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Therapeutic uses of peppermint –A review

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Abstract

Peppermint (Menthe pipefitter, also known as M. balsa mea Wild), is a hybrid mint, a cross between water mint and spearmint. The plant, indigenous to Europe and the Middle East, is now widespread in cultivation in many regions of the world. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. The concentrated oil of peppermint has high menthol content. The oil also contains methane and methyl esters, particularly methyl acetate. Dried peppermint typically has volatile oil containing menthol, methane, methyl acetate, menthofuran and 1,8-cineol. Peppermint oil also contains small amounts of many additional compounds including limonene, polygon, caryophyllene and pinned. According to the German Commission E monographs, peppermint oil (as well as peppermint leaf) has been used internally as an antispasmodic (upper gastrointestinal tract and bile ducts) and to treat irritable bowel syndrome, catarrh of the respiratory tract, and inflammation of the oral mucosa. Externally, peppermint oil has been used for malign and neuralgia. According to Commission E, peppermint oil may also act as a carminative, cholagogue, antibacterial, and secretolytic, and it has a cooling action. Enteric-coated peppermint oil capsules (Cooperman) have been used as an orally administered antispasmodic premedication in colonoscopy.

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... MPEO and MAEO containing the same major constituents, namely menthol and menthone, are among the most produced and marketed essential oils all over the world. The main producers of MPEO are India, the USA, and China, and of MAEO China, India, Brazil, and Japan [26,27]. The oils are obtained by hydrodistillation of the fresh or partly dried flowering herb with a yield of 0.3-0.7%. ...
... MPEO is the most important of the mint oils because of its exceptional properties [26,35,36]. It is also the most extensively used oil in therapy, both internally and externally, being recommended for the treatment of acute and chronic gastritis and enteritis, in disorders of the respiratory tract, and for inflammation of the oral mucosa [26]. ...
... MPEO is the most important of the mint oils because of its exceptional properties [26,35,36]. It is also the most extensively used oil in therapy, both internally and externally, being recommended for the treatment of acute and chronic gastritis and enteritis, in disorders of the respiratory tract, and for inflammation of the oral mucosa [26]. The biological activity of menthol mint oils is due to the content of their main constituent menthol, which is used as an individual phytochemical in the treatment of respiratory pathologies. ...
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This review article discusses the active constituents and potential of two menthol mint oils, Mentha piperita (MPEO) and Mentha arvensis (MAEO), as natural sources for botanical pesticides. The biological activities of these menthol mint oils, which can be useful in agriculture, have been broadly researched, especially toward phytotoxic microorganisms. To a lesser extent, the insecticidal and herbicidal activities of mint EOs have also been studied. It is apparent that the prospect of using menthol mint oils in agriculture is increasing in popularity. A number of investigations showed that the in vitro efficacy of MPEO and MAEO, as well as that of their main constituent, menthol, is pronounced. The results of in vitro research are useful for choosing EOs for further investigations. However, it is clear that in situ experiments are crucial and should be more extensively developed. At the same time, known techniques are to be applied to this area and new methods should be worked out, aiming at the improvement of EOs’ pesticidal efficacy and cost-effectiveness, for future implementation in agricultural pest control.
... It has been used to ensure fresh breath by maintaining oral hygiene. Research is being conducted as it contributes to inhibiting plaque and caries, and studies have shown that it doesn't provide any favorable atmosphere for germs (Balakrishnan, 2015). Besides, one of the mints, namely, peppermint is useful for relieving pain and makes teeth clear, when applied on teeth (Peixoto et al., 2009). ...
... The oil can be used externally against muscle pain and neuralgia. Other problem such as dysmenorrhea, headache, and chicken pox (Balakrishnan, 2015). ...
... Abdominal pain or discomfort is considered to be Irritable bowel syndrome. A study was conducted to use Essential oil from mint and other components has been used globally to enhance flavor in foods, used in medicines, and in perfumes (Balakrishnan, 2015). There is a long history of usage of essential oils from the mint plant in confectionaries like chewing gum and sweets and various types of drinks. ...
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Mint (Mentha) is a medicinal herb, which possesses a lot of bioactive components. Globally, it has been used as a flavor enhancer in foods. Due to the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, it is considered to have a greater number of antioxidants. Mint has been linked to physiological benefits to humans that include protection against microbes; anticancer and antiallergenic properties; positive effects in reducing blood sugar; analgesic property; cures loose motion, indigestion, gas, and irritation bowel syndrome; gives relief from respiratory problems; has wound healing activity; and is good for breastfeeding. The present paper reviews the evidence-based research regarding the bioactive components and health benefits of the mint plant.
... It occurs in several varieties, the most common of which is peppermint, or round-leaved mint (Mentha rotundifolia). Mint leaves and herbs contain compounds with broad biological activity [1][2][3]. Menthol is the primary compound of the essential oil of peppermint (55%). Other compounds of the peppermint oil are limonene, cineole, menthone, menthofuran, isomenthone, menthyl acetate, isopulegol, pulegone and carvone [3]. ...
... Menthol is the primary compound of the essential oil of peppermint (55%). Other compounds of the peppermint oil are limonene, cineole, menthone, menthofuran, isomenthone, menthyl acetate, isopulegol, pulegone and carvone [3]. ...
... The oil of mint has been used for medical purposes since antiquity, mostly to treat headache, common cold and neuralgia [3][4][5][6]. It can also soothe skin irritations and gastrointestinal problems and has anti-spasmolytic effects. ...
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Cultivation in controlled environmental conditions can provide good quality medicinal herbs with consistent properties. A sensing system that can determine the contents of medicinal substances in plants using spectral characteristics of leaves would be a valuable tool. Viability of such sensing approach for mint had to be confirmed experimentally, as no data correlating contents of medicinal substances with spectral characteristics of leaves are available, to the best of authors’ knowledge. In the first stage, presented in this paper, the influence of lighting on mint (Mentha rotundifolia) grown on a small hydroponic plantation was studied. Spectral characteristics of leaves were recorded by a spectrophotometer and colorimetric analysis was used to investigate the relationship between these characteristics and the spectrum of lighting. Dry mass yield was measured to test its dependence on the lighting. Dependence of chromaticity of leaves on the spectrum of light used in the cultivation was confirmed. Averaged spectra of leaves are distinguishable using a spectrophotometer and—in most cases—by a human observer. A partial correlation is observed between dry mass yield and the spectrum of lighting. Obtained results justify further research into the correlation between lighting and the contents of biological substances in medicinal plants using spectral characteristics of leaves.
... [5] Besides its culinary use, peppermint is enriched in essential oils, including methanol, menthane, cineol, and polyphenols. [6][7][8][9][10][11][12] The use of Mentha species can be traced back to the herbal pharmacopoeia of ancient Greece. [6] Numerous studies have emphasized the beneficial biological functions associated with peppermint volatiles, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral. ...
... [47,48] Japanese mint, Grapefruit Mint, Lemon mint, and Orange mint essential oils had the highest relative contents (%) of linalyl Acetate. Several studies have demonstrated the antioxidant and therapeutic effects of methyl acetate, [11] 1-octene-3-acetate, [49] geranyl acetate, [50] neryl acetate, [51] dihydrocarvyl acetate, [52] nepetalactone, [53,54] carvyl acetate. [55] Interestingly linalyl acetate, 1-octene-3-acetate, geranyl acetate, and neryl acetate were present in two peppermint genotypes: Grapefruit and Orange mint. ...
... Many studies have reported the allelopathic effects of menthone, emphasizing its importance in pharmaceutics. [11,65,66] The second most abundant ketone, carvone, was quantified in 11 peppermint genotypes. Spearmint, Silver Mint, and Banana Mint depicted the highest relative contents for carvone. ...
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Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most cultivated and consumed herbs. The pharmaceutical properties and nutrition values of peppermint oil make it an important commercial product. This study aimed to explore the volatile compounds in the essential oil extracted from different peppermint genotypes commercially grown in China. Oil extraction using a steam distillation followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry resulted in the quantification of 53 volatile compounds from five major classes, including esters, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, and volatile compounds. The highest essential oil yields were observed in Golden mint, Silver mint, Scottish mint, and Banana mint. Moreover, three genotypes, viz., Milk fruit mint, Winter Mint, and Pineapple, were screened with the highest diversity of volatile compounds. Major volatiles identified were linalyl acetate, 1-octene-3-acetate, geranyl acetate, neryl acetate, menthol, linalool, menthone, and carvone. The phenotypic characterization coupled with the volatile profiling in this study provides the basis for selecting and improving the investigated peppermint genotypes for specific commercial uses.
... Gürbüz found that pulegone, contained in low concentrations in Mentha piperita oil extracts, is hepatotoxic, and Douros et al. also reported the likely liver injury caused by M. piperita [197,198]. Other research showed that menthol and pulegone could be toxic compounds; in particular, pulegone and its metabolite menthofuran have been suggested as the hepatotoxic compounds in Mentha pulegium and have been also found in smaller quantity in Mentha piperita [199]. Notably, inhalation of menthol can cause apnea and larygospasm in sensitive patients and indeed has been reported that mentholated preparation can be involved in nausea, anorexia, cardiac problems, ataxia and other CNS symptoms [200]. ...
... Peppermint oil is contraindicated in obstruction of the bile ducts, gallbladder inflammation, and severe liver failure [199]. The American College of Gastroenterology has recommended reducing the peppermint intake as it is a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and lifestyle changes [202,203]. ...
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Medicinal plants and their derived compounds have drawn the attention of researchers due to their considerable impact on human health. Among medicinal plants, mint (Mentha species) exhibits multiple health beneficial properties, such as prevention from cancer development and anti-obesity, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and cardioprotective effects, as a result of its antioxidant potential, combined with low toxicity and high efficacy. Mentha species are widely used in savory dishes, food, beverages, and confectionary products. Phytochemicals derived from mint also showed anticancer activity against different types of human cancers such as cervix, lung, breast and many others. Mint essential oils show a great cytotoxicity potential, by modulating MAPK and PI3k/Akt pathways; they also induce apoptosis, suppress invasion and migration potential of cancer cells lines along with cell cycle arrest, upregulation of Bax and p53 genes, modulation of TNF, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-8, and induction of senescence phenotype. Essential oils from mint have also been found to exert antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus aureus, Pseudo-monas aeruginosa, and many others. The current review highlights the antimicrobial role of mint-derived compounds and essential oils with a special emphasis on anticancer activities, clinical data and adverse effects displayed by such versatile plants.
... Peppermint Mentha× piperita L., a representative of the genus Mentha (Lamiaceae), is one of the most widely used aromatic plants in the world, and it has long been used safely in medicines [1][2][3]. Almost the entire peppermint plant has pharmacologically beneficial properties such as antioxidant, antiallergic, antiviral and antibacterial actions, thus preventing the development of microorganisms and even suppressing the development of cancer cells [4][5][6]. In the food industry, dried peppermint leaves are used as mint teas or infusions [7,8]. ...
... However, the most important biologically active constituents of peppermint are essential oils (EOs). The plant contains up to 250 different volatile components, with menthol being the most important [5,9]. EOs are used to add flavor and aroma to chewing gum, candy, chocolate, liqueurs, or alcohol. ...
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In this work, we studied in vitro propagation of three cultivars of Mentha × piperita L. Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 0.5 mg·L−1 BAP was the most optimal medium for micropropagation of the cultivars studied. The ability of peppermint plants field-acclimated after in vitro micropropagation to produce essential oils (EOs) was investigated. EO was obtained by hydrodistillation from dried leaves and flowering shoots from control (field grown) plants and plants acclimated in field conditions after in vitro propagation. The samples were collected at the first and second year of vegetation, and their chemical composition was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Differences were observed in the yield, as well as in the quantitative and qualitative composition of the EOs extracted from the control plants and field-acclimated plants after in vitro propagation. Menthol was the main component of the EO in control plants, while pulegone and menthone were dominant in the EO pattern in field-acclimated in vitro regenerants in the first year of the growing season. However, in the second year of vegetation, the content of the main EO components in field-acclimated peppermint plants was approximately the same as in control plants. The antioxidant activity of EOs extracted from field-acclimated after in vitro micropropagation plants was found to be the same as in control field-grown M. × piperita plants.
... Mentha is a much desired and demanded herb due to its medicinal and therapeutic use. The use of Mentha species has been reported in China since the rule of Ming [69]. Mentha became an official item of Materia medical in London Pharmacopeia [70]. ...
... The direct application of Mentha on the skin shows excellent analgesic activity, producing a cooling effect on the skin. Mint oil stimulates blood receptors on the skin and expands blood vessels, resulting in a cold sensation and relaxation [69]. Mentha sp. ...
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A poor diet, resulting in malnutrition, is a critical challenge that leads to a variety of metabolic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Mentha species are famous as therapeutic herbs and have long served as herbal medicine. Recently, the demand for its products, such as herbal drugs, medicines, and natural herbal formulations, has increased significantly. However, the available literature lacks a thorough overview of Mentha phytochemicals' effects for reducing malnutritional risks against cardiovascular diseases. In this context, we aimed to review the recent advances of Mentha phytochemicals and future challenges for reducing malnutri-tional risks in cardiovascular patients. Current studies indicated that Mentha species phytochemicals possess unique antimicrobial, antidiabetic, cytotoxic, and antioxidant potential, which can be used as herbal medicine directly or indirectly (such as food ingredients) and are effective in controlling and curing cardiovascular diseases. The presence of aromatic and flavor compounds of Mentha species greatly enhance the nutritional values of the food. Further interdisciplinary investigations are pivotal to explore main volatile compounds, synergistic actions of phytochemicals, organoleptic effects , and stability of Mentha sp. phytochemicals.
... Peppermint is utilized as it helps to get rid of the foul breath giving freshness and ward off terrible breath [32]. More examinations are being done concerning whether it straightforwardly adds to anticipating caries and plaque, anyway it is affirmed that it creates an ungreat condition for microorganisms [33]. ...
... It is a great nervous system stimulator. It helps to reduce the physical pain and tension of workload [33]. ...
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Fundamental oil of Mentha piperita are perplexing blends detached from sweet-smelling plants which may have antimicrobial, cooling receptor trigger, pesticidal, anticancer, hack, asthma, and use in painkiller, exercises of enthusiasm for the sustenance and corrective enterprises just as in the human well-being field in pharmaceutical. According to the German Commission E monographs, peppermint oil is greatly employed as an antispasmodic in the stomach and intestine in bile channel and for the treatment of peevish entrails disorder, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and aggravation of the oral mucosa. Remotely, M. piperita has been employed for myalgia and neuralgia. As indicated by German Commission E, M. piperita may likewise go about as a carminative, disinfectant, and pectolytic, having soothing activity. Enteric-covered peppermint oil containers (Colpermin) are mostly employed as an orally controlled antispasmodic premedication in the study of large intestine.
... It has antiinflammatory cytokinesis and antiviral agents to influenza A(H1N1) (31). (26). Mint oil is obtained by steam distillation method. ...
... Essential oils (Eos) possess wide range of pharmacological effects like bronchodilator, mucolytic, antiviral, antiinflammatory (11). Peppermint vapour was helped as an inhalant for bronchial congestion (26). Mint oil mixed tea was a best medication to treat cough, bronchitis, throat and oral mucosal inflammation because of its capacity to trigger laryngeal cold receptors (27). ...
Article
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Nowadays, covid_19(SARS_CoV_2) intimidating the world. This disease is spreading by contact with affected droplets. Some of the affected persons are asymptomatic, majority of people suffer from mild illness, meanwhile few were affected , some severe acute respiratory distress (pneumonia) and multi organs dysfunction like Pulmonary oedema, Cardiac failure, Renal failure. Currently doctors and peoples use some spices herb (basil, clove, black pepper, turmeric, garlic, ginger, ajwain , cumin) to prevent and reduce the corona virus infection. Most of these are Bronchodilator herbs. These drugs dilate the respiratory airway and allow more volume of atmospheric air to enter the lungs. Therefore a large amount of oxygen goes into the lungs and dissolves in the respiratory membrane. Furthur more, it’s transported through the blood and carried to main organs of the body. So this review article reveals Bronchodilator herbs can reduce the risk factors and prevent the respiratory distress symptoms in covid_19 (SARS_CoV_2) patients.
... isopulegol (0.2%), menthol (55.0%), pulegone ( 4.0%) and carvone (max. 1.0%) (Balakrishnan, 2015). ...
... Minyak dan Menthol yang terkandung dalam peppermint juga mempunyak aktivitas antibakteri untuk golongan bakteri gram negative dan gram positif. Studi in vitro lainnyapada guinea pigdan kelinci menyatakan bahwa peppermint berperan dalam relaksasi spasme oto polos gastrointestinal akibat kekurangan kalsium pada usus besar dan usus halus (Balakrishnan, 2015). ...
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Based on the Lampung Province Health Profile in 2017, the high incidence of emesis gravidarum in pregnant women was 50- 90%, while hyperemesis gravidarum reached 10-15% in Lampung Province from the number of pregnant women who were 182,815 people. The research objective was to determine the effect of peppermint inhalation with nausea and vomiting in TM I pregnant women at BPM Hodijah Rejo Mulyo Village, Pasir Sakti District, East Lampung Regency in 2021. This research is quantitative research, with a quasi-experimental research design or quasi-experimental research. The subjects in this study were all pregnant women at BPM Hodijah with the object of TM I pregnant women who experienced nausea and vomiting. The research was conducted in January - February 2021 at PMB Hodijah. The results showed that the average nausea and vomiting before being given peppermint inhalation intervention was 8.90 after being given peppermint inhalation was 6.55 with a standard deviation value of 1.538, a minimum value of 4 and a maximum value of 9. There was an effect of inhalation of peppermint with nausea and vomiting in TM I pregnant women. In BPM Hodijah Rejo Mulyo Village, Pasir Sakti District, East Lampung Regency in 2021 with a P-value of 0,000. Suggestions that can be used as a reference in the learning process in the discussion of pregnant women with nausea and can be used as study material in providing treatment for pregnant women with nausea and vomiting.
... It has been traditionally used for several digestive complaints like indigestion, colic of infants, flatulence, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting, anorexia and morning sickness. [12] ...
... Many of them are new symptoms; some are old symptoms that have shown newer dimensions and characteristics and some of them are in corroboration with the traditional uses of the drug. [12][13][14][15][16][17] On analysing the symptoms produced in all the groups, the organ affinity of the drug was found toward the locomotor system, gastro-intestinal system, respiratory system, head, eye, ear, skin, urinary system, male and female genitalia, etc. ...
Article
Introduction: Mentha piperita L, a lesser-known and partly proved drug in homoeopathy, is used extensively as a herbal medicine. Objective: The objective of this study is to elicit the pathogenetic response of Mentha piperita in comparison to placebo. Materials and Methods: A multi�centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomised clinical trial was carried out at three centres with 46 relatively healthy provers. After randomisation, 32 provers were given verum in 6C, 12C, 30C and 200C potencies and in the placebo group,14 provers were administered identical, un-medicated globules. All the changes were recorded by the provers and elaborated by proving masters. The data were finally processed at proving-cum-data processing cell. Results: Out of the 32 provers of the Verum group, 22 reported 61 symptoms, whereas 24 symptoms were reported by seven provers in the placebo group. The majority of the symptoms were produced in the sphere of the locomotor system, followed by the gastro-intestinal system beside other systems. Altogether, ten new Grade I symptoms were identified, while 11 symptoms were similar to those found in the previous literature. Conclusion: Mentha piperita revealed a significant pathogenetic response in this trial which verifies its previously observed symptoms. Among the newly developed symptoms, two symptoms showed opposite character when compared to the previous literature. Also, statistically significant difference was found in differential eosinophil count in the verum group pre-post intervention. These are the findings that need to be clinically verified to enhance the scope of their clinical use.
... Starting from ancient times, various parts of this plant have been prescribed for various treatments. The plant possess cardiovascular (Awang, 1999;Hawthorn et al., 1988), pulmonary (Balakrishnan, 2015), gastrointestinal (Mikaili et al., 2013), neuro-psychiatric, endocrine, immune-modulatory, antimicrobial, Hypotensive and antispasmodic activities (Shahbazi, 2015;Singh et al., 2015;Pattnaik et al., 1997). ...
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The Mentha genus includes several species such as Mentha rotundifolia L., which is widely distributed around the Mediterranean basin, America and in western Asia. The plant is recommended in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases. It has also been used to discover biomolecules that have signi􀏐icant bene􀏐icial effects with fewer side effects. Mentha rotundifolia (L) leaves are potential as an antihypertensive cause of terpenes which contain in them. 36 different terpenes and terpenoids have been identi􀏐ied and selected from this plant. This study evaluated the mechanism of phytoconstituents from the above plant in the inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) with molecular docking. Selected ligands were docked on the receptor (PDB ID: 1R4L) using Auto Dock Vina and analysed by PyMol. 2D and 3D structures of compounds were drawn by the Chem Draw program. The standard drug that has been taken for the study, lisinopril, has shown a binding af􀏐inity of -7.8 Kcal/mol. Calacorene, one of the terpenes present in the plant, has interacted with Phe274, Asp367, Glu406, Thr445, Thr371 residues of protein and produced a docking score similar to that of the standard drug Lisinopril. In the light of the results obtained, the plant studied is promising as a source of natural hypotensive agent that can be further developed as a lead molecule
... (Lamiaceae family) has an antiseptic and analgesic action in the oral cavity due to its components. Menthol is extracted from this plant, which, besides the antiseptic and antioxidant action, eliminates bad breath and is used to flavor chewing gums [24][25][26]. Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae family), also known as chamomile, has an anti-inflammatory and scar-promoting effect, inactivates bacteria (especially Staphylococcus and Streptococcus), and due to its essential oil content, has a strong calming effect and disinfecting action in the oral cavity [27][28][29]. ...
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Mouthrinse solutions represent a group of products used for maintaining oral hygiene after tooth brushing. Substances contained by plants bring benefits for the whole mouth health. The purpose of this study was to comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial mouthwash and of an herbal infusion on dental plaque formation and gingival inflammation. The participants in the study (90 patients) were divided into two groups, the CM group, which rinsed with a commercial fluoride-containing mouthwash and the IM group, which used an herbal infusion. The Silness–Loe plaque index (PI) and the Loe–Silness gingival index (GI) were assessed at baseline and in three following monitoring sessions. Both mouthwashes used had good results in reducing plaque index and gingival index values. In all monitoring sessions, the average PI value calculated in the CM group was relatively lower than in the IM group, probably because of the fluoride contained in the commercial mouthwash. The average GI value calculated in the CM group was slightly higher in showing gingival inflammation than that of the IM group, therefore the IM group had a better average result than the CM group in GI value. Herbal mouthwashes are adequate to induce proper oral prevention through the preservation of good oral health.
... freshness, Mentha spp. are used in making oral dentifrices and preventing caries and plaque (Balakrishnan, 2015) (Fig. 2). ...
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Medicinal plants are considered colossal producers of bioactive therapeutics agents. The genus Mentha possesses commercial values owing to its aromatic species. Despite its traditional applications in food flavoring, Mentha spp. are widely used for treating not only cold and fever but also gastro-intestinal and cardiovascular disorders as folk medicines. It has revealed a plethora of biological traits viz. antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-ulcer, anti-diabetic, insecticidal, and anti-inflammatory activities. Generally, the presence of bioactive phytochemicals is the prime reason for the traditional pharmacological activities of Mentha spp. A rich source of potential phytoconstituents of Mentha spp. is an important agent for designing nutra‐pharmaceuticals. The current review paper discusses the different phytochemical, traditional medicinal features, and prime therapeutic properties of some of the most commonly used Mentha spp. Also, this paper summarizes the role of various metabolites of Mentha towards the development of therapeutic drugs in the future.
... Thus, because it is a well-known species and used by the population, many studies on its effects already exist and demonstrate its antimicrobial and antiviral activities in vitro [20,21], activity against respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders, anticonvulsant, antitumor [22,23], analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities [24,25]. These two species are also used in culinary as flavorings and in the preparation of some foods [17,26]. ...
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Secondary metabolite production by plants is influenced by external environmental factors that can change depending on the seasons, which makes it important to know how the plant, through its metabolism, is able to adapt to these variations. Mentha x villosa and Plectranthus amboinicus present in their chemical composition polyphenols, and through previous studies, it has been seen that these two species present promising in vitro photoprotective activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate seasonal alterations in photoprotective and antioxidant activities and the influence of factors such as precipitation levels and sun radiation incidence. Thus, polyphenol quantification, cromatographics (HPLC-DAD) and multivariate (PCA) analyses of extracts of the two species through twelve months were done. It was observed that the best months for photoprotective and antioxidant activities were September for M. villosa and July for P. amboinicus (SPF = 14.79). It was possible to conclude that solar radiation more clearly influences the production of phenolics and the increase of SPF in M. villosa, in addition to favoring the antioxidant activity of the two species, while precipitation seems to have no influence.
... Energizing, refreshing, softening, emollient, revitalizing, tonic (196) Fruit Pear Pyrus communis L. Antiseptic, sedative, moisturizing, softening (197) Fruit Pellitory Parietaria officinalis L. Emollient, soothing (198) leaves and stems Peppermint Mentha piperita L. Antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, refreshing, astringent, local tonic (199) Leaves Periwrinkle Vinca minor L. Tonic, astringent (200) Leaves and herb Mill. ...
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According to complementary and alternative medicine which is based primarily on traditional or folkloric medicines of different world civilizations there is a constant growing interest on cosmetics and cosmeceuticals using botanical ingredients. Since ancient times, humans used distinctive natural ingredients as medicine or cosmetic products. Cosmetics alone are not sufficient for skin care. Active ingredients from natural or synthetic sources have been added to prevent and/or to treat damaged and ageing of the skin. Herbal cosmetics are more prevalent than synthetic ones. Since synthetic cosmetic products may cause severe skin damage, natural herbs are included directly in the skin care formulations. Usually plant based cosmetics are made using plants well known throughout history to be safe and side-effects free. Aromatic plants and fixed oils were mostly used by different civilizations in religious rituals, and for the care, cleansing and decoration of the skin to enhance beauty and to promote good health. Additionally, in most cases the herbs used in cosmetics contain antioxidants and antiinflammatory ingredient that can alleviate skin problems like rashes or skin itching. Given the emphasis on the trend in the use of natural sources in the cosmetics industry, in this review, effective skin care properties of some herbs and plants and their evidence-based benefits in the skin care, as well as in solving a multitude of skin problems are discussed, the international nomenclature of the cosmetic ingredients of the parts used are also mentioned.
... It is also reported to reduce histamine induced irritation and itching in some studies. 19 Karpoora is obtained from the plant B. camphora. ...
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Background: Adverse effects of available medications for osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) necessitate development of safer and effective alternative medicinal substitutes. The present study was conducted to evaluate analgesic activity of Ariflex liniment (conceptualized and developed by Ari Healthcare Pvt. Ltd.) in comparison with diclofenac gel by using acetic acid induced writhing model.Methods: Albino mice of either sex weighing 20-25 g were taken and divided into 3 groups with 5 animals in each group, i.e., group 1 (control group), group 2 (diclofenac gel) and group 3 (Ariflex liniment). After 1 hour of topical application of study drugs writhing was induced in mice using intra-peritonial injection of 1% acetic acid in volume of 0.1 ml/10 g body weight. Then the writhing episodes were recorded for 30 minutes and results were noted.Results: In the control group, the total number of writhes were 260±29.73 (mean±S. E. M.). The total number of writhes was 12.17±11.81 (mean ± S. E. M.) in diclofenac group. In Ariflex liniment group, not a single animal felt pain, hence there were no writhes recorded. When compared to control group, the difference in number of writhes was statistically significant. The analgesic activity of Ariflex liniment was found to be superior to that of diclofenac gel used as standard drug.Conclusions: It can be concluded that Ariflex liniment possesses analgesic activity.
... This effect of menthol on visceral chemosensation and mechanosensation via TRPM8 perhaps contributes to the clinical efficacy of STW 5 in IBS patients. Noteworthy, treatments with peppermint oil remedies are already established in IBS patients due to their carminative, analgesic and antispasmodic effects (Balakrishnan, 2015). ...
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Both STW 5 and Menthacarin are herbal drug combination preparations and have been used for the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) since decades. In several clinical studies they have been shown to reduce visceral hypersensitivity-related symptoms. Transient receptor potential ion channels (TRPs), particularly TRPV(Vanilloid)1 and TRPA(Ankyrin)1, play a crucial role in mediating visceral hypersensitivity through their expression in visceral nociceptors. Pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity is multifactorial. Dysfunction of immune and epithelial cells affects sensory neurons. Since transient changes in calcium cytoplasmatic levels are crucial for many functions of living cells we used the calcium-imaging technique to investigate the effect of both herbal drugs on sensory neurons from dorsal root ganglia (DRG), peritoneal macrophages and colonic organoids. Using ratiometric calcium imaging, lumbosacral freshly isolated DRGs from wildtype (WT), TRPA1 knockout (KO), TRPV1 KO and TRPA1/V1 double KO mice were superfused with STW 5 at two concentrations (1.74 mg/ml and 5.8 mg/ml). Furthermore, dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGs), peritoneal macrophages and colonic organoids were superfused with Menthacarin and investigated by the same means. STW 5 (1.74 and 5.8 mg/ml) induced calcium ion influx into DRG neurons in a concentration-dependent manner, partly dependent on the expression of TRPV1 but enhanced in the absence of TRPA1. In addition, repeated stimulations with STW 5 at 5.8 mg/ml induced homologous desensitization (tachyphylaxis) of DRG neurons, which was facilitated in TRPA1-deficient DRGs and less pronounced in TRPV1-deficient DRGs compared to wild-type (WT) DRGs. Menthacarin (600, 1200 and 1800 µg/ml) induced concentration-dependent calcium ion influx not only into DRG neurons but also peritoneal macrophages and cultured colonic organoids. Repetitive applications of STW 5 induced desensitization of sensory neurons and this effect was mediated by the prominent nociceptive TRPV1 receptor-channel and may affect TRPA1 by cross-desensitization. Furthermore, applications of Menthacarin induced calcium influx not only in sensory neurons like STW 5, but also in macrophages and colonic epithelial cells. These actions of STW 5 and Menthacarin may contribute to their clinical efficacy in patients with FGIDs.
... Herbal ingredients are used to increase the nutritional value of whey drinks. Peppermint is a valuable raw material for the production of mint-whey drink [11][12]. However, the use of additional raw materials in production requires preliminary study. ...
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This research aimed the development production of prophylactic whey drinks which allows enhancing the efficient use of resources of high-value dairy byproducts including cheese and curd whey. High level of safety and quality of milk supplied, soft, semi-hard cheeses and dry-curd cottage cheese, as well as curd whey were adapted. Pepper mint was added as a source of extra vitamins, mineral salts, macro- and micronutrients, dietary supplements. The first recipe for a whey drink with the addition of mint syrup includes curd whey 1 L, mint 1 g, sugar 30 g, water 25 mL, citric acid 4 g. The second recipe differs from the first in that peppermint contains 2 g, the third recipe for mint contains 3 g. The amount of whey, sugar and citric acid in the second and third recipes corresponds to the first recipe. Plant-based components of whey drink act as analeptics and expand the assortment. Also, the research aimed to develop zero waste and low waste technology for private and collective farms and agricultural holdings and as a result, provide the solution to whey disposal issue.
... Yaprakları taze ya da kuru olarak tüketilebilen ve kurutulduktan sonra uzun süre bozulmadan muhafaza edilebilen nanenin hoş kokusu ve aroması gıda sektörünün pek çok dalında kullanımının önünü açmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra içerdiği mentol, mentil asetat, menton ve mentofuran gibi uçucu yağların etkisiyle antiseptik, antibakteriyel, spazm çözücü, gaz giderici, kusma önleyici ve diüretik olarak da medikal kullanımı oldukça yaygındır (Al-Kassie 2010, Rita ve Animesh 2011, Pramila ve ark 2012, Balakrishnan 2015. ...
... Menthol is extensively used in many products including perfumes, toothpaste, mouth fresheners, chewing gums, analgesic balms, cough drops, and candies. Menthol was found to possess mild antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects (Kamatou et al., 2013), used for the relief of cold symptoms such as nasal congestion and cough (Eccles, 1994), exhibit antispasmodic effects (Johns, 1997), to enhance the absorption of topical skin medications (Pattnaik et al., 1997), and have a moderate oral sensation of warmth and coldness (Balakrishnan, 2015). In the last few years, many scientific research has been carried out to study the effect of peppermint and its essential oil on the central nervous system (CNS). ...
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Context: Stress, sleep disorders, and anxiety are common mental health problems affecting many university students. Peppermint, as a traditional herb, may be used as an alternative to stimulant drugs with less adverse effects to deal with mental health problems of the students. Aims: To evaluate the impact of oral Mentha piperita (peppermint) on self-reported memory performance, anxiety, stress, and the quality of sleep in science students at Taibah University. Methods: Eligible participating students were allocated either to the experimental group or the control group. The experimental group was asked to drink either an infusion of fresh aerial parts of peppermint once a day for four weeks, and the control group asked not to drink any peppermint or any other herbs during the study (no treatment). Anxiety, stress, memory performance, and sleep quality of the participating student were assessed by self-reported questionnaires before and after the peppermint treatment. Anxiety in the students was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, memory performance was evaluated using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess the sleep quality and patterns in students. Results: The scores of all the scales and subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Prospective and Retrospective Memory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were significantly decreased in the peppermint group in comparison with the control group after four weeks. Conclusions: Peppermint appears to significantly enhance memory, reduce anxiety and stress, and improve the sleep quality of university students.
... Menthol is extensively used in many products including perfumes, toothpaste, mouth fresheners, chewing gums, analgesic balms, cough drops, and candies. Menthol was found to possess mild antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects (Kamatou et al., 2013), used for the relief of cold symptoms such as nasal congestion and cough (Eccles, 1994), exhibit antispasmodic effects (Johns, 1997), to enhance the absorption of topical skin medications (Pattnaik et al., 1997), and have a moderate oral sensation of warmth and coldness (Balakrishnan, 2015). In the last few years, many scientific research has been carried out to study the effect of peppermint and its essential oil on the central nervous system (CNS). ...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Stress, sleep disorders, and anxiety are common mental health problems affecting many university students. Peppermint, as a traditional herb, may be used as an alternative to stimulant drugs with less adverse effects to deal with mental health problems of the students. Aims: To evaluate the impact of oral Mentha piperita (peppermint) on self-reported memory performance, anxiety, stress, and the quality of sleep in science students at Taibah University. Methods: Eligible participating students were allocated either to the experimental group or the control group. The experimental group was asked to drink either an infusion of fresh aerial parts of peppermint once a day for four weeks, and the control group asked not to drink any peppermint or any other herbs during the study (no treatment). Anxiety, stress, memory performance, and sleep quality of the participating student were assessed by self-reported questionnaires before and after the peppermint treatment. Anxiety in the students was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, memory performance was evaluated using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess the sleep quality and patterns in students. Results: The scores of all the scales and subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Prospective and Retrospective Memory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were significantly decreased in the peppermint group in comparison with the control group after four weeks. Conclusions: Peppermint appears to significantly enhance memory, reduce anxiety and stress, and improve the sleep quality of university students.
... ÇalıĢmamızda farklı gruplarda ve az sayıda dokuda mononükleer hücre infiltrasyonuna rastlandı, fakat literatürlerde nane yağının yangı tetikleyici etkisine dair bir yayına rastlanmamıĢ olup, aksine baĢta sindirim sistemi olmakla birlikte çeĢitli doku ve organlardaki yangı tedavisinde ve radyasyonun yan etkilerinden korunma da kullanılmaktadır (7,28). Hem literatürde nane yağının yangı tetikleyeci etkisine dair bir yayına rastlanmamıĢ olunması hem de yangısal hücre infiltrasyonunun farklı gruplardaki az sayıdaki hayvanda gözlenmesi söz konusu infiltrasyonların bireysel farklılıklardan kaynaklanabileceğini düĢündürmektedir. ...
Article
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The present study was conducted to morphometrically and histometrically analyse the impact of different amounts of peppermint oil added to quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) rations on their glandula uropygialis. A total of 40 Japanese quails were used in the study. They were divided into four groups including 10 quails (5 males, 5 females) in each group. The groups were fed rations that included different concentrations (control, %0.1, %0.2, %0.3) of peppermint oil for six weeks. At the end of the study, morphometric measurements of the decapitated animals were taken from their glandula uropygialis. As a next step, the glands were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin in order to perform their histometric measurements after the routine tissue follow-up. Taking into account the morphometric and histometric parameters, it was found out that the addition of different amounts of peppermint oil to the ration affected papilla length (P<0.01), left lobe length and width (P<0.05) of quail glandula uropygialis. However, there was no statistically significant difference between other parameters and gender (P>0.05). As a result, it was concluded that adding different amounts of peppermint oil to the rations did not have a significant impact on quail glandula uropygialis.
... It is structurally related to menthol and industrially used in perfume and cosmetics for its characteristic aromatic and minty odor. However, the excessive inhalation of mentholated preparation may cause reversible nausea, anorexia, cardiac problems, ataxia, and other central nervous system problems (Balakrishnan, 2015). Therefore, the quality of the essential oil from peppermint is described by high menthol and low menthone levels as well as pulegone and menthofuran in very much smaller percentages (Rohloff et al., 2005). ...
... The beneficial activities of mint, especially its antimicrobial effect, are due to its major compounds, such as menthol (33.8%), menthone (15.8%) and pulegone (8.3%) [119,120]. Used in perfumery and aromatherapy, pulegone and menthol are potentially toxic compounds when administered in large amount, causing liver damage in rats [121]. On the contrary, menthone has a digestive favoring effect and is non-toxic [120]. ...
Article
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The growing demand for high-quality food has induced a rapid expansion of the aquaculture sector. On the other hand, this sector has to overcome numerous challenges and problems triggered by the adoption of intensive farming systems, such as stress and high susceptibility to diseases. The improper use of chemicals and antibiotics has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in fish, with consequent health risks for consumers. Natural additives are increasingly used in aquaculture and, among these, medicinal plants are constantly under investigation as safe and environmentally friendly alternatives to chemicals. Great attention has been paid to Lamiaceae plants as feed additives capable of enhancing the growth performance, immune system, and antioxidant status of farmed fish. The aim of this review is to provide an updated picture of the employment of the Lamiaceae species (oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme, and mint) to enhance farmed fish health. The benefits of oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme, and mint feed supplementation on growth performance, immune system, antioxidant status, hemato-biochemical parameters, and resistance to stress, parasites, and bacteria have been described, highlighting weaknesses and drawbacks and proposing possible implementations.
... Peppermint (Mentha × piperita) belongs to the family Lamiaceae [14,15] and has been used as a rubefacient for centuries. is plant reduces heart rate and systolic blood pressure, relaxes bronchial smooth muscles, and increases ventilation [16]. e medicinal properties of peppermint are due to the presence of menthol, which is the main ingredient in peppermint essential oil. ...
Article
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Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 105 cardiac patients. They were randomly divided into three groups: peppermint essential oil (n = 35), lavender essential oil (n = 35), and control (n = 35). Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) was used to collect data. The intervention was performed for 7 nights. Before and after the intervention, the questionnaire was completed by all patients. In each intervention group, patients inhaled 3 drops of lavender or peppermint essential oils. In the control group, patients inhaled 3 drops of aromatic placebo. Results: The results showed the average fatigue decreased in the study groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups of lavender and peppermint in terms of mean fatigue after the intervention. However, there was a statistically significant difference between lavender and control groups (P < 0.001), as well as peppermint and control groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Aromatherapy with peppermint and lavender essential oils can reduce the fatigue of cardiac patients, so the use of these fragrances is recommended.
... Mentha (mint) was used as medicinal herb in ancient times, but menthol crystals are still used in different pharmaceutical products and cosmetics as antiseptic, stimulant and inhibitor. [7] Mint oil and its constituents and derivatives are also used as flavoring agents throughout the world in food, pharmaceutical, perfumery, and flavoring industry [8] ...
Article
This research aims to develop a new technology for the enrichment of butter with mint oil and mint oil which will improve its nutritional quality and may become one of the consumer’s preferences. Also mint has an aromatic, characteristic odor with stinking, with a pungent, refreshing taste,, and mint oil contains numerous minerals and nutrients including iron, manganese, magnesium, calcium, folic acid, potassium and copper, vitamin A and C. The butter obtained with the addition of mint and mint oil has been subjected to a comparative test with a sample of blank butter and analyzed for a period of 30 days, analyzing changes in sensory and physico-chemical.
... Pulegone and menthofuran, which may have hepatotoxic effects, are found not only in M. pulegium but also in smaller amounts in other taxa of the genus Mentha [19]. The European Medicines Agency, in a public statement on the use of herbal medicinal products containing pulegone and menthofuran, described the toxicity of this compounds and recommended limit values for herbal medicinal products that contain them [20]. ...
Article
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Various mint taxa are widely cultivated and are used not only for medicinal purposes but also in cosmetic and industrial applications. The development of new varieties or cultivars of mint generates difficulties in their correct identification and safe use. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the leaves of seven different taxa of the genus Mentha obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was also performed. Comparative GC-MS analysis of the obtained extracts showed similarity in the major compounds. PCA data allowed the separation of two groups of chemotypes among the analyzed mints, characterized by the abundance of piperitenone oxide and carvone. Two out of seven analyzed taxa were not previously examined for VOC profile, one was examined only for patent application purposes, and six out of seven were investigated for the first time using the HS-SPME technique. The presented analysis provides new data on the abundance and qualitative characterization of VOCs in the studied mint plants and on the safety of their use, related to the possibility of the presence of potentially toxic components. HS-SPME is a valuable method to extend the characterization of the VOC profile obtained by hydrodistillation.
... 22 Studi in vitro tertentu yang menilai efek antispasmodik dari minyak daun mint mengemukakan bahwa minyak daun mint merelaksasi spasme otot polos gastrointestinal dengan mengurangi masuknya kalsium pada usus besar guinea pig dan jejunum kelinci. 23 Papathanasopoulos et al juga menemukan bahwa minyak daun mint mengurangi tekanan intragastrik. 16 Beberapa penelitian yang telah dilakukan terkait dispepsia fungsional, gabungan dari minyak daun mint dengan minyak jintan memiliki aktivitas sinergis karena minyak daun mint memiliki sifat spasmolitik dan minyak jintan berperan dalam peningkatan tonus otot polos. ...
Article
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ABSTRAK Pendahuluan: Dispepsia fungsional mempengaruhi lebih dari 20% populasi umum. Gejala-gejala dispepsia fungsional sering dikaitkan dengan gangguan kualitas hidup pasien. Hingga saat ini, pengobatan dispepsia fungsional masih kontroversial. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya review mengenai terapi alternatif lain yang salah satunya dapat berasal dari tanaman herbal. Pembahasan: Hasil literature review menunjukkan terapi kombinasi minyak peppermint dan minyak jintan memiliki aktivitas sinergis karena minyak peppermint memiliki sifat spasmolitik dan minyak jintan berperan dalam peningkatan tonus otot polos sehingga efektif untuk menghilangkan rasa sakit dan rasa tidak nyaman pada pasien dengan dispepsia fungsional. Simpulan: Pengembangan penelitian lebih lanjut dengan skala yang lebih besar dan berjangka panjang diperlukan untuk mengevaluasi efektivitas dari terapi herbal ini. Kata Kunci: dispepsia fungsional, minyak daun mint, minyak jintan, pengobatan herbal Tinjauan Pustaka ABSTRACT Background: Functional dyspepsia affects> 20% of the general population. The symptoms of functional dyspepsia are often associated with impaired quality of life of the patient. Until now, the treatment of functional dyspepsia is still controversial. Therefore, there needs to be a review of other alternative therapies, such as traditional medicine. Methods: This paper uses a literature review method. The journals used in literature reviews are obtained through search engines such as Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct. The journals used are in Indonesian and English. Discussion: The literature review shows that combination therapy of peppermint oil and caraway oil has synergistic activity because peppermint oil has spasmolytic properties and caraway oil plays a role in increasing smooth muscle tone so that it is effective in relieving pain and discomfort in patients with functional dyspepsia. Conclusion: Further research development with a larger scale and long term is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this herbal therapy.
... In the lion study, peppermint also stimulated more species-specific behavior (back rolling). All types of mints, including peppermint, are among the oldest herbs used for medical purposes (Balakrishnan, 2015) and is botanically related to catnip (Ellis and Wells, 2010). Catnip is known to both encourage play behavior in cats, but can also increase sleep and hence reduce activity (Ellis and Wells, 2010). ...
Article
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In spite of a highly developed olfactory apparatus of horses, implying a high adaptive value, research on equine olfaction is sparse. Our limited knowledge on equine olfaction poses a risk that horse behavior does not match human expectations, as horses might react fearful when exposed to certain odors, which humans do not consider as frightening. The benefit of acquiring more knowledge of equine olfaction is therefore twofold; (1) it can aid the understanding of horse behavior and hence reduce the risk of dangerous situations, and (2) there may be unexplored potential of using odors in several practical situations where humans interact with horses. This study investigated behavior and olfactory sensitivity of 35 Icelandic horses who were presented with four odors: peppermint, orange, lavender and cedar wood in a Habituation/Dishabituation paradigm. The response variables were sniffing duration per presentation and behavioral reaction (licking, biting, snorting, and backing), and data were analyzed for potential effects of age, sex and pregnancy. Results showed that habituation occurred between successive odor presentations (1st vs. 2nd and 2nd vs. 3rd presentations: P < 0.001), and dishabituation occurred when a new odor was presented (1st vs. 3rd presentations: P < 0.001). Horses were thus able to detect and distinguish between all four odors, but expressed significantly longer sniffing duration when exposed to peppermint (peppermint vs. orange, lavender and cedar wood: P < 0.001). More horses expressed licking when presented to peppermint compared to cedar wood and lavender ( P = 0.0068). Pregnant mares sniffed odors less than non-pregnant mares ( P = 0.030), young horses (age 0-5 years) sniffed cedar wood for longer than old horses ( P = 0.030), whereas sex had no effect ( P > 0.050). The results show that horses’ odor exploration behavior and interest in odors varies with age and pregnancy and that horses naïve to the taste of a substrate, may be able to link smell with taste, which has not been described before. These results can aid our understanding of horses’ behavioral reactions to odors, and in the future, it may be possible to relate these to the physiology and health of horses.
... Mentha piperita L. Used to treat nausea, stomach disorders and indigestion, cough, cold in India [215] Can deprive the human body iron and cause anemia when consumed excessively in combination with spearmint [216] COVID-19 The LD 50 of hydroethanol leaf extract was > 3000 mg/kg [217]. ...
Article
Introduction: For decades, viral diseases have been treated using medicinal plants and herbal practices in the northern part of Nigeria. Though scarcely investigated, these medicinal plants could serve as potential sources for novel antiviral drugs against emerging and remerging viral diseases. Therefore, this study is aimed at investigating the medicinal practices and plants used to treat emerging and re-emerging viral diseases including hepatitis, poliomyelitis, monkeypox, smallpox, yellow fever, Lassa fever, meningitis, and COVID-19 in some northern states; Katsina, Kebbi, Kwara and Sokoto states. Method: Administered questionnaires and oral interviews were used to collect information on medicinal plants, method of preparation of herbal formulations, diagnosis, and treatment of viral diseases. Medicinal plants were collected, botanically identified, and assigned voucher numbers. The plant names were verified using www. theplantlist.org, www.worldfloraonline.org and the international plant names index. Result: A total of 280 participating herbal medicine practitioners (HMPs) mentioned 131 plants belonging to 65 families. Plant parts such as roots, bark, leaf, seed, and fruit were prepared as a decoction, concoction, infusion, or ointment for oral and topical treatment of viral diseases. Moringa oleifera (75.3%), Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (80%), and Acacia nilotica (70%) were the most frequently mentioned plants in Kebbi, Kwara and Sokoto states, respectively. Conclusion: The study revealed scarcely investigated and uninvestigated medicinal plants used to treat hepatitis, poliomyelitis, monkeypox, smallpox, yellow fever, Lassa fever, meningitis, and COVID-19. Future studies should be conducted to determine the antiviral potency and isolate novel bioactive agents from these plants against viral diseases.
... Mint is employed in creating dentifrices because it provides freshness to breath. A lot of studies are being done on contributions of mint leaves to prevent cavity and plaque and it is a fact that mint leaves extractproduces unfavorable circumstances for microorganism (Balakrishnan, 2015). In addition, peppermint gums facilitate the cleanliness of teeth. ...
Article
Current studies were made to investigate the phytochemical, nutritional and medicinal importance of the mint plant. Mint plantgenerally contains menthol (40.7%), menthone (23.4%), methylacetate (0.7-23%), eucalyptol (1-13%), carveol (0.31%), piperitone (3.20%) and fiber (1.75%±0.1). The important nutritional contents include iron (0.262%), calcium (0.158%), phytic acid (0.00092%), proteins (0.6%), vitamin E (9.89±0.15%), ascorbic acid (0.96±0.06%) and axerophthol (0.426±0.05%). Mint is one of most familiar plants that iswidely cultivated throughout the planet. The plant finds immense importance in the pharmaceutical and food industry. The plant also finds colossal applicationsas antimicrobial,n anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory agent. The promising capability of the plant towards the field of therapeutic drugs development has been widely investigated.
... In the lion study, peppermint also stimulated more species-speci c behaviour (back rolling). All types of mints, including peppermint, are among the oldest herbs used for medical purposes 59 and is botanically related to catnip 60 . Catnip is known to both encourage play behaviour in cats, but can also increase sleep and hence reduce activity 60 . ...
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In spite of the highly developed olfactory apparatus of horses, implying a high adaptive value, research on equine olfaction is sparse. Our limited knowledge on equine olfaction poses a risk that horse behaviour does not match human expectations, as horses e.g. might react fearful when exposed to certain odours which humans do not consider as frightening. The benefit of acquiring more knowledge of equine olfaction is therefore twofold; 1) it can aid the understanding of horse behaviour and hence reduce the risk of dangerous situations occurring, and 2) there may be unexplored potential of using odours in several practical situations where humans interact with horses, i.e. to improve management routines and the situation for the horses. This study investigated the olfactory sensitivity of 35 Icelandic horses who were presented with four odours: peppermint, orange, lavender and cedar wood in a Habituation/Dishabituation paradigm. The response variables were sniffing duration per presentation and behavioural reaction (licking, biting, snorting, and backing), and we moreover analysed the data for any potential effects of age, sex and gestational stage. Results showed horses were able to detect and distinguish between all four odours and showed increased interest for peppermint (Wilcoxon signed rank test: orange vs peppermint: V = 68, P < 0.001, lavender vs peppermint: V = 20, P < 0.001, cedar wood vs peppermint: V = 47, P < 0.001). More horses expressed licking behaviour when presented to peppermint compared to cedar wood and lavender (Fishers Exact test: peppermint vs lavender & peppermint vs cedar wood: OR = 4.40, P = 0.0068). Young horses (age 0-5 years) sniffed cedar wood for longer than old horses (Anova: F = 10.03, p-value = 0.004), and pregnant mares sniffed lavender less than non-pregnant mares (Wilcoxon signed rank test: pregnant vs not pregnant: W = 93, P = 0.02), whereas sex had no effect (Wilcoxon signed rank test: p = 0.4). The results showed that the test paradigm was meaningful for testing olfactory sensitivity in horses, and olfactory interest of horses varied with age and gestational status but not sex.
... It is structurally related to menthol and industrially used in perfume and cosmetics for its characteristic aromatic and minty odor. However, the excessive inhalation of mentholated preparation may cause reversible nausea, anorexia, cardiac problems, ataxia, and other central nervous system problems (Balakrishnan, 2015). Therefore, the quality of the essential oil from peppermint is described by high menthol and low menthone levels as well as pulegone and menthofuran in very much smaller percentages (Rohloff et al., 2005). ...
Article
Mentha is the major source of menthol used for many important commercial and pharmaceutical purposes. For enhanced menthol production, this study aimed to assess the influence of the foliar application of Jasmine oil and Methyl Jasmonate by 0.05 and 0.1% on gene expression, essential oil, and its component especially Menthol in Mentha piperita L. Exogenously foliar application of Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) and Jasmine oil (JO) treatments induced alteration of gene expression patterns which was detected by a cDNA-SCoT technique with high informative and discrimination capability. Where it targeted 33 clear transcript-derived amplicons, 21 out of them were new transcripts. Differential expression analysis of these patterns illustrated that the higher influence was by Jasmine oil with concentration 0.1% at 48 h followed by MeJA-0.1% at 24 h. On the other hand, mfs-transcripts were differentially regulated by MeJA and JO treatments. In general, the results revealed high level of volatile oil, high percentages of menthol (1.52 and 1.47-fold) with the low percentages of the menthone (0.69 and 0.77-fold), lowest level of upregulated menthofuran gene expression (-0.88 and-0.72 Log 2 FC). Besides, good vegetative growth relative to the control was found with exogenously foliar application of MeJA by 0.05% after 48 h and JO by 0.1% after 24 h, which increases the pharmacological quality of Mentha plant. Subsequently, indicating the possibility of using JO (Low-cost) after further study as a stimulant for the activity of menthol production with high quality as a cheaper alternative to exogenously foliar application of MeJA.
... In terms of essential oils, mint plant whose primary component is pulegone (4.0%), and carvone (max. 1.0%) (Balakrishnan, 2015). ...
... Mentha piperita L. Used to treat nausea, stomach disorders and indigestion, cough, cold in India [215] Can deprive the human body iron and cause anemia when consumed excessively in combination with spearmint [216] COVID-19 The LD 50 of hydroethanol leaf extract was > 3000 mg/kg [217]. ...
Article
Introduction: For decades, viral diseases have been treated using medicinal plants and herbal practices in the northern part of Nigeria. Though scarcely investigated, these medicinal plants could serve as potential sources for novel antiviral drugs against emerging and remerging viral diseases. Therefore, this study is aimed at investigating the medicinal practices and plants used to treat emerging and re-emerging viral diseases including hepatitis, poliomyelitis, monkeypox, smallpox, yellow fever, Lassa fever, meningitis, and COVID-19 in some northern states; Katsina, Kebbi, Kwara and Sokoto states. Method: Administered questionnaires and oral interviews were used to collect information on medicinal plants, method of preparation of herbal formulations, diagnosis, and treatment of viral diseases. Medicinal plants were collected, botanically identified, and assigned voucher numbers. The plant names were verified using www.theplantlist.org, www.worldfloraonline.org and the international plant names index. Result: A total of 280 participating herbal medicine practitioners (HMPs) mentioned 131 plants belonging to 65 families. Plant parts such as roots, bark, leaf, seed, and fruit were prepared as a decoction, concoction, infusion, or ointment for oral and topical treatment of viral diseases. Moringa oleifera (75.3%), Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (80%), and Acacia nilotica (70%) were the most frequently mentioned plants in Kebbi, Kwara and Sokoto states, respectively. Conclusion: The study revealed scarcely investigated and uninvestigated medicinal plants used to treat hepatitis, poliomyelitis, monkeypox, smallpox, yellow fever, Lassa fever, meningitis, and COVID-19. Future studies should be conducted to determine the antiviral potency and isolate novel bioactive agents from these plants against viral diseases.
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The establishment of living mulches in organic orchards could potentially improve the orchard biodiversity and, when specific plant species are selected, provide additional eco-services and functions, including adequate weed management. This study was conducted in an organically managed apple orchard in Skierniewice (Poland) to assess the effect of two selected living mulching species: Alchemilla vulgaris and Mentha piperita. They were assessed on weed control, weed biodiversity, tree nutritional status, root dry weight density (RDWD), and other root morphological traits compared to a natural soil cover (control). Overall, both living mulches produced 42.5% more dry biomass, increased weed species number (+29%), and increased soil coverage (+33%) compared to control mowed plots. The apple leaf chlorophyll index and nutrient content were higher in the presence of both living mulches than in the control. In addition, apple trees had 30–46% higher root dry weight densities, even though other root morphological traits were not affected by the treatments. The results suggested that the tree row can be managed with living mulches of herbs; these species have the potential to provide an additional income to the farmer, as well as beneficial effects for the orchard biodiversity, without impairing the tree root development and nutrient status.
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Five aromatic constituents of essential oils (cineole, citral, geraniol, linalool and menthol) were tested for antimicrobial activity against eighteen bacteria (including Gram-positive cocci and rods, and Gram-negative rods) and twelve fungi (three yeast-like and nine filamentous). In terms of antibacterial activity linalool was the most effective and inhibited seventeen bacteria, followed by cineole, geraniol (each of which inhibited sixteen bacteria), menthol and citral aromatic compounds, which inhibited fifteen and fourteen bacteria, respectively. Against fungi the citral and geraniol oils were the most effective (inhibiting all twelve fungi), followed by linalool (inhibiting ten fungi), cineole and menthol (each of which inhibited seven fungi) compounds.
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The use of alternative therapies for the treatment of headaches is on the rise. Reasons for this interest include perceived lack of side effects, as opposed to known and potentially serious side effects of medications, and a more caring attitude of alternative practitioners. Some of these treatments, such as biofeedback and magnesium, already have a sound scientific basis and are in wide use. Others, such as acupuncture, riboflavin, some herbal remedies, and some physical approaches, deserve to be rigorously tested.
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Upper airway cooling depresses ventilation in the newborn dog. Since airway cooling stimulates laryngeal cold receptors and inhibits laryngeal mechanoreceptors, the type of afferent ending responsible for this reflex cannot be easily identified. l-menthol, a specific stimulant of cold receptors in the absence of any cooling, has been used to ascertain the discrete role of upper airway cold receptors in this ventilatory depression. Experiments were carried out in 8 anesthetized 7-14-day-old dogs breathing through a tracheostomy with the upper airway functionally isolated. Constant flows of warm air (37 degrees C), with and without addition of l-menthol, and cold air (25 degrees C) were delivered through the upper airway in the expiratory direction. As compared to warm air trials, cold air and warm air + l-menthol trials greatly reduced ventilation (57.5 +/- 10.7% and 52.8 +/- 11.7% of control, respectively; P less than 0.01) mostly due to a prolongation of Te (291.2 +/- 106.4% and 339.2 +/- 90.0%, respectively, P less than 0.01). Section of the superior laryngeal nerve abolished the response to cold air. However, a residual depressive effect of l-menthol was still present in 3 of 5 animals and was abolished by nasal anesthesia, suggesting the involvement of nasal cold receptors. The results suggest that in the newborn dog stimulation of laryngeal cold receptors, without any concurrent inhibition of laryngeal mechanoreceptors, is a sufficient stimulus to cause respiratory depression.
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Antibacterial activity of fifteen essential oil components towards food borne Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. was studied by an agar plate technique. Cinnamic aldehyde was the most active compound followed by citral, geraniol, eugenol and menthol. At 500 micrograms/ml, cinnamic aldehyde completely inhibited the bacterial growth for more than 30 days at 30 degrees C that was comparable to 200 micrograms/ml of butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA). At lower temperatures, 25 and 20 degrees C, antibacterial activity of the five essential oil components increased. Addition of sodium chloride at 4% level (w/v) in the medium had no effect on the inhibitory activity of cinnamic aldehyde. In mixtures of cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol or BHA an additive effect was observed.
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Cooling of the upper airway, which stimulates specific cold receptors and inhibits laryngeal mechanoreceptors, reduces respiratory activity in unanesthetized humans and anesthetized animals. This study shows that laryngeal cooling affects the pattern of breathing in the guinea pig and assesses the potential role of cold receptors in this response by using a specific stimulant of cold receptors (l-menthol). The response to airflows (30 ml/s, 10-s duration) through the isolated upper airway was studied in 23 anesthetized (urethan, 1 g/kg ip) guinea pigs breathing through a tracheostomy. Respiratory airflow, tidal volume, laryngeal temperature, and esophageal pressure were recorded before the challenges (control), during cold airflows (25 degrees C, 55% relative humidity), and during warm airflows (37 degrees C, saturated) with or without the addition of l-menthol. Whereas warm air trials had no effect, cold air trials, which lowered laryngeal but not nasal temperature, reduced ventilation (VE) to 85% of control, mainly by prolonging expiratory time (TE, 145% of control), an effect abolished by laryngeal anesthesia. Addition of l-menthol to the warm airflow caused a greater reduction in VE (41% of control) by prolonging TE (1,028% of control). Nasal anesthesia markedly reduced the apneogenic effect of l-menthol but did not affect the response to cold air trials. In conclusion, both cooling of the larynx and l-menthol in the laryngeal lumen reduce ventilation. Exposure of the nasal cavity to l-menthol markedly enhances this ventilatory inhibition; considering the stimulatory effect of l-menthol on cold receptors, these results suggest a predominant role of nasal cold receptors in this response.
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The activities of menthol and peppermint oil were determined in guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle, in rat and guinea-pig atrial and papillary muscle, in rat brain synaptosomes and in chick retinal neurones by pharmacological 45Ca2+ uptake and radioligand binding assays. Menthol is a major constituent of peppermint oil and is approximately twice as potent as peppermint oil as an inhibitor of K+ depolarization-induced and electrically stimulated responses in ileum and electrically stimulated atrial and papillary muscles. IC50 values in the ileal preparation ranged from 7.7 to 28.1 micrograms ml-1 and in the cardiac preparations from 10.1 to 68.5 micrograms ml-1. Similar potencies were demonstrated against K+ depolarization-induced 45Ca2+ uptake in synaptosomes and against K+ depolarization and Bay K 8644-induced uptake in chick retinal neurons. IC50 values for menthol inhibition of K+ and Bay K 8644 responses in the retinal neurons were 1.1 x 10(-4) M (17.2 micrograms ml-1) and 1.75 x 10(-4) M (26.6 micrograms ml-1), respectively, and for peppermint oil were 20.3 and 41.7 micrograms ml-1 respectively. Both menthol and peppermint oil inhibited specific [3H]nitrendipine and [3H]PN 200-110 binding to smooth and cardiac muscle and neuronal preparations with potencies comparable to, but slightly lower than, those measured in the pharmacological and 45Ca2+ uptake experiments. Binding of menthol and peppermint oil, studied at 78 micrograms ml-1, was competitive against [3H]nitrendipine in both smooth muscle and synaptosome preparations. The data indicate that both menthol and peppermint oil exert Ca2+ channel blocking properties which may underlie their use in irritable bowel syndrome. Ca2+ channel antagonism may not be the only pharmacological effect of menthol and peppermint oil contributing to intestinal smooth muscle relaxation.
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Fifty-three essential oils were tested against five micro-organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans) using the agar overlay technique. The essential oils were randomly selected and not on the basis of a supposed activity. It was found that all oils showed an activity against at least one micro-organism, and that substantial activities against P. aeruginosa were scarce. Combined activities against C. albicans, the Gram-positive bacteria and E. coli, and an activity against C. albicans were most often observed. Secondly a combined activity against C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus was found. The differences between the inhibition zones were too small for a differentiation of the antimicrobial activities of the essential oils. A correlation matrix shows the relationships of the micro-organisms as to the activity patterns of the essential oils. High correlations were found for all the micro-organisms, except for P. aeruginosa.
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The incidence of respiratory reactions to stimulation of the nasal and propharyngeal mucose was studied in 44 newborn premature infants. The inhalation of menthol fumes or the administration of drops of Mukoseptonex to the nasal mucosa caused transient respiratory arrest or a drop in the respiration rate. The heart rate rose during chemical stimulation of the nasal mucosa, possibly in association with a general arousal reaction. Mechanical stimulation of the nasal mucosal with a nylon fibre elicited an expulsive reaction in 95% of the cases. As distinct from experimental animals, sneezing was not preceded by a deep initial inspiration. Stimulation of the oropharyngeal region produced transient apnoea in 24.5% of the cases, in 18% expiratory reactions reminiscent of the expiration reflex, in 33% independent, intensive inspiratory reactions and in 24.5% cough. Cough from both the oropharyngeal and the laryngeal region had a pronounced inspiratory component. Independent inspiratory reactions may to some extent be co-responsible for the high incidence of aspirations in the neonatal period.
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Menthol and related cooling compounds such as 'coolant agent 10', are widely used in products ranging from common cold medications to toothpastes, confectionery, cosmetics and pesticides. The review brings together a range of information on production and chemistry of menthol, and its metabolism, mechanism of action, structure-activity relationships, pharmacology and toxicology. In particular, the coolant action and carminative actions of menthol are discussed in terms of actions on calcium conductance in sensory nerves and smooth muscle. The actions of menthol on the nose, respiratory reflexes, oral cavity, skin and gastrointestinal tract are reviewed.