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Emotional Intelligence and Entrepreneurs' innovativeness towards Entrepreneurial Success: A Preliminary Study



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American Journal of Economics 2015, 5(2): 285-290
DOI: 10.5923/c.economics.201501.37
Emotional Intelligence and Entrepreneurs’
innovativeness towards Entrepreneurial Success: A
Preliminary Study
Rohana Ngah*, Zarina Salleh
Malaysian Academy of Entrepreneurship and SME Development, Faculty of Business Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Abstract Entrepreneurs’ ability to be successful is dependent on their resilience and ability to be innovative. The role of
emotional intelligence in activating entrepreneurs’ innovativeness is yet to be explored in the entrepreneurial research. This
preliminary study investigates the emotional intelligence, innovativeness and entrepreneurial success of entrepreneurs in
Malaysia. The pilot study was carried out on 51 young entrepreneurs. The results indicate positive emotional intelligence can
increase innovativeness that may lead to entrepreneurial success. Only “regulation of emotion in others” seems to be the most
important dimension whereas other emotional intelligence elements seem to be less relevant to innovativeness and
entrepreneurial success. Furthermore, there is no difference between male and female entrepreneurs in emotional intelligence
and innovativeness but entrepreneurial success. This preliminary finding highlighted the importance of emotional
intelligence especially on other elements of emotional intelligence in promoting innovativeness among entrepreneurs.
Keywords Emotional intelligence, Entrepreneurs’ innovativeness, Entrepreneurial success
1. Introduction
Entrepreneurship is often redolent with the passion,
energy, and creativity by discovering, generating, and
stimulating opportunity [30]. Psychology is seldom been
highlighted in entrepreneurship study especially related to
the capability of an individual to analyze his emotions and
values [9]. According to Boren [30], emotional intelligence
has implications for entrepreneurial situations and social
interactions such as negotiation, obtaining and organizing
resources, identifying and exploiting opportunities,
managing stress, obtaining and maintaining customers, and
providing leadership. In addition, positive emotions
influence an entrepreneur’s ability to turn their past
experiences into present solutions through heuristic
processing and deal effectively with the persistent stress [30].
In their study on emotional intelligence of entrepreneurs,
Rhee and White [12] found that entrepreneurs demonstrated
high level of self-confidence, trustworthiness, achievement
orientation, service orientation, change catalyst, teamwork
and collaboration. It raises a question on how emotional
intelligence could trigger entrepreneurs’ innovativeness in
the entrepreneurs themselves. Entrepreneurs’ innovativeness
is important for the company to excel thus success in
* Corresponding author: (Rohana Ngah)
Published online at
Copyright © 2015 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved
entrepreneurship ventures especially in global uncertainty.
As innovation is a key success factor in entrepreneurship, it
is important to know on how emotional intelligence could
help entrepreneurs to be innovative by utilizing their emotion.
The challenging world of entrepreneurship demand a strong
emotion for entrepreneurs to embrace the challenges they are
facing every day from the stakeholders be their employees,
customers, suppliers, government, agencies and the list goes
on. Studies have shown that entrepreneurs with higher EI
tend to performance better. The entrepreneurship experience
is said to be an extreme experience with full of uncertainty,
ambiguity and stress [13], where only those with strong
entrepreneurial characteristics can survive and sustained.
Emotional intelligence has increasingly been argued to be
highly useful concept in career success [20], organizational
effectiveness [27], job satisfaction [17] [26], strategic
decision [28], leadership [25], [11], organizational
performance [25]. Recent times have seen researchers
focusing on personal qualities of the entrepreneur that
develops outstanding businesses. Sexton and Bowman [22]
had characterized entrepreneur as tend to be 1) tolerant of
ambiguous situations, 2) prefer autonomy (autonomy may be
described as self-reliance, dominance, and independence), 3)
resist conformity, 4) be interpersonally aloof yet socially
adroit, 5) enjoy risk-taking, 6) adapt readily to change, and 7)
have a low need for support. These factors cannot be easily
delegated and communicated to the down lines which lead to
intense stress or loneliness for the entrepreneur. Being stable
286 Rohana Ngah et al.: Emotional Intelligence and Entrepreneurs’ innovativeness
towards Entrepreneurial Success: A Preliminary Study
emotionally is very crucial for the entrepreneurs with stress
and loneliness. During the past few decades, there have been
tremendous efforts on measuring the impact of emotional
intelligence on the performance of entrepreneurs [25]; [20];
[21]; [1]. Innovation is a key aspect of entrepreneurship [24].
Entrepreneurs must be innovative besides being risk-taker
and proactive where entrepreneurial orientation represents
the policies and practices that provide a basis for
entrepreneurial decisions and actions. Innovativeness is the
predisposition to engage in creativity and experimentation
through the introduction of new products/services as well as
technological leadership via R&D in new processes [10].
Emotional Intelligence facilitates innovativeness and change
in the organization [2]. The stressful and demanding
environment requires a strong mental strength for
entrepreneurs to withstand the competition and remain
sustainable for a long time. Entrepreneurship is one of the
ambiguous area in the literature and the relationship of
emotional intelligence and entrepreneurial success has not
extensively been explored [4]; [9]. However, very few
studies of EI have been carried out in entrepreneurship as
entrepreneurship studies tend to focus on finances,
management, marketing etc. This study seeks to assess the
relevance of three constructs, emotional intelligence and
entrepreneurs’ innovativeness in entrepreneurial success.
This preliminary study on emotional intelligence,
innovativeness and entrepreneurial success would provide a
future direction on this issue.
2. Literature Review
2.1. Emotional Intelligence
EI can be defined as a set of individual social abilities or
skills to monitor, discriminate and use-self and other’s
emotions in order to regulate one’s thinking and action [23].
Previous studies suggested emotional intelligence can
improve one’s life through appropriate training and
education [5]. Emotional intelligence (EI) relate to the ability
to identify and express emotions, emotional adjustment and
using emotions as self-motivation and a means to motivate
others [23], [5]. Emotional intelligence abilities are
particularly salient to entrepreneurs because of their need to
manage social interactions with other individuals. Social
interactions include activities such as presenting to investors,
gaining and maintaining customers, negotiating, as well as
attracting, selecting, and handling employees, suppliers, and
Emotional intelligence is a combination of competencies.
These skills contribute to a person’s ability to manage and
monitor his or her own emotions, to correctly gauge the
emotional state of others and to influence opinions [40].
EI is divided into four main areas: self-awareness,
self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills [5]. It
involves managing emotions so as to avoid task interference,
delaying gratification to pursue goals, recovering from
emotional distress and being conscientious [7]. In Cross and
Tavaglione’s [4] study in Australia of high profile
entrepreneurs; they found that entrepreneurs showed
extremely high level in appraisal and expression of emotion;
regulations and utilization of emotion. With a greater ability
to identify, understand, and manage the emotional responses
of themselves, and others, entrepreneurs will obtain a
competitive advantage that sets their business performance
apart from their competitors. As emotional intelligence is
slowly being recognized, Wong and Law [15] has taken
further action to developed new four dimensions emotional
intelligence scale using Mayer and Salovey [23] model
which composed of self-emotional appraisal (SEA), others’
emotional appraisal (OEA), regulation of emotion (ROE)
and use of others’ emotion (UOE) which was reduced to 16
items. Table 1 shows the description of each dimension:
Table 1. Emotion Intelligence Dimensions
Dimensions Description
Self Emotional
Appraisal (SEA)
Individual’s ability to understand and
assessment of their deep emotions and be
able to express these emotions naturally.
Others’ Emotional
Appraisal (OEA)
Ability to perceive and understand the
emotions of others around them.
Regulation of Emotion
Peoples’ ability of people to regulate their
emotions, which will enable a more rapid
recovery from psychological distress.
Use of Emotion (UOE)
Ability of individuals to make use of their
emotions by directing them towards
constructive activities and personal
Source: Wong and Law (2002)
2.2. Emotional Intelligence and Entrepreneurs’
Emotional intelligence competencies distinguished
outstanding performers where the role of self-management
and relationship-management of EI competencies showed a
higher innovative performance [16]. Gogal and Akilesh [6]
found that interplay of three different and interrelated
abilities termed as cognitive intelligence, emotional
intelligence and social capital increased the innovativeness
of individual and group. Meanwhile, Suliman and Al-Shaikh
[18] in their study in Middle East found that emotional
intelligence plays a strong role in promoting creativity and
innovativeness in the organization. In addition, Kamalian et
al. [19] in their study on emotional intelligence and corporate
entrepreneurship, found motivation and self-awareness are
most effective factors on innovation while self-regulation
has the most on risk-taking and them empathy has the most
effect on pro-activeness.
2.3. Emotional Intelligence and Entrepreneurial Success
Entrepreneurial success can be defined as the standard
used by entrepreneurs to judge the success of their business
[31]. Ahmedtouglu et al. [21] argue that entrepreneurship is
American Journal of Economics 2015, 5(2): 285-290 287
not solely about the creation of business but rather a set of
activities or behaviours of entrepreneurs themselves. It is
said that entrepreneurs with high EI are likely to hold
different performance expectations with their entrepreneurial
activities, and to rely on different priorities in conducting
such activities, as compared to those with lower EI level [32].
According to Bahadori [2], people with high emotional
intelligence can better solve problems more efficiently and to
control their emotions. He further emphasized that EI is a
conflict between what the person feels that it thinks.
Brandstätter [21] performed an investigation on a random
samples from two groups of people; first group comprised of
255 owners of small and medium sized businesses while the
second group was associated with 104 people interested in
setting up a private business. He discovered that owners who
were founders were also emotionally more stable and
independent than owners who had taken over their business
from parents, relatives, or by marriage. Business owners who
are emotionally stable and independent were more successful
[7]. However, Yitshaki and Rothsein [25] found in their
preliminary findings that entrepreneurs’ EI do not have a
direct influence on organizational performance but
managerial style does have direct influence.
2.4. Emotional Intelligence, Entrepreneurs’
Innovativeness and Entrepreneurial Success
Successful entrepreneurs require a blend of analytical,
creative and practical intelligence, which in combination
constitute successful intelligence [7]. Reference has very
often been made in the research literature to the role
entrepreneurs play in stimulating innovation [14] which
relate to the human personality but not to emotion.
Ahmetouglu et al. [20] further found that individual, which
has high EI tend to have higher effectiveness, informing
creative dispositions and thus facilitating innovation. How
the entrepreneur makes decisions and judgments in the
experiential mode (emotional) rather than a rational mode
imply the importance of emotional intelligence in
entrepreneurial success [13]. They further emphasized that
peak performance can be achieved when the entrepreneur is
experiencing peak experience relating to emotional and
spiritual. Positive moods have been shown to increase
memory of positive information, self-assurance, enthusiasm,
flexibility, creativity and inductive reasoning [4]. The feeling
of joy can serve as a motivational tool that encourages
entrepreneurs to push their performance to higher levels and
achieve subsequent contentment and success [8]. Emotional
intelligence is said to be a factor in superior performance [5]
where emotion is one of the important elements in helping
successful entrepreneurs in making a rational
decision-making process as well as innovation process [13].
Moreover, Baron [3] agrees that positive emotions may
enhance entrepreneurial creativity including opportunity
recognition. It is also suggested that emotionally intelligence
leaders behave in ways that promote the creativity of their
3. Research Methodology
To ensure the validity and reliability, this study employed
the scales adopted from various authors and revised to fit into
this study. The scales of emotional intelligence are taken
from Wong and Law [15], innovativeness items are adopted
from Rhee, Park and Lee [36]) and Calatone and Cavusgil
[37], meanwhile, entrepreneurial success was from Cooper
and Artz [35] and Hmieleski & Corbett [38]. The scale range
from 1(totally disagree) to 5 (totally agree).
The pilot test was done a group of young entrepreneurs
who attended various training of entrepreneurship. Survey
was conducted through online and face to face.
All analysis is performed using SPSS version 21 to
analyze this preliminary study.
3.1. Respondent Profile
Table 2 shows the profile of the respondents.
Table 2. Demographic profile
Frequency Percentage
Current Position
Length of Position
less than 2 years
2 4 years
5 7 years
8 10 years
More than 10 years
Education Level
In this sample, 51% of respondents are male and 71% of
them are owners. Majority of them had tertiary education at
degree level. In addition, 34% of respondents are
sole-proprietors with majority been in business less than 2
years (32%). Majority have employees less than 5 with
annual sales turnover of less than RM300,000 a year and
most of the businesses is in the range of RM300000.
Majority is operating business in service sector.
3.2. Reliability Test
Reliability test is an assessment of the degree of
consistency between multiple measurements of a variable.
The Cronbach alpha coefficient was used to measures
(Nunnally, 1978). Reliability estimates (coefficient alphas)
288 Rohana Ngah et al.: Emotional Intelligence and Entrepreneurs’ innovativeness
towards Entrepreneurial Success: A Preliminary Study
for the four dimensions of SEA, UOE, ROE,and OEA
were .83, .85, .84, and .82, respectively. This is similar to
study done by Wong and Law [15]. Table 3 presents the
alpha coefficients that were above the required level of 0.7 as
suggested by Malhotra et al. (1999).
Table 3. Reliability Test
Factors Items Cronbach’s Alpha
Emotional Intelligence 16 0.903
Innovativeness 11 0.905
Entrepreneurial Success 5 0.830
The result of reliability test showed that the items
measured are reliable.
3.3. Correlation Analysis
The relationship between EI, INV and ES was
investigated using Pearson correlation coefficient.
Preliminary analyses were performed to ensure no violation
of the assumptions of normality, linearity and
homoscedasticity. There was strong correlation between EI
and INV (r= 0.68, n=51, p<0.005), but moderate correlations
between ES and EI (r= 0.39 n=51, p<0.005) and ES and INV
(r=0.33 n=51, p<0.005). Table 4 shows the result of
Table 4. Correlations of variables
EI 4.10 0.52 1
INV 4.13 0.65 0.682** 1
ES 3.85 0.71 0.392** 0.335** 1
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed)
Table 5 shows the relationship of EI dimensions to INV
and ES. While INV has strong and moderate correlations to
every dimensions of EI, however, ES has weak correlation
with SEA and OEA but strong correlation to UE (r= 0.42,
n=51, p<0.005) and RE r= 0.48, n=51, p<0.005).
3.4. Independent T-Te st
An independent t-test was carried out to compare the EI,
INV and ES scores for male and female entrepreneurs. There
was no significant difference in scores for males (M=4.14,
SD= 0.49) and females (M= 4.04, SD = 0.54; t=0.677,
p=0.675). The magnitude of the differences in the means was
very small (eta squared = 0.009). In testing INV, there was
also no significant difference in scores for males (M=4.32,
SD= 0.54) and females (M= 3.92, SD = 0.70; t=2.314,
p=0.181). The magnitude of the differences in the means was
very small (eta squared = 0.008). However, in testing ES,
there was a significant difference in scores for males
(M=4.04, SD= 0.53) and females (M= 3.65, SD = 0.811;
t=1.988, p=0.014). The magnitude of the differences in the
means was moderate (eta squared = 0.07).
4. Discussion
The entrepreneurship process is a very challenging
process therefore it requires a strong mental and stable
emotion for an entrepreneur to be able to face the
competition. EI is much more than having a pleasant
personality or good people skills, although that all forms part
of it [40]. In reality, EI affect every aspects of our lives;
relationships with others either personal or professional lives
[39]. How effective can entrepreneurs capitalize of diverse
relationships depends heavily on their internal EI. Unable to
fully utilize EI would dampen entrepreneurs’ opportunity to
innovation thus success. The finding shows that EI is
important for entrepreneurs to be innovative. This is similar
to Dincer et al. [25] finding that emotional intelligence is
positively related to innovative work behavior. Emotion has
placed strong role in innovation especially in understanding
consumer’s needs and wants [34]
Table 5. Correlations of all dimensions and variables
Construct Mean SD 1 2 3 4 5 6
SEA 4.36 0.59
OEA 3.94 0.72 0.518**
UE 4.22 0.63 0.602** 4.34**
RE 3.86 0.72 0.543** 0.200 0.556**
INV 4.13 0.65 0.550** 0.398** 0.765** 0.437** 0.682**
ES 3.85 0.71 0.200 0.118 0.422** 0.481** 0.335**
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed)
American Journal of Economics 2015, 5(2): 285-290 289
Regulation of others’ emotion has strong impact on
innovativeness and entrepreneurial success compared to
other emotional intelligence dimensions. This finding is
similar to Zhou et al. [31] where regulation of others
emotion is dominant compared to other dimensions of
emotional intelligence. This is true because entrepreneurs
might be sensitive about stakeholders such as customers,
employees and community in general in order to survive and
sustain in the competition [38]. This is also suggested by
Fukuda [34], that innovation becomes true innovation when
it meets the expectations of customers and when they feel
they have new innovative products. It is because innovation
lies in the hearts of customers [34]. This study also found that
there are no differences in gender in term of emotional
intelligence and innovativeness for entrepreneurial success.
Male entrepreneurs’ perception of entrepreneurial success is
higher compared to female. This is because male and female
entrepreneurs tend to derive satisfaction from different
sources; whereas male entrepreneurs place greater emphasis
on status-based sources of business success, female
entrepreneurs place greater emphasis on socio-emotional
sources of business success such as building satisfying
relationships with employees [33].
5. Conclusions
This study is another contribution to the knowledge of
entrepreneurship. As Malaysia is investing heavily on
entrepreneurship efforts, EI should not be left out. As
emotional intelligence abilities can be learned and taught,
entrepreneurs who are able to exploit their emotional
intelligence would able be to create competitive in
negotiations, obtaining and maintaining customers as well as
providing leadership and maintain order which is vital to
entrepreneurial success [41]. Entrepreneurs should leverage
their emotional intelligence to increase creativity and
innovation in the organization by exploiting it for their
benefits. The power of emotion would help entrepreneurs to
be good leaders and thus able to inspire and motivate their
employees to be innovative and creative in their
organizations [39]. This study has a number of limitations.
First of all, the number of respondents is too small to derive
to any conclusion. Furthermore, most of participants are
young entrepreneurs who have just started their venture. The
findings from this preliminary study would allow a more
thorough means to examine the impact of entrepreneurs’ EI
on perceived innovativeness and entrepreneurial success on
bigger scale.
For future research, emotional intelligence should be
explored in other perspective as mentioned by Ho [27] where
single emotional intelligence might not adequate. Other
factors such as entrepreneurial culture, entrepreneurial
environment and entrepreneurial orientation should be
explored together with emotional intelligence.
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With the establishment of social enterprises, the role of social entrepreneurs (SEs) becomes prominent with their exceptional competencies that contribute to the sustainable development (SD) of the environment. Sustainable competencies (SC) assist these entrepreneurs in strengthening their personalities for the present and future development by facilitating entrepreneurial social activities. This study focuses on the investigation of SC of SEs with the help of in‐depth interviews and exploratory factor analysis by collecting the data from SEs belonging to different regions of Uttar Pradesh, India, through a questionnaire. During the analysis of interviews and data, it has revealed that among the eight vital SC, few are entrepreneurial resilience, empathy, emotional intelligence, strategic thinking and so forth, which are crucial for the success of the social entrepreneurial journey. This is the significant study that focuses on the SC required by the present and future generations for the world's SD with humankind and would facilitate the academic institutes and policymakers to inculcate the SC among the generations to create more social enterprises.
... The construct of emotional intelligence proposes that "people differ in the extent to which they attend to, process, and utilize affect-laden information of an intrapersonal or interpersonal nature" (Petrides, 2009). Emotional intelligence has long been connected to entrepreneurial success and enterprise growth (Ngah & Salleh, 2015;McLaughlin, 2013). ...
... -Innovation capability as a firm's characteristic and a driver for growth (Liao et al., 2007;Patterson, 1998;Schumpeter, 1934) -Positive/negative affect as a personality trait with links to innovation (Diener, 1984;Perry-Smith & Coff, 2011;Tu & Yang, 2013;Watson, 1988) -Proactiveness as an important personal trait for entrepreneurs (Bateman & Crant, 1993; Van Ness et al., 2020) -Self-efficacy as a capability important for entrepreneurial growth (Wood & Bandura, 1989;Chen et al., 1998;Lee et al., 2011;Van Ness et al., 2020) -High personal standards as a trait that can have a varying effect on growth (Baron et al., 2016;Stöber, 1998) -Emotional Intelligence as an element for entrepreneurial success (Ngah & Salleh, 2015;Petrides, 2009;McLaughlin, 2013) -Lack of organizational trust, as a behavioral characteristic, can also adversely affect growth (Galford & Drapeau, 2003;Nyhan & Marlowe, 1997;Sarmawa et al., 2020;Schein, 1988) -Delegation as a crucial element for effective management and growth (Yukl & Fu, 1999;Yukl, 2010) -Goal congruence can affect the level of delegation and consequently growth (Vroom & Jago, 1988;Yukl & Fu, 1999) -Demographics also present an important characteristic linked to growth (Aspelund et al., 2005;Bruton & Rubanik, 2002;Colombo & Grilli, 2005;Eklund, 2020;Harris & Moffat, 2013;Madsen et al., 2003;Zhao et al., 2010) ...
Knowledge Intensive Enterprises (KIEs) constitute one of the most promising forms of entrepreneurial activity that can boost economic growth. Especially within the context of Innovation Ecosystems (IEs), KIEs play a central role in modern innovation research. The Covid-19 pandemic highlighted strongpoints and deficiencies in the broader ecosystems, the companies themselves, and most importantly, their founders and employees. Despite the external hindrances, many enterprises found growth driven by their ecosystems’ dynamic and their staffs’ capabilities. Combining insights from a quantitative survey, with actual growth data in the context of a Venture Capital (VC)-driven IE, we argue that enterprise profile - as defined by its innovation capability and its members’ personal, organizational, and demographic characteristics – affect KIE growth potential, and actual growth. In addition, we argue that both enterprise profile, as well as KIE growth, affect its members’ emotional reaction to the Covid-19 crisis, in terms of worry, hope, and optimism.
... This is because team emotional intelligence improves trust, collaboration, and in turn enhances creativity (Barczak et al., 2010). The increased innovativeness because of positive emotional intelligence may also lead to entrepreneurial success (Ngah & Salleh, 2015). Furthermore, application of emotional intelligence will enable interdisciplinary innovation teams to discover innovation opportunities (Buehring & Moore, 2018). ...
Introduction How emotional intelligence interrelates with employee innovation becomes a timely and crucial topic for research, for human resource and organizational psychology practitioners and academicians alike. Objective The study examined the mediating effect of person-group fit and adaptive performance on employee innovation. A sequential mediation framework explaining the relationship between emotional intelligence and employee innovation was constructed. This study differentiates itself from other similar studies on emotional intelligence and employee innovation since it suggests a novel approach to enhance employee innovation. Methods Electronic as well as paper-based surveys were conducted to collect the data and the analysis of 417 responses revealed that the hypotheses were strongly supported by the data. Results We found that a sequential mediation effect exists between person-group fit and adaptive performance. The findings offer a significant contribution to the field of human resources, since prior research has examined neither the simple mediating effect nor the sequential mediating effect of person-group fit and adaptive performance between emotional intelligence and employee innovation. Conclusion The theoretical and practical implications of the findings were explored which have substantial value for human resources especially, for recruitment and training teams.
... This criterion is also important for several reasons. First of all, there is a tendency for more educated people to start a business and for those with higher education to succeed (Ngah & Salleh, 2015). This tendency could be explained by the fact that educated persons (especially those with higher university or higher non-university education) have a greater knowledge base during their studies and wish to use their own experience to build their own business (Staniewski, 2016). ...
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This article suggests a new concept of entrepreneurship based on a modern approach about competition between agribusiness entities and according to the area of their commercial activity. The importance of entrepreneurship measurement is grounded and the correctness of the methodology is proven. Creating a model that covers all aspects of entrepreneurship measurement was determined as the aim of this article. This article presents a real, innovative methodology for measuring entrepreneurship in the agricultural sector based on the modification of TOPSIS method. The method chosen was recognized as the most appropriate for determining the level of entrepreneurship, which is expressed by quantitative parameters. Using the modification of multicriteria TOPSIS method for measuring entrepreneurship in agricultural entities, 12 specific criteria were selected. The model has been tested in the livestock farms of Lithuania to include entrepreneurship as a criterion in assessing the potential of these farms and their readiness to apply sustainable and environmentally friendly activities to organic farming. The applicability of the model has been directly confirmed. The use of the model makes it possible to rank agricultural businesses in a given region according to their degree of entrepreneurship.
Our research studies the influence of positive affect on entrepreneurs' evaluations of opportunities (i.e. novelty assessments and entrepreneurial selection) as well as how this influence may be different for entrepreneurs belonging to cultural and creative industries. Drawing on arguments on the role of affect in cognition and considering the particular situational and individual‐level factors of entrepreneurship in cultural and creative industries, we hypothesize that positive affect influences entrepreneurs' opportunity evaluation. We also hypothesize that this effect of positive affect is barely present for cultural and creative entrepreneurs. We test our hypotheses in a sample of nascent entrepreneurs who took part in entrepreneurship training programmes in six incubators in Spain, who we asked to evaluate their own opportunity. Our results show that positive affect positively impacts the perceived novelty and entrepreneurial selection of non‐creative entrepreneurs though this impact is limited for cultural and creative entrepreneurs.
A good deal of study has already been revealed compact bilateral relationships between creative thinking, entrepreneurship, and emotional intelligence among teacher candidates. However, a compact review of the literature will not find a study with a sample of teacher candidates investigating the mediating effects of creative thinking in the relationship between their emotional intelligence and entrepreneurship. In this respect, missing from the literature is an actual constructed data-driven knowledge that promotes to understanding of systematic rationality of supposed associations. To that end, the current research designed in a descriptive-correlational structural equation model (Covariance based) to test a developed hypothetical model bearing upon the literature. A survey was deployed to gather the data of 412 teacher candidates. 297 of these were females and 115 were males. The data analysis techniques were confined to descriptive, correlational, and prediction algorithms of the SPSS and the AMOS's standardized regression coefficients and the goodness of fit indices for the path model. The results uncovered that the emotional intelligence positively predicted the entrepreneurship and creative thinking. In this way, we understand that when the emotional intelligence increases, entrepreneurship and creative thinking also increase. On the other hand, creative thinking positively predicted the entrepreneurship. Specifically, entrepreneurship increases when creative thinking increases. In closing, teacher candidates’ creative thinking played a significant role in the relationship between their emotional intelligence and entrepreneurship. The implication of these results can be advantageous for the planning and designing more effective courses of teacher education in accordance with the 21st century educational trends.
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This study focused on the investigation of emotional intelligence and its impact on job satisfaction of primary school teachers. Major research objectives to were assess emotional intelligence of primary schools teachers, to asses levels of job satisfaction of primary school teachers and to correlate emotional intelligence and teacher job satisfaction primary schools teachers.. Random sampling technique was used for gathering quantitative data using survey questionnaire. Population of the present study was comprised of all primary school teachers of district Mardan. The entire sample drawn from the whole population size is 348 teachers from 201 schools of elementary and secondary education department District Mardan. The research findings shows that the elements of self-emotions appraisal have a high mean value, while the use of emotion has a low mean value, and on an overall scale, most teachers have high emotional intelligence.
This study explored the predictive impact of SEB on entrepreneurial intention, as well as the conditional mediating effects of perceived feasibility (PF) and attitude to entrepreneurship (ATE) based on the emotional intelligence (EI) levels of the students. A total of 82 EETE students in four selected universities in South-East Nigeria offering accredited EETE programmes were used for the study. There was no sampling due to the meagre size of the population. Data collected were analysed using Pearson product moment correlations, hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) and Process Model 8 moderated mediation analyses. It was found that perceived competence (β = 0.35, p < 0.01), perceived persistence (β = 0.33, p < 0.01) and perceived control (β = 0.26, p < 0.05) dimensions of SEB all had significant predictive impacts on entrepreneurial intention. The results equally revealed that at the mean and + 1 SD values of EI, perceived feasibility and attitude to entrepreneurship had significant mediating roles in the relation between SEB and entrepreneurial intention. The findings confirmed that EI does not significantly moderate the indirect effects of SEB through perceived feasibility (Index = 0.005, LLCI = − 0.112, ULCI = 0.123) and attitude to entrepreneurship (Index = 0.036, LLCI = − 0.071, ULCI = 0.144). This study is considered contributive to the existing knowledge on the influence of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intention. The implications of the findings were discussed, and suggestions for further research were also outlined.
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La actividad emprendedora en México tiene diferentes artistas, emprenden aquellos que buscan independencia laboral y financiera, también emprenden quienes no logran asimilarse al mercado laboral o han salido del mismo, como consecuencia de las crisis económicas; los estudios de GEM refieren dos razones que llevan a los individuos a emprender, por necesidad, o por oportunidad, en el caso de México el 23 % emprende por necesidad, mientras que el 77% lo hace para aprovechar una oportunidad encontrada en el mercado. En el capítulo I. “El efecto del contexto social en la intención de emprendimiento en los estudiantes de la Ciudad de México” los autores determinan la importancia que reviste la influencia de la familia y los amigos en la intención de emprendimiento de los jóvenes estudiantes, así como la elevada intención que tienen de emprender. El capítulo II. “La intención emprendedora en función del género en estudiantes universitarios en México”, nos revela que las estudiantes tienen mayor intención emprendedora que sus homólogos varones, e independientemente del género las variables que se asocian principalmente con la intención emprendedora son la creatividad y los rasgos personales y sociales. En el capítulo III. “La Inteligencia Emocional y la Autoeficacia Emprendedora: Un Análisis para Emprendedores de San Luis Potosí”, demuestra la manera en que la inteligencia emocional influye en la autoeficacia emprendedora, puesto que los individuos al poseer el control de sus emociones tienen mayor capacidad de adaptación a entornos cambiantes, desarrollando mejores capacidades de V detección y aprovechamiento de oportunidades, así como, mayores habilidades de gestión el trabajo en equipo. El Capítulo IV. “Proactividad del emprendedor y desempeño de pequeños negocios: una aproximación en los negocios de artesanías en un ambiente de crisis económica”, describe la Orientación Estratégica en pequeños negocios en un ambiente hostil, donde con una muestra de 101 empresarios, logran validar la proactividad como la variable principal que determina su desempeño. El capítulo V. “Emprendimiento y Sostenibilidad: Una Integración de Prosperidad para el Ecosistema Mexicano”, nos ofrece un diagnóstico de las dimensiones que enmarca a la sostenibilidad y el emprendimiento, estableciendo un alto nivel de importancia en la vinculación del emprendimiento y de la sostenibilidad para lograr un ecosistema exitoso. El capítulo VI. “Relación entre intención emprendedora y vinculación académica en institutos de investigación en una universidad mexicana”, nos amplia el panorama acerca del debate sobre el emprendimiento académico y otros mecanismos de transferencia de conocimiento e intenta explicar en qué medida la intención emprendedora se relaciona con otros mecanismos de vinculación académica en el contexto de universidad mexicana. Agradecemos a todos los coautores que generosamente han compartido los resultados de sus investigaciones, los cuales representan un aporte importante para la teoría y la práctica del emprendimiento.
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Nowadays, almost all sectors especially service ones are aware of the fact that the presence of employees who have high level of emotional intelligence and innovative work behaviors is crucial so as to perform efficiently and productively. Since customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are the main primacy for the banking sector, they need to keep up with all kinds of changes and developments to resist and gain advantages over their competitors subject to the highly increase of competition worldwide. The main reason of applying this study on the banking sector is its dynamic structure that has been changed both positively and negatively owing to the economic crisis. In connection with this, it is aimed to present the importance of emotional intelligence and innovative work behaviors on the success of banking sector through the analysis of two variables in terms of their relationship between each other. Additionally, it is intended for setting forth the differences of state-owned and private banks in terms of the level of emotional intelligence and innovative work behaviors. As a data collection tool, questionnaire technique has been used. It has been benefited from the emotional intelligence scale developed by Wong and Law to obtain the data related to emotional intelligence level; and the innovative work behaviors scale developed by Janssen to obtain the data related to innovative work behaviors. The findings obtained from the questionnaire were applied to 332 employees in Turkish banking sector.
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Nowadays, almost all sectors especially service ones are aware of the fact that the presence of employees who have high level of emotional intelligence and innovative work behaviors is crucial so as to perform efficiently and productively. Since customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are the main primacy for the banking sector, they need to keep up with all kinds of changes and developments to resist and gain advantages over their competitors subject to the highly increase of competition worldwide. The main reason of applying this study on the banking sector is its dynamic structure that has been changed both positively and negatively owing to the economic crisis. In connection with this, it is aimed to present the importance of emotional intelligence and innovative work behaviors on the success of banking sector through the analysis of two variables in terms of their relationship between each other. Additionally, it is intended for setting forth the differences of state-owned and private banks in terms of the level of emotional intelligence and innovative work behaviors. As a data collection tool, questionnaire technique has been used. It has been benefited from the emotional intelligence scale developed by Wong and Law to obtain the data related to emotional intelligence level; and the innovative work behaviors scale developed by Janssen to obtain the data related to innovative work behaviors. The findings obtained from the questionnaire were applied to 332 employees in Turkish banking sector.
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It has been a long time that researchers are trying to find out on why some people have better mental health than others do and some are more successful than the others are. There are many evidences to believe that having general intelligence does not necessarily yield prosperity and success and it could be accounted up to 20% of the success, whereas the remaining 80% is associated with other issues. The present study attempts to perform a comparative study on emotional intelligence and cognitive among successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurs. We adopt a standard test, which includes 133 questions and distribute it between two groups of successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurs in province of Sistan and Balochestan located in south west of Iran. The results of our ANOVA test when the level of significance is five percent reveal that emotional intelligence can substantially impact on the success of entrepreneurs.
In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime. 14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering. Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda's previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides readers with a holistic view of its research and applications, enabling them to make strategic decisions on how they can go further beyond product realization. It is recommended for all pioneers in industry, academia and government, who are making tremendous efforts to work with their customers to create value.
This book examines how theories of human emotion can be applied to engineering in order to improve product design and value. 'Emotional Engineering Vol. 3' establishes the idea that customer satisfaction can be maximised by using knowledge and experience in a more flexible manner to respond to a fast-changing world. This integration of emotion and knowledge introduces the reader to the concept of Wisdom Engineering. It also highlights the importance of emotion in creating value for the customer, and how this can be achieved by acknowledging a customer's creativity and by facilitating the customization of products for their needs and preferences. As has been identified by neuroscientists, emotion and reason are strongly interconnected, and the increasing complexities and diversification found in the products we use demonstrates the growing significance of emotion when designing these products. Society is comprised of humans and artificial products; their integration is important when considering product design, and improving quality-of-life for the customer. 'Emotional Engineering Vol. 3' builds on Dr Fukuda's previous books, 'Emotional Engineering' and 'Emotional Engineering Vol. 2', and is intended for researchers and professionals in engineering, psychology, management of technology, economics.
This study contributes to the entrepreneurship literature by introducing emotional intelligence (EI) as an additional factor that explains how entrepreneurs perceive their own success. Using survey data from 112 Dutch entrepreneurs, we find that emotionally intelligent entrepreneurs are more likely to judge their entrepreneurial success using the following criteria: employee satisfaction, social responsibility, personal satisfaction, customer satisfaction and business performance. Furthermore, not all EI dimensions are equally relevant to explain the phenomenon. We find that "regulation of emotion in others" seems to be the most important dimension, whereas "emotion in others" seems to be the less relevant one.
Entrepreneurship research has recognized the entrepreneur as catalyst to the new venture process. Apopular stream of research not yet applied to entrepreneurship has been the study of the emotional intelligence of entrepreneurial venture leaders. This web-based exploratory study collected self-assessment data of emotional competencies on successful young entrepreneurs. Participating entrepreneurs reported that they demonstrated high levels of self-confidence, trustworthiness, achievement orientation, service orientation, change catalyst, teamwork and collaboration. Trustworthiness, the ability to maintain standards of honesty and integrity, was ranked highest among 18 emotional competencies measured. The importance of teamwork and collaboration in the new venture process is also emphasized in the findings.
In recent years, innovative schools have developed courses in what has been termed emotional literacy, emotional intelligence, or emotional competence. This volume evaluates these developments scientifically, pairing the perspectives of psychologists with those of educators who offer valuable commentary on the latest research. It is an authoritative study that describes the scientific basis for our knowledge about emotion as it relates specifically to children, the classroom environment, and emotional literacy. Key topics include: historical perspectives on emotional intelligence neurological bases for emotional development the development of social skills and childhood socialization of emotion. Experts in psychology and education have long viewed thinking and feeling as polar opposites reason on the one hand, and passion on the other. And emotion, often labeled as chaotic, haphazard, and immature, has not traditionally been seen as assisting reason. All that changed in 1990, when Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer coined the term emotional intelligence as a challenge to the belief that intelligence is not based on processing emotion-laden information. Salovey and Mayer defined emotional intelligence as the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use motivated scientists, educators, parents, and many others to consider the ways in which emotions themselves comprise an intelligent system. With this groundbreaking volume, invited contributors present cutting-edge research on emotions and emotional development in a manner useful to educators, psychologists, and anyone interested in the unfolding of emotions during childhood. In recent years, innovative schools have developed courses in “emotional literacy” that making; these classes teach children how to understand and manage their feelings and how to get along with one another. Many such programs have achieved national prominence, and preliminary scientific evaluations have shown promising results. Until recently, however, there has been little contact between educators developing these types of programs and psychologists studying the neurological underpinnings and development of human emotions. This unique book links theory and practice by juxtaposing scientific explanations of emotion with short commentaries from educators who elaborate on how these advances can be put to use in the classroom. Accessible and enlightening, Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence provides ample evidence about emotional intelligence as well as sound information on the potential efficacy of educational programs based on this idea.