Conference Paper

A Survey Study For User Attributes on Foot Over Bridges In Perspective of Dhaka City

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Safe roads for pedestrian is a popular catchword now-a-days. During next twenty years, pedestrian in Dhaka city will be a serious headache to the city planners. Among several road user groups; Pedestrians are most vulnerable, on the contrary, they are less prioritized. Pedestrians are the victim of most fatality and casualty occurred in Dhaka city. Like other mega cities, pedestrian volume here is very high and it is very densely—especially in peak hours. Many foot over bridges have already been constructed at different locations in the city to solve pedestrian-vehicle conflict at busy roads. However, number of foot over bridges in Dhaka are negligible comparing to huge pedestrian demand. In this study, questioner surveys will be conducted to investigate performance of existing foot over bridge facilities and possible causes of people’s reluctance to the use of foot over bridges will be tried to identify. Several issues or key factors will be incorporated in the survey form and people will be allowed to fill up those voluntarily. Results of the survey will be compared to some common attributes of people’s reluctance using foot over bridges like inconvenience, unawareness of the risk in crossing the street, poor accessibility, congested foot over bridges, lack of security, time consuming and bad surroundings. Usually these are the common reasons that foot over bridges remain under-served and become ineffective to meet public demand. In this research, major problems associated with foot over bridges and its overall performances will be assessed. Later, a regression model will be suggested to identify attributes regarding pedestrian foot over bridges. These key factors can be taken under consideration for future planning of pedestrian facilities. Proper planning will make foot over bridges more popular and feasible to meet huge pedestrian demand. In addition, pedestrian-vehicle related accidents will be reduced significantly.

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... Räsänen (2007) found that factors such as familiarity with the area and time saving were important parameters influencing pedestrians to use the bridges in Ankara (Turkey). In Dhaka (Bangladesh), pedestrians avoided using FOBs due to poor security and accessibility, along with the presence of vendors (Das and Barua, 2015). In a study by Rankavat and Tiwari (2016) in Delhi (India), it was seen the use of the bridges decreased with the increase in age. ...
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The paper compares pedestrian movement behavior over foot over bridges in four different cities of India under the same land use type (commercial area). The data was collected at commercial locations on weekdays in the cities of Kolkata, Bengaluru, Guwahati and New Delhi using videography technique. Radar charts and box plots were used to predict the mean and median speed of pedestrians based on gender, age and luggage. Probability density functions were also used to understand the speed variation among the different categories of pedestrians. Moreover, t-test and ANOVA test were performed to understand whether there existed any significant difference between the different pedestrian categories. Also, macroscopic relationships were plotted between the speed-flow rate-density. The results of the analysis showed that the overall mean speed of the pedestrians at Ultadanga (site 1) and ITO (site 4) was more than that at Marathahalli (site 2) and Maligaon (site 3). Also, the male pedestrians were observed to have higher median walking speeds than females for all four sites. The pedestrians with luggage at all the four locations had 5-6 m/min higher walking speeds than the ones without luggage, and such an observation was expected to the land use type of the pedestrian facilities. Moreover, the pedestrians in the age category 23-45 years age had the highest walking speeds in comparison to the other age groups for all the locations. The observed maximum flow rate and density were also found to be highest at site 3 in comparison to the other locations.
... Past studies showed that even when such grade-separated facilities were provided, pedestrians were reluctant to use them and crossed illegally using available at-grade median openings (Malik et al. 2017;Saha et al. 2011;Das and Barua 2015;Pasha et al. 2015;Sinclair and Zuidgeest 2016). Researchers across the globe had studied different crossing facilities to understand factors that led to the use or non-use of such grade-separated facilities. ...
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The identification, understanding, and treatment of predictors that drive the use of pedestrian overpass or Foot Over Bridge (FOB) is very much essential for city planners and policymakers. There are paucity of studies that uses modern soft computing techniques to understand the factors driving the use of FOBs. The aim of the work presented here was to identify the important predictors that determines usability of FOBs. The study utilized both questionnaire survey (perception in terms of satisfaction/ dissatisfaction) and field data collected across fourteen locations in six different Indian cities. The goal was to identify the essential features that drive the usability of FOBs under four different contexts i.e., mobility friction, safety and security, vertical connectivity and horizontal connectivity. Three soft computing algorithms such as Generalized Linear Model (GLM), Random Forest (RF) and Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM) were trained to predict the future usability of pedestrians. The modelling approach involved data collection from fourteen FOB locations, preprocessing involving data input in spreadsheets, removing missing values and normalization for model training. The next stage involved splitting the data into training and testing set, followed by model training and hyper parameter optimization using 10-fold Cross Validation (CV). Finally, the developed models were evaluated for test dataset for generalization. The study results revealed that GBM algorithm showed highest classification accuracy on test dataset over the other two techniques at various scenarios. GBM helped in identifying the essential parameters that drive the usability of FOBs under the four different contexts. Sensitivity analysis supported the fact that gender and age had significant impact on the choice of pedestrians under the different contexts. Further, the respondents’ feedbacks regarding existing problems were used to validate the findings. The safety and security, walk environment, frequency of daily use, comfort, location type, length of travel, stairway dimensions and reduced walkable width affected the choice of using the FOBs. Therefore, provision of CCTV cameras and security personnel, removal of obstruction, provision of proper lighting and all-weather shade, and regular maintenance of the facilities will significantly improve the pedestrians’ choice to use the FOBs. The identification of important variables not only provides better insight of factors that affects the choice of pedestrians using the elevated facilities but also provides a valuable source of information to researchers, planners and policymakers to construct a better-planned pedestrian friendly infrastructure.
... A study by [128] tried to compare the usability of a foot over bridge in comparison to the at-grade crossing at Indonesia, and found that only 51% used the bridge and this indicated that the usability needed to be improved to attract more pedestrians. In Bangladesh, [129] conducted qualitative survey over foot over bridges and found that factors such as time of travel, height of the bridge, presence of hawkers and security contributed towards pedestrians being reluctant to use such facilities. The study by [130] in Pakistan, used questionnaire survey technique to understand the perception of pedestrians on the usage of bridges; and found that awareness, safety and security were primary concerns which prevented pedestrians from using the bridges. ...
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Present paper reviewed the past studies on pedestrian flow characteristics (such as speed, flow, density, space, free-flow speed and jam density) and development of Pedestrian Level of Service (PLOS) for various pedestrian facilities (i.e., sidewalk, walkway, crosswalk, grade separated, stairways and escalators. Fundamental relationships (between speed and density) were observed over different facilities and were found to be significantly different. The fundamental relationships for sidewalk facility predicted the range of free flow speeds to be 65−85 m/min and jam densities to be 3.5−5.3 ped/m2. The minimum and maximum pedestrian speeds over sidewalk facility in different countries observed were 52 m/min and 98 m/min respectively, with a mean speed of 79 m/min. The male pedestrians walked at 4−9 m/min higher speed in comparison to their female counterparts; while the older pedestrians walked at 15−20 m/min lower speed than the younger ones over the various types of crosswalk facilities. Similarly, speed-density relationships for ascending and descending stairways showed that the difference between the two directions varied between 4−12 m/min, and that the speed was significantly higher in case of descending direction. Moreover, the jam densities for stairways were also observed to be lower in case of descending direction, as the pedestrians generally maintain higher gap (than in ascending direction) with other pedestrians in front to avoid pushing and the risk of falling down. The flow characteristics were significantly influenced by the type of facility, width, age, gender and location of the study. Primarily factors such as physique (height), culture (dress), attractions (presence of hawkers located along sidewalks), friction (due to parked vehicles), purpose of walking trip and environmental conditions were the main reasons for pedestrians of countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Sri-Lanka to walk significantly slower than the counterparts pedestrians in the USA, UK or Canada. The review conducted on the PLOS mainly looked into the type of survey conducted (qualitative vs. quantitative), LOS parameters and the various software/models used in development of LOS. Researchers from the USA and Japan preferably used both qualitative and quantitative approaches in defining LOS over sidewalks; while in India, China and Malaysia qualitative method was highly preferred. Pedestrian volume, safety, surface, obstruction and width were observed as essential parameters for qualitative survey while density, flow rate, pedestrian speed and width were used in quantitative survey for sidewalks. In developing the PLOS over sidewalk facility; Conjoint analysis, Landis method, HCM method, affinity propagation cluster algorithm and Gainesville method were preferred by various researchers. Studies conducted over crosswalk facility measured space, flow rate, vehicle volume and delay as the most significant factors in developing LOS based on quantitative technique; while vehicle speed, pedestrian volume and traffic control were mostly used for LOS development using qualitative technique.
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As the population of Dhaka City is growing very fast, the sustainable transport policy for Dhaka should strive to retain and expand the modal share of walking trips, which share the majority of all short trips made. But unfortunately, pedestrian facilities may be the most neglected and unattended ones in transport planning of Dhaka city. This paper aims to analyze the effect of demographic factor which shape the behavioral pattern of the pedestrian towards following traffic rule in crossing a road. The paper also illustrates the pedestrian's preferences among different road crossing systems and the underlying factors of preferences through a conduction of 300 questionnaire survey. This paper also focuses on assessing the relative significance of different problems in different types of pedestrian road crossing systems in Dhaka city by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)by means of an expert opinion survey. Finally it presents specific recommendations to ensure safe and efficient pedestrian movement in Dhaka city.
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