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Studies on Shri Ramanand Yogi during his stay in an air-tight box. 1961

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... Physical and mental relaxation, as achieved during relaxation techniques, has physiological effects such as an increase in EEG alpha activity, reduction in respiratory rate, oxygen consumption, arterial lactate levels and other sympathetic activity. 1,3,4 The ancient yogic scriptures write about many variants of relaxation technique. Among these the SHAVASANA is a well established technique of yoga to relax the body & mind 5 . ...
... Like wise other authors also observed reduction in respiratory rate, oxygen consumption, arterial lactate levels and other sympathetic activity. 1,3,4 This is also supported by findings of Stefano GB etall 2 who narrated that relaxation has the opposite of the stress response. ...
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Stress affects mainly on autonomic nervous system of individuals and relaxation techniques has the opposite of the stress response. 61-point relaxation technique is one of the relaxation techniques but there are some factors on which its grading of response is dependent. So this study is aimed to find out the effect of age on response of 61-point relaxation technique on cardio-vascular variables. Study was conducted on 30 healthy females of equals to or less than 30 years and 30 healthy females of more than 30 years. Before and after relaxation technique data regarding systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) were recorded. Significance of difference in means of baseline and end line data SBP, DBP, HR and RR of both the groups were inferred by unpaired't' test. It was found that there was significant reduction of SBP, DBP, HR and RR in both the groups but significant difference in reduction was observed only in SBP and RR not in DBP and HR. Reduction in SBP was significantly more in more than 30 years than the other group whereas reduction in RR was just reverse.
... Early gamma reports in meditation. Previous findings of widespread gamma increases in meditation are mostly limited to early studies prior to the development of sophisticated computerized methods for the quantitative EEG analysis and the separation of artifact from cortical signals (Anand et al. 1961b; Banquet 1973; Das and Gastaut 1957), although a few more recent meditation gamma findings have been reported as well (Aftanas and Golosheykin 2005; Lehmann et al. 2001; Lutz et al. 2004). Das and Gastaut first reported widespread increased high frequency (20–40 Hz) activity in association with meditation, reporting that after a long period of meditation some of the more advanced Yogis studied exhibited increased gamma states associated with periods of subjective deep meditation/samadhi (Das and Gastaut 1957). ...
... Das and Gastaut first reported widespread increased high frequency (20–40 Hz) activity in association with meditation, reporting that after a long period of meditation some of the more advanced Yogis studied exhibited increased gamma states associated with periods of subjective deep meditation/samadhi (Das and Gastaut 1957). Anand et al. (Anand et al. 1961b) reported that ''fast waves'' were observed in the EEG recordings from a Yogi meditating in a box for a period of 2–3 days, but a separate comprehensive report on the EEG records from this case study participant and others with similar expertise did not mention this finding, instead noting the pronounced lack of alpha blocking exhibited while these participants were in meditation (Anand et al. 1961a). Banquet reported increased 20 and 40 Hz activity in a subset of TM practitioners who reported experiencing a deep meditative/transcendent subjective state during the EEG recording (Banquet 1973), replicating Das and Gastaut's assertion that deep transcendent states of meditative consciousness may be marked by increases in gamma activity. ...
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Long-term Vipassana meditators sat in meditation vs. a control rest (mind-wandering) state for 21 min in a counterbalanced design with spontaneous EEG recorded. Meditation state dynamics were measured with spectral decomposition of the last 6 min of the eyes-closed silent meditation compared to control state. Meditation was associated with a decrease in frontal delta (1-4 Hz) power, especially pronounced in those participants not reporting drowsiness during meditation. Relative increase in frontal theta (4-8 Hz) power was observed during meditation, as well as significantly increased parieto-occipital gamma (35-45 Hz) power, but no other state effects were found for the theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), or beta (12-25 Hz) bands. Alpha power was sensitive to condition order, and more experienced meditators exhibited no tendency toward enhanced alpha during meditation relative to the control task. All participants tended to exhibit decreased alpha in association with reported drowsiness. Cross-experimental session occipital gamma power was the greatest in meditators with a daily practice of 10+ years, and the meditation-related gamma power increase was similarly the strongest in such advanced practitioners. The findings suggest that long-term Vipassana meditation contributes to increased occipital gamma power related to long-term meditational expertise and enhanced sensory awareness.
... Already in 1961 Anand (1961) and colleagues observed the respiratory and metabolic by high concentrations of CO 2 in a yogi who remained for ten hours lying in a chamber with known volume of air by measuring O 2 consumption and CO 2 concentration in responses expired gas. In this experiment it was observed that the yogi had no hyperpnoea and tachycardia even when there was a decrease in oxygen and increase in carbon dioxide concentration that decreased O 2 consumption and CO 2 elimination far below the baseline. ...
Chapter
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder linked to the X chromosome. It affects about one in every 3,500 male children born alive. Clinically, DMD is characterized by a progressive and irreversible muscle weakness as a result of a reduction or absence of dystrophin. DMD affects specially skeletal muscles, resulting on loss of functional abilities. The first symptoms appear precociously when the child is between 3 and 7 years old. The proximal muscles of the lower limbs are the first to be compromised. Gait loss usually occurs when the child is between 9 and 12 years old (Kanagawa & Toda, 2006; Bushby et al., 2010).
... [5,6,14] The asanas decrease the sympathetic tone, rate pressure product (RPP) and double product (DoP), and improve cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic threshold. [1,3,4,8,9] In 1924, Swami Kuvalayananda of KaivalyaDham observed that the amounts of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during pranayam are comparatively less during normal breathing. [1][2][3]12] A study conducted by Kaviraja Udupa et al. [8] in 2003 on 24 healthy young subjects showed significant reduction in basal heart rate (HR) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure following 3 months of yoga training. ...
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Background: Yogic exercises are scientifically observable physiological and biochemical activities. Certain yogasanas decrease the sympathetic tone, rate pressure product (RPP), and double product (DoP) and improve cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic threshold. Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of yoga training on cardiovascular response to step test and its time course after exercise in normal adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 200 adolescent school-going girls and mainly focused on assessing the effect of yoga training on improvement of heart rate (HR) by using parameters such as RPP and DoP. Change in the HR with response to exercise was determined by using two constructed staircases, each of 9 inch (22.5 cm) in height. HR and blood pressure response to exercise were measured in when the subject were in supine position before exercise and at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 min after the exercise. Rate pressure product [RPP = (HR × SP)/100] and double product (DoP = HR × MP), which are indices of work performed by the heart, were calculated. Results: After 6 months of yoga training, exercise-induced changes on these parameters were found to be reduced significantly. Conclusion: It is concluded that after yoga training a given amount of exercise leads to a milder cardiovascular response, suggesting better exercise tolerance. Exercise produced a significant increase in HR, systolic pressure, RPP, and DoP, and a significant decrease in diastolic pressure.
... The reduction in oxygen uptake reflects a reduced oxygen demand, indicating modifications in metabolic metabolism that are normally beyond our conscious control. (Anand et al., 1961) Robert Keith Wallace's doctoral thesis on transcendental meditation marked the actual beginning of a strong wave of modern meditation research and soon became known worldwide. (Wallace, 1970) The results of his investigations were like a wake-up call for Western researchers. ...
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- Publication as a book by Asanger Verlag in preparation - Abstract - The text reviews shortly some historical traditional vedic resp. buddhistic backgrounds of transcendental meditation (TM) and mindfulness meditation (anapanasati). A broad overview of previous research on both forms of meditation is given. Finally an objective comparison of the effects of both techniques, both short (before meditation practice versus afterwards) and long term (with an interval of some months), is presented using the measurement of heart-rate-variability (HRV). HRV was measured several times with each subject, again using short term standard (5 Minutes) and long term (25 Minutes) measurements during meditation. A further comparison of the two specific meditation-typical results with related HRV typologies from other clinical and personality psychological measurements was added to yield some sort of a rough but empirically founded approximate characteristic typology ("personality") for both meditation forms.
... The process of how meditation and mindfulness enable things to occur is difficult to explain. Yogis with extraordinary meditation abilities have been buried alive for over an hour in air-tight boxes-surviving unfazed (Anand, Chhina, & Singh, 1961;Yoga, 1961;Yoga, 1962;Trimble, 1962;Karambelkar, Vinekar, & Bhole, 1968; Figure 3). Yogis can control their respiration and heart rate to require a fraction of the number of breaths and volume of oxygen compared with normal individuals. ...
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Thich Quang Duc was a Buddhist monk protesting in South Vietnam, when his image captivated the world. Malcolm Browne won the World Press Photo of the Year in 1963 photographing Duc committing an act of self-immolation, burning to death. Current research into mindfulness and meditation gives neuroscientists, scientists, and clinicians a glimpse into the physiology, structure and function of the brain of expert meditators such as Duc. A growing body of literature indicates that basic breathing techniques and meditation can alter cortical structures with very little training. Structural and functional MRI has revealed the anterior cingulate and insular cortex are altered in functioning due to meditation and mindfulness practice. Continued research into mindfulness and expert meditators should help us gain a greater understanding into how a monk like Duc was able to commit such a powerful behavioral act, becoming the monk on fire.
... the direction of a gradual lowering of metabolism as a significant characteristic of the practice of meditation. It is Transcenden- tal Meditation in particular that has been the object of research but some studies even try to explain the course of events during so-called coffin funerals which are reported to have taken place among oriental yogies (Anand et. al. 1961). One could probably state that whereas the method of biofeedback strengthens the internal signals so that they may be recog- nized, the practice of meditation often to the contrary lessens external distractions so that normally unconscious or autonomic internal processes can be brought into consciousness and thus controlled. ...
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The intention of this article is to present some psycho-physiological perspectives of recent date concerned with the phenomenon of ecstasy. As almost none of this research has yet been assimilated by comparative religion, the focus here is on illustrating some of the background for renewed speculation on the relationship between psyche and soma. Traditional Western science has usually operated with a distinction between external and internal processes. Perhaps owing to this idea of the independence of our internal processes from our intentional consciousness, reports from other cultures such as those concerning the extraordinary achievements of holy men (e.g. their capacity to lie buried for days, or survive unclothed at very low temperatures) have tended to be ignored as fantastic rumours (which, to some extent, is certainly true) and myths. In a similar way the varieties of religious ecstatic states have often been countered with a shrug by psychiatrists. The recently renewed interest in consciousness within general psychology, together with what may be called marginal psychology and the drug revolt of youth culture have, however, provoked new speculation concerning human potential, speculation which in due time might also benefit comparative religion. From the perspective of comparative religion the primary concern is with cultural tradition and interpretation. Among our many new potential methods for better understanding ecstatic phenomena by means of experimental methods, biofeedback has been the most sensational one. It is above all the research in biofeedback that has forced many scientists to reconsider their view of the autonomic nervous system as a system completely independent of human will and control.
... While the yogis demonstrated normal waking EEG patterns during meditation, they did have an increase in the electrical resistance of the skin, a sign of relaxation. Anand et al. 29 observed one yogi who remained in a sealed, airtight box for 18 hours over two occasions. This yogi's average oxygen utilization was 13.3 L per hour, 6.2 L below his basal requirement, and he showed no signs of hyperpnea or tachycardia when breathing air with decreased oxygen and increased carbon dioxide content. ...
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Yoga is gaining acceptance as an ancillary medical treatment, but there have been few studies evaluating its therapeutic benefits in neurological and major psychiatric conditions. The authors reviewed the literature in English on the efficacy of yoga for these disorders. Only randomized, controlled trials were included, with the exception of the only study of yoga for bipolar disorder, which was observational. Trials were excluded if yoga was not the central component of the intervention. Of seven randomized, controlled trials of yoga in patients with neurological disorders, six found significant, positive effects. Of 13 randomized, controlled trials of yoga in patients with psychiatric disorders, 10 found significant, positive effects. These results, although encouraging, indicate that additional randomized, controlled studies are needed to critically define the benefits of yoga for both neurological and psychiatric disorders.
... Among the studies reporting reductions in oxygen consumption, the most dramatic reductions were seen in two studies involving advance yoga practitioners, with one study reporting reductions in oxygen consumption of 40% below rest during a 4 hour stay in an air tight subterranean chamber (99) and another study reporting reductions of 32% and 37% below rest during two separate 10 hour stays in an air tight box (97) . Reductions in oxygen consumption of around 35% below rest are also reported during meditation in a group of experienced yogis (n=9), (138) . ...
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Oxygen consumption varies with physical and mental activity as well as pathological conditions. Although there is a strong relationship between yoga and metabolic parameters, the relationship between yoga and oxygen consumption has not yet been formally reviewed. This systematic review attempted to include all studies of yoga that also measured oxygen consumption or metabolic rate as an outcome. A total of 58 studies were located involving between 1 and 104 subjects (average 21). The studies were generally of poor methodological quality and demonstrated great heterogeneity with different experimental designs, yoga practices, time periods, and small sample sizes. Studies report yoga practices to have profound metabolic effects producing both increase and decrease in oxygen consumption, ranging from 383% increase with cobra pose to 40% decrease with meditation. Compared to nonpractitioners, basal oxygen consumption is reported to be up to 15% less in regular yoga practitioners, and regular yoga practice is reported to have a training effect with oxygen consumption during submaximal exercise decreasing by 36% after 3 months. Yoga breathing practices emphasize breathing patterns and retention ratios as well as unilateral nostril breathing, and these factors appear critical in influencing oxygen consumption. A number of studies report extraordinary volitional control over metabolism in advanced yoga practitioners who appear to be able to survive extended periods in airtight pits and to exceed the limits of normal human endurance. More rigorous research with standardized practices is required to determine the mechanisms of yoga’s metabolic effects and the relevance of yoga practices in different clinical populations.
... However, regular Yogic practices render remarkable development of body and mind simultaneously. Several studies have reported improvement in psychological, physiological and biochemical profile through Yogic practices in people [5][6][7][8]. Ray et al. [9][10][11] observed that regular Yogic practices improve body flexibility and muscular efficiency and muscle architecture by means of evaluation through physiological and biochemical tools [12][13][14]. Regular Yogic practices provide the practitioner with reduction in stress, anxiety and depression like symptoms and improve their mental health [10,11]. ...
Article
Objectives: Imprisoned people usually have a poor health status and an increase risk to suffer chronic debilitating conditions, co-infection due to their limitations in physical activity and mental disturbances. This study was carried to find out the health impacts of Yogic practice of Indian healthy jail inmates. Methods: It was interventional single group pre-post design study. A total no of 30, Jail inmates including 08 female were participated in this study and practiced Yoga for six months. Body Mass Index, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Salivary alpha amylase activity (SAA) a stress marker were assessed before, after three months and after completion of six months of Yogic practice. Results: Improvement was noted in all parameters, but significant improvement was noted in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, double product a index of load in the heart and SAA following Yogic practice in total participants. Significant improvement was also noted in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, double product a index of load in the heart and SAA following Yogic practice in male group. No significant effect was noted in female group. Conclusions: The present study revealed that regular Yogic practice resulted in reduction blood pressure, load in the heart and stress in mail jail inmates, when it is practiced regularly and carefully.
... It is well established that yogic practice helps in the upliftment of various functions of body and mind through its effects on cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, hormonal, and neural systems [3,24,44,51]. Regular yogic practice provides the practitioner with more physical flexibility [35], muscle endurance [2,7], maximal work output and oxygen consumption [19,36], increased vitality, alleviated psychological stress, reduced cardiovascular risks [38,44], carbon dioxide elimination, minute ventilation, etc. Studies on the effects of various yogic postures on oxygen consumption, increased vitality, alleviated psychological stress, and reduced cardiovascular risks have revealed that yogic asana besides manifesting broadly similar trends appears to have some degree of specificity in terms of magnitude of influence. ...
Chapter
Yoga is an ancient Indian system of philosophy, culture, tradition, and way of maintaining better life, established in India thousands of years ago. The Sanskrit word Yoga means union of body and mind through breath control methods, asanas and meditation. The ashtang yogic practices, very popularly known today, are derived from Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra. Asana (postural exercises), pranayama (breathing maneuver), and dhyana (meditation) are mostly practiced in different combinations for physical and mental well being. It gradually develops the spiritual harmony of the individual through the control of mind and body. The practice of yoga uses eight methods, known as “limbs,” thus being known as “Ashtanga Yoga”: yama (restraint), niyama (observance), asana (posture), pranayama (breath control), pratyahara (sensory deprivation), dharana (contemplation), dhyana (fixing the attention), and samadhi (absolute concentration). Regular yogic practices endow perfect physical and mental health to its practitioner. It improves aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, joint flexibility, and muscle strength. Evidence shows that the regular execution of these practices provides the practitioner with more physical flexibility, muscle strengthening, increased vitality, delineated psychological stress, and reduced cardiovascular risks. Yogic techniques are known to improve one’s overall performance and work capacity. During yoga session, the postural maneuvers are executed without repetition and are connected to each other by passages that establish links between the exercises in a sequence. Yoga is not only a discipline to be practiced by saints or spiritual aspirants but also has relevance to the spirit of military activities.
... [18,19] An understanding of metabolism at different times of the day has significant implications due to its link to sleep, health, stress and fatigue, ultimately determining the quality of life. The earliest study on metabolism by Anand et al., [20] has demonstrated that a yogi could reduce oxygen consumption while sealed in an airtight box for nearly 10 hours, thus changing metabolism at will. Wallace et al., have reported the effect of acute practices resulting in the reduction in metabolic rate in meditation as compared to sleep. ...
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The dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased mortality, morbidity as well as public health care expenses worldwide. Previous research suggests that yoga holds promise for obesity and T2DM management. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of intensive integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) on body fat and body mass index (BMI) and resting metabolism in mid-life overweight patients with T2DM (BMI, Mean ± SD, 27.05 ± 4.51). Twenty-four mid-life patients (6 females) with T2DM (Age, Mean ± SD, 55.38 ± 7.96 years) participated in the study and practiced IAYT for 7 days. The IAYT works at five layers of human existence (physical, vital, mental, intellectual and bliss) to bring positive health. The body fat and BMI and resting metabolism were recorded before and after IAYT using Karada Scan body composition monitor HBF-375 from Omron Healthcare Singapore PTE LTD. SPSS-16 was used to analyze the data. Shapiro-Wilk test showed that the data was not normally distributed. Further, the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to analyze the change in means of pre- and post-measurements. Data analysis showed that there was a significant decrease in body fat and BMI and resting metabolism (in all assessments, P < 0.001). The present study suggests that 7 days practice of IAYT has a great promise for the management of overweight in mid-life patients with T2DM. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made.
Article
Oxygen consumption, electroencephalogram (EEG), and four other measures of somatic relaxation were monitored in groups of long-term practitioners of classical Jacobson's progressive relaxation (PR) and Transcendental Meditation (TM) and also in a group of novice PR trainees. All subjects (1) practiced relaxation or meditation (treatment), (2) sat with eyes closed (EC control), and (3) read from a travel book during two identical sessions on different days. EEG findings indicated that all three groups remained primarily awake during treatment and EC control and that several subjects in each group displayed rare theta (5-7 Hz) waveforms. All three groups demonstrated similar decrements in somatic activity during treatment and EC control which were generally of small magnitude (e. g., 2-5% in oxygen consumption). These results supported the "relaxation response" model for state changes in somatic relaxation for techniques practiced under low levels of stress but not the claim that the relaxation response produced a hypometabolic state. Despite similar state effects, the long-term PR group manifested lower levels of somatic activity across all conditions compared to both novice PR and long-term TM groups. We concluded that PR causes a generalized trait of somatic relaxation which is manifested in a variety of settings and situations. Two likely explanations for this trait were discussed: (1) PR practitioners are taught to generalize relaxation to daily activities, and/or (2) according to a "multiprocess model," PR is a "somatic technique," which should produce greater somatic relaxation than does TM, a "cognitive technique." Further research is required to elucidate these possibilities.
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A study was conducted on 30 healthy soldiers (age: 40–46 years) to assess the effect of selected yogic exercises (asanas) on some physiological responses to cold exposure. They were randomly divided into two groups of 15 each. One group performed regular physical exercises of physical training (PT), while the other group practised yogic exercises. At the end of 6 months of training, both the groups were exposed together to cold stress at 10°C for 2 h, and the following parameters were periodically monitored during cold exposure: heart rate (fH), blood pressure (BP), cardiac output\((\dot Q_c )\), oral temperature (Tor), skin temperature (T sk), respiratory rate (fR), minute ventilation\((\dot V_E )\), oxygen consumption\((\dot V_{O_2 } )\), and shivering response by integrated electromyogram (EMG). There were progressive increases inBP, fR,\(\dot V_E \),\(\dot V_{O_2 } \), and\(\dot Q_c \) and decreases infH,T or andT sk during cold exposure in both the groups. However, the decrease inT or and the increases in\(\dot V_{O_2 } \) and\(\dot V_E \) were relatively lower (P<0.01) in the yoga group as compared to the PT group. The shivering response appeared much earlier and was more intense in the PT group. These findings suggest that practice of yoga exercises may improve cold tolerance.
Article
The metabolic rate is an indicator of autonomic activity. Reduced sympathetic arousal probably resulting in hypometabolic states has been reported in several yogic studies. The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga training on diurnal metabolic rates in yoga practitioners at two different times of the day (at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.). Eighty eight healthy volunteers were selected and their metabolic rates assessed at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. using an indirect calorimeter at a yoga school in Bangalore, India. The results show that the average metabolic rate of the yoga group was 12% lower than that of the non-yoga group (P < 0.001) measured at 9 p.m. and 16% lower at 6 a.m. (P < 0.001). The 9 p.m. metabolic rates of the yoga group were almost equal to their predicted basal metabolic rates (BMRs) whereas the metabolic rate was significantly higher than the predicted BMR for the non-yoga group. The 6 a.m. metabolic rate was comparable to their predicted BMR in the non-yoga group whereas it was much lower in the yoga group (P < 0.001). The lower metabolic rates in the yoga group at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. may be due to coping strategies for day-to-day stress, decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and probably, a stable autonomic nervous system response (to different stressors) achieved due to training in yoga.
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There is a worldwide interest in yoga for wellness, mind-body medicine, research in consciousness, prevention/management of life-style disorders and spiritual quest for self-realization. An important question is “Is yoga a therapy or a lifestyle?” However, the universe of yoga has many sets and subsets, evolved over millennia, by great yogis and acharyas. The proliferation of the names of yoga, by several teachers and schools, is often guided by the motive of creating a brand rather than a revival, renewal or renaissance in yoga. The latter demands a panoramic overview of tireless endeavor of great masters, beyond any commercial interests, in exploration of “The Science of Yoga.” Sincere and meticulous enquiry into the physiological and psychological effects of yoga began, a century ago, in a quiet hamlet in Amalner, Maharashtra.
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In ancient India, as in other countries, people had shown great interest in understanding sleep and interpreting dreams. One can always find the emphasis being laid on deep sleep in ancient Indian literature. The Vedas, written about 2000 or more years before Christ are the chief sources of knowledge about sleep medicine in ancient India. These religious texts contain anatomical, physiological, psychological, pathological, and therapeutic views, which had found their reflection in the traditional Indian medicine, called Ayurveda. Though the entire wisdom about Ayurveda may not be available to us now, a good account of it is contained in Samhitas (encyclopedias) written by Charaka and Sushruta in 1000 BC. In Ayurveda, sleep is classified into seven types on the basis of its causative factors. In addition to several medications, Ayurveda does recognize prayer as one form of treatment, where the goddess of sleep Nidra devi is invoked to get sleep. The second century writings in India like the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali provide the most interesting information regarding the functioning of the brain, consciousness, and sleep. According to Yogic concept, consciousness is an expression of God and it is within every human being. It is claimed that consciousness, through various intermediary states gives rise to the five elements (Panchabhutas). These elements, under the influence of the three gunas (or energies), bring into existence the universe and all its constituents including man himself. Depending on the permutations and combinations of the influence of these three energies, man goes into the states of sleep, dreaming, and waking. Though many of the statements regarding Yoga and its effect on sleep need confirmation, a systematic research in this field would be rewarding.
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A comprehensive bibliometric analysis was conducted on publications for yoga therapy research in clinical populations. Major electronic databases were searched for articles in all languages published between 1967 and 2013. Databases included PubMed, PsychInfo, MEDLINE, IndMed, Indian Citation Index, Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region, Web of Knowledge, Embase, EBSCO, and Google Scholar. Nonindexed journals were searched manually. Key search words included yoga, yoga therapy, pranayama, asana. All studies met the definition of a clinical trial. All styles of yoga were included. The authors extracted the data. A total of 486 articles met the inclusion criteria and were published in 217 different peer-reviewed journals from 29 different countries on 28,080 study participants. The primary result observed is the three-fold increase in number of publications seen in the last 10 years, inclusive of all study designs. Overall, 45% of the studies published were randomized controlled trials, 18% were controlled studies, and 37% were uncontrolled studies. Most publications originated from India (n=258), followed by the United States (n=122) and Canada (n=13). The top three disorders addressed by yoga interventions were mental health, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease. A surge in publications on yoga to mitigate disease-related symptoms in clinical populations has occurred despite challenges facing the field of yoga research, which include standardization and limitations in funding, time, and resources. The population at large has observed a parallel surge in the use of yoga outside of clinical practice. The use of yoga as a complementary therapy in clinical practice may lead to health benefits beyond traditional treatment alone; however, to effect changes in health care policy, more high-quality, evidence-based research is needed.
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The relaxation response is believed to be an integrated hypothalamic response which results in generalized decreased sympathetic nervous system activity (11). This response, termed the “trophotropic response,” was first described by Hess in the cat (24). Electrical stimulation of hypothalamic areas results in hypo- or adynamia of skeletal musculature, decreased blood pressure, decreased respiratory rate, and pupil constriction. Hess states, “Let us repeat at this point that we are actually dealing with a protective mechanism against overstress belonging to the trophotropic-endophylactic system and promoting restorative processes. We emphasize that these adynamic effects are opposed to ergotropic reactions which are oriented toward increased oxidative metabolism and utilization of energy” (24). The “ergotropic” reactions of Hess correspond to the “emergency reaction” first described by Cannon, popularly referred to as the fight or flight response and also called the “defense reaction” by others (1, 25).
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In 2015 Dhruv Raina published Needham's Indian Network: The Search for a Home for the History of Science in India (1950–1970) , bringing to light the long-range networks that institutionalized the disciplinary history of science in post-colonial India, and demonstrating the intellectual and infrastructural contributions of Joseph Needham (1900–1995) in this endeavour. This paper takes a different approach and turns to the way that Needham perceived Indian vis-à-vis Chinese civilization, and the role India played in Needham's historiography of science. It turns out that Needham's most sustained engagement with India could be found in his histories of medicine, bodily practices and alchemical traditions. In the first section of the paper, I outline the key concepts of ‘Grand Titration’ and ‘oecumenical science’ that animated Needham's historiography, which clarifies why Chinese medicine, especially acupuncture, occupies a privileged status. The second section elaborates on Needham's scholarship and vision of acupuncture, involving the verification of acupuncture's reality and efficacy via Western biomedicine. He thought acupuncture would be China's unique contribution to a new ‘universal medicine’ in the modern age, but by contrast Needham saw little worth refurbishing in Indian medicine, arguing via an investigation in yoga that Indian practices were generally less ‘materialist’ and less ‘proto-scientific’. In the third section, I turn my attention to Needham's preoccupation with the history of alchemy around the world, and discuss his theorization on transmission and circulation of scientific knowledge. I comment on Needham's commitment to the thesis that European alchemy was a melting pot of Chinese, Indian, Persian, Arabic, Greek, Egyptian and Roman ideas and practices. While Needham reserved his ‘deepest love’ and ‘profoundest desire’ for Chinese civilization, India on the other hand often occupied a secondary status in his historical accounts, and in the conclusion I move from a critique of Needham's preconceptions to reflect on the writing of the history of non-Western science.
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This Chapter contains a review of empirical studies of meditation. Included in the discussion are psychological and neurophysiological effects and correlates, EEG, and neuroimaging studies of meditation. This chapter concludes with a discussion on whether the meditative state is a unique physiological state. Studies of meditation by practitioners of yoga, Zen, and transcendental meditation (TM) suggest that meditative state is a distinct and unique state of mind and that it lowers arousal and is conducive to better health and well-being. However, considering the fact that practices of meditation vary significantly in different meditative traditions, it is difficult to pinpoint precisely what it is in meditation that is conducive for promoting health and wellness. Also, there is no compelling neurophysiological configuration which may be considered as unique to a meditative state. Empirical research shows that meditation enhances one’s ability to focus attention, and attention is the key ingredient in the control of mind. Other cognitive effects of meditation include improved memory. The paranormal effects of meditation are a significant part of Patanjali’s Yoga Sūtra.
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MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSION THROUGH YOGIC PRACICES
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The word "yoga" is commonly used to refer specifically to Hatha yoga stretching postures or generally to Hatha yoga programs that also include certain relaxation,breathing and meditation practices. Such programs, however, represent only certain aspects of the comprehensive system that comprises the physical, psychological,philosophical, and spiritual components of yoga. In the generic sense, yoga means the practical aspect of a philosophy, — its methods and application. More specifically, it refers to the philosophical view of the world and the individual described in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and related texts.
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DER VOLLSTÄNDIGE TEXT IST IN DEUTSCH NICHT MEHR VERFÜGBAR UND WIRD BALD ALS BUCH BEI ASANGER PUBLIZIERT - ABSTRACT - Der Text gibt einen kurzen Überblick über einige historische, traditionelle vedische bzw. buddhistische Hintergründe der Transzendentalen Meditation (TM) und der Achtsamkeitsmeditation (Anapanasati). Es wird ein breiter Überblick über die bisherige Forschung zu beiden Meditationsformen gegeben. Abschließend wird ein objektiver Vergleich der Effekte beider Techniken, sowohl kurz- (vor der Meditationspraxis versus danach) als auch langfristig (mit einem Abstand von einigen Monaten), anhand der Messung der Herzfrequenz-Variabilität (HRV) vorgestellt. Die HRV wurde bei jedem Probanden mehrmals gemessen, wiederum mit kurzfristigen Standard- (5 Minuten) und Langzeitmessungen (25 Minuten) während der Meditation. Ein weiterer Vergleich der beiden spezifischen meditationstypischen Ergebnisse mit verwandten HRV-Typologien aus anderen klinischen und persönlichkeitspsychologischen Messungen wurde hinzugefügt, um eine Art grobe, aber empirisch fundierte ungefähre charakteristische Typologie ("Persönlichkeit") für beide Meditationsformen zu erhalten.
Article
Using radioactive iodine, the effect of 1 month's yogic exercises has been investigated on the thyroid function of subjects resident at sea level (SL) specially after their exposure to high altitude (HA). The results have been compared with a group of SL subjects who underwent physical training (PT) exercises for the same duration. Ten healthy male volunteers in the age range of 20-30 years were used as test subjects in this study with each serving as his own control. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 5 each. One group practised hatha yogic exercises, while the other group performed the regular PT exercises. The thyroidal accumulation and release of radioactive iodine have been measured in each of the subjects of both groups before and after 1 month of their respective exercises at SL. One month of yogic exercises at SL has been observed to cause a significant reduction in the trans-thyroidal availability of radioiodine. The thyroid radioactivity in this group of subjects was always below normal levels with the exception of two peaks of radioactive iodine uptake, when the levels of radioactivity in the thyroid were similar to the control values of pre-yogic exercises. The release of radiolabel at 24-48 h was significantly increased after yogic exercises. In contrast, the subjects performing PT exercises for the same duration at SL showed significant thyroid uptake of radioactive iodine at 24 h. Subsequently their 131I uptake continued to rise slowly until 72 h without any demonstrable thyroidal release of radiolabel. This indicated that increased thyroid activity was induced by conventional PT exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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