William Safran is professor of political science and director of the Center for Comparative Politics at the University of Colorado, Boulder. He is program coordinator of the Conference Groups on French Politics and Society and vice president of the Research Committee on Politics and Ethnicity of the International Political Science Association. He has written several books, including The French Polity (1977, 1979, 1985, 1991), and contributed to numerous journals and books, most recently the forthcoming Ethnic and Racial Minorities in Advanced Industrial Democracies.
This article is a revised and much enlarged version of a paper presented at the Université de Haute Bretagne, Rennes, France, in December 1988. The earlier version was published in Les Etrangers dans la ville, ed. Ida Simon and Jean-Pierre Simon (Paris: L'Harmattan, 1990). I also wish to thank two anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions, from which this version has benefited greatly.
1. For example, see Cobban; Shafer; Smith; Rothschild; and Enloe.
2. "Jeszcze Polska nie zginieła kiedy my żyjemy"—these are still the words of the Polish national anthem, which parallel those of "Hatikva," the Zionist and, later, Israeli national anthem: "As long as there is a Jewish soul within us . . . our eyes turn to Zion."
3. For an "inventory" of the Polish diaspora and its institutions, see Kolodziej, whose study was published under the auspices of the Cracow-based Institute for the Study of Poles Abroad.
4. See Morsy (15ff), who points out that this label is often used even for third-generation descendants of Algerian immigrants.
5. The term "Palestinian Arab" is preferred by some Israeli Jews, especially those of the older generation who remember that the term "Palestinian" was applied to the Jewish as well as the Arab inhabitants of Mandate Palestine. In Britain, the major fundraising agency in behalf of the Jewish settlers used to be called the United Palestine Appeal, and the Jerusalem Post, the English-language daily of the Jews in Israel, was, until 1948, known as the Palestine Post.
6. According to one sympathetic observer of the Palestinian condition, the focus of the Palestinians' homeland aspirations would not be Haifa (or the rest of Israel within the pre-1967 borders), "as a first step at least" (Colin Smith 5).
7. According to Zuheir Mohsen, head of the Saiqa faction of the PLO, "There are no differences between Jordanians, Palestinians, Syrians, and Lebanese. . . . It is only for political reasons that we carefully underline our Palestinian identity." Saiqa is backed by the Syrian government.