Article

Anticipatory Life Cycle Analysis of In Vitro Biomass Cultivation for Cultured Meat Production in the United States

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Abstract

Cultured, or in vitro, meat consists of edible biomass grown from animal stem cells in a factory, or carnery. In the coming decades, in vitro biomass cultivation could enable the production of meat without the need to raise livestock. Using an anticipatory life cycle analysis framework, the study described herein examines the environmental implications of this emerging technology and compares the results with published impacts of beef, pork, poultry, and another speculative analysis of cultured biomass. While uncertainty ranges are large, the findings suggest that in vitro biomass cultivation could require smaller quantities of agricultural inputs and land than livestock; however, those benefits could come at the expense of more intensive energy use as biological functions such as digestion and nutrient circulation are replaced by industrial equivalents. From this perspective, large-scale cultivation of in vitro meat and other bioengineered products could represent a new phase of industrialization with inherently complex and challenging trade-offs.

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... Cultured meat is another technology that might play an important role in replacing animal-sourced protein in the future 5,7,20 . LCA studies indicate that cultured meat production might require smaller quantities of agricultural inputs and land than ruminant meat production 26,35,36 . However, those benefits could come at the cost of higher energy requirements, which might undermine the GHG emission savings of cultured meat production, depending on the availability of decarbonized energy generation 35,37 . ...
... LCA studies indicate that cultured meat production might require smaller quantities of agricultural inputs and land than ruminant meat production 26,35,36 . However, those benefits could come at the cost of higher energy requirements, which might undermine the GHG emission savings of cultured meat production, depending on the availability of decarbonized energy generation 35,37 . Precision fermentation is a further future technology relevant to the alternative protein space, which could be utilized to produce milk protein (as ingredient for dairy analogues) or egg white 38,39 . ...
... On the basis of LCA studies, it has been estimated that mycoprotein production has about the same energy requirements as conventional ruminant meat production 7 . However, this proxy should be interpreted with care because the energy requirements for mycoprotein and ruminant meat production have been calculated with different methods 26,35 . Moreover, the type of energy needed for MP and ruminant meat production differs. ...
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Ruminant meat provides valuable protein to humans, but livestock production has many negative environmental impacts, especially in terms of deforestation, greenhouse gas emissions, water use and eutrophication1. In addition to a dietary shift towards plant-based diets2, imitation products, including plant-based meat, cultured meat and fermentation-derived microbial protein (MP), have been proposed as means to reduce the externalities of livestock production3–7. Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have estimated substantial environmental benefits of MP, produced in bioreactors using sugar as feedstock, especially compared to ruminant meat3,7. Here we present an analysis of MP as substitute for ruminant meat in forward-looking global land-use scenarios towards 2050. Our study complements LCA studies by estimating the environmental benefits of MP within a future socio-economic pathway. Our model projections show that substituting 20% of per-capita ruminant meat consumption with MP globally by 2050 (on a protein basis) offsets future increases in global pasture area, cutting annual deforestation and related CO2 emissions roughly in half, while also lowering methane emissions. However, further upscaling of MP, under the assumption of given consumer acceptance, results in a non-linear saturation effect on reduced deforestation and related CO2 emissions—an effect that cannot be captured with the method of static LCA. Replacing 20% of per-capita ruminant consumption with microbial protein can offset future increases in global pasture area, cut annual deforestation and related CO2 emissions in half, and lower methane emissions.
... Only one life-cycle assessment (Tuomisto and Teixeira de Mattos, 2011) was found in Web of Science [26]. In Scopus, two of the life-cycle assessments of cultured meat considered for this study were found (Mattick et al., 2015; Tuomisto and Teixeira de Mattos, 2011) [26,28]. Finally, all of them, including the above-mentioned ones, were found in Google Scholar [26,28,34,35]. ...
... Only one life-cycle assessment (Tuomisto and Teixeira de Mattos, 2011) was found in Web of Science [26]. In Scopus, two of the life-cycle assessments of cultured meat considered for this study were found (Mattick et al., 2015; Tuomisto and Teixeira de Mattos, 2011) [26,28]. Finally, all of them, including the above-mentioned ones, were found in Google Scholar [26,28,34,35]. ...
... In Scopus, two of the life-cycle assessments of cultured meat considered for this study were found (Mattick et al., 2015; Tuomisto and Teixeira de Mattos, 2011) [26,28]. Finally, all of them, including the above-mentioned ones, were found in Google Scholar [26,28,34,35]. It is concluded that very few life-cycle assessments of cultured meat have been published and that the LCAs related to it have been prospective (also called anticipatory or ex-ante LCAs). ...
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Cultured meat has been presented as an environmentally friendlier option to conventional meat, but due to the limited data, the studies related to its performance are scarce and based on hypothetical production processes. This work provides a short literature review of the published environmental assessments of cultured meat. The main findings of this critical analysis showed that the lack of real data related to cultured meat decreased the level of accuracy of each study. The missing environmental profile of the process itself, including the proliferation and differentiation phases in bioreactors, along with key ingredients such as growth factors and other recombinant proteins, increase the difficulty of achieving reliable conclusions. In order to bridge the highlighted gaps, a complete production system is modelled and analysed from an engineering and life-cycle perspective. Furthermore, an overview of the supply chains of different products used in the process is provided, together with recommendations on how they should be considered in future life-cycle assessments. In essence, this work provides a structured pathway for upcoming consistent environmental assessments in this field, with the objective of setting the basis to understand the potential of cultured meat.
... Much of the earliest research focused on issues of technological feasibility and viabilitypotential concerns of health and safety, how to improve taste and texture, the reliance on costly fetal bovine serum as a culture medium, and so on (van der Weele and Driessen, 2013;Post, 2012;Bhat et al., 2015;Laestadius, 2015;Marcu et al., 2015;Stephens et al., 2018). Parallel to growing awareness of the environmental impact of conventional meat production, there is broad interest in also assessing the relative sustainability of cultured meat (Tuomisto and de Mattos 2011;Mattick et al., 2015;Lynch and Pierrehumbert 2019). Even at that time however, the sentiment among proponents was that none of these more technical barriers were likely to be insurmountable. ...
... To explore whether counter-messaging on conventional meat affects consumer acceptance of cultured meat, we employed a 3x1 experimental design with two treatments giving information on its negative effects for animal welfare or environmental impact, respectively, as well as a control (unrelated to cultured meat). All information presented to participants was based on a review of the literature on cultured meat (Van der Weele and Driessen 2013; Laestadius and Caldwell 2015;Verbeke et al., 2015a;Marcu et al., 2015;Tuomisto and de Mattos 2011;Post 2012;Mattick et al., 2015). 1 Also, information in all treatments was formulated to be as similar as possible in length and structure: i.e., a brief introductory statement on downsides of conventional meat, followed by sentences of similar level of detail, and a final sentence offering cultured meat as a potential solution (Table 2). For the control, we decided to provide participants with unrelated information, instead of having them skip directly to the second measure of acceptance. ...
... Gender, Educational attainment, Children End questions and debriefing 1 Particular estimates for potential improvements in the environmental impact of cultured meat vis-à-vis conventional meat are from (Tuomisto and de Mattos (2011). Of course, subsequent studies have called into question these findings and/or sought to provide greater nuance (Mattick et al., 2015;Lynch and Pierrehumbert, 2019. Given our interest in examining how individuals might respond to real-world arguments, we did not aim through the treatments, however, to provide participants with the best reflection of the foregoing literature but rather ones that might correspond most closely to those they might encounter. ...
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With cultured meat now available for purchase in Singapore and more countries expected to follow soon, more and more research has explored the impact of particular individual factors and information provision. To this point, no research has looked explicitly at a counter-messaging approach, whereby problems of conventional meat production are leveraged to make the case for cultured meat. This study employs a 3x1 randomized experimental design with a sample of 302 British adults where participants are provided one of two differently focused counter-messages (animal welfare or environmental impact) or a control text. The study utilizes two repeated measures (before and after information provision) to examine the change in acceptance and investigate related informational effects. Though we find the focus of counter-messaging makes no difference, such an approach does generally promote consumer acceptance. Whereas acceptance of cultured meat is higher among men, younger consumers, and those who eat meat more often, change in acceptance is predicted by perceived consumer effectiveness and, marginally, lack of prior knowledge. By demonstrating the potential of a counter-messaging approach and offering a first examination of determinants of change in acceptance, this research should prove useful for researchers, policymakers, and proponents planning for the ongoing development and marketing of cultured meat.
... Much of the earliest research focused on issues of technological feasibility and viabilitypotential concerns of health and safety, how to improve taste and texture, the reliance on costly fetal bovine serum as a culture medium, and so on (van der Weele and Driessen, 2013;Post, 2012;Bhat et al., 2015;Laestadius, 2015;Marcu et al., 2015;Stephens et al., 2018). Parallel to growing awareness of the environmental impact of conventional meat production, there is broad interest in also assessing the relative sustainability of cultured meat (Tuomisto and de Mattos 2011;Mattick et al., 2015;Lynch and Pierrehumbert 2019). Even at that time however, the sentiment among proponents was that none of these more technical barriers were likely to be insurmountable. ...
... To explore whether counter-messaging on conventional meat affects consumer acceptance of cultured meat, we employed a 3x1 experimental design with two treatments giving information on its negative effects for animal welfare or environmental impact, respectively, as well as a control (unrelated to cultured meat). All information presented to participants was based on a review of the literature on cultured meat (Van der Weele and Driessen 2013; Laestadius and Caldwell 2015;Verbeke et al., 2015a;Marcu et al., 2015;Tuomisto and de Mattos 2011;Post 2012;Mattick et al., 2015). 1 Also, information in all treatments was formulated to be as similar as possible in length and structure: i.e., a brief introductory statement on downsides of conventional meat, followed by sentences of similar level of detail, and a final sentence offering cultured meat as a potential solution (Table 2). For the control, we decided to provide participants with unrelated information, instead of having them skip directly to the second measure of acceptance. ...
... Gender, Educational attainment, Children End questions and debriefing 1 Particular estimates for potential improvements in the environmental impact of cultured meat vis-à-vis conventional meat are from (Tuomisto and de Mattos (2011). Of course, subsequent studies have called into question these findings and/or sought to provide greater nuance (Mattick et al., 2015;Lynch and Pierrehumbert, 2019. Given our interest in examining how individuals might respond to real-world arguments, we did not aim through the treatments, however, to provide participants with the best reflection of the foregoing literature but rather ones that might correspond most closely to those they might encounter. ...
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This study investigates the impact of initial perceived barriers and motives on consumers’ willingness to eat cultured meat as a substitute for conventional meat using data collected in December 2013, shortly after the introduction of the first cultured beef burger to the public. The findings are based on a novel analysis of cross-sectional data from a representative consumer sample (n = 398) from Flanders (Belgium). Improved animal welfare emerged as the strongest motive for considering whether to eat cultured meat, whereas cultured meat's perceived unnaturalness emerged as the strongest barrier. A binary logistic regression model was specified and estimated for explaining the determinants of willingness to eat cultured meat while simultaneously accounting for the effects of gender, age, vegetarianism and the terminology used. Based on the logistic regression estimates, simulations of the probability to eat cultured meat are provided for different profiles of consumers and depending on their strength of motives and perceived barriers. The use of ‘cultured’, ‘in-vitro’ or ‘synthetic’ when framing cultured meat did not significantly affect willingness to eat in the full model. Meanwhile, the likelihood of being willing to eat cultured meat was eight times larger among males compared to females; decreased by 50% per increase of 10 years in age; and was 14 times higher among non-vegetarians compared to vegetarians. A one-unit increase of the strength of motives and perceived barriers yielded, respectively, a 16-fold increase versus a 33-fold decrease of likelihood of acceptance. Perceived barriers herewith emerged as being twice as powerful in shaping consumers’ willingness to eat cultured meat as compared to motives.
... For all the reasons mentioned above, there is a dire need across the world for sustainable meat alternatives such as IVM to meet the global demand for meat. According to few researchers, IVM takes up 99% less land, 45% less energy, 96% fewer greenhouse gases emissions compared to the traditional meat industry [67][68][69][70]. The greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions of IVM are as low as traditional pork and poultry industries [70,71]. ...
... Furthermore, IVM is unlikely to cause any adverse environmental impacts and may in For all the reasons mentioned above, there is a dire need across the world for sustainable meat alternatives such as IVM to meet the global demand for meat. According to few researchers, IVM takes up 99% less land, 45% less energy, 96% fewer greenhouse gases emissions compared to the traditional meat industry [67][68][69][70]. The greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions of IVM are as low as traditional pork and poultry industries [70,71]. ...
... Greenhouse gas emission by the meat industry[27,33,66,67]. ...
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In vitro meat (IVM) is a recent development in the production of sustainable food. The consumer perception of IVM has a strong impact on the commercial success of IVM. Hence this review examines existing studies related to consumer concerns, acceptance and uncertainty of IVM. This will help create better marketing strategies for IVM-producing companies in the future. In addition, IVM production is described in terms of the types of cells and culture conditions employed. The applications of self-organising, scaffolding, and 3D printing techniques to produce IVM are also discussed. As the conditions for IVM production are controlled and can be manipulated, it will be feasible to produce a chemically safe and disease-free meat with improved consumer acceptance on a sustainable basis.
... However, for consumers, meat grown in a lab creates an ethical dilemma in addition to fear and disgust (Bryant & Barnett, 2019;Poirier & Russell, 2019;Zhang et al., 2020). Initial studies of IVM emissions suggest that cultured meat utilises fewer agricultural inputs and less total land than traditional farming (Mattick et al., 2015). However, Mattick et al. (2015) warn that despite this, "large-scale cultivation of in-vitro meat and the bioengineered products could represent a new phase of industrialisation with inherently complex and challenging trade-offs" (p. ...
... Initial studies of IVM emissions suggest that cultured meat utilises fewer agricultural inputs and less total land than traditional farming (Mattick et al., 2015). However, Mattick et al. (2015) warn that despite this, "large-scale cultivation of in-vitro meat and the bioengineered products could represent a new phase of industrialisation with inherently complex and challenging trade-offs" (p. 11947). ...
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Without greater investment in biodiversity protection and sustainable development, the eradication of hunger will not be possible. Biodiversity is the foundation of healthy and sustainable food systems. It is the key to tackling global hunger, from pollinator protection to improving soil fertility and building resilience to climate change. Therefore, to protect our future, it is necessary to increase the investment in the current biodiversity. These nature-based solutions encourage proactive conservation, management, and restoration of ecosystems and biodiversity that tackle climate change, food and water safety, and human health.
... Current advances in cell-based meat technology promise to produce meat substitutes superior to existing plant-based products, utilizing tissue engineering with animal cells to recreate the taste, texture, nutrition, and appearance of meat [4]. The goal is to make a better meat substitute that will enable greater consumer adoption, reducing the sustainability concerns of conventional meat production [5][6][7]. Current discussions and studies agree that cell-based meat produces less greenhouse gases than conventional meat production but benefits to overall carbon footprint and global warming potential varies when compared to different types of meat (chicken, pork, and beef). Even so, as energy usage is the major component contributing to its carbon footprint, carbon footprint and global warming potential can be greatly reduced if energy use is sourced sustainably. ...
... The marbling categories were based on the Japanese beef marbling score (BMS), the system used by the Japanese Meat Grading Association to grade marbling. For our problem domain, samples were grouped into categories of poor/below average (BMS scores 0-2), average (BMS scores [3][4][5], good (BMS scores [6][7][8] and excellent (BMS scores 9-12) ( Supplementary Fig. 2). The experimental results on the testing dataset comprising 30 pictures from 4 marbling categories showed that our approach can effectively be used to classify pictures of marble with an overall accuracy of 86.7%. ...
Article
Recent efforts for cell-based meat cuts focus on engineering edible scaffolds, with visual cues which are key to enhancing consumer acceptance, receiving less attention Here, we employed artificial intelligence (AI)-based screening of potential plant materials and discovered that jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) has the natural structures to recapitulate marbling visuals of meat cuts. Plant tissue compositions are exploited for its differential polyphenol adsorption to produce complex marbling patterns. A one-step colour control method by varying oxidation and incubation conditions of polyphenols was developed to produce permanent meat-like colours resembling chicken, pork, and beef. The scaffold exhibits a meat-like browning behaviour when cooked and is shown to support high-density porcine myoblasts culture without masking the marbled appearance. Surveys with 78 volunteers found that marbled jackfruit scaffolds improved consumer perception of cell-based meat by ∼8%. Our approach of combining AI, tissue engineering, and sensory science unlocks the possibility of creating a range of novel cell-based meat cuts with consumer focus.
... Neste sentido, meios sintéticos têm sido produzidos a partir de plantas, Os hidrogéis sintéticos são uma das alternativas mais promissoras ao uso de fontes derivadas de animais, uma vez que tem baixo custo e podem ser ajustados de forma a atender as especificidades da produção de "carne limpa" (SPECHT et al., 2018). Além destes, pesquisadores já provaram a possibilidade de se cultivar células musculares em suspensão formada por microesferas a base de amido, atendendo a importantes requisitos: ser um ingrediente de baixo custo e amplamente encontrado na natureza, além de ser facilmente digerido (MATTICK et al., 2015). Outra tecnologia promissora, é a criação de redes canalizadas através de impressão 3D que produz estruturas semelhantes aos vasos sanguíneos existentes no tecido muscular natural, com a possibilidade de passar por perfusão capazes de sustentar culturas por até seis semanas (STEPHENS et al., 2018). ...
... Os autoresSpecht et al. (2018) sugerem modificações genéticas como forma de aumentar a estabilidade de fatores de crescimento já existentes ou ainda a criação de bibliotecas de pequenas moléculas que mimetizam a atividade destes, descartando a necessidade de produzi-los a partir de tecnologia recombinante, o que encareceria o processo.3.2.3 "Scaffolds" livres de componentes animaisA estrutura tridimensional das carnes in vitro, semelhante à carne convencional, pode ser fornecida através do uso de um scaffold (ou suporte).Estes suportes permitem o crescimento e a organização de múltiplas células e a perfusão do meio de cultura através deles para produção de um tecido mais especializado(SPECHT et al., 2018). Os scaffolds atuam fornecendo pontos de ancoragem para que as células se alinhem e criem tensão entre elas através da síntese de proteínas contráteis, gerando mais tensão no tecido obtido(HOCQUETTE, 2016).Para ser aplicado na produção de carnes in vitro, no entanto, é desejável que o material do scaffold seja comestível, dissolvido ou degradado antes do consumo, ou ser facilmente removido após o processo de produção(MATTICK et al., 2015). No geral, as células miogênicas se desenvolvem melhor em suportes feitos de colágeno, justamente porque esses materiais se assemelham mais com o ambiente fisiológico das células. ...
Article
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Os sistemas de produção e consumo de carne são alvos de estudos, críticas e questionamentos há bastante tempo. A tendência crescente de consumo de carne acompanhada do aumento da população mundial sugere a busca por alternativas para os sistemas produtivos convencionais de alimentos para que, no futuro, segurança e qualidade nutricional sejam garantidos a população. Neste contexto, as carnes cultivadas em laboratório, também chamadas de “carne in vitro” ou “carne limpa”, fazem parte de um novo campo de estudo que pretende atrair consumidores mais críticos com relação aos danos ambientais da produção convencional. Esta revisão sistemática de literatura foi elaborada utilizando a Methodi Ordinatio para obtenção dos artigos de maior relevância sobre o tema considerando fatores como o número de citações, ano de publicação e fator de impacto. Os dados foram extraídos das bases de dados Science Direct, Scopus e Web of Science e a seguinte combinação de palavras-chave e operadores booleanos foi utilizada (“in vitro meat” OR “cultivated meat” OR “cultured meat”) AND (“sustainability” OR “food security”). As 20 publicações resultantes foram gerenciadas utilizando o Mendeley e uma análise de tendência baseada na recorrência de palavras-chave foi feita utilizando o VOSviewer. Os resultados forneceram um panorama sobre os principais driversde consumo de carne, um breve histórico sobre as carnes in vitro e suas principais técnicas de produção. Mesmo com o avanço da tecnologia, a indústria da “carne limpa” ainda enfrenta alguns entraves com relação ao uso de matérias-primas livres componentes animais para o cultivo, o custo e a palatabilidade do produto final, a produção em larga escala, além da comprovação da sustentabilidade ambiental do processo. A carne in vitro é, portanto, uma área de fronteira da biotecnologia, o que propicia um campo amplo para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas e de novas técnicas para se tornar um produto palpável.Palavras-chave: carnes in vitro, sustentabilidade, segurança alimentar, agricultura celular, inovação.
... It involves innovations that promise to deliver health, food security, and animal welfare and the capacity to provide high-quality protein for an unprecedented rapidly growing world population, with a relatively small ecological footprint (Bekker, Fischer, Tobi, & van Trijp, 2017;Bierbaum et al., 2019;Parodi et al., 2018;Post et al., 2020; Van der Weele, Feindt, Jan van der Goot, van Mierlo, & van Boekel, 2019). The literature has exhaustively focused on the environmental benefits of cultured meat when contrasted to livestock, especially regarding Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions along with land, water, and energy use (Alexander et al., 2017;Mattick, Landis, Allenby, & Genovese, 2015;Sinke & Odegard, 2021;Tuomisto & Teixeira de Mattos, 2011). Despite the alertness on climate change and anthropogenic warming consequences (Naumann, Cammalleri, Mentaschi, & Feyen, 2021;Parncutt, 2019;UNEP, 2019a), I suggest that studying a single sustainability domain in the scope of cultured meat is not enough to tackle the short-and long-term pressures of economic, planetary, and societal boundaries. ...
... Health and animal welfare benefits; Socio-technical and economic challenges in less developed nations. Mattick et al. (2015) Environmental sustainability focused on GHG emissions and energy, land, and water use. Sun, Yu, & Han (2015) Environmental sustainability focused on the results of Tuomisto and Teixeira de Mattos (2011) and other authors. ...
Article
Background There is a need and urgency to strengthen the analysis of the interactions between cultured meat and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to shed new light on the map of synergies and trade-offs within and between the multiple goals in the context of regional differences. Accordingly, this article seeks to answer the question: what are the interactions between cultured meat and the SDGs? Scope and approach The methodology comprises an integrative literature review and content analysis of the 17 SDGs and their 169 targets and the application of a seven-point scale framework that assists decision-makers in mapping the nature and the strengths of the interactions. The analysis advances novel propositions about the impact of cultured meat on the SDGs and well-being. Key findings and conclusions Cultured meat systems will effectively unleash a virtuous cycle of SDGs and well-being within and across the North-South when confronting and juxtaposing environmental, health, social, economic, and law-oriented goals. They will be more successful when engaging in institutional change to resolve tensions between the short-term (socioeconomic) objectives and the long-term (societal and planetary) outcomes needed to fuel systemic resilience and sustainable development. Culture meat comprises technological capabilities but lacks sustainable businesses to tackle multiple SDGs grand challenges and systemically address their relationships. This article informs policymakers with significant perspectives to foster a virtuous cycle and outlines strategic capabilities needed to responsibly deliver long-term sustainable values in the scope of cultured meat.
... Wird die benötigte Energie mittels fossiler Energieträger gewonnen, ist die Klimabilanz negativ. Stammt die Energie jedoch von Wind und Sonne, oder später einmal aus Fusionskraftwerken, ist die Bilanz entsprechend besser (Lynch/Pierrehumbert 2019;Mattick et al. 2015). Die beste Umwelt-und Ethikbilanz nutzt jedoch nichts, wenn das zelluläre Produkt vom Konsumenten verschmäht wird. ...
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Die Energiewende findet gesellschaftlich nicht im »luftleeren Raum« statt: Sie kann sich nur im Kontext anderer tiefgreifender Prozesse sozialen Wandels vollziehen. Digitalisierung, Mobilität, Urbanisierung – diese und andere gesellschaftliche Großentwicklungen werden als »Megatrends« bezeichnet. Sie gelten als Wegweiser und gesellschaftliche Dimensionen, die berücksichtigt werden müssen, wenn es um die Gestaltung der Zukunft geht. Doch was macht eine Entwicklung eigentlich zu einem solchen Megatrend? Und welchen Einfluss haben diese Megatrends auf die Energiewende? Die Beiträger*innen des Bandes diskutieren die Bedingungen von Megatrends sowie die Herausforderungen und Möglichkeiten, die sich angesichts dieser Großentwicklungen für die Energiewende stellen.
... 4.2 In particular, some research focused on the comparison between the environmental effects of cultured and conventional meat production processes, and it emerged that the former entails more environmentally friendly techniques than the latter (Mancini and Antonioli, 2019). Although the energy use for cultured meat production seemed to be comparable to that of beef (Mattick et al., 2015), cultured meat seemed also to reduce land usage by 99%, water usage by 96%, and energy consumption by up to 45% (Tuomisto and Teixeira De Mattos, 2011;Mancini and Antonioli, 2019). ...
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The food industry has confronted, in recent years, numerous issues including meeting a food demand for individual well-being in a sufficient and healthy manner, also due to the effects of the world population growth. In this scenario, alternative food sources may be a key element both for their contribution to food needs and for the promotion of sustainable and innovative production patterns. These food sources, new compared to traditional food styles, have been regulated by specific European Union regulations under the definition of novel foods. Their importance in the world has raised different topics of scientific research. The present paper aimed to seize the direction of scientific studies in the world focused on the thematic area of novel foods, from the management point of view. At the scope, this study analyzed 209 papers and carried out a descriptive analysis and a network analysis of the thematic areas under examination also with the help of the software Vosviewer. The results highlighted the importance of scientific research in the world also for the contributions on the exploration of existing markets as well as for the innovative solutions it provides, which aim to expand market possibilities. Finally, the existence of several elements and factors, that may discourage the propensity to consume and therefore the development of the novel foods market, seemed to emerge, and for this reason, many surveys focused on finding solutions to overcome these potential obstacles.
... Discarded waste medium containing nitrogen-and phosphorus-containing nutrients can lead to the eutrophication of water bodies. The eutrophication caused by cultured food production is estimated to be equal to that caused by poultry production (Mattick et al. 2015). ...
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‘Cultured food’ has tremendous potential as a sustainable meat alternative. Increased cultured food production is increasing the amount of waste medium from cell culture. Nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing compounds in waste medium can cause eutrophication of water bodies. Currently, microalgae are used in energy production, environmental protection, agriculture and pharmaceutical and health food industries. Here, we used the microalgae, Chlorococcum littorale and Chlorella vulgaris and the waste medium of C2C12 cells for a case study. We found that 80% and 26% of ammonia and 16% and 15% of phosphorus in the waste medium were consumed by C. littorale and C. vulgaris, respectively. In addition, C. littorale and C. vulgaris proliferated 3.2 folds and 1.6 folds, respectively, after seven days in the waste medium that was enhanced by adjusting medium salt concentration. This report demonstrates the potential of sustainability for solving the issue of waste medium production during the production of cultured food.
... Da mesma forma, Mattick et al. (2015) propuseram que, embora a carne celular possa exigir menos insumos agrícolas e uso da terra, pode estar associada a um considerável consumo de energia. Mais importante ainda, devido às muitas incertezas em termos de premissas a serem empregadas nas estimativas, essa área de estudo merece esforços contínuos. ...
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Este capítulo está organizado em três tópicos centrais. No primeiro, será abordado o “problema”, desmembrando-o em duas questões: a escassez de fertilizantes no Brasil; e o impacto ambiental do uso inapropriado e/ou exacerbado de fertilizantes e da sua logística para sair das minas e fábricas e chegar às lavouras. O segundo tópico aborda o que se propõe como “solução”, que, em nossa forma de ver, passa pela necessidade de uma concepção mais circular e ecossistêmica das cadeias produtivas da agropecuária, que vem sendo chamada de “economia circular”. O uso dos dejetos animais enquadra-se nessa concepção. No terceiro e último tópico, procura-se reconhecer o “desafio” que se tem de enfrentar para atingir esse novo paradigma da organização dos sistemas produtivos. Além disso, este tópico trata do claro gargalo logístico no contexto e do desincentivo econômico que constituem obstáculos para uma mudança de forma mais concreta da situação.
... For instance, 7 kg of grain needed to obtain 1 kg of beef and not to mention the time and resources spent on rearing the animals until their age and weight are sufficient enough [32]. The substitution of traditional meat with cultured meat would contribute to the reduction of land use, water resources, and energy use for animal farming [33][34][35]. It will minimalize deforestation due to creating animal pastures as well as reduction of green house gas emission from animal farming [32,36]. ...
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The growing population and the climate changes put a pressure on food production globally, therefore a fundamental transformation of food production is required. One approach to accelerate food production is application of modern biotechnology such as cell culture, marker assisted selection, and genetic engineering. Cell culture technology reduce the usage of arable land, while marker assisted selection increases the genetic gain of crop breeding and genetic engineering enable to introduce a desired traits to crop. The cell culture technology has resulted in development of cultured meat, fungal biomass food (mycoprotein), and bioactive compounds from plant cell culture. Except cultured meat which recently begin to penetrate the market, the other products have been in the market for years. The marker assisted selection and genetic engineering has contributed significantly to increase the resiliency against emerging pests and abiotic stresses. This review addresses diverse techniques of cell culture technology as well as advanced genetic engineering technology CRISPR Cas-9 and its application for crop improvement. The pros and cons of different techniques as well as the challenges and future perspective of application of modern biotechnology for strengthening food security are also discussed.
... However, subsequent studies reported mixed results (e.g., Lynch & Pierrehumbert, 2019), depending upon the type of energy used in the LGM production process and the land use compared to conventional methods. Because the production of LGM is energy-intensive, the environmental benefits depend upon manufacturers using clean and renewable energy sources (Lynch & Pierrehumbert, 2019;Mattick, Landis, Allenby, & Genovese, 2015;Post et al., 2020;Tuomisto et al., 2014;Tuomisto & Teixeira de Mattos, 2011). Regarding land use, LCAs have estimated that LGM production would use less land relative to conventional meat production (Tuomisto et al., 2014;Tuomisto & Teixeira de Mattos, 2011). ...
Article
Concerns over the impact of global meat production and consumption patterns are leading to increasing interest in alternative sources of protein. This study provides new insight into consumers’ attitudes towards different protein products and factors associated with the acceptance of lab-grown meat. We measured and compared 1078 Australian consumers’ beliefs regarding conventionally raised meat (chicken and beef), plant-based meat alternatives and lab-grown meat products across six attributes: health, safety, affordability, eating enjoyment, animal welfare, and environmental friendliness. Beliefs regarding the health and affordability of conventionally raised chicken were statistically highest. For all attributes, beliefs relating to plant-based meat alternatives were more positive than those relating to lab-grown meat, and with respect to animal welfare and environmental friendliness, plant-based products were viewed most positively relative to all products. Despite average negative belief scores for all attributes, except for animal welfare, around one-quarter of consumers still indicated a willingness to consume lab-grown meat. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to explain factors associated with consumers’ willingness to consume lab-grown meat products. Factors associated with willingness to consume the lab-grown meat products were positive beliefs regarding eating experience (enjoyment), safety, animal welfare, and healthiness; familiarity; higher consumption frequency of conventionally raised chicken meat; tertiary education; and younger age. Although lower environmental impact has been proposed as one of the main benefits of lab-grown meat, beliefs regarding environmental friendliness were not significant in either model.
... Da mesma forma, Mattick et al. (2015) propuseram que, embora a carne celular possa exigir menos insumos agrícolas e uso da terra, pode estar associada a um considerável consumo de energia. Mais importante ainda, devido às muitas incertezas em termos de premissas a serem empregadas nas estimativas, essa área de estudo merece esforços contínuos. ...
... Da mesma forma, Mattick et al. (2015) propuseram que, embora a carne celular possa exigir menos insumos agrícolas e uso da terra, pode estar associada a um considerável consumo de energia. Mais importante ainda, devido às muitas incertezas em termos de premissas a serem empregadas nas estimativas, essa área de estudo merece esforços contínuos. ...
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Desde que os animais foram domesticados, a dependência entre produção animal e disponibilidade de água se faz presente. Atualmente, essa dependência é muito mais intensa devido às escalas de nossos sistemas de produção. No dia a dia da propriedade rural, a água está presente em tudo, não só em seu uso mais nobre, que é a dessedentação dos animais. A água é parte de qualquer alimento oferecido aos animais, está na irrigação das culturas vegetais que servirão de alimento e nas diversas práticas de lavagem de equipamentos e utensílios utilizados cotidianamente. A água está na manutenção do conforto térmico quando se faz o resfriamento do ambiente e está no manejo dos resíduos quando é utilizada para removê- los das instalações. Enfim, sem água não há produção pecuária em quantidade e com qualidade. Por causa dos diversos usos da água no cotidiano produtivo e dos diversos fluxos hídricos presentes na propriedade, saber manejar esse recurso é indispensável para que se tenha água na quantidade necessária e com a qualidade exigida. Já dispomos de várias práticas e tecnologias para implementar o manejo hídrico nas atividades pecuárias e programas que visem ao uso de boas práticas hídricas e à geração de indicadores de eficiência hídrica. No entanto, a inserção dessas práticas e tecnologias na rotina produtiva ainda está distante. As razões para isso vão desde questões culturais, pois ainda se entende a água como um recurso abundante e barato, até a falta de conhecimento e disponibilidade de informações para produtores e profissionais agropecuários a respeito de como manejar a água nos sistemas produtivos. O livro Produção animal e recursos hídricos: uso da água nas dimensões quantitativa e qualitativa e cenários regulatórios e de consumo traz uma contribuição valiosa para que se supere a carência na literatura técnico- -científica nacional na temática que esta obra se propõe a discutir, oferecendo os conhecimentos e as informações necessárias para a promoção do manejo hídrico nas atividades pecuárias. A obra é fruto do esforço intelectual de diversos profissionais, que aceitaram o desafio de relacionar o uso da água na produção animal com suas atividades profissionais e de pesquisa, dando um olhar hídrico inovador ao cotidiano produtivo e aos desafios ambientais atuais e futuros. Por isso, a obra tem um perfil de público abrangente, pois envolve desde a aplicação na prática de manejos e tecnologias até a discussão profunda, mas acessível, do que se deve observar hoje para o planejamento do futuro hídrico da pecuária nacional. Estruturado em nove capítulos, o livro aborda aspectos como o consumo de água na pecuária nacional e esclarece como as legislações de licenciamento ambiental devem ser aplicadas no cotidiano produtivo. A obra destaca ainda a importância de se medir o consumo de água nas propriedades e cita quais são os instrumentos disponíveis para isso, bem como as relações do uso do solo com a qualidade da água. Ademais, a publicação explica como traduzir os resultados de uma análise de água em ações práticas e ressalta a necessidade de se considerar o manejo hídrico e de resíduos na economia da propriedade, além de relatar casos sobre o uso dos resíduos como fertilizante e sobre o reúso da água. O último capítulo aborda um tema na fronteira do conhecimento: a produção de carne celular e a forma como os consumidores brasileiros estão reagindo a esse novo produto. A produção de produtos de base celular, vegetal e fermentados análogos aos produtos pecuários convencionais é um fato que está revolucionando o conceito de como produzimos um alimento, bem como a forma pela qual iremos nos alimentar. É preciso que a pecuária nacional entenda, reflita e discuta sobre isso, pois os desdobramentos de todo esse movimento irão influenciar as decisões a ações dos atores da pecuária. Se todos concordam que a pecuária brasileira atingiu o nível de desenvolvimento que temos hoje por vários aspectos, sendo dois deles a disponibilidade de recursos naturais de nosso país e a internalização de conhecimentos no dia a dia das produções, também concordarão que, no futuro, a pecuária continuará a depender desses dois aspectos de forma mais intensa, pois nossos recursos naturais estarão cada vez mais ameaçados em sua quantidade e qualidade e, devido ao grau de especialização e aos cenários econômicos dos sistemas de produção, produzir sem ter conhecimento será uma atitude de grande risco.
... The main argument in the literature is that conventional livestock production has a disproportionately large impact on ES due to the GHG emissions caused by clearing forests for pastures, raising grain to feed livestock, and methane emission from ruminant animals (Willett et al. 2019). The energy necessary to produce cultured meat at scale, and how that compares with conventional meat production, is still unclear in scientific literature as LCAs tend to be highly speculative, use incompatible models, compare cultured protein only with ground beef, and use conflicting model assumptions (Mattick et al. 2015;Lynch and Pierrehumbert 2019;van Eenennaam 2019;Glaros et al. 2021). Furthermore, the technology for cellular agriculture is evolving so quickly that LCAs may quickly become out of date. ...
Article
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The application of technologies such as artificial intelligence, robotics, blockchain, cellular agriculture, and big data analytics to food systems has been described as a digital agricultural revolution with the potential to increase food security and reduce agriculture’s environmental footprint. Yet, the scientific evidence informing how these technologies may impact or enhance ecosystem services has not been comprehensively reviewed. In this scoping review, we examine how digital agricultural technologies may enhance agriculture’s support of ecosystem services. Keyword searches in academic databases resulted in 2337 records, of which 74 records met review criteria and were coded. We identify three clusters of digital agricultural technologies including those that make farm management more precise, increase connectivity, and create novel foods. We then examine modelling and empirical evidence gaps in research linking these technologies to ecosystem services. Finally, we overview barriers to implementing digital agricultural technologies for better ecosystem services management in the Canadian context including economic and political systems; lack of policies on data management, governance, and cybersecurity; and limited training and human resources that prevents producers from fully utilizing these technologies.
... While processes to produce cultured meat are still being scaled up, estimates based on current industry values and projections involve the emission of fewer GHGs and the use of much less land when compared to ruminant meat like beef and lamb. Estimations of energy requirements vary more widely, ranging far below and above that of conventional beef production [29][30][31][32][33]. Compared to the weight of livestock increasing linearly over time, the timeframe to generate cultured meat tissues in vitro is thought to be faster due to the exponential nature of in vitro cell proliferation (cell numbers doubling during each round of proliferation) [34][35][36][37][38][39]. ...
Article
With rising global demand for food proteins and significant environmental impact associated with conventional animal agriculture, it is important to develop sustainable alternatives to supplement existing meat production. Since fat is an important contributor to meat flavor, recapitulating this component in meat alternatives such as plant based and cell cultured meats is important. Here, we discuss the topic of cell cultured or tissue engineered fat, growing adipocytes in vitro that could imbue meat alternatives with the complex flavor and aromas of animal meat. We outline potential paths for the large scale production of in vitro cultured fat, including adipogenic precursors during cell proliferation, methods to adipogenically differentiate cells at scale, as well as strategies for converting differentiated adipocytes into 3D cultured fat tissues. We showcase the maturation of knowledge and technology behind cell sourcing and scaled proliferation, while also highlighting that adipogenic differentiation and 3D adipose tissue formation at scale need further research. We also provide some potential solutions for achieving adipose cell differentiation and tissue formation at scale based on contemporary research and the state of the field.
... OAT-SA has been frequently adopted in LCA to check the robustness of modeling assumptions. Mattick et al. (2015) context, yet this does not allow the estimation of higher-order interactions across parameters. The latter are accounted for in the so-called totalorder Sobol' indices (Homma & Saltelli, 1996). ...
Article
In this study, we review approaches for uncertainty appraisal in the life cycle assessment literature. We cover the acknowledgement of stochastic and epistemic uncertainty in uncertainty and sensitivity analysis and knowledge quality assessment, respectively. Consistent with previous works, our findings indicate that uncertainty is only appraised in few studies on life cycle assessment. Most of these contributions cover only one of the phases of life cycle assessment, mainly the life cycle inventory. Less attention has been devoted to the phases of goal and scope definition and life cycle impact assessment. Additionally, in most studies, uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis have been applied independently, as wrongly assumed they cover different uncertainty spaces. We also identify the scope for improvement in the appraisal of epistemic uncertainty and the correct definition of the probability distribution of the uncertain factors. We conclude by highlighting studies in which sensible practices have been adopted, identifying open challenges, and suggesting possible ways forward.
... The bioreactor and medium provide nutrients, energy, and growth factors to the cells as they multiply (Bhat et al., 2014). Scaling production technology is still under development, but once produced at scale, cultivated meat promises to provide a protein source that uses fewer environmental resources and poses less public health risk than conventional meat (Landers et al., 2012;Tuomisto et al., 2014;Mattick et al., 2015;Smetana et al., 2015;Tuomisto, 2019;Chriki and Hocquette, 2020). Additionally, cultivated meat technologies are precise, creating the possibility of developing healthier and more nutritious products when compared to conventional meat, such as meat with higher omega fatty acid levels or lower saturated fat and cholesterol (Stout et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to assess the likelihood of consumer adoption of plant-based and cultivated meat in South Africa as a pathway to a healthy, sustainable, and equitable food supply. We recruited a large sample of South Africans representative across age (18–61), gender, race, and income to participate in an online survey. Participants responded to a range of measures including adoption indicators, estimated yearly intake, motivators for purchasing, desired product characteristics, preferred species, and sociodemographics. We found a high degree of openness to both products. For plant-based meat, 67% were highly likely to try and 59% were highly likely to purchase. For cultivated meat, 60% were highly likely to try and 53% were highly likely to purchase. The highest acceptance was amongst the younger generations: 60% of born-frees, 62% of millennials, and 53% of Gen X were highly likely to purchase plant-based meat and 55% of born-frees, 55% of millennials, and 46% of Gen X were highly likely to purchase cultivated meat. For the general population, we observed that future meat intake was estimated to be split equally among the three meat categories (conventional, cultivated, and plant-based). We found early adopters (those highly likely to purchase) to be quite similar in attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics in comparison to the general population. The study findings suggest that both plant-based and cultivated meat could be viable market-based options for improving the food system in South Africa, as consumers across all segments of society, and especially amongst the younger population, indicated broad acceptance.
... There are differences between the environmental impacts of conventional livestock, AP plant-based products, and cell-cultured meat products. A life cycle assessment (LCA) that compared conventional livestock production with cellcultured biomass cultivation found laboratory-produced meats to have higher energy-intensity inputs despite being more economically efficient, and to present trade-offs for large-scale production and environmental sustainability labeling (33). By comparison, an LCA of the Beyond Meat burger with conventional beef found a 90% reduction in GHGE, land impact, and water use (34). ...
Article
Over the past decade, a plethora of alternative protein (AP) products has entered the US food system as plant-based food and beverage products. These AP products, which include plant-based meat and dairy alternatives and cell-cultured meat and seafood products, are being developed for the marketplace to simulate the appearance, texture, taste, and flavor and nutritional profiles of animal products. The new generation of AP plant-based and cell-cultured food and beverage products are part of a market-driven narrative that has embraced technology to address future human health, environmental, ethical, and planetary health challenges. This perspective article synthesizes evidence about the benefits of adopting minimally processed plant-based diets that support sustainable food systems and human and planetary health. Thereafter, it examines 4 wicked challenges related to AP products in the US context that include 1) a confusing marketing landscape for the public; 2) diverse views and varying acceptance among consumers about the health and environmental benefits of these products; 3) inadequate education and labeling provided by federal agencies to enable consumers to understand how these may support healthy sustainable diets; and 4) slow federal policy and regulatory actions to address the range of AP products and provide industry guidance. The article concludes with suggested policies and actions for government agencies and food system actors to address these challenges. Future research and actions are needed to balance the human health, equity, animal welfare, and economic viability goals and to clarify how AP products may support safe, healthy, sustainable diets and food systems.
... The two key assumptions of no animal suffering in the vivisection process and the use of a vegan growth medium instead of Bovine serum (Mattick, Landis, Allenby, & Genovese, 2015) were mentioned. Because in Germany the term in vitro meat is used, the questionnaire and information text used that term only to avoid confusing respondents (Table 2). ...
... Significant details that reduced the estimated environmental impacts of the assessment were the use of cyanobacteria as a nutrient source, the exclusion of growth factors, vitamins, and other materials for the cell culturing, and an assumption of indefinite recycling of 80% of culture water without treatment. Mattick et al. (2015) conducted a follow-up LCA to the previous study and was generally more comprehensive in the system boundary and included steps for producing important components of the media including carbon and nitrogen sources, vitamins and minerals, and tissue scaffolding. It did not include cyanobacteria hydrolysates in the base media and significantly more detail in the cultivation was also included such as different steps for cell proliferation and cell differentiation. ...
Article
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Cells cultivated in bioreactors offer many possibilities for the production of novel and nutritious food products. Scientific and technological advances in cellular agriculture and processing technologies have allowed for the development of new techniques to utilize in vitro animal cells, plant cells, and microorganisms to mimic the organoleptic and nutritional properties of traditional foods as well as to potentially develop entirely new product classes. This review compiles and discusses the state-of-the-art cellular production and processing systems including 3D printing of customizable cell-cultivated food products. In addition to the technological state-of-the art, this article reviews the nutritional characteristics of cell-cultivated foods, introduces examples of new food products, and compiles economic characteristics and environmental impacts of each production system as assessed through technoeconomic analyses and lifecycle assessments. The factors influencing consumer acceptance of cell-cultivated foods are articulated and the potential implications of these new technologies on traditional agricultural industries and food chains are discussed. Lastly, future research and development trajectories are introduced with suggestions for continued development. K E Y W O R D S cellular agriculture, cultured meat, filamentous fungi, future foods, microalgae
... Artificial meat produced from the differentiation of muscle satellite cells (MSCs) in vitro is referred to as cultured meat. In addition to reducing the need for livestock, the adoption of cultured meat has huge environmental benefits [2,3]. In recent years, techniques such as stem cell isolation, ex vivo cell culture, and tissue engineering have been devised that enable the generation of MSCs and mesenchymal tissues. ...
Article
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The world’s population continues to increase, meaning we require more consistent protein supply to meet demand. Despite the availability of plant-based protein alternatives, animal meat remains a popular, high-quality protein source. Research studies have focused on cultured meat (meat grown in vitro) as a safe and more efficient alternative to traditional meat. Cultured meat is produced by in vitro myogenesis, which involves the processing of muscle satellite and mature muscle cells. Meat culture efficiency is largely determined by the culture conditions, such as the cell type and cell culture medium used and the biomolecular composition. Protein production can be enhanced by providing the optimum biochemical and physical conditions for skeletal muscle cell growth, while myoblasts play important roles in skeletal muscle formation and growth. This review describes the cell types used to produce cultured meat and the biological effects of various myokines and cytokines, such as interleukin-6, leukemia inhibitory factor, interleukin-4, interleukin-15, and interleukin-1β, on skeletal muscle and myogenesis and their potential roles in cultured meat production.
... The promise of cultured meat lies in its potential to address environmental, ethical, and human health issues that plague intensive animal agriculture 1 . For instance, early life-cycle analyses suggest that cultured meat could require >90% less land and >75% less water than conventional beef, while contributing >75% fewer greenhouse gas emissions, >95% less eutrophication, and >90% less particulate matter formation 2,3 . At the same time, cultured meat could improve animal welfare, foodsystem resilience, and human health outcomes [4][5][6] . ...
Article
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Cell-cultured meat offers the potential for a more sustainable, ethical, resilient, and healthy food system. However, research and development has been hindered by the lack of serum-free media that enable the robust expansion of relevant cells (e.g., muscle satellite cells) over multiple passages. Recently, a low-cost serum-free media (B8) was described for pluripotent stem cells. Here, B8 is adapted for bovine satellite cells through the addition of a single component, recombinant albumin, which renders it suitable for long-term satellite cell expansion without sacrificing myogenicity. This new media (Beefy-9) maintains cell growth over the entire period tested (seven passages), with an average doubling time of 39 h. Along with demonstrated efficacy for bovine cells, Beefy-9 offers a promising starting-point for developing serum-free media for other meat-relevant species. Ultimately, this work offers a foundation for escaping cultured meat research’s reliance on serum, thereby accelerating the field. A substitution of FBS in culturing of bovine satellite cells for the purpose of culturing meat is presented, addressing both basal media and growth factors in relation to proliferating and differentiating cells.
... Tuomisto et al. [16] compared cultured meat to conventionally produced beef, sheep, pork and poultry, and found it involves approximately 78-96 % less greenhouse gas emissions, 99% less land use, 82-96 % less water use, and 7-45 % less energy use, depending upon what meat product is it compared to (although poultry uses less energy). Mattick et al. [17] used a different model for cultured meat production, with the most notable differences being the media production method used and inclusion of a cleaning phase. These results suggest cultured meat could involve some trade-offs, with significant energy use leading to cultured meat having greater global warming potential than pork or poultry, but lower than beef, while retaining significant gains in land use. ...
Article
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FAO forecasts that the global meat production needs to increase by 50% to provide quality protein for the ten billion people living on planet earth by 2050. Meat fits in a healthy diet and is a good source of essential proteins, B-vitamins and several minerals (i.e. selenium and iron). A growing world population will require in 2050 about twice more food, produced on twice less arable land. Good digestible proteins may be a limiting factor in the future. Meat production is seen as less sustainable with negatives impacts on animal welfare. There is a search for alternative proteins to replace part of the animal proteins that are currently used in abundance in the diet of most developed and affluent countries.
... The rapidly developing field of cultured meat-which addresses the challenge of growing muscle ex vivo by culturing precursor cells harvested from animals in a bioreactor-could provide a complementary method for meat production. Life cycle assessments (LCA) have shown that cultured meat production has potential to achieve significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and land use compared to industrial meat production [9][10][11]. However, it will be critical to produce cultured meat with desired sensory and nutrient qualities that consumers crave [12]. ...
Article
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Cultured meat has potential to diversify methods for protein production, but innovations in production efficiency will be required to make cultured meat a feasible protein alternative. Microcarriers provide a strategy to culture sufficient volumes of adherent cells in a bioreactor that are required for meat products. However, cell culture on inedible microcarriers involves extra downstream processing to dissociate cells prior to consumption. Here, we present edible microcarriers that can support the expansion and differentiation of myogenic cells in a single bioreactor system. To fabricate edible microcarriers with a scalable process, we used water-in-oil emulsions as templates for gelatin microparticles. We also developed a novel embossing technique to imprint edible microcarriers with grooved topology in order to test if microcarriers with striated surface texture can promote myoblast proliferation and differentiation in suspension culture. In this proof-of-concept demonstration, we showed that edible microcarriers with both smooth and grooved surface topologies supported the proliferation and differentiation of mouse myogenic C2C12 cells in a suspension culture. The grooved edible microcarriers showed a modest increase in the proliferation and alignment of myogenic cells compared to cells cultured on smooth, spherical microcarriers. During the expansion phase, we also observed the formation of cell-microcarrier aggregates or ‘microtissues’ for cells cultured on both smooth and grooved microcarriers. Myogenic microtissues cultured with smooth and grooved microcarriers showed similar characteristics in terms of myotube length, myotube volume fraction, and expression of myogenic markers. To establish feasibility of edible microcarriers for cultured meat, we showed that edible microcarriers supported the production of myogenic microtissue from C2C12 or bovine satellite muscle cells, which we harvested by centrifugation into a cookable meat patty that maintained its shape and exhibited browning during cooking. These findings demonstrate the potential of edible microcarriers for the scalable production of cultured meat in a single bioreactor.
... As preocupações relacionadas ao aumento da produção de carne incluem a necessidade de grandes áreas de pastagem, água e energia para criação de um maior número de animais que, por sua vez, levará ao aumento das emissões de gases de efeito estufa e de concentração de dióxido de carbono (MATTICK et al., 2015;HOCQUETTE, 2016). Preocupações adicionais estão relacionadas à ética e ao bem-estar animal, além das controvérsias que a carne convencional pode ser prejudicial à saúde humana a longo prazo (STEPHENS et al., 2018). ...
... As preocupações relacionadas ao aumento da produção de carne incluem a necessidade de grandes áreas de pastagem, água e energia para criação de um maior número de animais que, por sua vez, levará ao aumento das emissões de gases de efeito estufa e de concentração de dióxido de carbono (MATTICK et al., 2015;HOCQUETTE, 2016). Preocupações adicionais estão relacionadas à ética e ao bem-estar animal, além das controvérsias que a carne convencional pode ser prejudicial à saúde humana a longo prazo (STEPHENS et al., 2018). ...
Article
The Federal Constitution dictates that anyone who causes suffering to an animal by imposing suffering on it due to mistreatment, infringes and incurs a crime provided for in Article 32 of Law No. 9605/1998. However, in practice this is not what happens, under this perspective a vast legal support has been consolidated that aims to recognize the individual value of animal life, seeking to bring ethical and moral aspects that preserve and protect animal life. Cell-based meat is an alternative to conventional meat that does not require the rearing and slaughter of animals. With the need for increased meat production, it grows along with the dependence on the availability of large areas of pasture, amount of water and energy to support for creating number of animals, which, in turn, leads to an increase in pasture areas greenhouse effect and carbon dioxide concentration, and especially to aspects related to ethics and animal welfare. Thus, alternatives are needed to meet the world demand for animal protein, but above all respecting the animals, and among the options is cell meat, a new technology for food production. Therefore, it is extremely important that professionals involved in the conventional meat production chain have knowledge about the process, so that they can assume new roles in the chain of cellular meat processing. This review aims to bring information and clarification to veterinarians, zootechnicians and other Brazilian professionals running the system. Since cellular meat seems to be a close reality, and knowledge about its processing must be disseminated widely to reach working professionals and intend to work in the meat production chain, demystifying taboos to add value to the development of sustainable alternatives and consequently new opportunities.
... In a more recent lcA, Mattick et al. (2015b) estimated an energy demand three times higher when compared to the prior estimates values using a stirred-tank bioreactor and cultivation medium based on corn. this result was mainly due to the basal medium production and the cleaning phase added to account. ...
Article
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The increasing demand for food, the debates regarding the ethics involved in slaughtering animals and the many associated environmental issues promote the emergence of an interesting question: is it possible to substitute conventional meat? In this context, Cultivated Meat (CM) is a promising alternative to replace meat, or at least to complement protein nutrition for humans. This overview aims to show the current technological developments for the production of CM, starting with the tissue engineering used to collect, grow and differentiate the cells, and also the characteristics of matrixes, culture media, types of bioreactors and techniques employed for cell cultivation. In addition, bioeconomy and sustainability issues are discussed, as well as social aspects and policy regulation. Furthermore, the fast growing market is presented, starting with the first meat ball in 2016, passing through some examples of recent funding and operating companies and start-ups, the continuous efforts to lower production costs, besides the most recent patented processes. Finally, and in the light of recent developments, future challenges and expectations for the future of CM are discussed, such as tissue engineering bottlenecks, bioreactor design optimization and public acceptance issues.
Article
This paper draws attention to how ‘problems’ were constructed at the USDA-FDA Joint Public Meeting on Use of Animal Cell Culture Technology in 2018 and the implications of these discursive constructs for the governance of animals in food systems. The findings demonstrate what problems animal cell-cultured meat has been positioned as the solution to, and what problems emerge from this new technology that regulators are expected to respond to. The problem representation and the solutions posed reproduce understandings that normalize and promote high and increasing levels of animal flesh consumption and related intensive uses of animals. With relevance for various academic disciplines, and policy-making and activist communities, this analysis offers insight from a critical animal studies lens into the role discourse plays in the governance of food systems that in turn shape the lives and bodies of animals in this emerging regulatory space.
Technical Report
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Important mitigation outcomes and other co-benefits could be at reach if rural communities and policy makers in low- and middle-income economies overcame the obstacle of access to finance in the livestock sector. The traditional sources of financing have long been difficult to access for livestock smallholders who often do not hold collateral except for their animals and have little experience of working with financial institutions. Traditional lenders see the livestock sector as overly risky, with little potential for significant profits, leaving them largely uninterested. Expanding financial inclusion would improve livelihoods, increase resilience, and help reduce GHG emissions. Innovative approaches to financing for the livestock sector are needed. In a sector that plays an essential economic role for some 60% of rural households, including 1.7 billion people and contributes up to half of agricultural GDP, reducing carbon emissions while maintaining livelihoods and reducing poverty is essential. This report identifies investment opportunities for increasing climate finance in the sector and drive its sustainable transformation.
Article
Sustainability discussions bring in multiple competing goals, and the outcomes are often conflicting depending upon which goal is being given credence. The role of livestock in supporting human well-being is especially contentious in discourses around sustainable diets. There is considerable variation in which environmental metrics are measured when describing sustainable diets, although some estimate of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of different diets based on varying assumptions is commonplace. A market for animal-free and manufactured food items to substitute for animal source food (ASF) has emerged, driven by the high GHG emissions of ASF. Ingredients sourced from plants, and animal cells grown in culture are two approaches employed to produce alternative meats. These can be complemented with ingredients produced using synthetic biology. Alternative meat companies promise to reduce GHG, the land and water used for food production, and reduce or eliminate animal agriculture. Some CEOs have even claimed alternative meats will 'end world hunger'. Rarely do such self-proclamations emanate from scientists, but rather from companies in their efforts to attract venture capital investment and market share. Such declarations are reminiscent of the early days of the biotechnology industry. At that time, special interest groups employed fear-based tactics to effectively turn public opinion against the use of genetic engineering to introduce sustainability traits, like disease resistance and nutrient fortification, into global genetic improvement programs. These same groups have recently turned their sights on the 'unnaturalness' and use of synthetic biology in the production of meat alternatives, leaving agriculturists in a quandary. Much of the rationale behind alternative meats invokes a simplistic narrative, with a primary focus on GHG emissions, ignoring the nutritional attributes and dietary importance of ASF, and livelihoods that are supported by grazing ruminant production systems. Diets with low GHG emissions are often described as sustainable, even though the nutritional, social and economic pillars of sustainability are not considered. Nutritionists, geneticists, and veterinarians have been extremely successful at developing new technologies to reduce the environmental footprint of ASF. Further technological developments are going to be requisite to continuously improve the efficiency of animal source, plant source, and cultured meat production. Perhaps there is an opportunity to collectively communicate how innovations are enabling both alternative- and conventional-meat producers to more sustainably meet future demand. This could counteract the possibility that special interest groups who promulgate misinformation, fear and uncertainty, will hinder the adoption of technological innovations to the ultimate detriment of global food security.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the attitudes of meat consumers in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, concerning cultured meat. This State is characterized by its strong cultural identity and social practices, barbecue being its typical dish. Design/methodology/approach The authors applied a cross-sectional survey with meat consumers residing in Porto Alegre/RS, the sample of which, composed of 538 individuals, expressed the population heterogeneity. The data were analyzed using the Pearson chi-square, Cramer's V , and correspondence analysis. Findings The results demonstrate that although six of ten people were willing to try cultured meat, only four of them responded positively to the willingness to consume it over conventional meat. Young individuals demonstrated a favorable attitude towards the product, expressing a greater propensity both to try it and to include it in the diet regularly. However, the rejection of cultured meat gradually intensified after 40 years old. The previous knowledge and familiarity with the investigated subject are not predictive of the intention of experimentation so that almost two-thirds of the individuals who did not know the product were positively willing to try it. Originality/value Despite the recent intensification of studies about consumer behavior towards cultured meat, its analysis in a context in which meat historically plays a fundamental role in socioeconomic development is still little explored. The originality of our research is circumscribed by the understanding of the behavior of meat consumers, members of a culture where it plays a central role.
Article
Cell-based meat has attracted great attention in recent years as a novel product of future food biomanufacturing and a breakthrough in the global food industry. Previous reports mainly focus on the relatively independent investigation of the nature and consumer acceptance of cultured meat, and there is limited research upon its commercialization, safety, and quality control. Based on the existing literature, we overview current cultured meat startups distribution, product varieties, investment, and financing status. Furthermore, the challenges of commercializing cultured meat products are systematically discussed from the aspects of key technologies, safety and supervision, and market expectation. Finally, some strategies and prospects related to the marketing of cultured meat are put forward. Although some cultured meat startups’ development and financing results are exciting, the greatest obstacles to the market promotion of cultured meat products are the large-scale production, safety assessment, improvement of a supervision system, and product-based market survey influenced by technology challenges.
Article
Background There is recognition that a reduction of consumer demand for foods that have large environmental footprints is necessary. Recent innovations in food production technologies (“food frontiers”) claim to offer gains in ecological sustainability and global food security, thereby transitioning our food system toward a more sustainable future. Yet, scientific evidence to support these claims has not been critically reviewed for several high-profile innovations. Scope and approach In this paper, we undertake a critical review of the literature on five food frontiers: cellular agriculture, climate-driven northern agricultural expansion (NAE), controlled environment agriculture (CEA), entomophagy, and seaweed aquaculture. We estimate the feasibility of each frontier’s widespread implementation by 2050 and their potential positive impacts on food system sustainability. We highlight uncertainty regarding ecological tradeoffs and future production potential in the literature, research gaps, and policy pathways that may maximize the benefits of these food frontiers. Key findings and conclusions Entomophagy, cellular agriculture, CEA, and seaweed aquaculture have similar positive impact values. Yet, CEA appears to be the most feasible technology to implement at scale. The mixed potential impacts of NAE suggest that such expansion poses multiple risks to the global food system. Standardized approaches to modeling environmental parameters in life cycle analyses are required, so that predicted impacts can be reasonably compared within and among these bodies of literature. Further critical social scientific engagement is needed to better understand the political and institutional frameworks in which these food frontiers will be implemented.
Chapter
The world-intensive livestock farming is currently under pressure because of its environmental, human health, and animal welfare impacts. Scientists, policymakers, and investors envisage alternative production systems and more sustainable diets, replacing meat with alternative protein sources. One potential scenario is represented by cultured meat, produced by taking cells from a living animal, then grown in a laboratory environment. Relying upon the up-to-date available literature on the topic, this chapter aims to present the multiple facets that cultured meat embraces: from the most debated issues, such as the environmental benefits and consumers perception, to some less analyzed aspects, including legislation and nomenclature, as well some expected supply chain impacts which may derive from the scaling up of cultured meat production in the next future.
Article
This article argues that the in vitro (i.e., lab-grown) meat boom can be better understood by framing it within sf studies, both historically and especially through to the contemporary moment. Not only does in vitro meat (IVM) have a long history of representation in sf, it is also framed in the public and corporate spheres through the use of sf tropes. The article offers close readings of IVM in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake (2003), Elizabeth Dougherty’s The Blind Pig (2010), and director Brandon Cronenberg’s Antiviral (2012), arguing that reading IVM in contemporary sf is a particularly effective method of thinking through its material effects.
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Despite the dynamic development of technology related to the production of artificial meat, this product faces one more important challenge in terms of gaining consumer acceptance. In the literature on the subject, limited research has been done on the perception of meat in vitro across different societies; therefore, there is little knowledge of the possibility of its acceptance and the type of barriers it may encounter. The aim of this study was to assess the perception of meat produced from stem cells in vitro by Polish consumers. The study was voluntary and was conducted based on an internet survey addressed to people aged 12 to 60+. Convenience sampling of respondents was used. The research sample consisted of 424 respondents with a diversified sociodemographic profile. The results showed a diversified interest in meat produced from stem cells in vitro among Polish consumers. Many respondents were not able to clearly define their preferences for this type of product. Young people showed the greatest positive interest in innovative in vitro meat. The greatest concerns of consumers were related to the lack of knowledge about this type of food, the lack of its inherent naturalness and potential negative health effects.
Article
A 2020 report published by the think tank RethinkX predicts the “second domestication of plants and animals, the disruption of the cow, and the collapse of industrial livestock farming” by 2035. Although typical of promissory discourses about the future of food, the report gives unusual emphasis to the gains of efficiency and near limitless growth that will come by eradicating confined livestock and aquaculture operations and replacing them with protein engineered at a molecular level and fermented in bioreactors. While there are many reasons to disrupt industrialized livestock production, lack of efficiency is not one of them. This article examines to what extent this so-called second domestication departs from the radical transformations of animal biologies and living conditions to which it responds. Drawing on canonical texts in agrarian political economy, it parses animal bio-industrialization into sets of practices that accelerate productivity, standardize animal life and infrastructures, and reduce risk to maximize efficiency. It shows these practices at work through recent ethnographic accounts of salmon aquaculture and pork production to illustrate how efforts to override temporalities and contain species in unfamiliar habitats, in the name of efficiency, may be the source of vulnerability in such production systems rather than their strength.
Technical Report
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Was die Deutschen über Technik den­ken – das untersucht das Technik­Radar von acatech – Deutsche Akade­ mie der Technikwissenschaften und der Körber­Stiftung in einer jährlichen Analyse. Erstellt und wissenschaftlich ausgewertet wird es vom Zen­trum für Interdisziplinäre Risiko­ und Innovationsfor­schung (ZIRIUS) der Universität Stuttgart. Im Fokus des TechnikRadar 2020 steht die Frage, wie die Deutschen zu den Zielen und möglichen Auswirkungen der Bio­ökonomie stehen
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Cultured meat production technology suggested that can solve the problems of traditional meat production such as inadequate breeding environment, wastewater, methane gas generation, and animal ethics issues. Complementing cultured meat production methods, sales and safety concerns will make the use of cultured meat technology easier. This review contextualizes the commercialization status of cultured meat and the latest technologies and challenges associated with its production. Investigation was conducted on materials and basic cell culture technique for cultured meat culture is presented. The development of optimal cultured meat technology through these studies will be an innovative leap in food technology. The process of obtaining cells from animal muscle, culturing cells, and growing cells into meat are the basic processes of cultured meat production. The substances needed to production of cultured meat were antibiotics, digestive enzymes, basal media, serum or growth factors. Although muscle cells have been produced closer to meat due to the application of scaffolds materials and 3 D printing technology, still a limit to reducing production costs enough to be used as foods. In addition, developing edible materials is also a challenge because the materials used to produce cultured meat are still not suitable for food sources.
Article
Biotechnology and food science have pioneered the notion of cultured meat. Conventional meat production face issues related to butchering, dietary inadequacy, foodborne disease, and the emanation of methane, which cultured meat evades while promising the texture and feel of real meat. Mass production techniques for plant-based meat analogs have been developed, whose products have hit the market. In vitro production on scaffolding and self-organizing techniques have manufactured small-scale meat products offering tunable nutrition, although more specialized contrivances are needed to build a cultured meat framework on a large scale. Prospective techniques like 3D/4D bio-printing, biophotonics, and cloning are current research subjects. Cultured meat needs to overcome societal and regulatory hurdles prior to commercialization, and, in any event, is a long-term necessity for humankind, although the high production cost and affirmation among people is the principal impediment.
Chapter
Produced from proliferating cells in bioreactors with a controlled culture medium, “cultured meat” has been presented by its supporters, who are mainly private actors (start-ups), as a sustainable solution to meet the growing demand for animal proteins without weaknesses of animal husbandry in terms of environmental impact, animal welfare or even health. The aim of this chapter is to take stock of current knowledge on the potential benefits and pitfalls of this novel product. Since robust scientific arguments are lacking on these aspects, there is no consensus on the health and nutritional qualities of “cultured meat” for human consumption and on its potential low environmental impact. In addition, many issues related to the market, legislation, ethics and consumer perception remain to be addressed. The way in which this new product is regarded appears to be influenced by many factors related mainly to its price, as well as to the perception of safety, sensory traits but also environmental and nutritional issues. Therefore, research by universities and public research institutes indicates that “cultured meat” production does not present any major advantages in economic, nutritional, sensory, environmental, ethical or social terms compared to conventional meat. Thus, a more balanced diet by diversifying our sources of plant and animal proteins, consuming other meat substitutes, and reducing food losses and waste appear to be more effective short-term solutions to the urgent need of producing enough food for the growing human population (while reducing environmental degradation and animal suffering).
Article
In response to a growing population and rising food demand, the food industry has come up with a wide array of alterations, innovations, and possibilities for making meat in vitro. In addition to revolutionizing the meat industry, this advancement also has profound effects on the environment, health, and welfare of animals. Thus, rather than using slaughtered animals, animal cells are employed to generate cell-based meat, with the cells' proliferation and differentiation taking place in the culture environment. The primary goal of this paper is to examine the overall mechanism and numerous approaches involved in the creation of cell-based meat. It also covers upcoming issues like technical, consumer, and regulatory issues, environmental concerns, the economy, cost of the product, health and safety concerns, and ethical, religious, and societal taboos. Finally, it assesses the future prospects of cell-based meat production.
Chapter
Lab meats, solar foods, indoor farming, and microalgae are promoted as means to reduce carbon, land and water footprint and to free land for rewilding, production of biofuels, or others. Many of those are energy intensive and if the water and land use for energy production are considered, the claims of efficiency are questionable. Apart from doubtful claims, the narrative of food tech and farm-free foods is one of a further, illusory decoupling of human civilization from the natural world. But freeing us from soil and toil also means freeing us from meaning and connectedness with the other living beings. By reconnecting to the land and relocalizing our economy, we can also achieve more meaningful lives.
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The mechanisms leading to skeletal limb muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been fully elucidated. Exhausted muscle regenerative capacity of satellite cells has been evocated, but the capacity of satellite cells to proliferate and differentiate properly remains unknown. Our objectives were to compare the characteristics of satellite cells derived from COPD patients and healthy individuals, in terms of proliferative and differentiation capacities, morphological phenotype and atrophy/hypertrophy signalling, and oxidative stress status. Therefore, we purified and cultivated satellite cells from progressively frozen vastus lateralis biopsies of eight COPD patients and eight healthy individuals. We examined proliferation parameters, differentiation capacities, myotube diameter, expression of atrophy/hypertrophy markers, oxidative stress damages, antioxidant enzyme expression and cell susceptibility to H2O2 in cultured myoblasts and/or myotubes. Proliferation characteristics and commitment to terminal differentiation were similar in COPD patients and healthy individuals, despite impaired fusion capacities of COPD myotubes. Myotube diameter was smaller in COPD patients (P = 0.015), and was associated with a higher expression of myostatin (myoblasts: P = 0.083; myotubes: P = 0.050) and atrogin-1 (myoblasts: P = 0.050), and a decreased phospho-AKT/AKT ratio (myoblasts: P = 0.022). Protein carbonylation (myoblasts: P = 0.028; myotubes: P = 0.002) and lipid peroxidation (myotubes: P = 0.065) were higher in COPD cells, and COPD myoblasts were significantly more susceptible to oxidative stress. Thus, cultured satellite cells from COPD patients display characteristics of morphology, atrophic signalling and oxidative stress similar to those described in in vivo COPD skeletal limb muscles. We have therefore demonstrated that muscle alteration in COPD can be studied by classical in vitro cellular models.
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Skeletal muscle is a major target for tissue engineering, given its relative size in the body, fraction of cardiac output that passes through muscle beds, as well as its key role in energy metabolism and diabetes, and the need for therapies for muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophy and sarcopenia. To date, most studies with tissue-engineered skeletal muscle have utilized murine and rat cell sources. On the other hand, successful engineering of functional human muscle would enable different applications including improved methods for preclinical testing of drugs and therapies. Some of the requirements for engineering functional skeletal muscle include expression of adult forms of muscle proteins, comparable contractile forces to those produced by native muscle, and physiological force-length and force-frequency relations. This review discusses the various strategies and challenges associated with these requirements, specific applications with cultured human myoblasts, and future directions.
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LEVEL: INTERMEDIATE O riginally developed for optimizing microbial fermentation, the fed-batch approach has become a leading technology in biologics production based on animal cell culture. For manufacturing-scale applications, we can simply address the batch, fed-batch, and perfusion operating modes (1). But as the number of basic reactor types and production modes/strategies grows, absolute categorization and terminology become more difficult. That is especially true when considering small scales and more academic (research) approaches, in which concepts such as "fed perfusion" have been described (2). Such references can be confusing to beginners trying to make sense of the basic approaches available. Regardless of the cell, product, or reactor addressed, fed-batch mode specifically refers to an approach in which a concentrated solution of nutrients is added at particular intervals, with no product harvested until the end of the run. An early implementation of the fed-batch approach involved an additional charge of sucrose added in mid-process to a quiescent Saccharomyces fermentation. That feeding allowed for production of a key biological product: Champagne just wouldn't be the same without bubbles from the CO 2 produced by that sucrose feeding! In fact, many of today's animal cell fed-batch approaches originate from microbial fermentation systems. For example, in early penicillin fermentation it was first thought that a relatively expensive sugar (lactose) was required for optimal production. It was later revealed that high production (over biomass) resulted from feeding with less expensive glucose at an appropriate rate. Current fed-batch systems for animal cell bioreactor production are based on adaptations and extensions of such earlier work.
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Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a ubiquitously used essential supplement in cell culture media. However, there are serious scientific and ethical concerns about the use of FBS regarding its harvest and production. During the last three decades, FBS could be substituted by other supplements or by the use of defined chemical components in serum-free cell culture. A number of serum-free medium formulations have been described for mammalian and insect cell lines as well as for primary cultures. However, the switch to serum-free media still demands a time-consuming literature survey and a manufacturer search for appropriate medium formulations, respectively. Here we present the second collection of commercially available serum-free media in an updated, freely accessible interactive online database. Searches for serum-free media and continuous cell lines already adapted to serum-free culture can be performed according to various criteria. These include the degree of chemical definition, e.g. serum-free (SF), animal-derived component free (ADCF) or chemically defined (CD), and the type of medium, e.g. basal media, medium supplements, or full replacement media. In order to specify the cell lines that are adapted to serum-free media, search terms like species, organ, tissue, cell type and disease can be used. All commercially available serum-free media and adapted cell lines currently available from major distributors (e.g. ATCC, ECACC and DMSZ) are included in the database. Despite an extensive search for serum-free media and adapted cell lines, detailed information from certain companies and suppliers is still lacking and is specifically highlighted. It is intended to create a platform for the interactive exchange of information and experience by experts in the field in order to continuously improve and extend the serum-free online database. The database is accessible at http://www.goodcellculture.com/
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The growth of mammalian cells in vitro requires the use of rich culture media that are prepared by combining serum with specific nutrient formulations. Serum, the most expensive component of culture media, provides a complex mixture of growth factors and nutrients. Protein hydrolysates that can support in vitro cell growth and eliminate or reduce the need to use serum have been obtained from different sources. Here we describe the use of two food grade proteases to produce a chickpea protein hydrolysate that has been added to cell culture medium in order to determine whether it can be used as a substitute for serum. Medium containing the hydrolysate has been tested using two human cells lines: the monocytic THP-1 cell line which grows in suspension, and the epithelial Caco-2 cell line which grows as a monolayer. The chickpea protein hydrolysate was a good substitute for serum in the first case, but did not allow growth of Caco-2 cells. Supplementation of culture media with this inexpensive and safe hydrolysate would greatly reduce the cost of cell culture.
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This article mainly addresses the issues associated with the engineering of large-scale free suspension culture in agitated bioreactors >10,000 L because they have become the system of choice industrially. It is particularly concerned with problems that become increasingly important as the scale increases. However, very few papers have been written that are actually based on such large-scale studies and the few that do rarely address any of the issues quantitatively. Hence, it is necessary very often to extrapolate from small-scale work and this review tries to pull the two types of study together. It is shown that 'shear sensitivity' due to agitation and bursting bubbles is no longer considered a major problem. Homogeneity becomes increasingly important with respect to pH and nutrients at the largest scale and sub-surface feeding is recommended despite 'cleaning in place' concerns. There are still major questions with cell retention/recycle systems at these scales, either because of fouling, of capacity or of potential and different 'shear sensitivity' questions. Fed-batch operation gives rise to cell densities that have led to the use of oxygen and enriched air to meet oxygen demands. This strategy, in turn, gives rise to a CO(2) evolution rate that impacts on pH control, pCO(2) and osmolality. These interactions are difficult to resolve but if higher sparge and agitation intensities could be used to achieve the necessary oxygen transfer, the problem would largely disappear. Thus, the perception of 'shear sensitivity' is still impacting on the development of animal cell culture at the commercial scale. Microcarrier culture is also briefly addressed. Finally, some recommendations for bioreactor configuration and operating strategy are given.
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Myogenesis involves the determination of progenitor cells to myoblasts, their fusion to yield multinuclear myotubes, and the maturation of myotubes to muscle fibres. This development is reflected in a time pattern of gene expression, e.g. of genes coding for desmin, the myogenic factors myogenin and myoD, the acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit and the muscular chloride channel CIC-1. We attempted to improve yields and myogenic differentiation in culture by using three-dimensional microcarrier systems. Out of a variety of carriers tested in stationary cultures, collagen-coated dextran Cytodex3 beads proved optimal for the proliferation and differentiation of the murine myogenic cell line C2C12. With C2C12 myoblasts in stationary and stirred systems (Spinner- and SuperSpinner flasks), surface adherence, differentiation into myotubes and expression of muscle-specific mRNAs on Cytodex3 beads were the same as in conventional cultures. Other carriers tested (DEAE cellulose, glass, plastic, cellulose, polyester) did not support growth and differentiation of C2C12 cells. The secondary mouse myogenic stem cells M12 and M2.7-MDX proliferated and differentiated well in stationary Cytodex3 cultures, but no differentiation occurred in Spinner flasks. As indicated by light and scanning electron microscopy, C2C12 myotubes formed not only on but also in between Cytodex beads. The secondary cell lines may succumb to shear forces under these conditions.
Article
Accumulation of DNA is essential for muscle growth, yet mechanisms of androgen-induced DNA accretion in skeletal muscle are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether androgen receptors (AR) are present in cultured skeletal muscle satellite cells and myotubes and examine the effects of testosterone on satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Immunoblot analysis using polyclonal AR antibodies (PG-21) revealed an immunoreactive AR protein of approximately 107 kDa in porcine satellite cells and myotubes. Immunocytochemical AR staining was confined to the nuclei of satellite cells, myotubes, and muscle-derived fibroblasts. Administration of 10(-7) M testosterone to satellite cells, myotubes, and muscle-derived fibroblasts increased immunoreactive AR. In satellite cells and myotubes, AR increased incrementally after 6, 12, and 24 h of exposure to testosterone. Testosterone (10(-10) - 10(-6) M), alone or in combination with insulin-like growth factor I, basic fibroblast growth factor, ...
Book
Bioprocess technology involves the combination of living matter (whole organism or enzymes ) with nutrients under laboratory conditions to make a desired product within the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics, biotechnology, fine chemicals and bulk chemicals sectors. Industry is under increasing pressure to develop new processes that are both environmentally friendly and cost-effective, and this can be achieved by taking a fresh look at process development; - namely by combining modern process modeling techniques with sustainability assessment methods. Development of Sustainable Bioprocesses: Modeling and Assessment describes methodologies and supporting case studies for the evolution and implementation of sustainable bioprocesses. Practical and industry-focused, the book begins with an introduction to the bioprocess industries and development procedures. Bioprocesses and bioproducts are then introduced, together with a description of the unit operations involved. Modeling procedures, a key feature of the book, are covered in chapter 3 prior to an overview of the key sustainability assessment methods in use (environmental, economic and societal). The second part of the book is devoted to case studies, which cover the development of bioprocesses in the pharmaceutical, food, fine chemicals, cosmetics and bulk chemicals industries. Some selected case studies include: citric acid, biopolymers, antibiotics, biopharmaceuticals. Supplementary material provides hands-on materials so that the techniques can be put into practice. These materials include a demo version of SuperPro Designer software (used in process engineering) and models of all featured case studies, excel sheets of assessment methods, Monte Carlo simulations and exercises. Previously available on CD-ROM, the supplementary material can now be accessed via http://booksupport.wiley.com by entering the author name, book title or isbn and clicking on the desired entry. This will then give a listing of all the content available for download. Please read any text files before downloading material.
Article
Meat eating is often a contentious subject, whether considering the technical, ethical, environmental, political, or health-related aspects of production and consumption. This book is a wide-ranging and interdisciplinary examination and critique of meat consumption by humans, throughout their evolution and around the world. Setting the scene with a chapter on meat's role in human evolution and its growing influence during the development of agricultural practices, the book goes on to examine modern production systems, their efficiencies, outputs, and impacts. The major global trends of meat consumption are described in order to find out what part its consumption plays in changing modern diets in countries around the world. The heart of the book addresses the consequences of the "massive carnivory" of western diets, looking at the inefficiencies of production and at the huge impacts on land, water, and the atmosphere. Health impacts are also covered, both positive and negative. In conclusion, the author looks forward at his vision of "rational meat eating", where environmental and health impacts are reduced, animals are treated more humanely, and alternative sources of protein make a higher contribution. Should We Eat Meat? is not an ideological tract for or against carnivorousness but rather a careful evaluation of meat's roles in human diets and the environmental and health consequences of its production and consumption. It will be of interest to a wide readership including professionals and academics in food and agricultural production, human health and nutrition, environmental science, and regulatory and policy making bodies around the world.
Article
On August 5, 2013, a prototype sample of cultured, or in vitro, meat was tasted at a well-publicized event in London [1]. This hamburger was not grown in an animal, but rather from bovine stem cells in Dr. Mark Post?s laboratory at Maastricht University in the Netherlands. The event may foreshadow a day when traditional livestock production has given way to large-scale growth of meat in factories, or carneries. Dr. Post has suggested that commercialization of cultured meat could be ten to twenty years away [1]. The implications are profound. By some accounts the technology could reduce the environmental impacts of meat production [2], promote human health by eliminating harmful contents such as saturated fats and pathogens [2], address global hunger issues [3], and alleviate the ethical concerns associated with industrial livestock operations [4]. However, technologies powerful enough to address such significant challenges often come with unforseen consequences and a host of costs and benefits that seldom accrue to the same actors. In extreme cases, they can even be destabilizing to social, institutional, economic, and cultural systems [5].
Article
The environmental implications of cultured meat are profound. An anticipatory life cycle assessment of cultured meat published in 2011 suggested it could have a smaller impact than agricultural meat in all categories except energy consumption. As with most technologies, cultured meat will almost certainly be accompanied by unintended consequences as well as unforeseen costs and benefits that accrue disproportionately to different stakeholders. Uncertainty associated with new engineered products cannot be completely eliminated prior to introduction, but ongoing environmental assessments of the technologies as they advance can serve to reduce unforeseen risks. Given the pace at which tissue engineering is advancing, systemic assessments of the technology will be pivotal in mitigating unintended environmental consequences.
Article
Bio-based products are considered to be a sustainable alternative to conventional fossil fuel-based materials. This paper studies the production of glucose from corn starch, an important feedstock for a wide range of bio-based products (e.g. ethanol, bio-based monomers), in a European corn wet mill (CWM). Following the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) principles, non-renewable energy use (NREU) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are assessed for the system cradle-to-factory gate. The allocation problem that the analysis is faced with is addressed by applying seven different approaches: namely sub-division (two variants), partitioning based on physical causalities and on economic relationships and the principles of system expansion (three variants). Depending on the approach, the NREU for glucose production ranges from 6.8 to 9.3 MJ/kg glucose dry solids (ds) and the GHG emissions from 0.7 to 1.1 kg CO2 eq./kg glucose ds. The results for NREU per tonne of glucose are robust while for GHG, large deviation from the average is found for system expansion and for the approach main process. The influence of each calculation should be kept in mind when assessing bio-based products from glucose produced in a CWM. The results provide a good basis for future analyses of bio-based products, as they are also similar to values published by other authors for the US, bearing in mind the different impacts of corn production in the two regions.
Article
Culturing beef from bovine satellite cells can be done and the urgent need for alternative beef production requires full-scale research into this interesting possibility.
Article
Tissue engineering is a rapidly evolving discipline that aims at building functional tissues to improve or replace damaged ones. To be successful in such an endeavor, ideally, the engineering of tissues should be based on the principles of developmental biology. Recent progress in developmental biology suggests that the formation of tissues from the composing cells is often guided by physical laws. Here a comprehensive computational-theoretical formalism is presented that is based on experimental input and incorporates biomechanical principles of developmental biology. The formalism is described and it is shown that it correctly reproduces and predicts the quantitative characteristics of the fundamental early developmental process of tissue fusion. Based on this finding, the formalism is then used toward the optimization of the fabrication of tubular multicellular constructs, such as a vascular graft, by bioprinting, a novel tissue engineering technology.
Article
Most published research concerning the environmental impacts of broiler poultry production is limited to assessments of on-farm gaseous and nutrient emissions. Here, ISO-compliant Life Cycle Assessment was used to predict the broader, macroscale environmental impacts of the material and energy inputs and emissions along the US broiler supply chain. It was found that feed provision accounts for 80% of supply chain energy use, 82% of greenhouse gas emissions, 98% of ozone depleting emissions, 96% of acidifying emissions and 97% of eutrophying emissions associated with the cradle-to-farm gate production of broiler poultry. On-farm inputs and emissions, largely related to heating and ventilation contribute on average only 9% of these impacts. These results underscore the fallacy of ‘‘landless farming” and the importance of full supply-chain environmental management for improving sustainability in the US poultry industry.
Article
Background: The production of recombinant proteins for therapeutic use represents a great impact on the biotechnology industry. In this context, established mammalian cell lines, especially CHO cells, have become a standard system for the production of such proteins. Their ability to properly configure and excrete proteins in functional form is an enormous advantage which should be contrasted with their inherent technological limitations. These cell systems exhibit a metabolic behaviour associated with elevated cell proliferation which involves a high consumption of glucose and glutamine, resulting in the rapid depletion of these nutrients in the medium and the accumulation of ammonium and lactate. Both phenomena contribute to the limitation of cell growth, the triggering of apoptotic processes and the loss of quality of the recombinant protein. Results: In this review, the use of alternative substrates and genetic modifications (host cell engineering) are analyzed as tools to overcome those limitations. In general, the results obtained are promising. However, metabolic and physiological phenomena involved in CHO cells are still barely understood. Thus, most of publications are focused on specific modifications rather than giving a systemic perspective. Conclusions: A deeper insight in the integrated understanding of metabolism and cell mechanisms is required in order to define complementary strategies at these two levels, so providing effective means to control nutrients consumption, reduce by-products and increase process productivity.
Article
Industrial therapeutic protein production has been greatly improved through fed-batch development. In this study, improvement to the productivity of a tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line was investigated in shake flask culturethrough the optimization of the fed-batch feedand the reduction of ammonia generation by glutamine replacement. The t-PA titre was increased from 32 mg/L under batch conditions to 250 mg/L with daily feeding starting after three days of culture. A commercially available fed-batch feed was supplemented with cotton seed hydrolysate and the four depleted amino acids, aspartic acid, asparagine, cysteine and tyrosine.The fed-batch operation increased the generation of by-products such as lactate and ammonia that can adversely affect the fed-batch performance. To reduce the ammonia production, a glutamine-containing dipeptide, pyruvate, glutamate and wheat gluten hydrolysate, were investigated as glutamine substitutes. To minimize the lag phase as the cells adjusted to the new energy source, a feed glutamine replacement process was developed where the cells were initially cultured with a glutamine containing basal medium to establish cell growth followed by feeding with a feed containing the glutamine substitutes. This two-step feed glutamine replacement process not only reduced the ammonia levels by over 45% but,in the case of using wheat gluten hydrolysate, almost doubled the t-PA titre to over 420 mg/L without compromising the t-PA product quality or glycosylation pattern. Thefeed glutamine replacement process combined withoptimizing other feed medium components provided a simple, practical and effective fed-batch strategy that could be applied to the production of other recombinant therapeutic proteins. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2012.
Article
We used ISO-compliant life cycle assessment to evaluate the comparative environmental performance of high- and low-profitability commodity and deep-bedded niche swine production systems in the Upper Midwestern United States. Specifically, we evaluated the contributions of feed production, in-barn energy use, manure management, and piglet production to farm-gate life cycle energy use, ecological footprint, and greenhouse gas (GHG) and eutrophying emissions per animal produced and per live-weight kg. We found that commodity systems generally outperform deep-bedded niche systems for these criteria, but that significant overlap occurs in the range of impacts characteristic of high- and low-profitability production between systems. Given the non-optimized status of current deep-bedded niche relative to commodity production, we suggest that optimizing niche systems through improvements in feed and sow herd efficiency holds significant environmental performance improvement potential. Drivers of impacts differed between commodity and deep-bedded niche systems. Feed production was the key consideration in both, but proportionally more important in niche production due to lower feed use efficiencies. Liquid manure management in commodity production strongly influenced GHG emissions, whereas solid manure management increased eutrophication potential due to outdoor storage in deep-bedded niche production. We further observe an interesting but highly imperfect relationship between economic and environmental performance measures, where profitability tracks well with resource (in particular, feed) throughput, but only indirectly with emissions intensity.
Article
Guidelines for design, validation and operation of clean-in-place systems for industrial fermentation plant are presented. Design of vessels, surface finishes, materials of construction, types and locations of valves are some of the considerations addressed. Requisite levels of turbulence for cleaning of pipes and vessels are discussed as well as typical cleaning sequences. Recommendations for validation of cleaning are presented and the significance of design of cleaning systems in ensuring satisfactory validation is pointed out. To the extent possible, validation of cleaning should be carried out with real process soil or soil closely simulating actual fermentation broths.
Article
As one of the alternatives for livestock meat production, in vitro culturing of meat is currently studied. The generation of bio-artificial muscles from satellite cells has been ongoing for about 15 years, but has never been used for generation of meat, while it already is a great source of animal protein. In order to serve as a credible alternative to livestock meat, lab or factory grown meat should be efficiently produced and should mimic meat in all of its physical sensations, such as visual appearance, smell, texture and of course, taste. This is a formidable challenge even though all the technologies to create skeletal muscle and fat tissue have been developed and tested. The efficient culture of meat will primarily depend on culture conditions such as the source of medium and its composition. Protein synthesis by cultured skeletal muscle cells should further be maximized by finding the optimal combination of biochemical and physical conditions for the cells. Many of these variables are known, but their interactions are numerous and need to be mapped. This involves a systematic, if not systems, approach. Given the urgency of the problems that the meat industry is facing, this endeavor is worth undertaking. As an additional benefit, culturing meat may provide opportunities for production of novel and healthier products.
Article
We used ISO-compliant life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare the cumulative energy use, ecological footprint, greenhouse gas emissions and eutrophying emissions associated with models of three beef production strategies as currently practiced in the Upper Midwestern United States. Specifically we examined systems where calves were either: weaned directly to feedlots; weaned to out-of-state wheat pastures (backgrounded) then finished in feedlots; or finished wholly on managed pasture and hay. Impacts per live-weight kg of beef produced were highest for pasture-finished beef for all impact categories and lowest for feedlot-finished beef, assuming equilibrium conditions in soil organic carbon fluxes across systems. A sensitivity analysis indicated the possibility of substantial reductions in net greenhouse gas emissions for pasture systems under conditions of positive soil organic carbon sequestration potential. Forage utilization rates were also found to have a modest influence on impact levels in pasture-based beef production. Three measures of resource use efficiency were applied and indicated that beef production, whether feedlot or pasture-based, generates lower edible resource returns on material/energy investment relative to other food production strategies.
Article
Adipose tissue provides for a rich and easily accessible source of multipotent stromal cells and thus offers the potential for autologous cell-based therapy for a number of degenerative diseases. Senile osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction in bone quality, which is associated with inadequacies in bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) differentiation. In the present study, we have characterized adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) isolated from aged osteoporotic mice and evaluated their suitability as a source of osteogenic precursor cells. Significant reductions in both tibia bone quality and telomere length in liver tissue were observed in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 strain (SAMP6), as compared to the control age-matched senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 strain (SAMR1), thus confirming osteoporosis and accelerated ageing traits in this model. ASCs isolated from inguinal fat expressed mesenchymal surface markers and were capable of differentiating along the osteoblast, adipocyte and chondrocyte lineages. Telomere length was not compromised in ASCs from SAMP6 mice but was actually found to be significantly increased as compared to control SAMR1 mice. Furthermore, ASCs from both strains were comparable in terms of telomerase activity, p21 mRNA expression, SA-β-gal activity and proliferative capacity. The overall osteogenic and adipogenic potential of ASCs was comparable between SAMP6 and SAMR1 strains, as determined by quantitative molecular, biochemical and histological analyses. In conclusion, adipose tissue may represent a promising autologous cell source for the development of novel bone regenerative therapeutic strategies in the treatment of age-related osteoporosis.
Article
Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.
Article
Accumulation of DNA is essential for muscle growth, yet mechanisms of androgen-induced DNA accretion in skeletal muscle are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether androgen receptors (AR) are present in cultured skeletal muscle satellite cells and myotubes and examine the effects of testosterone on satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Immunoblot analysis using polyclonal AR antibodies (PG-21) revealed an immunoreactive AR protein of approximately 107 kDa in porcine satellite cells and myotubes. Immunocytochemical AR staining was confined to the nuclei of satellite cells, myotubes, and muscle-derived fibroblasts. Administration of 10(-7) M testosterone to satellite cells, myotubes, and muscle-derived fibroblasts increased immunoreactive AR. In satellite cells and myotubes, AR increased incrementally after 6, 12, and 24 h of exposure to testosterone. Testosterone (10(-10) - 10(-6) M), alone or in combination with insulin-like growth factor I, basic fibroblast growth factor, or platelet-derived growth factor-BB, had no effect (P > 0.01) on porcine satellite cell proliferation, and testosterone pretreatment for 24 h did not alter the subsequent responsiveness of cells to these growth factors. Satellite cell differentiation was depressed (20-30%) on days 2-4 of treatment with 10(-7) M testosterone. This effect was not reversible within 48 h after treatment withdrawal and replacement with control medium. These data indicate that satellite cells are direct targets for androgen action, and testosterone administration increases immunoreactive AR protein and reduces differentiation of porcine satellite cells in vitro.
Article
A fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) has been developed to culture hybridoma cells for long-term continuous production of monoclonal antibody (MAb). A non-woven polyester fibrous matrix was used to immobilize the cells to reach a high viable cell density of 3×108 cells cm–3 packed bed, which gave a high volumetric MAb productivity of 1 g L–1 day–1 under continuous feed conditions with the medium containing 10% serum. Reducing the medium serum content to 1% increased MAb production to 6.5 g L–1 day–1 in a repeated batch FBB culture. MAb production was higher at higher dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in the range between 10% and 70% of air saturation, although DO did not significantly affect glucose metabolism and lactate production. The medium LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) level increased dramatically when the DO level was decreased from 30% to 10%, suggesting that a critical DO level of ∼30% is necessary for maintaining the FBB culture for long-term operation. Compared with suspension cultures in T-flasks and spinner flasks, the FBB culture had a lower lactate yield from glucose (0.80 vs. 0.91 g g–1), produced MAb at a higher concentration (up to 442 mg L–1 vs. 83.5 mg L–1), and was stable for continuous long-term operation (more than 1 month). The superior FBB performance was attributed to the highly porous fibrous matrix that enabled the efficient mass transfer, cell immobilization, and continued growth and regeneration that are critical to maintaining a high density of viable and productive cell populations. The cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix had high viability (>85%) even though many of them were in growth arrest (G1/G0 phase) as indicated by their smaller cell size (
Article
To investigate the effect of size-excluded fraction of non-animal protein hydrolysate on growth, viability and longevity of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, several commercially available protein hydrolysates were evaluated as a feed supplement to chemically-defined protein-free suspension culture. Soy protein hydrolysates showed better supporting capability for cell growth and viability than the other types of hydrolysates. Maximal cell growth was not affected greatly by size exclusion of some soy hydrolysates such as bacto soytone and soy hydrolysates. CHO cells supplemented with size-excluded fractions of the two hydrolysates showed viable cell density and viability almost equal to those with their crude hydrolysates, although soy hydrolysates showed a little better performance. This suggested that the size-excluded hydrolysate fractions of some soy hydrolysate might be a potential culture medium additive to achieve better downstream operation in a large-scale production as well as enhanced productivity.
Article
To enhance the performance of a serum-free medium (SFM) for human thrombopoietin (hTPO) production in suspension cultures of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells, several low-cost hydrolysates such as yeast hydrolysate (YH), soy hydrolysate, wheat gluten hydrolysate and rice hydrolysate were tested as medium additives. Among various hydrolysates tested, the positive effect of YH on hTPO production was most significant. When 5 g l–1 YH was added to SFM, the maximum hTPO concentration in batch culture was 40.41 μg ml–1, which is 11.5 times higher than that in SFM without YH supplementation. This enhanced hTPO production in YH-supplemented SFM was obtained by the combined effect of enhanced q hTPO (the specific rate of hTPO production). The supplementation of YH in SFM increased q hTPO by 294% and extended culture longevity by >2 days if the culture was terminated at a cell viability of 50%. Furthermore, cell viability throughout the culture using YH-supplemented SFM was higher than that using any other hydrolysate-supplemented SFM tested, thereby minimizing degradation of hTPO susceptible to proteolytic degradation. In addition, YH supplementation did not affect in vivo biological activity of hTPO. Taken together, the results obtained demonstrate the potential of YH as a medium additive for hTPO production in serum-free suspension cultures of rCHO cells.
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