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Phenotypic and Biotypic Characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca: An Impact of Biofield Treatment

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Abstract

Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca) is a Gram-negative microbe generally associated with community and hospital-acquired infections. Due to its clinical significance, we evaluated the effect of biofield treatment on phenotype and biotype characteristics of K. oxytoca (ATCC 43165). The study was performed into three groups i.e. C (control), T1 (treatment, revived); and T2 (treatment, lyophilized). Subsequently, groups T1 and T2 were received biofield treatment and control group was remained as untreated. The antimicrobial sensitivity results showed 3.33% and 6.67% alteration in antimicrobials susceptibility in group T1 cells on day 5 and 10, respectively, and 3.33% alteration in antimicrobials susceptibility was observed in group T2 cells on day 10 as compared to control. The sensitivity patterns of cefazolin were changed from resistant (R) to intermediate (I) on day 5, and resistance (R) to susceptible (S) on day 10, in T1 cells of K. oxytoca. The MIC value of cefazolin was decreased by 2-fold in group T1 on day 10 as compared to control. The biofield treated K. oxytoca exhibited the changes in biochemical reactions about 3.03% and 15.15% of total tested biochemicals in group T1 cells on day 5 and 10, respectively as compared to control. The biotype number of K. oxytoca was altered in biofield treated group and organism identified as Raoultella ornithinolytica in T1 on day 10 as compared to control, which is the prominent finding of this study. These changes were found in treated bacteria that might be due to some alteration happened in metabolic/enzymatic pathway and/or at genetic level of K. oxytoca. Based on these data, it is speculated that biofiled treatment could be an alternative approach that can improve the effectiveness of the existing antimicrobials against the resistant pathogens.
Volume 7(4): 202-205 (2015) - 202
J Microb Biochem Technol
ISSN: 1948-5948 JMBT, an open access journal
Research Article Open Access
Trivedi et al., J Microb Biochem Technol 2015, 7:4
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/1948-5948.1000205
Research Article Open Access
Microbial & Biochemical Technology
*Corresponding author: Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory
Pvt. Ltd., Chinar Fortune City, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel: +91-755-
6660006; E-mail: publication@trivedisrl.com
Received June 19, 2015; Accepted June 24, 2015; Published July 01, 2015
Citation: Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Phenotypic and
Biotypic Characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca: An Impact of Bioeld Treatment. J
Microb Biochem Technol 7:4 202-205. doi:10.4172/1948-5948.1000205
Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Abstract
Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca) is a Gram-negative microbe generally associated with community and hospital-
acquired infections. Due to its clinical signicance, we evaluated the effect of bioeld treatment on phenotype and
biotype characteristics of K. oxytoca (ATCC 43165). The study was performed into three groups i.e. C (control),
T1 (treatment, revived); and T2 (treatment, lyophilized). Subsequently, groups T1 and T2 were received bioeld
treatment and control group was remained as untreated. The antimicrobial sensitivity results showed 3.33% and
6.67% alteration in antimicrobials susceptibility in group T1 cells on day 5 and 10, respectively, and 3.33% alteration
in antimicrobials susceptibility was observed in group T2 cells on day 10 as compared to control. The sensitivity
patterns of cefazolin were changed from resistant (R) to intermediate (I) on day 5, and resistance (R) to susceptible
(S) on day 10, in T1 cells of K. oxytoca. The MIC value of cefazolin was decreased by 2-fold in group T1 on day
10 as compared to control. The bioeld treated K. oxytoca exhibited the changes in biochemical reactions about
3.03% and 15.15% of total tested biochemicals in group T1 cells on day 5 and 10, respectively as compared to
control. The biotype number of K. oxytoca was altered in bioeld treated group and organism identied as Raoultella
ornithinolytica in T1 on day 10 as compared to control, which is the prominent nding of this study. These changes
were found in treated bacteria that might be due to some alteration happened in metabolic/enzymatic pathway and/
or at genetic level of K. oxytoca. Based on these data, it is speculated that bioled treatment could be an alternative
approach that can improve the effectiveness of the existing antimicrobials against the resistant pathogens.
Phenotypic and Biotypic Characterization of
Klebsiella oxytoca
: An Impact
of Biofield Treatment
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi1, Shrikant Patil1, Harish Shettigar1, Khemraj Bairwa2 and Snehasis Jana2*
1Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA
2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Chinar Fortune City, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Keywords: Antimicrobials; Biochemicals; Bioeld treatment;
Biotype; Klebsiella oxytoca
Introduction
Microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are
continuously acquiring the resistance against existing antimicrobials
that possess a major global threat to public health. In the latest report
of World Health Organization (WHO) warned to the occurrence
of post-antibiotic era, where people will die from simple microbial
infections due to ineectiveness of current antimicrobials. Frequent
and improper use of antimicrobial further accelerated the incidence of
microbial resistance [1,2].
Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca) is a rod-shaped, nonmotile, Gram-
negative bacterium with a prominent polysaccharide capsule, which
provides a resistance against host defense mechanisms. Klebsiella
species are normally associated with the community and hospital-
acquired infections particularly in immunocompromised patients.
e patients having prostatectomies, neurosurgical procedures,
intravascular catheters, colonoscopies, platelet transfusions, urinary
tract infections (UTI), and pre-existing viral or antibiotic induced
colitis are more prone to K. oxytoca infection [3]. K. oxytoca has
developing the enzymes extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)
and carbapenemases that lead to bacterial resistance to β-lactam
antibiotics. erefore, K. oxytoca is usually resistant to some antibiotics
like cefotaxime, ceazidime and aztreonam [4,5]. Recently, bioeld
treatment is reported for the alteration in sensitivity of antimicrobials
against the tested microorganism [6].
e conversion of mass into energy is well known in literature for
hundreds of years that was further explained by Fritz [7] and Einstein
[8]. e energy can exist in various forms like kinetic, potential,
electrical, magnetic, and nuclear; and can be produced from dierent
sources. Correspondingly, the nervous system of human also consists
of neurons that have the ability to transmit information in the form
of electrical signals [9-11]. us, human has the ability to harness the
energy from environment or universe and can transmit into any living
or nonliving object(s) around the globe. e objects always receive the
energy and responding into useful way that is called bioeld energy and
the process is known as bioeld treatment.
Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld treatment is well-known to change the
various physicochemical characteristics of metals and ceramics
[12-14]. e quality and yield of several agriculture products have
also been improved with several folds in the bioeld treated plants
[15]. Exposure to bioeld energy caused an increase in growth and
anatomical characteristics of plant [16]. Further, the bioeld treatment
has considerably altered susceptibility of antimicrobials and biotype
number of microbe [6,17,18].
By conceiving the above mentioned facts and literature reports
on bioeld, the present work was undertaken to evaluate the impact
of bioeld treatment on antimicrobials susceptibility, biochemical
reactions pattern, and biotype of K. oxytoca.
Materials and Methods
Two lyophilized vials of K. oxytoca [American Type Culture
Citation: Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Phenotypic and Biotypic Characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca: An Impact of
Bioeld Treatment. J Microb Biochem Technol 7:4 202-205. doi:10.4172/1948-5948.1000204
Volume 7(4): 202-205 (2015) - 203
J Microb Biochem Technol
ISSN: 1948-5948 JMBT, an open access journal
Collection (ATCC) 43165] were procured from MicroBioLogics, Inc.,
USA. ese vials were stored as per the suggested storage conditions
till the further use. e antimicrobials susceptibility study, biochemical
reactions patterns, and biotype number were evaluated on MicroScan
Walk-Away® (Dade Behring Inc., West Sacramento, CA) using Negative
Breakpoint Combo 30 (NBPC30) panel [19]. e antimicrobials and
biochemicals used in the study were procured from Sigma-Aldrich.
Study design
e lyophilized cells of K. oxytoca were divided into three groups:
C (control), T1 (treatment, revived) and T2 (treatment, lyophilized).
e treatment groups (T1 and T2) were in sealed pack and handed over
to Mr. Trivedi for bioeld treatment under laboratory condition. Mr.
Trivedi provided the treatment through his energy transmission process
to the treated groups without touching the samples. Subsequently,
groups C and T1 were assessed on day 5 and 10, and group T2 was
assessed on day 10, for the antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical
reactions, and biotype number.
Investigation of antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganism
e antimicrobial susceptibility study was carried out on MicroScan
Walk-Away® using negative breakpoint combo 30 (NBPC30) panel, as
per manufacturer's instructions. Briey, the standardized suspension
of K. oxytoca were inoculated, rehydrated, and then subjected to
incubation for 16 h at 35°C. Aer that, the susceptibility pattern like
susceptible (S), intermediate (I) or resistant (R); and quantitative
susceptibility in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
were determined by observing the lowest antimicrobial concentration
showing growth inhibition [20-22]. e antimicrobials used for the
sensitivity study were amikacin, amoxicillin/K-clavulanate, ampicillin/
sulbactam, ampicillin, aztreonam, cefazolin, cefepime, cefotaxime,
cefotetan, cefoxitin, ceazidime, ceriaxone, cefuroxime, cephalothin,
chloramphenicol, ciprooxacin, gatioxacin, gentamicin, imipenem,
levooxacin, meropenem, moxioxacin, nitrofurantoin, noroxacin,
piperacillin, tazobactam, tetracycline, ticarcillin/K- clavulanate,
tobramycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
Study of biochemical reaction
e study of biochemical reactions was carried out on MicroScan
Walk-Away® system [23]. e biochemicals used in present work
were acetamide, adonitol, arabinose, arginine, cetrimide, cephalothin,
citrate, colistin, esculin hydrolysis, nitrofurantoin, glucose, hydrogen
sulde, indole, inositol, kanamycin, lysine, malonate, melibiose,
nitrate, oxidation-fermentation, galactosidase, ornithine, oxidase,
penicillin, ranose, rhaminose, sorbitol, sucrose, tartarate, tryptophan
deaminase, tobramycin, urea and Voges-Proskauer.
Assessment of biotype number
Eect of bioeld treatment on biotype number and organism
identication were determined using MicroScan Walk-Away®
processed panel data report [20]
Results
Antimicrobial susceptibility assay
e results of antimicrobial susceptibility study and MIC values
are summarized in Table 1 and 2, respectively. e results showed
about 3.33% and 6.67% alteration in antimicrobials susceptibility in
group T1 cells on day 5 and 10, respectively, and 3.33% alteration in
antimicrobials susceptibility was found in group T2 cells on day 10 as
compared to control. Concisely, the K. oxytoca was converted from
S → I against ampicillin/sulbactam in T2 cells on day 10; and R → I
and S against cefazolin in T1 cells on day 5 and 10, respectively. e
K. oxytoca showed an alteration from S → R against tetracycline in T1
cells on day 10. e MIC data suggested about 2-folds decrease in MIC
value of cefazolin, and more than 2-folds increase in MIC value of
tetracycline in T1 cells of K. oxytoca on day 10, as compared to control.
Furthermore, the susceptibility pattern of K. oxytoca to ampicillin/
sulbactam was also changed from S → I in T2 cell on day 10 with about
2-folds increase in MIC value as compared to control (Table 2).
Identication of K. oxytoca using biochemical reactions
pattern
e biochemical reactions data are shown in Table 3. K. oxytoca
exhibited an alteration in biochemical reactions about 3.03% and
15.15% of total tested biochemicals on day 5 and 10, respectively.
e colistin, nitrofurantoin, hydrogen sulde, and ornithine were
converted from negative (–) to positive (+) reaction in group T1 on
day 10, and tartarate was converted from positive (+) to negative
(–) reaction in group T1 on both day 5 and 10. e results showed
no change in biochemical reactions patterns of group T2 cells, as
compared to control (Table 3).
Eect of bioeld treatment on biotype number
S. No. Antimicrobial C T1 T2 day 10
day 5 day 10
1 Amikacin S S S S
2 Amoxicillin/K-clavulanate S S S S
3 Ampicillin/Sulbactam S S S I
4 Ampicillin R R R R
5 Aztreonam S S S S
6 Cefazolin R I S R
7 Cefepime S S S S
8 Cefotaxime S S S S
9 Cefotetan S S S S
10 Cefoxitin S S S S
11 Ceftazidime S S S S
12 Ceftriaxone S S S S
13 Cefuroxime S S S S
14 Cephalothin S S S S
15 Chloramphenicol S S S S
16 Ciprooxacin S S S S
17 Gatioxacin S S S S
18 Gentamicin S S S S
19 Imipenem S S S S
20 Levooxacin S S S S
21 Meropenem S S S S
22 Moxioxacin S S S S
23 Nitrofurantoin R R R R
24 Noroxacin S S S S
25 Piperacillin S S S S
26 Tazobactam S S S S
27 Tetracycline S S R S
28 Ticarcillin/K clavulanate S S S S
29 Tobramycin S S S S
30 Trimethoprim/
sulfamethoxazole S S S S
C: Control group; T: Treatment group; I: Intermediate; S: Susceptible; R: Resistant
Table 1: Effect of bioeld treatment on K. oxytoca to antimicrobial susceptibility.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Phenotypic and Biotypic Characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca: An Impact of
Bioeld Treatment. J Microb Biochem Technol 7:4 202-205. doi:10.4172/1948-5948.1000204
Volume 7(4): 202-205 (2015) - 204
J Microb Biochem Technol
ISSN: 1948-5948 JMBT, an open access journal
S. No. Antimicrobial C
T1 T2 day
10
day 5 day 10
1 Amikacin ≤16 ≤16 ≤16 ≤16
2Amoxicillin/K-
clavulanate ≤8/4 ≤8/4 ≤8/4 ≤8/4
3 Ampicillin/Sulbactam ≤8/4 ≤8/4 ≤8/4 16/8
4 Ampicillin >16 >16 >16 >16
5 Aztreonam ≤8 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
6 Cefazolin >16 16 ≤8 >16
7 Cefepime ≤8 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
8 Cefotaxime ≤8 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
9 Cefotetan ≤16 ≤16 ≤16 ≤16
10 Cefoxitin ≤8 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
11 Ceftazidime ≤8 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
12 Ceftriaxone ≤8 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
13 Cefuroxime ≤4 ≤4 ≤4 ≤4
14 Cephalothin ≤8 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
15 Chloramphenicol ≤8 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8
16 Ciprooxacin ≤1 ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
17 Gatioxacin ≤2 ≤2 ≤2 ≤2
18 Gentamicin ≤4 ≤4 ≤4 ≤4
19 Imipenem ≤4 ≤4 ≤4 ≤4
20 Levooxacin ≤2 ≤2 ≤2 ≤2
21 Meropenem ≤4 ≤4 ≤4 ≤4
22 Moxioxacin ≤2 ≤2 ≤2 ≤2
23 Nitrofurantoin ≤32 ≤32 >64 ≤32
24 Noroxacin ≤4 ≤4 ≤4 ≤4
25 Piperacillin ≤16 ≤16 ≤16 ≤16
26 Tazobactam ≤16 ≤16 ≤16 ≤16
27 Tetracycline ≤4 ≤4 >8 ≤4
28 Ticarcillin/K
clavulanate ≤16 ≤16 ≤16 ≤16
29 Tobramycin ≤4 ≤4 ≤4 ≤4
30 Trimethoprim/
sulfamethoxazole ≤2/38 ≤2/38 ≤2/38 ≤2/38
C: Control group; T: Treatment group; MIC data is presented in µg/mL
Table 2: Effect of bioeld treatment on K. oxytoca to minimum inhibitory
concentration (MIC) of tested antimicrobial.
Biotype number of K. oxytoca was determined on MicroScan
Walk-Away® processed panel, using biochemical reactions data. e
result demonstrated an alteration in biotype number of K. oxytoca in
group T1 on day 10, as compared to control. e change in the species
from K. oxytoca to Raoultella ornithinolytica (formerly known as
Klebsiella ornithinolytica) was also found in group T1 on day 10 (Table
4), which describes the most signicant impact of bioeld treatment
in this study.
Discussion
Antimicrobial resistance in several microbes has been increased
vigorously in recent time. Generally, microorganisms mutate and
nally become resistant to antibiotics. Unfortunately, due to improper
or misuse of antimicrobials the incidences of antimicrobial resistance
in microbes are observing in faster rate than expected [24]. As a result,
discovery of antimicrobial drug therapy is a slow and time-consuming
process. Recently, there are reports wherein, the susceptibility of
microbe was altered from resistance to susceptible or inversely using
the bioeld treatment [17,18]. erefore, present work investigates
the eect of bioeld treatment on K. oxytoca, and evaluated its impact
on susceptibility and biochemical reactions pattern to the selected
antimicrobials and biochemicals.
Recently, K. oxytoca is acquiring resistant to some cephalosporins
and uoroquinolones antifungal drugs. K. oxytoca have an inherent
enzyme β-lactamase that confers a low-level resistance to penicillins.
It also carries the eux pump on the cell wall that causes reduced
intracellular concentrations of antimicrobials and induces phenotypic
resistance [4,5,25-27]. e sensitivity of K. oxytoca before and
aer treatment was determined by comparing the MIC value of
antimicrobial to the attainable blood or urine level as per the Clinical
and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline. e results of
antifungal sensitivity study revealed the changes in antimicrobial
sensitivity and MIC values of few tested antimicrobials like ampicillin/
sulbactam, cefazolin, and tetracycline against K. oxytoca. Cefazolin is a
rst-generation cephalosporin that was initially used for wide range of
microbial infections. In the present study, K. oxytoca showed resistance
to cefazolin in control sample; however, aer bioeld treatment, the
sensitivity was changed from resistant to intermediate and susceptible
on 5 and 10 day, respectively. It revealed that using bioeld treatment K.
oxytoca infection can be eectively overcome by cefazolin. Contrarily,
the results also showed the alteration in the sensitivity of K. oxytoca
S. No. Code Biochemical C T1 T2 day
10
day 5 day 10
1 ACE Acetamide - - - -
2 ADO Adonitol + + + +
3 ARA Arabinose + + + +
4 ARG Arginine - - - -
5 CET Cetrimide - - - -
6 CF8 Cephalothin - - - -
7 CIT Citrate + + + +
8 CL4 Colistin - - + -
9 ESC Esculin hydrolysis + + + +
10 FD64 Nitrofurantoin - - + -
11 GLU Glucose + + + +
12 H2SHydrogen sulde - - + -
13 IND Indole + + + +
14 INO Inositol + + + +
15 K4 Kanamycin - - - -
16 LYS Lysine + + + +
17 MAL Malonate + + + +
18 MEL Melibiose + + + +
19 NIT Nitrate + + + +
20 OF/G Oxidation-
Fermentation + + + +
21 ONPG Galactosidase + + + +
22 ORN Ornithine - - + -
23 OXI Oxidase - - - -
24 P4 Penicillin + + + +
25 RAF Rafnose + + + +
26 RHA Rhaminose + + + +
27 SOR Sorbitol + + + +
28 SUC Sucrose + + + +
29 TAR Tartarate + - - +
30 TDA Tryptophan
Deaminase - - - -
31 TO4 Tobramycin - - - -
32 URE Urea + + + +
33 VP Voges-Proskauer + + + +
C: Control group; T: Treatment group; - : (negative); + : (positive)
Table 3: Effect of bioeld treatment on K. oxytoca to biochemical reactions.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Phenotypic and Biotypic Characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca: An Impact of
Bioeld Treatment. J Microb Biochem Technol 7:4 202-205. doi:10.4172/1948-5948.1000204
Volume 7(4): 202-205 (2015) - 205
J Microb Biochem Technol
ISSN: 1948-5948 JMBT, an open access journal
from susceptible to intermediate or resistant to a few antimicrobials.
e MIC values of some antimicrobials were also altered accordingly
to changes in sensitivity patterns of K. oxytoca. Overall, the result of
present study indicated that bioeld treatment has the ability to alter
the susceptibility of microbes in both direction either susceptible to
resistant or resistant to susceptible.
Biochemical methods employed to identify or classify the bacterial
species based on their biochemical reactions. Several biochemical
tests like indole production, ornithine decarboxylation, and carbon
substrate assimilation tests have been reported in literature for the
identication of K. oxytoca. It usually exhibited the positive reactions
to indole, malonate, urease, Voges-Proskauer; and negative reactions to
arginine, colistin, hydrogen sulde, and ornithin [28]. Similar reactions
patterns were also observed in this study for control sample of K.
oxytoca. However, aer bioeld treatment some biochemical reactions
pattern were altered like ornithine, hydrogen sulde, colistin etc. ese
biochemical were changed from negative to positive reactions in group
T1 on day 10. As well, tartarate was converted from positive to negative
reaction in group T1 on both day 5 and 10. ese data suggested the
impact of bioeld treatment on metabolic pathway of K. oxytoca.
Alterations in biochemical reactions were attributed to changes in
biotype number of K. oxytoca that was found in group T1 on day 10.
Wherein the biotype number and species were altogether changed and
the new species was identied as R. ornithinolytica.
Conclusions
Overall data conclude that there was an alteration in antimicrobial
sensitivity, biochemical reactions patterns, and biotype number
of bioeld treated K. oxytoca. ese results depicted that bioeld
treatment has the ability to make some alteration at the enzymatic or
metabolic pathway and/or at genetic level of K. oxytoca. erefore, in
future the bioeld treatment could be useful as an alternative method
to prevent the infections of pathogenic microbes.
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TolC in Klebsiella oxytoca resistance to antibiotics. J Antimicrob Chemother
63: 668-674.
26. Yigit H, Queenan AM, Rasheed JK, Biddle JW, Domenech-Sanchez A,
et al. (2003) Carbapenem-resistant strain of Klebsiella oxytoca harboring
carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase KPC-2. Antimicrob Agents
Chemother 47: 3881-3889.
27. Alves MS, Dias RC, de Castro AC, Riley LW, Moreira BM (2006) Identication
of clinical isolates of indole-positive and indole-negative Klebsiella spp. J Clin
Microbiol 44: 3640-3646.
28. Stock I, Wiedemann B (2001) Natural antibiotic susceptibility of Klebsiella
pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, K. planticola, K. ornithinolytica and K. terrigena
strains. J Med Microbiol 50: 396-406.
Feature C T1 T2 day 10
day 5 day 10
Biotype number 7775 4370 7775 4370 7777 5374 7775 4370
Organism
identication K. oxytoca K. oxytoca R. ornithinolytica K. oxytoca
C: Control group; T: Treatment group
Table 4: Effect of bioeld treatment on K. oxytoca to biotype number.
Citation: Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Phenotypic
and Biotypic Characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca: An Impact of Bioeld
Treatment. J Microb Biochem Technol 7:4 202-205. doi:10.4172/1948-
5948.1000205
... This is quite high for a drug used as last resort in infection treatment. Klebsiella oxytoca was been reported as emerging enterobacteriaceae in hospital community and had shown considerable resistance to antibiotics [10][11][12]. The prevalence Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae found in our study is higher than that recorded in Kano, northern Nigeria (11.8%) [13]; Pune, India (1.6%) [14] and Morocco (2.5%) [15]; similar to that observed in Lagos, western Nigeria (15.2%) [9]; but lower than the report from Uganda (18.4%) [16]. ...
... Urine sample being the highest source of isolates in each case could be due to urinary tract infection which accounts for almost 40% of nosocomial infection [27]. The total number of isolates that showed intermediate susceptibility to carbapenems (20.5%) is of clinical importance as some of them may have the inherent ability of producing carbapenemase enzymes and this may be an indicative of low level resistance which if left undetected may escalate to high level resistance [10,28]. The mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance [29,30] and virulence [31] among Gram-negative enterobacteriaceae and among CRE vary widely (7,8,9). ...
... The bacteria isolates were subjected to Meropenem (10 µg) using the Modified Kirby-Bauer Susceptibility testing technique. The decision to use Meropenem to determine Carbapenem resistance was based on the fact that it offers the best balance between sensitivity and specificity when detecting carbapenemase producers in clinical setting [10,35,36]. The pure isolates were first inoculated into sterile nutrient broth and incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. ...
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The emergence and spread of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is seriously posing threats in effective healthcare delivery. The aim of this study was to ascertain the emergence of CRE at Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital (COOUTH) Awka. Biological samples were collected from 153 consenting patient from 5 clinics in the hospital. The isolates were identified using standard microbiological protocols. Susceptibility to meropenem was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton Agar. A total of 153 patients were recruited in this study. About one half of those from rural, 63.64% from Sub-urban and 42.27% from urban areas had significant E. coli and Klebsiella spp infections. The male: female ratio of the Enterobacteriaceae infection was 1:1. Almost as much inpatient as outpatient study participants had the infections. The infections were observed mostly on participants with lower educational status. The unmarried individuals were most infected compared to their married counterparts. Enterobacteriaceae infection rate was 50.98%. Of this, 28.21% had CRE infection while the overall prevalence of the CRE in the studied population was 14.38% (22/153). This study shows that CRE is quickly emerging in both community and hospital environments. Klebsiella spp was the most common CRE in this hospital especially Klebsiella oxytoca. Hospitalization was a strong risk factor in the CRE infections. Rapid and accurate detection is critical for their effective management and control.
... Oxidative stress is one of the major factors along with other such as alcohol intake, air pollutions, environmental pollutants, physical stress, and radiations, etc. are some of the extrinsic factors, which results in generation of free radicals causing damage to body cells [5,6]. Thus properties [14][15][16], improved crop yield in agriculture science [17,18], microbiology [19][20][21], biotechnology [22,23], improved bioavailability of many compounds [24][25][26] ...
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of the Biofield Treated/Blessed proprietary test formulation consisting of essential ingredients viz. minerals (zinc, magnesium, iron, and copper) and vitamins (B6, B12, and D3) in male Sprague Dawley rats. Each ingredient of the test formulation was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control without any Biofield Energy Healing Treatment/Blessing, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated/Blessed sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment/Blessing by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi remotely. Additionally, three group of animals were also received Biofield Energy Treatment per se (at day -15) under similar conditions. The parameters were assessed such as immune biomarkers (IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, CD4+, CD8+, and CD28+), biochemistry and hematology and histopathology. The experimental results showed IgG level was significantly increased by 10.70% and 8.03% in the G6 (Biofield Energy Treatment per se at day -15) and G8 (Biofield Treatment per se to animals plus Biofield Treated test formulation from day -15) groups, respectively as compared with untreated test formulation (G4). Additionally, CD8+ count was significantly increased by 20.67% in the G8 group, while CD28+ count was significantly increased by 11.70%, 8.32%, and 9.82% in the G7 (Biofield Energy Treated test formulation at day -15), G8, and G9 (Biofield Treatment per se (day -15) to animals plus untreated test formulation) groups, respectively after Biofield Energy Treatment to the animals as compared with the untreated test formulation. In hematological analysis, platelet count was increased in the G5, G6, G7, G8, and G9 groups by 40.69%, 27.95%, 26.67%, 38.58%, and 28.28%, respectively compared with the disease control (G2) group. Biochemical parameters showed significant decrease in the level of creatinine by 32.14% in the G9 group as compared with the G2 group. Further, animal body weight, feed intake, relative organ weight, and histopathological findings of all the tested groups did not show any abnormal findings with respect to the safe and non-toxic treatment strategies. Overall, the experimental data concluded that the Biofield Energy Treated/Blessed test formulation showed considerable improved cellular and humoral immune response as compared with the untreated test formulation. Thus, the Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment per se and the test formulation has the significant capacity for immunomodulatory effect, stress management and anti-aging by improving overall health.
... This energy can be harness and transmit it into living and non-living things by the process of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment. Biofield Energy Treatment (the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment) has been extensively studied with significant outcomes in the field of pharmaceuticals [15][16][17], nutraceuticals [18,19], metals and ceramics [20][21][22], microbiology [23][24][25], microbial genetics [26,27], cancer research [28,29], livestock, agriculture science [30][31][32], improved bioavailability of many compounds [33][34][35], improved skin health [36,37], improved properties of nutraceuticals [38,39], improved overall bone health [40][41][42], human health and wellness. Thus, the study was planned on colon cytokines estimation that could significantly helped to improve the prevalence of gut inflammatory diseases using novel test formulation consisting of minerals such as Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and vitamins including B 6 , B 12 , D 3 using TNBS (Tri Nitro Benzene Sulfonic acid)-induced ulcerative colitis in SD rats. ...
... Similarly, the importance of the Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has been reported by various researchers for its significant impact on the living organisms and non-living materials. The impact of the Biofield Energy Treatment has been significantly improved the agricultural productivity [20,21], antimicrobial activity [22][23][24], physicochemical properties of the pharmaceuticals/ nutraceuticals [25][26][27], various properties of metals, ceramics, and chemicals [28][29][30], and in the field of biotechnology [31,32], skin and bone health [33][34][35], and cancer research [36], etc. Thus, this research work was designed to determine the effect of the Biofield Energy Treatment (the Trivedi Effect ® ) on the physicochemical and thermal characteristics of magnesium by using various analytical techniques. ...
... This energy can be harnessed and transmitted by the practitioners into living and non-living things via the process of Biofield Energy Healing. The Biofield Energy Treatment, the Trivedi Effect ® , has been reported to have a significant impact in the field of cancer research [21,22], materials science [23,24], microbiology [25,26], agriculture [27,28], nutraceuticals [29,30], and biotechnology [31,32]. Further, the Trivedi Effect ® also significantly improved bioavailability of various low bioavailable compounds [33][34][35], an improved overall skin health [36,37], bone health [38][39][40], human health and wellness. ...
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... from clinical isolates. This can be as a result of the number of isolates recovered from different niches in our study and also considering the moderately high prevalence of K. oxytoca among the confirmed species, more so, studies by Jacob et al. [27] and Trivedi et al. [28] also reported the presence of K. oxytoca from environmental isolates. In our present study, among the confirmed Klebsiella isolates, Klebsiella pneumonia (182, 63%) had the higher number of isolates than K. oxytoca (67, 23%) and this is in accordance with a study by Siri et al. [29] (2011). ...
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... However, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), well-defined Biofield Therapies in the subcategory of Energy Therapies [14]. The Trivedi Effect ® -Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment has been reported to have created significant changes in the physicochemical properties of metals, chemicals, ceramics and polymers [15][16][17], improved agricultural crop yield, productivity, and quality [18,19],transformed antimicrobial characteristics [20][21][22], biotechnology [23,24], improved bioavailability [25][26][27], skin health [28,29], nutraceuticals [30,31], cancer research [32,33], bone health [34][35][36], human health and wellness. From outstanding benefits of Biofield Energy Treatment, the present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the Biofield Energy Treated (The Trivedi Effect ® ) DMEM on ED using the standard in vitro assay in Human Endothelial Hybrid Cell Line (EA. ...
... Thus, maintain the health lifestyle has been practiced by many countries, which help to prevent and postponing the aging process. [17,18], microbiology [19][20][21], biotechnology [22,23], improved bioavailability of many compounds [24][25][26], improved skin health [27,28], improved properties of nutraceuticals [29,30], cancer science research [31,32], improved overall bone health [33][34][35], assay showed that the test formulation concentrations were found to be safe and non-toxic with more than 70% cell viability. 3T3-L1 cells showed more than 125% cell viability at 100 µg/mL test formulation concentration, which was significantly increased after Biofield Energy Treatment ( Figure 1A). ...
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Telomerase and SIRT1 (member of the sirtuin protein family) along with the lifestyle and diet are the major determinants of aging and its associated diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders. The study objective was to investigate the effect of Consciousness Energy Healing based novel test formulation in pre-adipocytes (3T3-L1) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for anti-aging activity using SIRT1 and telomerase assay. The test formulation was divided into two parts. One portion was denoted as the untreated test item without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while the other portion was defined as the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi. The cell viability using MTT assay showed that the cell viability of 3T3-L1 and PBMCs cells was more than 70% indicating a safe and nontoxic profile. The experimental data in PBMCs cells showed that the Biofield Energy Treated Test formulation showed a significant improved telomerase activity by 39.25%, 20.86%, and 17.95% at concentrations 0.01, 5, and 100 µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated test formulation group. These results indicate that the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment would be the significant approach to prevent aging-related disorders such as decline cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, dementia, osteoarthritis, Alzheimer’s, hypertension, cancer, Parkinson's Disease, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Stress, Asthma, cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), hearing loss and metabolic disorders.
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Vanadium pentoxide powders are very useful in producing ferrous as well as aluminium alloys, in removing carbon and sulphur and as catalysts in synthesizing ammonia and sulphuric acid. It is also used as corrosion inhibitor petroleum and chemical processing. In the present investigation V2O5 powders are exposed to biofield. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size is found to decrease with increase in number of days after treatment up to a maximum of 15.9% in 110 days indicating severe fracture at agglomerate/ crystallite boundaries. The BET surface area showed a surprising decrease (it should increase as particle size is decreased) of 7.22% in 109 days indicating the surface densification/ removal of sharp surface corners/ formation of large particles. SEM photographs indeed showed that samples exposed to biofield after 20 days showed increase in size as well as rounded corners. Thermal analysis indicated an increase in melting temperature by 9.9% in samples treated after 57 days along with a much reduced change in weight. X-ray diffraction of the powder samples indicated both increase and decrease in crystallite size, unit cell volume and molecular weight of samples exposed to biofield after 28, 104, 124 and 139 days. These results indicate that the catalytic nature of vanadium pentoxide can be controlled by exposing to bio field and using after a specific number of days after exposure.
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Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.