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Abstract

Food innovations have a high failure rate. Among other reasons, this is due to failure to understand the benefits consumers look for in the products. This study analyzes the decision structures of consumers in different age ranges (one of the variables significant in the adoption of innovations) in relation to a novel food. Our research was carried out applying means-end chain theory. Results show that consumption decisions were similar regardless of consumers’ age when they are presented with a traditional consumer product. However, the structure becomes more complex in the case of a novel food item, especially among young consumers.
... Understanding the "new" consumers, what they want, and what they need has become not only a competitive advantage but also a necessity for survival. Successful strategies are a combination of consumer understanding, attributes, and benefits that they seek out in products as aspects of their own personality outsourced by the use of those same products (Barrenar et al., 2015). ...
... It is possible to understand MEC as a method to understand why consumers buy certain products or brands, working as a tool to meet marketing demands such as new product development, brand positioning, advertising strategies, and market segmentation. Hofstede et al. (1998) states that the MEC theory has its basis in the work of psychologists (Tolman, 1932) and economists (Abbott, 1955), who recognized that the consumer does not purchase products simply for what they are but because of what they can do for them. According to the author, the MEC theory postulates that consumer knowledge has a hierarchical organization through a structure that connects the product's attributes to the consequences of its use to consumers' personal values. ...
... In addition, the controlled environment of the production process and the limited humananimal interaction would allow for improvements regarding both health and safety, thereby reducing the risks of zoonosis and other diseases (Mancini and Antonioli, 2019). Some authors highlighted how understanding the benefits consumers look for in the products (Barrenar et al., 2015) may avoid food innovations' failure rate. ...
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The food industry has confronted, in recent years, numerous issues including meeting a food demand for individual well-being in a sufficient and healthy manner, also due to the effects of the world population growth. In this scenario, alternative food sources may be a key element both for their contribution to food needs and for the promotion of sustainable and innovative production patterns. These food sources, new compared to traditional food styles, have been regulated by specific European Union regulations under the definition of novel foods. Their importance in the world has raised different topics of scientific research. The present paper aimed to seize the direction of scientific studies in the world focused on the thematic area of novel foods, from the management point of view. At the scope, this study analyzed 209 papers and carried out a descriptive analysis and a network analysis of the thematic areas under examination also with the help of the software Vosviewer. The results highlighted the importance of scientific research in the world also for the contributions on the exploration of existing markets as well as for the innovative solutions it provides, which aim to expand market possibilities. Finally, the existence of several elements and factors, that may discourage the propensity to consume and therefore the development of the novel foods market, seemed to emerge, and for this reason, many surveys focused on finding solutions to overcome these potential obstacles.
... Understanding the "new" consumers, what they want, and what they need has become not only a competitive advantage but also a necessity for survival. Successful strategies are a combination of consumer understanding, attributes, and benefits that they seek out in products as aspects of their own personality outsourced by the use of those same products (Barrenar et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
Coffee stands out in the list of commodities transacted in the international and national markets. Many nations have in this drink the mainstay of their economies, with the demand for products growing in almost every region of the globe. Considering the farms that work in coffee cultivation, those of small size predominate, with the majority allocation of family labor in the management of crop harvesting. The compilation of the statistics from 2012 to 2017 showed a more accentuated pace of consumption - especially among the younger ones, compared to production with a consequent shrinkage of total stocks. The habit of consuming the beverage fits perfectly with the contemporary lifestyle, making coffee an essential commodity in the daily life of a considerable part of the world population. The phenomenon of "climate change", apparently, could negatively affect this crop, due to the greater frequency observed of the so-called climatic extremes.
... However, despite thorough preparation, there has been a high rate of failure (65-90%) with innovative food introductions [22]. This could be caused by a lack of consumer understanding, insufficient market orientation from the producers' point of view or food neophobia [23]. The risk of a meat substitute not succeeding in the food market can be reduced by careful market research into target consumer segments and especially the innovator segment [24]. ...
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This article reviews empirical research on consumers’ adoption of meat substitutes published up to spring 2018. Recent meat substitutes often have sustainable characteristics in line with consumers’ concerns over aspects of healthy food and the environmental impact of food production. However, changing lifestyles with less time for cooking, any transition from a strongly meat-based to a more plant-based diet depends on the successful establishment of convenient meat substitutes. This article reviews the growing body of research on meat substitutes. These research articles were classified into five different stages in line with the innovation-decision process of: knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation and confirmation. The research was analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively, with results suggesting that although health, environmental and animal welfare aspects can persuade consumers and influence their decision to try a meat substitute, the appearance and taste of those meat substitutes are crucial factors for their consumption on a regular basis. However, there still remains a gap in research articles focusing on the regular consumption of meat substitutes.
... Elements of differentiation for young consumers are more concerned with the image and packaging of products, brands and prices, all of which are regarded as a symbol of quality and social status. These factors are worthy to be considered when designing a product specifically in increasing consumption of the millennial consumer class [17]. Consumers of Generation Y associate new products, especially with the introduction of food without preservatives and pasteurization as well as reduction of unfavorable ingredients for health [18]. ...
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Product development based on customers preference needs to be performed by the manufacturer along with the development of technology and change of consumer needs to a product or service. The aim of this study was to develop the quality of chocolate products of small medium enterprises (SMEs) to be more competitive in the domestic market. Currently, the chocolate market is dominated by imported chocolate products with better product quality and marketing network. The method used was the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) approach, where customer needs are used as the basis for product development. Through the QFD method, it can produce a product development design priority that can be implemented in response to customer need. Results of analysis and calculation using QFD method showed that the top priority for technical response was “skill & knowledge of R&D (research & development) team” with a value of 346.3. The QFD analysis also showed that “chocolate content” is also a priority in product development with a value of 212.8. The quality of chocolate products highly depend on the level of expertise and knowledge of the product development team, as well as the composition of chocolate content. The SME’s chocolate managements may give priority based on the assessment of each technical response in accordance with their own capabilities and resources.
... Barrena and Sánchez, 2009;Zagata, 2014), meat products (e.g. Barrena and Sánchez, 2009;Barrena et al., 2015); dairy products (e.g. Grunert and Valli, 2001); genetically modified food (e.g. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to uncover the personal values driving Indonesian and Malaysian Muslims’ consumption decisions with respect to halal food. Design/methodology/approach The personal values of 130 Indonesian and 80 Malaysian Muslims have been analyzed, using a means-end chain (MEC) approach, in relation to halal food. Findings Primary personal values are identified as a better sense of personal security. This is ascribed as seeking “better future” and “go to heaven.” Other personal values are related to tradition, benevolence and achievement. Research limitations/implications Since this study was conducted in both the capital cities of Indonesia and Malaysia, this study might not take account of cultural diversity within the two countries’ Muslim communities. Practical implications An understanding of the personal values governing Muslim consumption is a useful tool toward improving the promotion of halal certification and food products. Originality/value This study reveals the personal values of Indonesian and Malaysian Muslims with underpinning their consumption of halal food.
... Innovation features are demonstrated to influence acceptance, particularly in the case of behavior within the field of food innovation (Dekkers et al., 2006;Evans and Cox, 2006;Van Wezemael et al., 2014;Sudbury and Simcock, 2009;Barrenar et al., 2015;Cardello et al., 2007). These include basic features such as price, complexity, convenience, taste and appearance. ...
Article
This systematic review was performed starting from the understanding of the complexity that characterizes the human relationship to food, combining different dimensions, ranging from those aspects going from the biological (nutritional function) to the cultural (symbolic function), as well as the ones linking the individual to the community, the psychological to the social. Addressing this multi-dimensional character is at the base of sound research paths aiming at assessing the determinants of consumers' choices and behaviors. This systematic review analyses and synthetizes the main results of recent studies dealing with food neophobia and neophilia with regard to new technologies applied to the food sector, both in the context of developed countries and in developing ones. In particular, main factors leading to caution and aversion for food technologies were identified and discussed, as well as different approaches to measure consumers' resistance to the mentioned technologies and to predict consumers' behavior.Scopus and Web of Science engines were used to search the existing literature and to identify the relevant studies to include, conducted in different countries and by means of different methodological approaches. These studies investigated the mentioned consumers' choices and behaviors, that are influenced by many interacting factors; the adoption of a relevant conceptual framework allows the distinction between distal (or primary) determinants, and proximal (or secondary) ones. Communication and attitudes or psychometric models constitute the base of the cited framework, and the link between the two determinants categories. In particular, an effective tool capable of enhancing the understanding of the neophobia-neophilia forces that determine food choices is the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS), with its fourcomponents constituting the base of a sound analysis of the influence on the mentioned choices of each single neophobia-neophilia force (risk perception and novelty seeking, media influence, own health and environmental concerns) as well as a device to turn the four components into a single, comprehensive framework. Finally, the case of consumer acceptance of the eating of insects is discussed as an emerging trend in food science.
Over time, researchers have explored and used diverse methodologies and innovative techniques to gain a better understanding of consumer behaviour. The laddering technique, in particular, has drawn considerable interest in recent years. Scholars across various fields have produced valuable findings using the Association Pattern Technique (APT) as a hard laddering technique. Compared to soft laddering, however, its potential to uncover consumers’ behavioural processes has not yet been optimised, probably due to several misconceptions. Following a systematic review of APT studies, prevailing issues are highlighted and an interactive electronic APT is proposed as a useful guideline for expanding future consumer behaviour research with actionable implications across different disciplines, including retailing.
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The utility of the concept of the "Nine Nations of North America" for segmentation was tested by comparing several geographic segmentation systems with values in a probability sample of the coterminous United States. The evidence does not mandate abandoning the Bureau of Census regions. Managerial implications are discussed.
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The marketing concept states that firms who first determine and then satisfy customer needs should realize superior performance. Market orientation (MO) operationalizes the marketing concept and is the organization-wide generation of market intelligence, dissemination of the intelligence across departments, and organization-wide responsiveness to it (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990). Market oriented firms should enjoy successful new product programs (Slater and Narver, 1994). However, empirical findings are mixed. This research conceptualizes MO at the departmental level, specifically within cross-functional new product teams. Findings here suggest inter- functional market orientation (IFMO), between marketing and technology groups, is directly related to new product program success.
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Purpose The purpose of the paper is to analyse the main dynamics of the Italian food system, focusing on the relationships between the inclination to innovate and a set of firm characteristics. Design/methodology/approach The empirical analysis includes two steps. In the first, principal component analysis is carried out in order to identify factors that can explain the features that differentiate Italian food firms. In the second phase the role of such factors on innovation behaviour is quantified by means of a logit model. Findings The empirical analysis showed that, in the Italian food sector, innovation adoption follows different patterns when product or process innovation is considered. In particular, the probability of introducing product innovation is influenced by the quality of human capital, the geographical context and, to a lesser extent, the age of the firm. Research limitations/implications The research is restricted in so far as it only considers the Italian food sector. Because the data survey is representative only at the level of the manufacturing industry as a whole and excludes firms with fewer than ten employees, the analysis for the food sector can only be indicative. Practical implications This paper provides a useful source of knowledge on the innovative behaviour of Italian firms. This highlights the need to provide for diversified intervention strategies to stimulate and enforce innovation in the Italian food sector. Originality/value The research provides some initial insight into firm perspectives in the role of innovations to enhance firms’ market competitiveness.
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To practitioner and researcher alike, consumer values play an important role in understanding behavior in the marketplace. This paper presents a model linking perceived product attributes to values.
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A new research tool helps marketers dimensionalize people's feelings about products and services quantitatively as well as qualitatively.
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Human values are assessed biannually in a multinational sample as part of the European Social Survey (ESS). Based on theories of adaptive ageing, it was predicted that ten lower order values and four higher order values would show age differences that would be invariant across (a) two sample cohorts (2002 and 2008), (b) gender and (c) 12 industrialised nations. The value categories measured by the ESS are the following: conservative values (tradition, conformity and security), openness to change values (self-direction, hedonism and stimulation), self-transcendent values (universalism, benevolence) and self-enhancement values (power, achievement). Of the ten lower order values, tradition shows the strongest positive relation with adult age, while the value of stimulation shows the strongest negative relation with age. With regards to the four higher order value categories, conservative values increased across age groups, while openness to change values decreased. Neither of these value types showed cohort or gender differences. Self-transcendence values were greater in midlife and older adults compared with young adults, were higher in women than in men, and higher in the 2008 compared with the 2002 cohort. Self-enhancement values showed a negative relation with age, with men of all age groups scoring higher in this value type than women. Age effects on the four higher order value types were replicated across all 12 countries in the sample, with the single exception of self-enhancement values in Spain, which show no relation with age.
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Recent developments at the consumer and at the farm level have resulted in a renewed interest in short market channels for fresh food. This paper focuses on consumer valuation of purchasing fresh food from short channels in general and on differences between two distinct types of short channel initiatives, i.e., farmers' markets and food teams as examples of supply- and demand-side driven initiatives respectively. The research methodology builds on the Means-End-Chain theory. Data are collected through laddering interviews with 100 respondents. The general hierarchical value map largely supports classical theories of value structures. “Security” is the predominant value type with “Health” as the major value. Further, a distinct “Hedonism” and “Universalism” cluster are discovered, with the first being built on the attribute “Freshness,” the consequence “Taste” and the value “Pleasure,” and the latter including environmental, animal welfare and regional development concerns. Specific motivation structures dealing with farmers' markets versus food teams are reported. Recommendations pertain to organizational and marketing issues, more specifically product positioning, innovation and communication based on the revealed Means-End-Chains or motivational structures.
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This article explores the relationships between innate consumer innovativeness, personal characteristics, and new-product adoption behavior. To do this, the authors analyze cross-sectional data from a household panel using a structural equation modeling approach. They also test for potential moderating effects using a two-stage least square estimation procedure. They find that the personal characteristics of age and income are stronger predictors of new-product ownership in the consumer electronics category than innate consumer innovativeness as a generalized personality trait. The authors also find that personal characteristics neither influence innate consumer innovativeness nor moderate the relationship between innate consumer innovativeness and new-product adoption behavior.
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Purpose The food processing industry, confronted with increased global competition and more stringent customer demands, is pressurized to improve the pace and quality of its innovation processes. This paper aims to find out what factors constitute the main drivers and barriers to innovation and to explore how far the food processing industry can rely on the principles of innovation management developed in high‐tech industries to improve its innovation performance. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on the investigation of nine multinational food processing companies with their headquarters and/or major operations in The Netherlands. For this study a research questionnaire was developed, based on theoretical insights derived from the industrial organization theory and the resource‐based view. In each company the research director, CTO, or CEO completed the questionnaire and was interviewed about different aspects of innovation management. Findings The food processing industry can indeed rely on the principles of innovation management. However, there is clear room for improvement. Especially the potential of “open innovation” with suppliers and buyers to leverage innovation resources and capabilities is underutilized. Interestingly, the uneven power distribution in the chain, especially the high pressure of buyers, acts as a strong driver for innovation. Seen in this light it is noteworthy that in most companies the communication from R&D to marketing needs further improvement to enhance customer orientation, one of the main drivers of innovation success. Originality/value This study is the first to investigate innovation management concepts related to success in the food processing industry.
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Discusses five barriers to new product adoption by older people. Offers marketing solutions to these barriers: sell value, communicate through children, segment the elderly market, design intergenerational products, utilize relationship marketing and promote product trial. Concludes that marketing innovations to the elderly is different than for other age groups, with a requirement to focus specifically on need, not newness.