technische
achtergrond, begrijpen van de systemen en de juiste techneut vinden die het probleem kan
oplossen blijft belangrijk om intern the houden.”
Competencies outsourced maintenance 57
The internally described general competencies and the suggested general and supervision
competency themes mentioned by respondents are shown in Table 7.
Table 7: General and supervision competencies
MST function profile
General competencies
Results of interviews
General competencies
Results of interviews
Supervision competencies
Knowledge
Health care processes MST
Effect of installations on health
care processes
Knowledge
Broad basic technical
knowhow 4x
Health care processes
MST 2x
Knowledge
Deep understanding installations
x5
Contract contents x4
Safety regulations x2
Health care processes MST
Effect of installations on health
care processes
Skills
Independent
Discipline
Oral communication
Perseverance
Acuity
Patience
Skills
Written & oral
communication x5
Customer-oriented x4
Patient-oriented x4
Patient safety
Organizational sensibility
Independence
Relation management
Discipline
Solution driven
Mobility
Documentation
Decisiveness
Skills
Delegate and coordination skills
x3
Negotiation skills x3
Communication x2
Documentation x2
Organizational sensibility
Project skills
Behavior
Team spirit x5
Positive attitude x3
Professional attitude
Passion
Studious
Winner mentality
Stress resistant
Collective responsibility
Emphatic
Behavior
Integrity x4
Professional attitude
Solution driven
Stress resistant
Competencies outsourced maintenance 58
5.4.1. Descriptive quotes general and supervision competencies
A broad basic level of technical knowhow is expected of all employees within the
department, and the data suggests respondents tend to agree on this: “Ik vind dat elke functie
dezelfde basis moet hebben hier, dat iedereen gewoon communicatief fatsoenlijk is zowel
schriftelijk en mondeling. Daarnaast ook een bepaalde basiskennis techniek, dat vind ik wel
belangrijk. We zijn toch een TD[Technische dienst], daar moet je geen ongeschoolde baker
neerzetten.”
Furthermore, basic understanding on how healthcare processes are organized and are
impacted by maintenance is suggested to be mandatory for the complete workforce. One
example greatly emphasizes this understanding: “Kijk, een lift in de patiëntenhal is heel
belangrijk voor de patiënt, maar als die lift stil staat wordt een patiënt niet bezocht door
familie. Op het moment dat lift van de traumahelikopter stil staat betekent dat een ernstig
zieke patiënt misschien niet naar de operatiekamer kan en kan sterven, dus zo’n lift heeft een
heel andere impact. Dat moet hij weten en daar moet hij de communicatie op aanpassen. Dus
communicatieve vaardigheden is een andere die belangrijk is.”
Multiple respondents illustrate the importance of a patient-oriented approach by the
whole workforce: “Iemand die met technische storing bezig is, maar ziet dat een patient zijn
weg niet kan vinden zal dan toch even met die patient in contact moeten om hem verder te
helpen.”“Er liggen hier even plat gezegd 800 doodzieke mensen in het ziekenhuis. Die zijn
voor een deel van hun gezondheid afhankelijk van de techniek en die verantwoordelijkheid
neem je op je schouders zodra je hier de poort binnen loopt.”
Concerning supervision, some respondents argue that perseverance is
crucial:“Belangrijke competentie is nog dat je laat merken dat je de baas bent over de externe
en niet andersom. De buitenfirma beslist niet.”
Competencies outsourced maintenance 59
Another respondent formulated the general attitude required from the total workforce
as follows: “het pro-actief benaderen van de techniek, zodat tendensen worden
vastgelegd/gemonitord en daar zoveel mogelijk storingen preventief in worden opgepakt.”
A pro-active approach to prevent as many disturbances as possible through documentation
and monitoring, seems to be seen as the desired behavior of the employees.
Supervision requires four steps to be effective, namely specification, planning,
inspection and control of externally performed maintenance tasks. According to multiple
respondents the control room technician is responsible for specification and control on the
performed maintenance. The contract manager shares responsibility for specification, but is
also in charge of planning and process control:”Specificeren is rol regiekamertechnicus samen
met contract manager en wellicht maintenance engineer. Plannen: rol maintenance engineer
en contract manager. Controleren: vakinhoudelijk regiekamertechnicus en procesmatig de
contract manager.” The control room technician is also responsible for the safety, inspection
and verification of the external contractor during activities. “Regiekamertechnicus vangt de
externe op, zet ze aan het werk en schakelt vrij. Zorgt dat ze veilig kunnen werken en dit goed
uitvoeren. Regiekamertechnici zijn verantwoordelijk voor uitgevoerde werk en contract
manager voor plannen.” Regiekamer heeft belangrijke taak in wat er die dag gebeurd;
bewaken van de veiligheid en het signaleren en acteren bij calamiteiten.” This division of
responsibilities is confirmed by an external contractor: “Regiekamertechnicus komt met
probleem en een storing, vraagt of wij[externe partij] het op kunnen lossen en wat het gaat
kosten. Hiermee gaan ze naar de contract manager, na goedkeuring krijgen wij een
werkorder van contract manager. Naderhand melden wij ons bij de regiekamertechnici en die
zou ons dan moeten controleren. “
The actual inspection of external contractors during or after activities is stated to be
lackluster: “Controle op installateurs/aannemers moet beter en steviger door
Competencies outsourced maintenance 60
regiekamertechnici. Moet meer controlerende taak komen op externe firma’s of ze goed,
veilig en netjes werken. Bijvoorbeeld regiekamertechnicus moet in ieder geval 1x een firma
controleren tijdens zijn dienst tijdens de werkzaamheden. Of de installatie-verantwoordelijke
doet dat.” In addition, critical assessment of the performed activities is mentioned to be
insufficient: “Goed begeleiden van externen en rapportages ter kennis nemen, niet
blindelings geloven maar ook zelf nadenken. Uit de rapportages ook echt punten oppakken
die van belang zijn voor de installaties.” Some respondents are confused which control room
technician has final responsibility: Wie is verantwoordelijk voor het veiligstellen, uitvoer
controleren en oplevering beoordelen door externen? Is dat de regiekamertechnicus van die
dag of de opdrachtgever van de werkzaamheden?Finally, one locally deployed technician
was unsure about his responsibilities towards external contractors: “Begeleiden wat er moet
gebeuren en zorgen dat ze veilig terecht kunnen. Ik voel me wel verantwoordelijk, maar weet
niet of dat echt zo is.
5.4.2. Conclusion general and supervision competencies
The results in this section originate from the necessity to develop an exhaustive
overview of competencies. Respondents had the opportunity to specifically mention
competency themes that might have been overlooked per function.
Comparing the knowledge requirements, the previously described competency themes
per function show many similarities with those mentioned in Table 7. One noticeable
supervision knowledge theme is contract contents. Employees involved with an external
contractor ought to know the specific purpose and contents of that contract to supervise
correctly.
Concerning skills, the previously mentioned themes and the general competency
results are comparable – no new themes were discovered. The same conclusion can be drawn
Competencies outsourced maintenance 61
for supervision competencies, the data emphasizes the merit of recurring themes, i.e.
delegation and coordination, documentation, communication and negotiation skills.
Finally, themes on behavior comprise a variety of competencies also found in the
preceding function results, frequently mentioned are team spirit, integrity and positive
attitude.
In summary, no notable divergence from previously mentioned competencies is
discovered. Still, the respondents provided a wealth of examples and contextual information
based on the questions regarding general and supervision competencies.
5.5. Results external interviews
In addition to the interviews with employees of the maintenance department, external
interviews were also conducted to explore other relevant insights. Quotes that provide context
for the described competencies themes or identify dilemmas are mentioned.
5.5.1. Descriptive quotes project leader MST
The technical expertise among control room technicians play a vital role for projects:
“Daar zitten voor mij de resources die ik nodig heb om een project goed uit te voeren, in mijn
eentje kan ik dat meestal niet. Ik heb altijd installatieverantwoordelijke nodig, zij hebben de
technische detail kennis. Ik heb wel globale kennis van W, E & B [Werktuigbouw, Elektra &
Bouwkunde], maar zij gaan de diepte in.”
The desired educational level for project participation is above MBO4, preferably
HBO with deep installation knowledge and project skills: “Minimaal MBO+/HBO niveau,
maar het liefst HBOers die verstand hebben van de installaties, weten hoe je in projecten
functioneert. Nou, dan mag ik ook wel zeggen op sommige gebieden MBO+ niveau, maar het
liefst denk- en werkniveau van Hbo’er.””
Competencies outsourced maintenance 62
The control room technician is expected to have good communication and analytical
skills combined with stress resistance and strong adaptability: “Snel kunnen schakelen,
absoluut stressbestendig zijn. Goed verbaal vermogen om uit te leggen wat de problematiek is
en kunnen omgaan met situaties waar je het misschien niet mee eens bent maar waarbij je je
verbaal op een goede manier kunt uitdrukken. Niet dat we als schreeuwlelijkerds tekeer gaan.
Een zekere mate van analytisch vermogen, om de overview te hebben van een
project/probleem. Van hen wordt ook verwacht dat ze op een bepaalde manier zich kunnen
vertonen en communiceren met teamhoofden en externe partijen/aannemers.”
A pro-active and professional attitude is also required from the control room
technicians that participate in projects: “Professionele houding, mja is een beetje lastig. Ik
verwacht inzet en enthousiasme, niet dat achterover gezakte ‘Oh, moet ik weer aanschuiven?’
en dat mensen zich van te voren inlezen en voorbereiden. Ik zeg wel eens "Ik ben Moeder
Teresa niet voor jullie, als ik een vergadering heb verwacht ik een stuk eigen initiatief”. Dat
ze zelf in staat zijn in hun agenda tijd vrij te maken om zich voor te bereiden en goed beslagen
ten ijs te komen.”
The project leader argues that few control room technicians currently fit these
requirements and suggests the department is responsible for improving the competencies
among multiple employees to increase overall project participation and reduce individual
workload: “Er lopen een aantal mensen rond die van de hoed en de rand weten, die zet ik dus
constant in op projecten. En dat vind ik erg lastig, gezien de kleine groep mensen waar ik uit
put. Het zijn altijd dezelfde, ik heb 2 RKTers, 1 Me’r en nu een externe voor de luchtzijdige
kant. Ik vind ook dat we iedereen een kans moeten gunnen, maar ik verwacht direct het niveau
wat ik zoek; ik ga ze niet opleiden. Ik verwacht als ik resources afneem van de afdeling, dat ze
geschikt zijn om in projecten mee te draaien. Dat mag ik verlangen van Gebouwbeheer, maar
dan wordt de spoeling dun. “
Competencies outsourced maintenance 63
5.5.2. Descriptive quotes HR advisor MST
Firm-specific knowledge is one of the reasons to keep the control room technician as
in internal function: “Doel van regiekamertechnicus begint bij wens om zo min mogelijk
onderhoud zelf te doen, maar wel de kritische kennis in huis hebben. Op deze manier de
controle hebben op de externe partijen en ze veilig kunnen laten werken.”
The contract manager is the linking pin to fit internal requirements with the right
external contracts: “Doel om onderhoud zoveel mogelijk bij de goede partijen buiten de deur
te zetten en die contracten beheren, ook spiegelen aan marktconformiteit en kritisch zijn of het
de juiste contracten zijn. Belangrijk onderdeel ook stukje planning en roostering.
Belangrijkste is juiste contractafspraken met leveranciers.”
Locally deployed technicians are essentially there to make the maintenance
department accessible for internal clients: “Doel om toegankelijker te zijn voor de klant om
kleine dingetjes door te geven; eerder ging dat via FSM en dan naar Gebouwbeheer en dan
pas naar een medewerker.
Career opportunities should be possible between functions locally deployed technician
and control room technician to retain firm-specific knowledge and skills: “Doel van het plan
is wel een stukje doorstroom, dat technisch medewerker naar regiekamertechnicus B kan
groeien en deze functie naar regiekamertechnicus A.Echter is een vacature voor
regiekamertechnicus A uitzetten ook geen probleem, maar de mogelijkheid om door te kunnen
stromen en te ontwikkelen is wel belangrijk met het oog op interne expertise en
vaardigheden.”
The goal of the general competency-index is explained, it is developed to facilitate
performance evaluation on measurable competencies: “Op basis van inhoudelijk meetbaar
Competencies outsourced maintenance 64
maken van prestatie-indicatoren en zichtbaar gedrag met de competenties [Competentie-
index MST], dit gedrag zou je kunnen toetsen met 360 graden feedback formulieren.
Beoordeling moet gaan om waar je kunt ontwikkelen, los van waar je staat. Heeft een
competentie meerdere lagen en zijn er verschillen in.
5.5.3. Descriptive quotes business manager Enexis
An external interview was held at a firm responsible for large parts of the Dutch
energy grid. The interviewee was responsible for managing maintenance and ensuring uptime
of this network. Due to the many similarities with the function control room technician, this
interview was conducted. Therefore, these quotes should be read in relation to the control
room technician.
The significance of both having deep knowledge of the network and being able to
estimate the impact of decisions on other parts of the network is crucial: Je moet weten dat als
je ergens een vermogen instuurt wat er in het net gebeurd, dat je er een kortsluit-vermogen
doorheen kan jassen of een vermogen ergens heen stuurt wat niet kwijt kan. Goede
elektrotechnische kennis is dan belangrijk. Je moet met onze systemen en software, dat je weet
wat je doet. Je moet ook overzicht kunnen houden, want soms leidt 1 trafo tot meerdere
segmenten. In groningen zit bijvoorbeeld een net heel lastig in elkaar. Dit is verdeeld over
vier bladen en dan ook nog over vier hoofdstations, dus je moet echt goed weten tijdens een
storing wat de impact van je keuzes is op het hele net.”
Accruing firm-specific skills and knowledge is important and achieved through
learning on the job: “Om kunnen gaan met het bedrijfsvoeringssysteem, dit omvat complexe
software en protocollen die je niet in de schoolbanken leert. En learning on the job, dat wil
zeggen monteurs die je aan de telefoon krijgt, hoe je die fatsoenlijk moet benaderen, hoe je de
juiste kanalen gebruikt. Taalgebruik, we spreken bepaalt vakjargon, dat moet je dan leren.”
Competencies outsourced maintenance 65
Behavorial traits such as stress resistance, patience and coordination skills in case of
calamaties are emphasized:Stressbestendig. Kalmte is wel een waardevol iets, je moet echt
proberen het overzicht te houden, rustig zijn en goed nadenken wat de gevolgen zijn van je
handelen tijdens een storing. Niet blindelings iets gaan doen, een stapje terug en eventueel
een kop koffie erbij als het een grote storing is. Wat ga je doen? Wat is het plan? Dus ook
communicatieve vaardigheden, want je moet ook mensen in het veld aansturen. De
uitvoerders daar zijn namelijk de ogen in het veld, dat kunnen wij hier niet zien.”
To detect discrepancies in existing and required competencies, Enexis plans to
implement simulations of calamities or disturbances to provide feedback for their employees:
“Om de competenties te waarborgen zijn we bezig met een simulatie waarbij het energienet
kan worden nagebootst. Dan leg je iemand een dilemma voor en aan de hand daarvan ga je
dan een storingskaart behandelen. Hiermee kan de kennis dan getest en opgeschroefd worden
en krijgt de medewerker feedback.”
Although evaluating employee performance on the required competency levels is
desirable it is difficult to make these measurable, nevertheless a group feedback method is
suggested: “Het is heel moeilijk meetbaar hoe je die competenties beoordeeld. Nieuwe
systematiek die we nu toepassen is het beoordelen van elkaar. Soort 360 graden feedback,
daar moet de manager dan een stapje in terug doen alle informatie vergaren van collega’s,
een beeld vormen en in gesprek gaan met de persoon die het aangaat. Aan de hand daarvan
kan er dan een beoordeling uitrollen.”
Competencies outsourced maintenance 66
6. Discussion of results
“De beste technische dienst zit de hele dag te klaverjassen.” - This quote perfectly
describes the highest attainable goal for any maintenance department. The ideal world
wherein all maintenance work is rendered superfluous, will be hard if not impossible to
achieve in reality. Coming as close as possible to this ambitious maintenance setting is
something to aspire to and the following discussion facilitates this. In addition to competency
themes, the interviews also accrued to a rich narrative of bottlenecks and dilemmas for the
department Gebouwbeheer (see the descriptive quotes in the results section). These issues will
be explored in order of importance, based on both the theoretical findings and predominance
in the results.
6.1. Undeveloped and absent competencies
Although the objective of this study was not to identify discrepancies between the
required and actual competency levels, it was theorized that the knowledge, skills and
behavior of the human capital pool strongly affect effectiveness of the maintenance
department. This theory is supported in practice by a majority of the respondents who shared
their concerns on this issue within the Dutch hospital. Almost all respondents acknowledged
that they or their colleagues were lacking knowledge, skills or behavioral traits on some level
to perform their new functions properly. This was the case in particular for control room
technicians, who previously were just technicians and currently have more responsibilities
that strongly deviate from their prior work.
The results indicate a lack of both deep and broad hospital-specific knowledge on
installations among control room technicians. Providing an exhaustive list is beyond the scope
of this research, but other competencies frequently mentioned as absent or undeveloped are
time management, project skills, written communication, computer/office skills and
Competencies outsourced maintenance 67
delegate/coordination skills. Some of these competencies can be developed through
experience or internal guidance within the hospital, e.g. knowledge about healthcare processes
MST, documentation skills and team spirit behavior. Other missing knowledge or skills might
require courses and training from outside the hospital, e.g. specialized knowledge of
installations, time management skills or negotiation skills.
In summary, provided that the maintenance department wants their workforce to
function as effectively as possible, it is imperative to take stock of current competency levels
and develop a clear and concise road map towards the desired levels.
6.2. Self-management issues control room technicians
Aside from the discrepancy between existing and desired competency levels,
management also expects a fundamental shift in responsibility for control room technicians.
Theoretical findings suggest behavior that contributes towards the department’s goals is
important to increase effectiveness and this resonates with the interview data.
The majority of employees in the function control room technician, used to be
technicians exclusively maintaining machinery within their area of expertise. The new
function requires independence and self-management from the group, yet many respondents
wonder if there is a good fit between these requirements and the current pool of control room
technicians. Due to the desired autonomous group behavior, multiple respondents recommend
an educational level above MBO4 with an inclination towards technical HBO levels.
In addition, in case of disruptions or calamities the control room technicians tend to
lapse into their old fix-it roles instead of delegating and coordinating others. There is also
negative feedback on the general behavior of certain control room technicians, among other
things this concerns the indifference to improve or learn and lack of discipline
Competencies outsourced maintenance 68
To summarize, the control room technicians as a group need to grow in their self-
managing role. Developing this autonomy and other behavioral traits needs to be stimulated
by management through training or group sessions.
6.3. Ambiguity deployment local technician
Although both internal customers of the department and the locally deployed
technicians themselves consider the pilot successful, there is discord concerning knowledge
and skill requirements. When asked what management expects from the locally deployed
technician, it is stated that they are considered light on technical expectations. However, it is
also suggested by management that firm-specific skills, behavior and knowledge are
important and the main arguments for keeping this function in-house. Other respondents argue
technical certificates should be a requirement, to help standardize the function and also
facilitate career flow.
Secondly, the locally deployed technicians come from diverse disciplines (e.g.
carpenter and gardener), which leads too variations in output and unclear levels of expectation
for customers. A framework with clear guidelines should be created, dependent on the final
function profile, within which locally deployed technicians have the liberty to create own
solutions. Anything outside this framework should be passed on to other functions
responsible, e.g. the control room technician.
Finally, knowledge from all services provided by Facilitair Beheer was a frequent
suggestion for this function. Since the locally deployed technician can be approached with
requests by customers, being able to point them towards the correct service improves the
customer-oriented behavior. If the decision to keep this function shallow in technical terms is
maintained, it could even be considered to adjust the function and directly employ personnel
as representatives for all services from Facilitair Beheer.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 69
In summary, the function locally deployed technician is highly ambiguous in its
current form. A consensus is required on the function profile and their responsibilities should
be demarcated, while also pursuing a standardized level of service provision.
6.4. Relations between functions
The ambiguity of the function locally deployed technician has been discussed, but this
also affects the relationship between them and the function control room technician. This
relationship is stated to be the most important among the three new functions and the
difference in output expectations is vast. The dividing line where the locally deployed
technician should resort to the expertise of the control room technician is obvious in theory,
anything installation-related or too time consuming is off-limits. On the other hand, some
respondents argue that the locally deployed technicians call upon the control room technicians
too quickly and should attempt solving problems more independently.
The contract manager and control room technician are mainly related through the
contracts with external suppliers. The main consensus is that control room technicians provide
specialized knowledge of their installations and approach the contract manager for external
work orders or planning related issues.
The respondents generally agree that the relation between locally deployed technician
and contract manager is limited to incidental work orders and communication regarding
external contractors performing maintenance in their specific building area.
To summarize, the majority of respondents state that the relations between control
room technician / contract manager and locally deployed technician / contract manager are
unambiguous and functional. In contrast, there is still disagreement on when and how often
locally deployed technicians pass on maintenance issues to control room technicians. It is
Competencies outsourced maintenance 70
recommended to develop standard guidelines for this segregation of tasks between the two
functions.
6.5. Supervision responsibilities
In the literature discussion it is suggested that properly detailed specifications, good
planning and supervision are key to effectively manage external parties that perform the
maintenance tasks. It is also stressed that to avoid potential loss of control over outsourced
maintenance, internal expertise, proper documentation and quality control are required. The
results reflect the relevance of these topics in practice. The department Gebouwbeheer has
divided the responsibilities clear-cut over the functions, yet there still exist some uncertainties
and issues according to the respondents.
The majority of respondents are in agreement that planning and creating detailed
specifications is done by the maintenance engineer and/or control room technician in
combination with contract manager. The control room technician is also responsible for the
safety, supervision and verification of the external contractor during maintenance activities.
Even though the fundamental division of responsibilities is sound, the execution has
room for improvement according to the respondents. For example, actually inspecting
external contractors during or after activities is stated to be lackluster. Additionally, proper
and regular assessment and documentation of executed maintenance activities is mentioned to
be absent. Some respondents are also confused which control room technician has final
responsibility for performed external maintenance. Finally, locally deployed technicians were
uncertain whether they had any responsibilities concerning external contractors.
To summarize, the division of responsibilities appears to be appropriate and clear.
Nevertheless, final responsibility should be standardized and control room technicians should
Competencies outsourced maintenance 71
be encouraged to execute their supervisory and documentation tasks more frequently and
assess the results more consistently.
6.6. Internal career opportunities
In the current organizational design there is little room for career development. It is
possible for a control room technician to grow from role B into A and become responsible for
installations, yet the current function profiles exclude career paths between locally deployed
technicians and control room technicians. In the discussed literature it is theorized that firm-
specific knowledge or skills (e.g. knowledge of healthcare processes MST or impact of
installations) are valuable and impossible to recruit from outside the hospital. Although results
from this study shows respondents agree with this theory, it is not taken into account
regarding career opportunities. It could be argued that these competencies should be
cultivated internally, since experience and time spent in the hospital are required to achieve
this. The current recruitment strategy does not facilitate this, because as discussed the locally
deployed technician is not required to have a strong technical background.
In summary, there is no potential for the function locally deployed technician to
develop themselves towards control room technician. This theoretically reduces the way in
which important firm-specific knowledge and skills can be developed and utilized, making it
even more important for control room technicians to cultivate these competencies. A lack of
critical skills and internal expertise to manage external contractors might lead to potential loss
of control as discussed in the literature review. Designing the functions this way is not an
incorrect or bad decision, yet the alternative should be considered.
6.7. Involvement internal clients
It was theorized that input from internal clients is important for the efficiency of the
maintenance department, and the respondents agree on this. These clients are defined as
Competencies outsourced maintenance 72
anyone that requires building maintenance, modifications or maintenance resources within the
hospital. There are aspirations to give clients a voice on qualitative aspects of contracts with
external parties and the deployment of local technicians has received a lot of positive
feedback from internal departments.
In summary, the maintenance department is strongly improving their customer
involvement with the new functions. Even so, there are opportunities to strengthen this
involvement of clients even further (e.g. involving internal clients in drafting contracts or
swifter communication from control room technicians concerning activities performed by
external parties) and these should be explored.
6.8. Applicability of competency-index MST
For each function the resulting competency themes are mapped or translated into the
definitions found in the competency-index provided by the hospital. This index describes
forty-nine skills and behavioral traits including instances of tangible behavior. For example,
the competency stress resistance has five instances of tangible behavior. One of these is
described as swift recovery after a disappointment and another is outlined as keeping
composure and responding calmly to rebukes.
Knowledge competency themes excluded, all other competencies can be mapped onto
this index to a certain degree. Although this complies with the request from the department,
the applicability is not without risks. Due to the general nature of the competency descriptions
and matching tangible behaviors, they do not thoroughly encompass or fit the specific
competencies required for the three functions. Therefore, it is insufficient to use these for
performance evaluation or recruitment purposes.
In summary, the competency-index provided by the hospital encompass the required
competencies in general. The problem lies within this generic nature, making it difficult to
Competencies outsourced maintenance 73
apply these in practice. If these competencies are to be used for recruitment or evaluation
purposes, it is recommended to specifically detail tangible behavior for the competency
themes per function.
6.9. Limitations and future research
There are certain limitations to this study that are important to discuss. First and
foremost, despite its merits a qualitative research approach also has certain drawbacks. It is a
subjective method that is difficult to replicate and researcher bias is a possibility. Specific
risks with in-depth interviews are that information is filtered through the views of
respondents, not all people are equally perceptive or articulate and the data may be difficult to
interpret. The nature of open-ended questions also increases risk for researcher bias, because
when respondents lack an answer or sufficient knowledge to reply the researcher can try and
explain the topic to receive feedback. Future research could take a more quantitative approach
or include cross-referencing themes from the results to reduce to risk for researcher bias.
Secondly, the sample size of fifteen respondents and the small sub-groups in particular
potentially reduce the completeness and saturation levels of the findings. Although it should
be mentioned that the sub-groups sample sizes were confined by eligibility of the employees.
Further research could include all employees of the maintenance department in a more
detailed study.
Thirdly, it is difficult if not impossible to generalize results from this study to other
settings, due to the uniqueness of the findings for the maintenance department in this case
study. Future research could try to carry out multiple case studies with similar conditions and
try to discover more generalizable competency themes.
The last limitation concerns the limited scope of the research. The goal of the study
was to create an overview of the required competencies for multiple functions within the
Competencies outsourced maintenance 74
maintenance department. It only marginally provides insight in the possible discrepancy
between existing competency levels and necessary levels. However, this study does not
develop an action plan to achieve or improve the required competencies. Future research
could be focused on discovering the current competency levels and develop a progressive
scheme to reach the required levels.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 75
7. Conclusion & recommendations
The main question of this study was: Which competencies are needed for the functions
control room technician, locally deployed technician and contract manager so that
Gebouwbeheer can manage outsourced maintenance effectively?
To answer this question a literature study was done to determine factors of importance for
effective management of outsourced maintenance within a hospital. These influencing factors
as described in the research model, are in random order:
requirements by internal hospital customers
management of the human capital pool, their knowledge, skills, abilities and specific
behavior
requirements from external maintenance contractors, supervising, controlling and
managing these contractors
the chosen maintenance techniques, scheduling & planning maintenance, maintenance
policies and design improvement
support systems, i.e. maintenance information systems, HR reward & recognition, HR
education & training, performance measurement and infrastructure management
Subsequently, research was done to uncover competencies for the three functions, this
involved analysis of internal MST documentation and semi-structured interviews with MST
employees and other individuals related to the maintenance department. The resulting
competencies for all three functions can be found below in Table 8.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 76
Table 8: Competency overview all three functions
Function locally deployed technician
Function contract manager
Function control room technician
Knowledge
Practical technical knowhow
Health care processes MST
Effect of installations on health care processes
Specific knowledge assigned building areas
Service provision of Facilitair Bedrijf
Knowledge
Technical certificate (HBO)
Health care processes MST
Composition and function of all installations
Effect of installations on health care processes
Legal regulations concerning installations
Safety regulations & environmental legislation
Contract management
Market conformity contracts
Additional business courses
Knowledge
Technical certificate (MBO4-5)
Health care processes MST
Composition and function of all installations
Effect of installations on health care processes
Legal regulations concerning installations
Safety regulations & environmental legislation
Deep understanding installations (RKT-A)
Additional courses (RKT-A)
Trends & developments field of expertise (RKT-A)
MST Competency-index
Leidinggeven 6 (Plannen & Organiseren)
Ondernemen 11 (Patiënt-/Klantgerichtheid)
Analyse & besluitvorming 13 (Creativiteit)
Analyse & besluitvorming 16
(Organisatiesensitiviteit)
Communicatie 19 (Inlevend Vermogen)
Communicatie 20 (Luisteren)
Communicatie 21 (Mondeling communiceren)
Communicatie 24 (Presentatie)
MST Competency-index
Leidinggeven 1 (Besluitvaardigheid)
Leidinggeven 3 (Delegeren)
Leidinggeven 6 (Plannen & Organiseren)
Leidinggeven 7 (Voortgangscontrole)
Ondernemen 8 (Marktgerichtheid)
Ondernemen 9 (Netwerken)
Ondernemen 11 (Patiënt-/Klantgerichtheid)
Analyse & besluitvorming 13 (Creativiteit)
Analyse & besluitvorming 14 (Oordeelsvorming)
Analyse & besluitvorming 15
(Omgevingsbewustzijn)
Analyse & besluitvorming 16
MST Competency-index
Leidinggeven 1 (Besluitvaardigheid)
Leidinggeven 3(Delegeren)
Leidinggeven 6 (Plannen & Organiseren)
Leidinggeven 7 (Voortgangscontrole)
Ondernemen 8 (Marktgerichtheid)
Ondernemen 9 (Netwerken)
Ondernemen 11 (Patiënt-/Klantgerichtheid)
Analyse & besluitvorming 12 (Conceptueel
Vermogen)
Analyse & besluitvorming 13 (Creativiteit)
Competencies outsourced maintenance 77
Communicatie 25 (Samenwerken)
Communicatie 28 (Representativiteit)
Motivatie 30 (Discipline)
Motivatie 32 (Integriteit)
Motivatie 33 (Inzet)
Motivatie 34 (Leervermogen)
Motivatie 35 (Kwaliteitsgerichtheid)
Motivatie 36 (Resultaatgerichtheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 37 (Aanpassingsvermogen)
Persoonlijk gedrag 39 (Assertiviteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 41 (Flexibiliteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 42 (Fysieke belastbaarheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 43 (Mentale weerbaarheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 45 (Organisatieloyaliteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 46 (Stressbestendigheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 48 (Verantwoordelijkheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 49 (Zelfstandigheid)
(Organisatiesensitiviteit)
Analyse & besluitvorming 17 (Probleemanalyse)
Analyse & besluitvorming 18 (Visie)
Communicatie 19 (Inlevend Vermogen)
Communicatie 20 (Luisteren)
Communicatie 21 (Mondeling communiceren)
Communicatie 22 (Onderhandelen)
Communicatie 23 (Overtuigingskracht)
Communicatie 24 (Presentatie)
Communicatie 25 (Samenwerken)
Communicatie 26 (Schriftelijk communiceren)
Communicatie 28 (Representativiteit)
Motivatie 29 (Ambitie)
Motivatie 30 (Discipline)
Motivatie 31 (Initiatief)
Motivatie 32 (Integriteit)
Motivatie 33 (Inzet)
Motivatie 34 (Leervermogen)
Motivatie 35 (Kwaliteitsgerichtheid)
Motivatie 36 (Resultaatgerichtheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 38 (Accuratesse)
Persoonlijk gedrag 39 (Assertiviteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 41 (Flexibiliteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 43 (Mentale weerbaarheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 45 (Organisatieloyaliteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 46 (Stressbestendigheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 47 (Vasthoudendheid)
Analyse & besluitvorming 14 (Oordeelsvorming)
Analyse & besluitvorming 15
(Omgevingsbewustzijn)
Analyse & besluitvorming 16
(Organisatiesensitiviteit)
Analyse & besluitvorming 17 (Probleemanalyse)
Communicatie 19 (Inlevend Vermogen)
Communicatie 20 (Luisteren)
Communicatie 21 (Mondeling communiceren)
Communicatie 22 (Onderhandelen)
Communicatie 23 (Overtuigingskracht)
Communicatie 24 (Presentatie)
Communicatie 25 (Samenwerken)
Communicatie 26 (Schriftelijk communiceren)
Communicatie 28 (Representativiteit)
Motivatie 29 (Ambitie)
Motivatie 30 (Discipline)
Motivatie 31 (Initiatief)
Motivatie 32 (Integriteit)
Motivatie 33 (Inzet)
Motivatie 34 (Leervermogen)
Motivatie 35 (Kwaliteitsgerichtheid)
Motivatie 36 (Resultaatgerichtheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 38 (Accuratesse)
Persoonlijk gedrag 39 (Assertiviteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 40 (Durf)
Persoonlijk gedrag 41 (Flexibiliteit)
Competencies outsourced maintenance 78
Persoonlijk gedrag 48 (Verantwoordelijkheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 49 (Zelfstandigheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 43 (Mentale weerbaarheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 44 (Onafhankelijkheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 45 (Organisatieloyaliteit)
Persoonlijk gedrag 46 (Stressbestendigheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 47 (Vasthoudendheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 48 (Verantwoordelijkheid)
Persoonlijk gedrag 49 (Zelfstandigheid)
Competencies outsourced maintenance 79
It can be concluded that – excluding knowledge requirements - the discovered
competency themes were all translatable onto the general competency-index provided by
MST. However, the generic nature of this index interferes with practical applicability. The
tangible behaviors belonging to the general competencies do not fit those required from the
functions of the maintenance department. This should be rectified if the competencies are to
be used for performance evaluation, recruitment or educational purposes.
Another conclusion is that a variety of desired knowledge, skills and behavioral traits
are either absent or undeveloped among the current workforce. To ensure effective
management of outsourced maintenance, the discrepancy in proficiency among maintenance
employees should be scrutinized.
The conclusions indicate the necessity to approach certain issues, therefore useful
recommendations were derived from the results to improve the effectiveness of the
maintenance department.
First of all, it is imperative to take stock of current competency levels for the three
functions and develop a road map to achieve the desired levels. A starting point could be
designing the tangible behaviors belonging to competencies specifically for each function.
From there a survey can be conducted to chart discrepancies between desired and required
competency levels and finally individual development plans can be created.
Secondly, the function locally tied technician has more potential depending on
management’s vision. It can be expanded horizontally to include other services by Facilitair
Bedrijf or vertically to enrich technical responsibility. Independent of these possibilities,
concrete guidelines are required for this function to provide a standardized framework within
which they perform their maintenance tasks in relation to the control room technician.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 80
Thirdly, in light of cultivating specific knowledge and skills, the internal career
development opportunities should be analyzed. In the current organizational design external
recruitment is the only viable option to fill a position in the maintenance control room.
The fourth recommendation is that management should stimulate positive, team-
oriented autonomous behavior among control room technicians through training or group
sessions.
It is also recommended to explore more opportunities to strengthen the involvement of
internal clients, for example client participation in drafting contracts or swifter
communication from control room technicians concerning activities performed by external
contractors.
The last recommendation is to standardize final responsibility for external contractors
among control room technicians, encourage them to execute their supervisory task on a daily
basis and assess the resulting reports more consistently for future maintenance benefits.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 81
8. Appendix A: Interview protocols
Ik wil graag beginnen met het doel van het interview uiteen te zetten. De interviews zijn voor een onderzoek dat door MST in samenwerking met
de Universiteit Twente wordt uitgevoerd. Het doel van dit onderzoek is de functies die horen bij de nieuwe organisatiestructuur te evalueren en
benodigde competenties te bepalen. De gegevens verzameld met de interviews zullen samen met een literatuuronderzoek gebruikt worden om
advies te geven op de implementatie en een competentiemodel voor deze functies te ontwikkelen.
Vanwege kennis op managementniveau binnen de afdeling bent u gevraagd voor dit interview. Even voor de duidelijkheid: ik zal in steekwoorden
uw antwoorden noteren en het interview zal opgenomen worden met een audiorecorder, mits u hier geen bezwaar tegen heeft. Deze antwoorden
worden later in het verslag anoniem verwerkt. Ook de audio-opname zal enkel door mij gebruikt worden voor de uitwerking van het interview.
Het is dus allemaal volstrekt vertrouwelijk en anoniem.
Tot slot heb ik hier een vragenlijst waarop alle vragen staan die ik u moet gaan stellen. U hoeft enkel zo goed en volledig mogelijk te
antwoorden. Alles bij elkaar denk ik dat we ongeveer een uur nodig hebben voor het interview.
Competencies outsourced maintenance 82
General
Allereerst zal ik een paar algemene vragen stellen over uw werkzaamheden binnen de afdeling en daarna over de ervaring en visie op de
afdeling en organisatorische verandering in het bijzonder.
Questions
Management
RK
TM
CM
PL
HR
Contractant
Externe
Firma*
1. In welk jaartal bent u geboren?
2. Hoeveel jaren bent u werkzaam bij het MST?
3. In welke functies bent u werkzaam geweest bij het MST?
4. Kunt u uw huidige functie binnen de afdeling omschrijven?
5. Wat is uw connectie met de afdeling Gebouwbeheer?
6. Hoe bent u betrokken bij de organisatorische verandering
binnen Gebouwbeheer?
* = These questions were asked in relation to the organization Enexis
Competencies outsourced maintenance 83
Department Gebouwbeheer
Binnen de afdeling is een organisatorische verandering gaande, waardoor enkele nieuwe functies zijn ontstaan en andere komen te vervallen.
Om een goed overzicht te hebben van de structuur waarbinnen de functies uitgevoerd worden, wil ik eerst wat vragen stellen over de afdeling
Gebouwbeheer zelf.
Questions
Management
RK
TM
CM
Projectleider
HR
Contractant
Externe
Firma **
7. Wat is het doel van de afdeling?
8. Wat zijn de kerntaken van de afdeling?
9. Welke strategie hanteert de afdeling?
10. Hoe vertaalt deze strategie zich in de
organisatiestructuur?
11. Welke veranderingen liggen ten grondslag aan de
nieuwe organisatiestructuur?
12. Welke aandachtsgebieden zijn er te onderscheiden
voor onderhoud in het ziekenhuis?
** = These questions were asked in relation to the department Bedrijfsvoering at Enexis
Competencies outsourced maintenance 84
Competencies
Nu wil ik graag ingaan op de nieuwe functieomschrijvingen en de competenties die hierbij gewenst zijn. In het kort zijn competenties kenmerken
die relateren aan succesvolle uitvoering van een functie. Deze kenmerken dienen dan het liefst waarneembaar te zijn in het gedrag van de
werknemer. Ik zal vragen stellen over de drie nieuwe functies en afsluiten met vragen over competenties in het algemeen op de afdeling.
Function Contract manager
Questions
Management
RK
TM
CM
Projectleider
HR
Contractant
Externe
Firma***
13. Met welk doel is deze functie opgezet?
14. Welke functie vervangt de ‘contractmanager’?
15. Wat zijn de voornaamste verschillen tussen deze
functies?
16. Welke aandachtsgebieden zijn te onderscheiden
voor contractmanagers?
17. Welke relatie is er tussen deze functie en een
contractmanager?
Competencies outsourced maintenance 85
18. Welke functie-elementen zijn echt kritisch?
19. Wat zijn de meest belangrijke taken?
20. Wat zijn de meest tijds-intensieve taken?
21. Zijn er voorbeelden van kritieke situaties voor een
contractmanager?
22. Stel dat het misgaat, wat moet de contractmanager
dan kunnen?
23. Welke kennis heeft een contractmanager nodig?
24. Welke vaardigheden heeft een contractmanager
nodig?
25. Welke persoonlijke eigenschappen zijn wenselijk
voor een contractmanager?
26. Aan de hand van welke criteria wordt de
functie/medewerker beoordeelt?
27. Welke criteria zijn in uw ogen geschikt om de
functie te beoordelen?
28. Ontbreekt er in uw optiek kennis om goed te
functioneren als contractmanager?
Competencies outsourced maintenance 86
29. Ontbreken er in uw optiek vaardigheden om goed te
functioneren als contractmanager?
30. Zijn er verder nog competenties van belang voor de
contractmanager?
***= These questions were asked in relation to the function Bedrijfsvoerder at Enexis
Function control room technician
Questions
Management
RK
TM
CM
Projectleider
HR
Contractant
31. Met welk doel is deze functie opgezet?
32. Welke functie vervangt de ‘regiekamer technicus’?
33. Wat zijn de voornaamste verschillen tussen deze functies?
34. Welke aandachtsgebieden zijn te onderscheiden voor
regiekamertechnici?
35. Welke relatie is er tussen deze functie en een regiekamer technicus?
36. De regiekamertechnicus kan verantwoordelijk zijn voor één of
meerdere installaties, kunt u hier voorbeelden van geven?
Competencies outsourced maintenance 87
37. Welke functie-elementen zijn echt kritisch?
38. Wat zijn de meest belangrijke taken?
39. Wat zijn de meest tijds-intensieve taken?
40. Zijn er voorbeelden van kritieke situaties voor een
regiekamertechnicus?
41. Stel dat het misgaat, wat moet de regiekamertechnicus dan kunnen?
42. Welke kennis heeft een regiekamer technicus nodig?
43. Welke vaardigheden heeft een regiekamer technicus nodig?
44. Welke persoonlijke eigenschappen zijn wenselijk voor een
regiekamer technicus?
45. Aan de hand van welke criteria wordt de functie/medewerker
beoordeelt?
46. Welke criteria zijn in uw ogen geschikt om de functie te
beoordelen?
47. Ontbreekt er in uw optiek kennis om goed te functioneren als
regiekamertechnicus?
Competencies outsourced maintenance 88
48. Ontbreken er in uw optiek vaardigheden om goed te functioneren
als regiekamertechnicus?
49. Deze functie draait momenteel al in een pilot, wat zijn de
ervaringen hiermee?
50. Zijn er verder nog competenties van belang voor de regiekamer
technicus?
51. Zijn er nog meer verschillen tussen de Regiekamertechnicus A. &
B. behalve de installatieverantwoordelijkheid?
Function locally deployed technician
Questions
Management
RK
TM
CM
Projectleider
HR
Contractant
52. Met welk doel is deze functie opgezet?
53. Welke functie vervangt de ‘technisch medewerker’?
54. Wat zijn de voornaamste verschillen tussen deze functies?
55. Welke aandachtsgebieden zijn te onderscheiden voor technisch
medewerkers?
Competencies outsourced maintenance 89
56. Welke functie-elementen zijn echt kritisch?
57. Welke relatie is er tussen deze functie en de technisch
medewerker?
58. Wat zijn de meest belangrijke taken?
59. Wat zijn de meest tijds-intensieve taken?
60. Zijn er voorbeelden van kritieke situaties voor een technisch
medewerker?
61. Stel dat het misgaat, wat moet de technisch medewerker dan
kunnen?
62. Welke kennis heeft een technisch medewerker nodig?
63. Welke vaardigheden heeft een technisch medewerker nodig?
64. Welke persoonlijke eigenschappen zijn wenselijk voor een
technisch medewerker?
65. Aan de hand van welke criteria wordt de functie/medewerker
beoordeelt?
66. Welke criteria zijn in uw ogen geschikt om de functie te
beoordelen?
Competencies outsourced maintenance 90
67. Ontbreekt er in uw optiek kennis om goed te functioneren als
technisch medewerker?
68. Ontbreken er in uw optiek vaardigheden om goed te
functioneren als technisch medwerker?
69. Deze functie draait momenteel al in een pilot, wat zijn de
ervaringen hiermee?
70. Zijn er verder nog competenties van belang voor de technisch
medewerker?
General competencies
Ik heb nu uitvoerig vragen gesteld over de nieuwe functies en de bijbehorende competenties. Naast functie specifieke competenties, bestaan er
ook generieke competenties. Dit zijn competenties die breed, onafhankelijk van functies gedragen worden binnen een organisatie.
Questions
Management
RK
TM
CM
Projectleider
HR
Contractant
71. Zijn er naar aanleiding van de strategie van de afdeling generieke
competenties van belang?
72. Zijn er op basis van de besproken functies competenties die een
generiek karakter hebben?
Competencies outsourced maintenance 91
73. Zijn er competenties ongenoemd waarvan u vindt dat deze
belangrijk zijn binnen de afdeling Gebouwbeheer?
Supervision external contractors
Eén van de voordelen in de nieuwe organisatiestructuur is de flexibiliteit bij inzet van externe partijen die in het onderhoud van het ziekenhuis
voorzien. Aangezien een aanzienlijke hoeveelheid onderhoudswerk is uitbesteed, heb ik hier een paar vragen over.
Questions
Management
RK
TM
CM
Contractant
74. Welke werkzaamheden worden uitbesteed?
75. Welke relatie is er tussen deze functie en een externe partij?
76. Welke verantwoordelijkheid heeft deze functie over een externe partij?
77. Welke functies zijn verantwoordelijk voor het organiseren, plannen, toezicht houden op
en controleren van uitbestede werkzaamheden?
78. Welke vaardigheden zijn hiervoor nodig?
Competencies outsourced maintenance 92
79. Welke kennis is hiervoor nodig?
80. Welke persoonlijke eigenschappen zijn hiervoor wenselijk?
81. Zijn er verder nog opmerkingen of suggesties aangaande de competenties binnen de
afdeling Gebouwbeheer?
Other Questions
Questions
Projectleider
HR
Contractant
Externe
Firma
82. Welk beleid voert het MST omtrent waarborging van de continuïteit binnen
afdelingen?
Extern uitzetten vacatures versus interne doorstroom?
83. Op welke wijze kan een verschil tussen gewenste competenties en werkelijke
competenties worden opgelost? Interne scholing, on the job training?
84. Welk beleid voert het MST aangaande de beoordeling van medewerkers/functie
uitvoering?
Meetbare resultaten versus inschatting teamhoofd?
85. Zijn de functietyperingen in uw ogen goed toetsbaar?
Zoja, welke elementen dragen hieraan bij? Zonee, hoe zou dit kunnen worden gewaarborgd?
Competencies outsourced maintenance 93
86. Wat is uw mening over de werfbaarheid van de functies?
Is het geen onmogelijke combinatie?
87. Zijn de competenties voor de bedrijfsvoerder op voorhand in kaart gebracht?
88. Hoe worden deze competenties gewaarborgd?
89. Hoe wordt een gat tussen gewenste en aanwezige competenties opgelost?
90. Zijn er verder nog opmerkingen of suggesties aangaande de competenties binnen de
afdeling Bedrijfsvoering?
91. Kunt u de diversiteit van projecten omschrijven waarvoor medewerkers van
Gebouwbeheer ingezet worden?
92. Hoe grootschalig of wat is de duur van dergelijke projecten?
93. Welke functies zijn binnen de afdeling Gebouwbeheer betrokken bij projecten?
94. Wat zijn de meest belangrijke taken van een medewerker binnen een project?
95. Wat is de meest tijdsintensieve taak van een medewerker in een project?
96. Welke kennis heeft een projectmedewerker nodig?
Competencies outsourced maintenance 94
97. Welke vaardigheden heeft een projectmedewerker nodig?
98. Welke persoonlijke eigenschappen of houding zijn wenselijk voor een
projectmedewerker?
99. Kunt u voorbeelden noemen van een kritieke situatie in een project, waarbij de
projectmedewerker moet optreden?
100. Wat is uw visie op de combinatie van werkzaamheden voor het project en het
normale takenpakket van een medewerker?
101. Zijn er verder nog competenties van belang voor de projectmedewerker?
102. Zijn er in een ziekenhuis nog generieke competenties van belang?
103. Heeft u verder nog opmerkingen of suggesties aangaande competenties binnen
de afdeling Gebouwbeheer?
Ik wil u graag hartelijk bedanken voor de tijd die u beschikbaar heeft gesteld voor dit interview en uw antwoorden!
Competencies outsourced maintenance 95
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