Peppermint (Menthe pipefitter, also known as M. balsa mea Wild), is a hybrid mint, a cross between water mint and spearmint. The plant, indigenous to Europe and the Middle East, is now widespread in cultivation in many regions of the world. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. The concentrated oil of peppermint has high menthol content. The oil also contains methane and methyl esters, particularly methyl acetate. Dried peppermint typically has volatile oil containing menthol, methane, methyl acetate, menthofuran and 1,8-cineol. Peppermint oil also contains small amounts of many additional compounds including limonene, polygon, caryophyllene and pinned. According to the German Commission E monographs, peppermint oil (as well as peppermint leaf) has been used internally as an antispasmodic (upper gastrointestinal tract and bile ducts) and to treat irritable bowel syndrome, catarrh of the respiratory tract, and inflammation of the oral mucosa. Externally, peppermint oil has been used for malign and neuralgia. According to Commission E, peppermint oil may also act as a carminative, cholagogue, antibacterial, and secretolytic, and it has a cooling action. Enteric-coated peppermint oil capsules (Cooperman) have been used as an orally administered antispasmodic premedication in colonoscopy.