BookPDF Available

Latinos in higher education and Hispanic-serving institutions: Creating conditions for success

Authors:

Abstract

Latinos’ postsecondary educational attainment has not kept pace with their growing representation in the U.S. population. How can Latino educational attainment be advanced? This monograph presents relevant contemporary research, focusing on the role of institutional contexts. Drawing particularly on research grounded in Latino students’ perspectives, it identifies key challenges Latino students face and discuss various approaches to address these challenges. Because so many Latino students are enrolled in federally designated Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs), it also specifically explores HSIs’ role in promoting Latinos’ higher education access and equity. As a conclusion, it offers recommendations for institutional, state, and federal policies that can foster supportive contexts. This is Volume 39 Issue 1 of the Jossey-Bass publication ASHE Higher Education Report. Each monograph in the series is the definitive analysis of a tough higher education problem, based on thorough research of pertinent literature and institutional experiences. Topics are identified by a national survey. Noted practitioners and scholars are then commissioned to write the reports, with experts providing critical reviews of each manuscript before publication.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Though facing various challenges, such as limited funding, student under-preparedness, the lack of representation amongst faculty and staff as people of color (Benítez, 1998;Calderon, 2014;Calderón-Galdeano, Flores, & Moder, 2012;De Los Santos & Cuamea, 2010;Hagedorn et al., 2007;Núñez, Hoover, Pickett, Stuart-Carruthers, & Vázquez, 2013), HSIs have strived to increase access, enhance college experience, and support educational outcomes for historically marginalized students that are not only limited to Latinx population (Garcia, 2019). EHSIs, though not qualified for major federal grants, are a growing segment of higher education, largely as a response to the changing demographics. ...
... Community colleges have served as an access point for Latinx students, due to its variety of available programs, proximity to families, and relatively low cost (Benítez & Dearo, 2004;Melguizo, 2007;Núñez et al., 2013). HSCCs are the most prevalent, varied, and rapidly-developing of all minority-serving institutions (MSIs) (Benítez & Dearo, 2004). ...
... Given the growth of Latinx population in their service area (Guzman, 2001;Laden, 1999Laden, , 2004, many community colleges have become eligible to acquire the federal HSI/EHSI designation. As such, HSCCs are uniquely positioned to realize their mission by supporting students' varying educational goals and facilitating access, retention, and success among Latinx students (Corral et al., 2015;Cuellar & Johnson-Ahorlu, 2016;Malcom-Piqueux et al., 2013;Núñez et al., 2013). ...
Article
Over the years, more colleges and universities have gained the designation of Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs) and emerging Hispanic-serving institutions (EHSIs). The Hispanic-serving community colleges (HSCCs) have a dual mission of authentically serving both Latinx students and other marginalized student population. This study aims to examine if community colleges have effectively served this dual mission by expanding access for Latinx students, low-income students, and other students of color upon being designated with the EHSI/HSI status. To answer the research question, we used a national dataset which was drawn from multiple sources between 2010 and 2017 and a generalized difference-in-differences approach. Our findings show that the EHSI/HSI designation increased the proportion of Latinx students and low-income students, but this expansion can be at a cost of access for other students of color. Practical implications are provided, including continuous federal funding, strategic enrollment management, and constant consideration of the dual mission of HSCCs.
... Notably, there are also MSIs outside the US that focus on serving historically underrepresented groups in tertiary education. These global MSIs exist on all continents except Antarctica and serve linguistic and religious minority groups, as well as racial minority groups, within their respective nations (see Hallmark and Gasman 2018). 1 A variety of terms have been applied to this population in the US (Núñez et al. 2013). For the purposes of this piece, we use the term Hispanic to be consistent with the term that the US government uses to define this population, and accordingly, to align with our focus on US federally designated HSIs. 2 We use the terms "computing" and "computing fields" to encompass academic disciplines in the US that are called several names. ...
... These preferences also influence Hispanics' tendencies to be enrolled in less selective and less costly institutions, including community colleges and HSIs specifically (Bowen, Chingos, and McPherson 2009;Núñez and Bowers 2011). These tendencies reflect Hispanic cultural values that stress the importance of prioritizing family care taking ( familismo), minimizing the need to pay for college, and working for pay to establish financial wellbeing (Núñez et al. 2013;Núñez and Sansone 2016). ...
... One US study on women and underrepresented postsecondary students in computing found that students who have a more communal orientation to their studies also report a weaker sense of belonging in computer science (Sax et al. 2018). A communal orientation to education is especially important to Hispanics in general (Núñez et al. 2013). When Hispanics in engineering and computing lack a sense of communal or family orientation in their studies, they report less positive academic experiences, which could adversely affect their success in these fields (López et al. 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Hispanics have become the largest ethnic minority in the US Better serving Hispanics to succeed in tertiary education and scientific fields like computing is critical to build equitable life opportunities and strengthen the US workforce. Typically, the most selective postsecondary institutions are emphasized as exemplary models for developing human capital in the US. Yet, due to the nation’s tertiary education institutional stratification, relatively low numbers of Hispanics are enrolled in these institutions. We examine how Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs), federally designated institutions in the US that enroll at least 25% Hispanics, develop strategies to raise Hispanic attainment in computing fields. Specifically, we explore the activities of HSIs in the Computing Alliance for Hispanic-Serving Institutions (CAHSI), a network of over 60 HSIs and other stakeholders that are committed to raising Hispanic attainment in postsecondary computing. We address the question: How do HSIs in CAHSI employ strategies to develop talent in computing among Hispanics? Specifically, we examine how CAHSI institutions apply values that are grounded in Hispanic communities, including emphases on confianza, respeto, and familia, to support Hispanic students in computer science. Our findings indicate the importance of centering Hispanic cultural assets to improve Hispanic success in computing.
... Even then, he ignores the variation among and between Dominican and Puerto Rican students (Maldonado- Torres, 2011;Torres, 2004). Nevertheless, despite Latinxs representing an exceedingly diverse, pan-ethnic community (Núñez et al., 2013;Page, 2013), participants generally treated Latinx students as a monolith. Also, as Pilar and Liliana's comments reflect, they often (re)produced a deficit narrative of Latinx students-one overlooking how structural inequities translate into opportunity gaps. ...
Article
Full-text available
This critical qualitative study explores Hispanic-serving institutions’ (HSIs) pursuit of racialized federal funds and theorizes the connection between grant seeking and servingness at HSIs. Specifically, the study’s guiding research question was: Why do HSIs pursue racialized Title V funding? Based on interviews with 23 institutional actors at 12 HSIs, including public Hispanic-serving community colleges and both public and private 4-year institutions, the findings suggest that HSIs vie for Title V grants for assorted and, at times, conflicting reasons. Specifically, they seek this racialized funding to (a) pool money, (b) address broad-based institutional needs, (c) signal legitimacy, and (d) support all students. Importantly, some of the reasons have little to do with immediately serving students generally or Latinx students more specifically. Thus, I argue that in their race-evasive pursuit of Title V funds, many HSIs capitalize on their Latinx students, rendering serving into $erving and ghosting the “H” and “S” in HSIs.
... Additionally, it could be construed as a deficit when Latinx students choose not to go to more selective institutions that may be further away from home, even when they are academically qualified (Malcom, 2013). Alternatively, asset-based thinking might recognize the decision to stay closer to home as a strength, given how important family support is to various Latinx educational outcomes (Gloria & Castellanos, 2012;Núñez et al., 2013). Possessing an ability to recognize what students value, rather than identifying what they presumably lack, is another way to counter deficit perspectives. ...
Article
This chapter describes various strength‐based theoretical perspectives useful in understanding the experiences of Latinx community college students. We highlight key findings from studies that utilized these perspectives and conclude with recommendations for practitioners and leaders to consider as they support Latinx students.
Article
Student success programs have achieved demonstrated benefits in broadening participation in the geosciences and other STEM fields. These programs typically require an application from potential participants despite known challenges in recruiting students from historically underrepresented populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an invitational recruitment strategy for engaging undergraduate geology majors in the Geoscience Pathways program at the University of Texas at San Antonio, a large public Hispanic-Serving Institution. The program aimed to improve the academic performance and career preparedness of these majors to facilitate their transition into the geoscience workforce. This strategy involved generating a pool of students who met program selection criteria, delivering personalized paper invitations that guaranteed participation to individuals in classes, and securing their commitment to participate after a program briefing. Using paper invitations to communicate with selected students gave higher response rates about attending the program briefing than using email to reach invitees. Of the students attending briefings, nearly 90% decided to participate, with their demographics generally matching those of their peers at the same educational level. Based on focus groups and surveys, receipt of personalized invitations also positively impacted the self-efficacy and motivation of participants. Results indicate that carefully planned recruitment processes are central to developing programs to engage populations that have historically participated less in the geosciences and other STEM fields. Actively working toward the participation of all students of potential can help propel underrepresented groups into a geoscience career carrying increased motivation, skills, and experience to address the projected workforce shortfall.
Article
The growth of the Latina/o population has been met with a backlash that has increased experiences of discrimination. Differences in gender, education, and acculturation often result in experiences of discrimination. Despite the importance of acculturation, few attempts have been made to understand the structural environment surrounding those experiences (i.e., social networks). Using ego network data, the current study examines the relationship between enculturation (a traditional indicator of acculturation), network language use, acculturative pressures, structural social support characteristics, and experiences of discrimination among a college-enrolled sample of Latinas/os (N=139). Over half of respondents were female (61%) with ages ranging from 18 to 63 and reported largely first (43%) and second generational status (27%). Findings indicate that pressure to acculturate was the strongest variable associated with experiences of discrimination. Network language use moderated by gender emerged over enculturation as more closely related to experiences of discrimination. The interaction term between gender and network language use revealed potentially different risk and protective factors for Latinas/os related to experiences of discrimination. Structural support variables associated with respondents’ social networks appear to provide some protective value but do not attenuate the relationship between pressure to acculturate and experiences of discrimination. In the current study, ego networks proved useful in identifying factors related to experiences of discrimination. Future research should continue to explore the importance of a person’s immediate social structure (i.e., ego networks) in protecting and exposing Latinas/os to harmful and health benefiting experiences. https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1cAQW_3MAvdF-s
Article
The purpose of this historical study was to investigate how individuals articulated the call for the South Texas/Border Initiative, a legislative mandate that funneled unprecedented amounts of funding to underserved universities along the Texas-Mexico border region between 1987 and 2003. Utilizing archival sources, we conducted an analysis of the intentional shifts in funding critical to equity and access in higher education. The events surrounding the South Texas/Border Initiative are unique in that they represent purposeful Latina/o community and state-wide activism that challenged higher education funding inequities.
Article
Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs) increasingly provide educational opportunities for underrepresented groups such as Latinx students; however, their categorization as minority-serving institutions is a function of their enrollment data rather than an explicit commitment to serving specific cultural needs. The authors of this study add to the literature on HSIs by further recognizing the need for community colleges to delve further into the different experiences of Latino males based on the intersection of race and gender. This study as part of the Texas Education Consortium for Male Students of Color explored how HSI community college might express a commitment to serving Latino males through the design and implementation of programming. The authors utilized a framework including concepts of HSI organizational identity, norms of racism in higher education, and gendered racism to conceptualize a Latino male-serving organizational identity. Findings revealed that colleges should go beyond Latino male outcomes to create a culture of commitment embedded throughout the college and not just isolated to men of color programming. This research has implications for the significant role that HSI community colleges can take in becoming leaders in serving Latino males through a purposeful and intentional commitment.
Article
Objective: This study examined how a set of theoretically derived factors predicted the educational attainment outcomes of Latina/o community college students. The guiding research question was, “What precollege and background characteristics, college experiences, and environmental pull factors uniquely predict persistence, certificate or associate degree completion, and transfer or bachelor’s degree completion for a national sample of Latina/o community college students?” Method: Three logistic regression analyses were conducted using a nationally represented sample from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS: 04/09). Results: Latina/o community college student educational outcomes were found to be related to demographic or precollege variables including primary language spoken in the home, citizenship status, socioeconomic status, degree expectations; college experiences including academic integration, first-year college grade point average (GPA), enrollment intensity, co-enrollment; and environmental pull factors including the receipt of a federal student loan and Pell Grant. Conclusion: Findings underscore the importance of financial aid in promoting success outcomes and alleviate affordability concerns for Latina/o community college students. Findings also reinforce the notion of considering educational intentions when developing advising services and programs that foster or match those ambitions. Doing so will improve both student outcomes and institutional effectiveness.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.