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Acanthosaura phuketensis (Squamata: Agamidae), a new long-horned tree agamid from southwestern Thailand

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  • Ranong Marine Fisheries Research and Development Station

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We describe a new lowland forest-dwelling species of the genus Acanthosaura (Squamata: Agamidae) from Phuket Island and the Phuket mountain range in southwestern Thailand. Acanthosaura phuketensis sp. nov., the 11th species in the genus, seems most closely related to A. crucigera from Myanmar and western Thailand and A. cardamomensis from the Cardamom Mountains, but can be differentiated from them by a combination of morphological and coloration characteristics. This new discovery stresses the importance of preserving the last forest patches remaining on Phuket Island, home to three other squamate endemics.
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... A gamid lizards of the genus Acanthosaura Gray, 1831 are distributed in south-east Asia with a range extending from Myanmar, eastward through Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Yunnan and southward through the Indochinese and Thai -Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Anambas and Natunus Archipelagos (Taylor, 1963;Grismer et al., 2008;Manthey, 2008;Das, 2010;Wood et al., 2010;Ananjeva et al., 2011Ananjeva et al., , 2020Pauwels et al., 2015;Trivalairat et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2020). Previously, Acanthosaura crucigera (Boulenger, 1885) was described from the type locality in Tavoy with a distribution, covering the distribution of the entire genus (Boulenger, 1912;Taylor, 1963;Pauwels et al., 2003;Grismer et al., 2006;Manthey, 2008). ...
... However, recent morphological and molecular studies of the A. crucigera complex have revised the complex identifying several undescribed and cryptic species, and its members have also been separated into distinct species with different geographic distributions. For instance, two montane populations from Peninsular Malaysia are likely A. bintangensis (Wood et al., 2009) and A. titiwangsaensis (Wood et al., 2009); one population from the eastern Thailand and Cambodia populations consists of A. cardamomensis (Wood et al., 2010); and the species from Phuket Island and south -western Thailand are A. phuketensis (Pauwels et al., 2015) (Chan -ard et al., 1999;Pauwels et al., 2002;Pauwels & Iskandar 2010;Wood et al., 2009Wood et al., , 2010Grismer, 2011;Pauwels et al., 2015). ...
... However, recent morphological and molecular studies of the A. crucigera complex have revised the complex identifying several undescribed and cryptic species, and its members have also been separated into distinct species with different geographic distributions. For instance, two montane populations from Peninsular Malaysia are likely A. bintangensis (Wood et al., 2009) and A. titiwangsaensis (Wood et al., 2009); one population from the eastern Thailand and Cambodia populations consists of A. cardamomensis (Wood et al., 2010); and the species from Phuket Island and south -western Thailand are A. phuketensis (Pauwels et al., 2015) (Chan -ard et al., 1999;Pauwels et al., 2002;Pauwels & Iskandar 2010;Wood et al., 2009Wood et al., , 2010Grismer, 2011;Pauwels et al., 2015). ...
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A new short-horned lizard species of the genus Acanthosaura from southern Thailand, is described herein. The species was previously recognised as Acanthosaura crucigera and has been reported to present a wide distribution across mainland southeast Asia. The combination of modern morphological studies of Acanthosaura meridiona sp. nov. allows its separation from closely related species A. crucigera, on the basis of presenting more nuchal scales, more scales between diastema, more scales bordering rostral scales and more midline ventral scales. Mitochondrial DNA analysis also indicated a sister relationship between A. meridiona sp. nov. and A. crucigera with a 100 % probability according to Bayesian and maximum-likelihood analyses. The pairwise distance between A. meridiona sp. nov. and A. crucigera ranges from 9.9-11.1 %, while the distance between A. meridiona populations ranges from 0-0.9 %. This new discovery contributes to the redescription of the distribution of A. crucigera under Kra Isthmus and its replacement by A. meridiona sp. nov.
... A gamid lizards of the genus Acanthosaura Gray, 1831 are distributed in south-east Asia with a range extending from Myanmar, eastward through Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Yunnan and southward through the Indochinese and Thai -Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Anambas and Natunus Archipelagos (Taylor, 1963;Grismer et al., 2008;Manthey, 2008;Das, 2010;Wood et al., 2010;Ananjeva et al., 2011Ananjeva et al., , 2020Pauwels et al., 2015;Trivalairat et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2020). Previously, Acanthosaura crucigera (Boulenger, 1885) was described from the type locality in Tavoy with a distribution, covering the distribution of the entire genus (Boulenger, 1912;Taylor, 1963;Pauwels et al., 2003;Grismer et al., 2006;Manthey, 2008). ...
... However, recent morphological and molecular studies of the A. crucigera complex have revised the complex identifying several undescribed and cryptic species, and its members have also been separated into distinct species with different geographic distributions. For instance, two montane populations from Peninsular Malaysia are likely A. bintangensis (Wood et al., 2009) and A. titiwangsaensis (Wood et al., 2009); one population from the eastern Thailand and Cambodia populations consists of A. cardamomensis (Wood et al., 2010); and the species from Phuket Island and south -western Thailand are A. phuketensis (Pauwels et al., 2015) (Chan -ard et al., 1999;Pauwels et al., 2002;Pauwels & Iskandar 2010;Wood et al., 2009Wood et al., , 2010Grismer, 2011;Pauwels et al., 2015). ...
... However, recent morphological and molecular studies of the A. crucigera complex have revised the complex identifying several undescribed and cryptic species, and its members have also been separated into distinct species with different geographic distributions. For instance, two montane populations from Peninsular Malaysia are likely A. bintangensis (Wood et al., 2009) and A. titiwangsaensis (Wood et al., 2009); one population from the eastern Thailand and Cambodia populations consists of A. cardamomensis (Wood et al., 2010); and the species from Phuket Island and south -western Thailand are A. phuketensis (Pauwels et al., 2015) (Chan -ard et al., 1999;Pauwels et al., 2002;Pauwels & Iskandar 2010;Wood et al., 2009Wood et al., , 2010Grismer, 2011;Pauwels et al., 2015). ...
Article
A new short – horned lizard species of the genus Acanthosaura from southern Thailand, is described herein. The species was previously recognised as Acanthosaura crucigera and has been reported to present a wide distribution across mainland south-east Asia. The combination of modern morphological studies of Acanthosaura meridiona sp. nov. allows its separation from closely related species A. crucigera, on the basis of presenting more nuchal scales, more scales between diastema, more scales bordering rostral scales and more midline ventral scales. Mitochondrial DNA analysis also indicated a sister relationship between A. meridiona sp. nov. and A. crucigera with a 100 % probability according to Bayesian and maximum – likelihood analyses. The pairwise distance between A. meridiona sp. nov. and A. crucigera ranges from 9.9 – 11.1 %, while the distance between A. meridiona populations ranges from 0 – 0.9 %. This new discovery contributes to the redescription of the distribution of A. crucigera under Kra Isthmus and its replacement by A. meridiona sp. nov.
... The recent morphological and molecular investigations of Acanthosaura revealed five species across Thailand: Acanthosaura lepidogaster from northern region (Das 2010); A. cardamomensis from the eastern region and Cambodia (Wood Jr. et al. 2010); A. crucigera from the western region and southern Myanmar (Pauwels et al. 2003, Grismer et al. 2008; A. phuketensis from Phuket Island and the south-western region (Pauwels et al. 2015); and A. armata from the southern region (Chan-ard et al. 1999, Pauwels et al. 2002. Hence, one-third of Acanthosaura species have been reported from Thailand so far. ...
... Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin before being transferred to 70% ethanol for permanent storage. In addition, the comparative morphological characters of other taxa in the genus Acanthosaura were also taken from original descriptions and subsequent studies (Günther 1861, Boulenger 1885, Wood Jr. et al. 2009, Wood Jr. et al. 2010, Ananjeva et al. 2011, Nguyen et al. 2018, Pauwels et al. 2015, Nguyen et al. 2019. For species concepts, the combination of morphological species concept and evolutionary species concept were applied to describe genealogical relationships (Wiley and Lieberman 2011). ...
... n., that were clearly distinct from those of other recognised Acanthosaura species, especially the two short-horned lizards, A. crucigera and A. lepidogaster, whose geographic distributions overlap with that of A. aurantiacrista sp. n. in the northern region of Thailand (Cuvier 1829, Boulenger 1885, Orlov et al. 2006, Stuart et al. 2006, Wood Jr. et al. 2009, Wood Jr. et al. 2010, Pauwels et al. 2015. In addition, the molecular analysis indicated that A. aurantiacrista sp. ...
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In Thailand, five species of Acanthosaura have been recorded so far, including Acanthosaura armata from the southern region, A. cardamomensis from the eastern region, A. crucigera from the western region, A. lepidogaster from the northern region and A. phuketensis from the Phuket Island and south-western region. However, comprehensive studies of diversity patterns and distribution of Acanthosaura are still lacking in some areas and need further information for designating areas of special conservation importance and nature protection planning in Thailand. Acanthosaura aurantiacrista is a new species of long-horned lizard of the genus Acanthosaura from northern Thailand. It is distinguished from all other species of Acanthosaura by a dagger-like nuchal spine with yellowish-orange colouration in females, bright yellow colouration in males and a combination of other morphological characters: a greater tail length to snout-vent length ratio; a larger postorbital spine, nuchal spine, dorsal spine and occipital spine compared to its head length; a smaller diastema to snout-vent length ratio; a greater number of subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger and fourth toe; and a larger gular pouch than other Acanthosaura species. Analysis of mitochondrial ND2 gene sequences revealed a sister clade between the A. aurantiacrista lineage and the A. crucigera lineage with a 100% probability of divergence, according to Bayesian analysis and strong support value for Maximum Likelihood analysis. The pairwise distance ranged from 13.8-15.0% between A. aurantiacrista and A. cardamomensis , 10.9-14.5% between A. aurantiacrista and A. crucigera and 0-1.2% amongst A. aurantiacrista populations. The discovery of this lizard increases the known endemic herpetological diversity and underscores the importance of conservation in the mountain rainforest region of northern Thailand.
... Tree agamids of the genus Acanthosaura Gray, 1831 commonly known as Mountain Horned Dragons, comprise 11 recognized species. The genus occurs throughout northeastern India, eastwards to southern China including Hainan Island, and southwards through the Indochinese and Thai-Malay peninsulas, to Sumatra, and the Anambas and Natunas archipelagos (Ananjeva et al., 2011;Pauwels et al., 2015). Recent molecular studies based on DNA sequences from the mitochondrial genes ND2 and Cty b revealed an underestimated taxonomic diversity and the descriptions of many new species (Ananjeva et al., 2011;Kalyabina-Hauf et al., 2004;Wood Jr. et al., 2009). ...
... capra and A. nataliae Orlov, Nguyen et Nguyen); the A. crucigera Boulenger complex (A. bintangensis Wood, Grismer, Grismer, Ahmad, Onn et Bauer, A. cardamomensis Wood, Grismer, Grismer, Neang, Chav et Holden, A. crucigera, A. phuketensis Pauwels, Sumontha, Kunya, Nitikul, Samphanthamit, Wood et Grismer, and A. titiwang-Species of the A. capra complex differ from the A. lepidogaster complex and other known Acanthosaura in their larger body size and absence of occipital spines (Ananjeva et al., 2008(Ananjeva et al., , 2011Orlov et al., 2005, Pauwels et al., 2015. Acanthosaura capra was described by Günther from specimens collected by Henri Mouhot (1826Mouhot ( -1861 during his travel in central Indochina (Günther, 1861;Mouhot, 1864;Stuart et al., 2006). ...
... We obtained comparative morphological data from museum and photographs in life (Appendix 1) and from the literature as follows: A. armata (Boulenger, 1885), A. bintangensis (Wood Jr. et al., 2009), A. brachypoda (Ananjeva et al., 2011), A. capra (Orlov et al., 2005), A. cardamomensis (Wood Jr. et al., 2010), A. coronata (Ananjeva et al., 2008;Günther, 1861), A. crucigera (Boulenger, 1885), A. lepidogaster (Ananjeva et al., 2008), A. nataliae (Orlov et al., 2005), A. phuketensis (Pauwels et al., 2015), and A. titiwangsaensis (Wood Jr. et al., 2009). ...
... Paired meristic characters are given as left/right. The list and methodology of measurements and meristic counts follow Wood et al. (2010) and Pauwels et al. (2015): ...
... presence (1) or absence (0) of a black eye patch; CS number of canthus rostralis-supraciliary scales, counted from the nasal scale to the posterior end of the ridge at the posterior margin of the orbit; DIAS length of the diastema, measured from the posterior end of the nuchal crest to the anterior end of the dorsal crest; DIASN number of scales in the vertebral crest scale diastema, counted from the posterior end of the nuchal crest to the anterior end of the dorsal crest; DS maximum length of the largest spine in the dorsal crest, measured from the base to the tip; DSL longest dorsal scale, measured at the base below the dorsal crest; ESBO presence (1) or absence (0) of elliptical scales below the orbit; EYE eye diameter, measured from the posterior to the anterior edge of the eye; FI number of subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; FOREL forelimb length, measured from axilla to the proximal edge of the palmar region; GP size of gular pouch, scored as absent (0), small (1), medium (2), large (3) or very large (4); HD maximum head height, measured across the parietal region; HINDL hindlimb length, measured from groin to the proximal edge of the plantar region; HL head length, measured from posterior edge of the lower jaw to the tip of the snout; HW head width, maximum head width, the width at the level of the tympanum; INFRAL number of infralabials; LKP presence (1) or absence (0) We compared the characters of the new collection with the characters of all currently recognized species of Acanthosaura (Pauwels et al. 2015;Nguyen et al. 2018Nguyen et al. , 2019, see Table 4. ...
... According to Nguyen et al. (2019), it can be inferred that the sequences whose GenBank accession numbers are AY572900, AY572904, AY572905, AY572912 to AY572918, AY572922 and AY572923 probably belong to Acanthosaura phongdienensis. According to Pauwels et al. (2015), it can be inferred that the sequences whose GenBank accession numbers are AY572887 and AY572889 to AY572894 probably belong to Acanthosaura phuketensis. According to Kalyabina-Hauf et al. (2004) and Ananjeva et al. (2008), the sequences whose GenBank accession numbers are AY572928 to AY572930 belong to some unknown species. ...
Article
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A new species of Acanthosaura from Yunnan, China is described based on unique morphometric and meristic external characters and a very distinctive color pattern. The fourteenth species recorded of this genus, Acanthosaura tongbiguanensissp. nov. , was previously considered A. lepidogaster although it more closely resembles A. crucigera . It can be separated from all other species of the genus by having different numbers of subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger and toe, and a different shape of the black eye patch. The new species differs genetically from investigated congeners by percentage distance of 14.46% to 23.27% (cytochrome b gene).
... Tree agamids of the genus Acanthosaura Gray, 1831 commonly known as Mountain Horned Dragons, comprise 11 recognized species. The genus occurs throughout northeastern India, eastwards to southern China including Hainan Island, and southwards through the Indochinese and Thai-Malay peninsulas, to Sumatra, and the Anambas and Natunas archipelagos (Ananjeva et al., 2011;Pauwels et al., 2015). Recent molecular studies based on DNA sequences from the mitochondrial genes ND2 and Cty b revealed an underestimated taxonomic diversity and the descriptions of many new species (Ananjeva et al., 2011;Kalyabina-Hauf et al., 2004;Wood Jr. et al., 2009). ...
... capra and A. nataliae Orlov, Nguyen et Nguyen); the A. crucigera Boulenger complex (A. bintangensis Wood, Grismer, Grismer, Ahmad, Onn et Bauer, A. cardamomensis Wood, Grismer, Grismer, Neang, Chav et Holden, A. crucigera, A. phuketensis Pauwels, Sumontha, Kunya, Nitikul, Samphanthamit, Wood et Grismer, and A. titiwang-Species of the A. capra complex differ from the A. lepidogaster complex and other known Acanthosaura in their larger body size and absence of occipital spines (Ananjeva et al., 2008(Ananjeva et al., , 2011Orlov et al., 2005, Pauwels et al., 2015. Acanthosaura capra was described by Günther from specimens collected by Henri Mouhot (1826Mouhot ( -1861 during his travel in central Indochina (Günther, 1861;Mouhot, 1864;Stuart et al., 2006). ...
... We obtained comparative morphological data from museum and photographs in life (Appendix 1) and from the literature as follows: A. armata (Boulenger, 1885), A. bintangensis (Wood Jr. et al., 2009), A. brachypoda (Ananjeva et al., 2011), A. capra (Orlov et al., 2005), A. cardamomensis (Wood Jr. et al., 2010), A. coronata (Ananjeva et al., 2008;Günther, 1861), A. crucigera (Boulenger, 1885), A. lepidogaster (Ananjeva et al., 2008), A. nataliae (Orlov et al., 2005), A. phuketensis (Pauwels et al., 2015), and A. titiwangsaensis (Wood Jr. et al., 2009). ...
Article
We describe a new agamid species of the genus Acanthosaura from Khanh Hoa and Phu Yen provinces, central Vietnam based on morphological and molecular data. The new species, Acanthosaura murphyi sp. nov., most closely resembles the Indochinese horned lizard (A. capra) and the Natalia horned lizard (A. nataliae), however, it can be differentiated from other congeners by the following characters: a large-sized species (snout-vent length = 103.7-127.3 mm in adult males, 123.0 mm in the adult female); cylindrical spine above posterior margin of eye present; spine on occiput between tympanum and nuchal crest absent; two scale rows between rostral scute and nostril; small slightly keeled scales on flank randomly intermixed with keeled medium and large scales; nuchal crests strongly developed; dorsal crests developed and separate from nuchal crests by a diastema; color-ation in life of body varies from gray in adult to brown or emerald green in subadult, and brown to whitish gray ventral skin; and tail brown or greenish with indistinct light bands. Genetically, uncorrected sequence divergences of COI between the new species and its closest species, A. capra, is 6.5%. To date, the new species has been found in evergreen forest between 84-1060 m in Phu Yen and Khanh Hoa provinces only.
... In the past 20 years, large-scale herpetological studies in China and Indochina resulted in the formation of an extensive collection from different areas, which provided the possibility of studying the distribution and taxonomic status of various morphotypes of the genus Acanthosaura. The results of a recent study using both traditional and molecular methods (Kalyabina et al., 2004;Orlov et al., 2006;Stuart et al., 2006;Ananjeva et al., 2008Ananjeva et al., , 2011Wood et al., 2009Wood et al., , 2010Pauwels et al., 2015;Nguyen et al., 2018Nguyen et al., , 2019Liu and Rao, 2019;Trivalairat et al., 2020) show that the taxonomic diversity within the genus Acanthosaura was significantly underestimated; the taxonomic status of its constituent species was revised, and cryptic complexes within the genus were identified. Cryptic species were revealed and described within the A. capra complex (Orlov et al., 2006;Nguyen al., 2018), the A. crucigera complex (Wood et al., 2009(Wood et al., , 2010Liu and Rao, 2019;Trivalairat et al., 2020) and the A. lepidogaster complex (Ananjeva et al., 2011;Nguyen et al., 2019). ...
... Comparative morphological data were taken from original descriptions and subsequent studies (Günther, 1861;Boulenger, 1885;Smith, 1935;Taylor, 1963;Orlov et al., 2006;Ananjeva et al., 2008Ananjeva et al., , 2011Wood et al., 2009Wood et al., , 2010Pauwels et al., 2015;Nguyen et al., 2018Nguyen et al., , 2019 including comprehensive summarized tables with data on all the species of the genus Acanthosaura (Liu and Rao, 2019). ...
Article
Herein, we describe a new agamid species of the genus Acanthosaura from Central Highlands of Vietnam: Gia Lai Province, Kon Chu Rang NR, and Kon Tum Province: Kon Plông and Ngoc Linh Mountain based on morphological and molecular data. Acanthosaura prasina sp. nov. is distinguished from all congeners by a combination of the following morphological characters. Acanthosaura prasina sp. nov. differs from A. capra, A. murphyi, and A. nataliae by the presence of a short spine on each side of the neck and a smaller body size. From the known species of «lepidogaster» complex and A. coronata it differs in the arrangement of dorsal crests with a distinct double row of vertebral scales, from A. brachypoda in a smaller body size, longer tail and limbs, fewer supra- and infralabials and coloration patterns with a white area on lips and shoulders; from A. lepidogaster by lacking a dark marking on the nape and the absence of a distinct diastema; from A. phongdienensis by lacking a dark marking on the nape. We provide a cyt b-based estimation of diversity of the genus Acanthosaura. A. prasina sp. nov. differs from A. phongdiensis, A. coronata, A. lepidogaster, A. armata, A. crucigera, A. nataliae, A. phuketensis, and Acanthosaura sp. SK in p-distances of 15.4, 24.5, 14.7, 14.6, 16.3, 14.6, 15.4, and 24.4%, respectively. The new species currently known from three localities from Central Highlands was recorded from 800 to 1700 m a.s.l. in the evergreen polydominant forests in the mountainous regions of Gia Lai and Kon Tum provinces. This is the 16th species of Acanthosaura and the ninth species of the genus from Vietnam.
... presence (1) Comparative morphological data were taken from original descriptions and subsequent studies (Hardwicke and Gray 1827;Cuvier 1829;Günther 1861Günther , 1864Boulenger 1885Boulenger , 1900Werner 1904;Vogt 1914;Lönnberg 1916;Smith 1935;Taylor 1963;Orlov et al. 2006;Ananjeva et al. 2008Ananjeva et al. , 2011Wood et al. 2009Wood et al. , 2010Pauwels et al. 2015;Nguyen et al. 2018;Liu et al. 2019;Nguyen et al. 2019;Trivalairat et al. 2020). ...
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A new species of Acanthosaura from Yunnan, China, is described based on morphological and genetic data. The new species can be separated from all other species of the genus by having a different shape of the black eye patch, a different coloration of the postorbital and occipital spines and nuchal crest, and a different color of the gular pouch. Genetically, uncorrected sequence divergences of COI between the new species and investigated congeners ranged from 16.12% to 24.11%. The conservation status of the new species is also discussed.
... Comparative morphological data were taken from original descriptions and subsequent studies (Ananjeva et al. 2008(Ananjeva et al. , 2011Boulenger 1885;Günther 1861;Nguyen et al. 2018;Orlov et al. 2006;Pauwels et al. 2015;Smith 1935;Taylor 1963;Wood et al. 2009Wood et al. , 2010. For species concepts, we applied both the morphological species concept (sensu Wiley & Lieberman 2011) and the evolutionary species concept (Simpson 1961;Wiley & Lieberman 2011). ...
Article
Herein, we describe the new agamid species Acanthosaura phongdienensis sp. nov. from central Vietnam based on morphological and genetic data. Males of the new medium-sized species have a snout-vent length of up to 77.4 mm and females up to 64.7 mm. In both genders, the tail is longer than the snout-vent length. A spine occurs on each side of the neck, the rostral scute is entire, and the nuchal and dorsal crests are continuous. A postorbital spine is about half as long as the diameter of the eye-ball, and small lateral scales intermix with large, keeled scales whose tips point backwards and upwards. The new species differs genetically from the closely related species A. brachypoda, A. coronata, and A. lepidogaster by uncorrected p-distances of 13.6%, 21.7%, and 12.8%, respectively. This is the 13th species of Acanthosaura and the eighth species in the genus from Vietnam.
... Comparative morphological data were taken from original descriptions and subsequent studies (Ananjeva et al. 2008(Ananjeva et al. , 2011Boulenger 1885;Günther 1861;Nguyen et al. 2018;Orlov et al. 2006;Pauwels et al. 2015;Smith 1935;Taylor 1963;Wood et al. 2009Wood et al. , 2010. For species concepts, we applied both the morphological species concept (sensu Wiley & Lieberman 2011) and the evolutionary species concept (Simpson 1961;Wiley & Lieberman 2011). ...
Article
Herein, we describe the new agamid species Acanthosaura phongdienensis sp. nov. from central Vietnam based on morphological and genetic data. Males of the new medium-sized species have a snout-vent length of up to 77.4 mm and females up to 64.7 mm. In both genders, the tail is longer than the snout-vent length. A spine occurs on each side of the neck, the rostral scute is entire, and the nuchal and dorsal crests are continuous. A postorbital spine is about half as long as the diameter of the eye-ball, and small lateral scales intermix with large, keeled scales whose tips point backwards and upwards. The new species differs genetically from the closely related species A. brachypoda, A. coronata, and A. lepidogaster by uncorrected p-distances of 13.6%, 21.7%, and 12.8%, respectively. This is the 13th species of Acanthosaura and the eighth species in the genus from Vietnam.
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On the basis of morphological and molecular data, taxonomic diversity of the agamid genus Acanthosaura in Vietnam is discussed. This genus is represented in Vietnam by four species of two complexes, A. capra and A. lepidogaster. DNA analysis and the absence of reliable finds suggest to exclude A. crucigera and A. armata from the faunal list of Vietnam. The recently described species A. nataliae Orlov, Nguyen and Nguyen, 2006 of the A. capra complex is considered. Two species are recognized in the A. lepidogaster complex, one of which, A. coronata Günther, 1861, Smith (1935) regarded as a synonym of A. lepidogaster (Cuvier, 1829).
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A new species of Cnemaspis is described from Phuket Island, southern Thailand. The new species can be distinguished from congeners from Southeast Asia by the following combination of characters: SVL to 29.1 mm, two semi-circular supranasals separated by a single scale; three postnasals bordering nasal; four scale rows separate orbit from supralabials; posteriorly, each postmental bounded by three smooth, rounded, and juxtaposed scales; scattered spinose paravertebral rows of tubercles on dorsum; gular and pectoral scales unicarinate; abdominal scales not elongated, smooth; tail segmented, with enlarged flattened scales forming whorls, a single pair of spinose postcloacal spurs present; median subcaudals not enlarged, smooth; supralabials (to midorbit position) 6-7; infralabials 6-7; lamellae under toe IV 16-17; midven-trals 26-32; and adult males lack preanal and femoral pores. © 2004, The Herpetological Society of Japan. All rights reserved.
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A new species of Acanthosaura (Gray 1831), A. cardamomensis sp. nov. from eastern Thailand and western Cambodia is described based on having a combination of unique morphological characteristics. It most closely resembles A. crucigera but differs in having significantly longer postorbital spines, occipital spines, nuchal spines, and dorsal spines; more scales between the fifth canthals; longer maximum dorsal scale length; longer maximum nuchal scale length; a significantly smaller diastema between the nuchal and dorsal crest spines; and significantly more supralabials. Mitochondrial DNA was used to calculate percent sequence divergence between samples of A. crucigera from southern Myanmar and western Thailand and samples of A. cardamomensis sp. nov. from eastern Thailand and western Cambodia. The uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence between populations of A. cardamomensis ranged from 1.2-3.1% and the range between populations of A. crucigera was 3.8%. The percent sequence divergence between A. cardamomensis sp. nov. and A. crucigera ranged between 10.0-14.6%.
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A new small species of Cnemaspis, C. chanthaburiensis, is described from Chanthaburi and Chon Buri Provinces, southeastern Thailand. It is the only Cnemaspis occurring in the region and may be distinguished from congeners by its small size (maximum 41 mm SVL), smooth ventral and subcaudal scales, 7-9 preanal pores in males, and by hyperphalangy of digits II and V of the manus and digit II of the pes. The hyperphalangeal condition is unique among Asian geckos.
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A 900bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome b was sequenced from 63 specimens of the arboreal agamid lizard genus Acanthosaura from Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Malaysia, representing all four currently recognized species. A hypothesis of maternal relationships was generated based on a maximum parsimony analysis of 44 different haplotypes. Pseudocalotes and Calotes were used as outgroup taxa. The genealogical analyses of the cytochrome b sequences recovered four lineages represented by A. armata, A. capra, A. crucigera, and A. lepidogaster. A fifth lineage consisted of one specimen from Ngoc Linh, Vietnam that was considered to be A. lepidogaster; however, recognizing it as such would render A. lepidogaster paraphyletic. Acanthosaura crucigera consisted of two clades. One of these clades contains cysteine in a portion of its cytochrome b, and is the sister group of all other species of Acanthosaura. In turn, the second clade of A. crucigera formed the sister group of A. armata, A. capra, and A. lepidogaster. A clade containing A. armata, A. capra and the sample from Ngoc Linh, Vietnam was the sister group to A. lepidogaster.
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Two new montane species of the agamid genus Acanthosaura (Gray, 1831) from Peninsular Malaysia are described based on having unique color pattern and scale characteristics. Acanthosaura bintangensis sp. nov. from Bukit Larut, Perak most closely resembles A. titiwangsaensis sp. nov. from Fraser's Hill and Cameron Highlands, Pahang but differs from it by having more subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; the presence of a row of enlarged keeled suborbital scales beginning and terminating with an elliptical keeled scale; by having more scales surrounding the occipital spines; having more spots in the dorsal pattern; and by having a black gular region with a yellow medial stripe. Both species closely resemble A. crucigera but, can be separated from it by having higher numbers of subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger and toe; higher numbers of trasverse scales in the canthus rostralis-supraorbital ridge; higher numbers of scales bordering the rostral scale, and lower numbers of scales between the fifth canthals. The discovery of a two new agamid lizards from montane forests in well-known areas of Peninsular Malaysia underscores the importance of continued field work in these regions.