Conference Paper

North-East Asian Super Grid for 100% Renewable Energy Power Supply: Distributed Small-scale and Centralised Large-scale Solar PV as a Major Energy Source

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Abstract

A need for the development of a renewable energy (RE) based system has emerged from the fast rise of electricity demand and increasing ecological problems provoked by human activities, including a fossil fuel based energy sector. Availability of various types of RE resources in NorthEast Asian regions including solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal energy resources enables the very promising vision of building a Super Grid connecting different regions' energy resources to achieve synergistic effects and make a 100% RE supply possible. The regions are composed of Japan, China, North and South Korea, Mongolia, East Siberia and Far Eastern federal districts of Russia. The energy mix of energy supply consists of distributed small-scale rooftop PV and centralized large scale solar PV, solar thermal electricity generation (CSP), wind onshore, hydropower, geothermal energy, bioenergy, and four different energy storage technologies. For every sub-region a cost-optimal mix of energy technologies and storage options is defined, optimal capacities are computed for regions interconnected by high-voltage direct current (HVDC) power lines, system cost and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for each sub-region are computed, and total system LCOE of 58 – 77 €/MWh, depending on scenario assumptions, can be obtained. Integration of energy sectors leads to improved total system LCOE. The results clearly show that a 100% RE-based system is lower in cost than nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS) alternatives. Solar PV is a core component for energy supply and reducing the total system costs.

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... Where specific data of the opex is not available, it is assumed to be 2% of the capex. The high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid is assumed to have a power loss of 1.6% per 1000 km as explained by Bogdanov and Breyer [36]. ...
... Costs and technical assumptions for PV, wind, battery and PtG hybrid power plants in 2030[15,36,37]. ...
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... Where specific data of the opex is not available, it is assumed to be 2% of the capex. The high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid is assumed to have a power loss of 1.6% per 1000 km as explained by Bogdanov and Breyer [36]. ...
... Costs and technical assumptions for PV, wind, battery and PtG hybrid power plants in 2030[15,36,37]. ...
Conference Paper
Global water demand is increasing whilst the renewable water resource is diminishing. This has resulted in an increase in demand for seawater desalination, with reverse osmosis (RO) accounting for 65% of the 80.9 million m3/day of desalted water produced globally in 2013. A prevailing concern is high energy demand and availability of fossil fuel resources, resulting in the drive for renewable energy powered desalination systems. In the near future, the increasing desalination demand can be met through SWRO plants powered by hybrid PV-Wind-Battery and Power-to-Gas (PtG) power plants at a cost level competitive with current fossil fuel powered SWRO plants.Hybrid systems allow for higher full load hours and optimal utilization of the installed desalination capacity. In this paper, we provide a global estimate of the water production cost for the 2030 desalination demand with renewable electricity generation costs for 2030. The levelized cost of water (LCOW), which includes water production, electricity, water transportation and water storage costs, ranges from 0.59 €/m3 – 2.81 €/m3 for the 2030 desalination demand. The global system required to meet the 2030 global water demand is found to cost about 9790 billion € of initial investments. It is possible to overcome the water supply limitations in a sustainable and financially competitive way.
... Where specific data of the opex is not available, it is assumed to be 2% of the capex. The high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid is assumed to have a power loss of 1.6% per 1000 km as explained by Bogdanov and Breyer [36]. ...
... Costs and technical assumptions for PV, wind, battery and PtG hybrid power plants in 2030[15,36,37]. ...
Research
Poster on the occasion of the 2nd International Conference on Desalination using Membrane Technology in Singapore on July 26 - 29, 2015.
... The distribution of fossil energy resources and renewable energy resources in Northeast Asia is extremely uneven [8][9]. Wind energy resources are mainly distributed in Mongolia, the Far East of Russia, North China and Northeast China; southeastern Mongolia has rich solar energies; hydro energy are mainly existed in the Far East of Russia; Mongolia, North China and Northeast of China, and the Far East of Russia have advantages in fossil energy resources reserve [10][11][12]. ...
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The unbalanced distribution of energy resources and power demand in Northeast Asia determines that the optimal resources utilization needs to break national boundaries and realize transnational power transmission. In this paper, a novel inter-country integrated power generation-transmission expansion planning model is proposed to solve the issue of source-grid coordination planning in different countries in the interconnection area. Taking Northeast Asia as an example, the optimal planning results of transnational transmission capacity and installed power generation capacity in various countries are obtained under different development scenarios. The results show that the power source structure of exporting countries will impact the economic competitiveness and potential scale of interconnection.
... : Schematic composition of the LUT energy model including energy resources, conversion technologies, storage options, major end-use categories and all energy sectors [1]. The model can be expanded further according the research questions Area-wide open trade scenario Connections between countries Connections between regions • Optimal set of technologies, best adapted to the availability of the region's resources • Optimal mix of capacities for all technologies and every sub-region of SAARC • Optimal operation modes for every element of the energy system • Least cost energy supply for the given constraints. ...
Poster
Poster at the LUT Doctorial School Conference in Lappeenranta on December 10, 2015
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Thesis
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Presenting boundary conditions for the economic and environmental utilization of geothermal technology, this is the first book to provide basic knowledge on the topic in such detail. The editor is the coordinator of the European Geothermic Research Initiative, while the authors are experts for the various geological situations in Europe with high temperature reservoirs in shallow and deep horizons. With its perspectives for R&D in geothermic technology concluding each chapter, this ready reference will be of great value to scientists and decision-makers in research and politics, as well as those giving courses in petroleum engineering, for example.
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Conference Paper
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Conference Paper
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Conference Paper
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Article
Grid-parity is a very important milestone for further photovoltaic (PV) diffusion. A grid-parity model is presented, which is based on levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) coupled with the experience curve approach. Relevant assumptions for the model are given, and its key driving forces are discussed in detail. Results of the analysis are shown for more than 150 countries and a total of 305 market segments all over the world, representing 98.0% of world population and 99.7% of global gross domestic product. High PV industry growth rates enable a fast reduction of LCOE. Depletion of fossil fuel resources and climate change mitigation forces societies to internalize these effects and pave the way for sustainable energy technologies. First grid-parity events occur right now. The 2010s are characterized by ongoing grid-parity events throughout the most regions in the world, reaching an addressable market of about 75–90% of total global electricity market. In consequence, new political frameworks for maximizing social benefits will be required. In parallel, PV industry tackle its next milestone, fuel-parity. In conclusion, PV is on the pathway to become a highly competitive energy technology.
Article
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An estimation of the Enhanced Geothermal System's theoretical technical potential for the Iberian Peninsula is presented in this work. As a first step, the temperature at different depths (from 3500 m to 9500 m, in 1000 m steps) has been estimated from existing heat flow, temperature at 1000 m and temperature at 2000 m depth data. From the obtained temperature-at-depth data, an evaluation of the available heat stored for each 1 km thick layer between 3 and 10 km depth, under some limiting hypotheses, has been made. Results are presented as the net electrical power that could be installed, considering that the available thermal energy stored is extracted during a 30 year project life. The results are presented globally for the Iberian Peninsula and separately for Portugal (continental Portugal), Spain (continental Spain plus the Balearic Islands) and for each one of the administrative regions included in the study. Nearly 6% of the surface of the Iberian Peninsula, at a depth of 3500 m has a temperature higher than 150 °C. This surface increases to more than 50% at 5500 m depth, and more than 90% at 7500 m depth. The Enhanced Geothermal System's theoretical technical potential in the Iberian Peninsula, up to a 10 km depth (3 km–10 km) and for temperatures above 150 °C, expressed as potential installed electrical power, is as high as 700 GWe, which is more than 5 times today's total electricity capacity installed in the Iberian Peninsula (renewable, conventional thermal and nuclear).
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In this work an estimation and comparison of the technical and sustainable potentials of EGS (Enhanced Geothermal Systems) in Europe is presented. The temperatures at depths of (3500–9500) m were firstly calculated from the available data of temperatures at surface, 1000 m and 2000 m depth, and heat flow. Next the available thermal energy stored in each 1000 m thick layer along the considered depths was evaluated. At this point, the EGS technical potential was estimated and results are presented as installable net electrical power by considering a 30 year time project. A method to estimate the EGS sustainable potential is proposed and the results are compared with the technical potential. Results are presented for the European territory as a whole and individually for each one of the European countries. Estimations for Turkey and the Caucasus region are also presented. Under the hypotheses considered in our study, the technical potential of EGS in Europe for temperatures above 150 °C and depths of between 3 km and 10 km was estimated to be more than 6500 GWe. The part of this technical potential that can be considered as ‘sustainable’ or ‘renewable’ potential was estimated to be 35 GWe.
Article
We present a geographical assessment of the performance of crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules over Europe. We have developed a method that is based on a material specific analytical expression of the PV conversion efficiency, relative to nominal efficiency, as a function of module temperature and irradiance. This method is combined with a climate database that includes average daytime temperature and irradiance profiles. It is found that the geographical variation in ambient temperature and yearly irradiation causes a decrease in overall yearly PV performance from 3 to 13% relative to the performance under Standard Test Conditions, with the highest decrease found in the Mediterranean region. Based on the above results we developed a simplified linear expression of the relative PV module efficiency that is a simple function of yearly total irradiation and yearly average daytime temperature. The coefficients to the linear expression are found by fitting to the map resulting from the above-mentioned analytical approach. The prediction of total yearly PV output from this linear fit deviates less than 0·5% from the more detailed calculation, thus providing a faster and more simplified alternative to the yield estimate, in the case when only limited climate data are available. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
In this paper, we argue that Asia's unique geography, abundant low-emission energy resources, rapid economic growth, and rising energy demands merit consideration of a Pan-Asian Energy Infrastructure. In our study, we focus on development of wind and solar resources in Australia, China, Mongolia, and Vietnam as the potential foundation for an electricity grid stretching from China to Australia. Hourly climate data for a full year are used to estimate renewable energy generation, electricity demand, generation capacity are projected forward to the year 2025, and economic dispatch in an international market is simulated to demonstrate cost benefits. Intermittency, connectivity, future dispatch orders, storage, line losses, and engineering and financial issues are all addressed.
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J.Song, 2014. Super grid in North-East Asia through renewable energy. Asia-Pacific Tech Monit.; 31: 24-27.
Stromspeicher in der energiewende
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Agora Energiewende. Stromspeicher in der energiewende. Agora Energiewende, Berlin; 2014. Available at: www.agoraenergiewende.de/themen/optimierung/detailansicht/ article/studie-die-energiewende-muss-nicht-aufstromspeicher-warten/ [accessed: 30.01.2015] [in German]
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