Article

Evaluation of antifungal activity of origanum vulgare and rosmarinus officinalis essential oil before and after inclusion in β-cyclodextrine

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Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the antifungal activity of essential oil of Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis collected in north region of Albania, and how is it modified by microencapsulation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Methods: Chemical composition of both isolated essential oils was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The disc diffusion method was used to screen the antifungal activities of essential oils, before and after microencapsulation, against following dermatophytes: M. gypseum, M. canis, A. cajetani, T. violaceum, T. mentagrophytes, E. floccosum,T. rubrum, T. tonsurans and phytopatogens B. cinerea and P. oryzae. Results: The major identified compounds for Rosmarinus officinalis and Origanum vulgare essential oils, by GC/MS analyses, were respectively: 1, 8cineol, camphor, verbenone, borneol and carvacrol, thymol for O. vulgare essential oil. Maximum antifungal activity of essential oil of O. vulgare was observed against T. tonsurans, T. violaceum, T. floccosum,T. mentagrophytes. Meanwhile the essential oil of R. officinalis exhibits a moderate antifungal activity against T. violaceum. The essential oils demonstrated higher inhibition zones after microencapsulation in β-cylcodextrine. Conclusion: From the results obtained we can conclude as follows: 1. Antifungal activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil is higher compare to the antifungal activity of Rosmarinus officinalis ones due to high content of carvacrol in Origanum vulgare essential oil. 2. Microencapsulation does not change the antifungal activity of both essential oils; this should consent to achieve the optimal antifungal activity with minimum side effects of essential oil, and improved stability upon storage due to benefits of microencapsulation in β-cyclodextrine. Moreover, after encapsulation improved activity were observed. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.

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... The phytochemical results show that O. vulgare essential oil has a high content of carvacrol and lower contents of p-cymene, γ-terpinene, and thymol. These results are in agreement with those of previous studies, where carvacrol was determined as the main component of oregano essential oils, even at different levels (12-88%) (Laothaweerungsawat et al. 2020;Papajani et al. 2015). According to several studies, the phenols carvacrol and thymol and their precursors p-cymene and γ-terpinene account for over 70% of Origanum essential oil (Fitsiou et al. 2016 In this study, the average size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential of the blank and essential-oil-loaded liposomes were measured. ...
... The air-dried plant samples were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and following this procedure: 20 g of the plant material subjected to hydrodistillation with 500 ml of distilled water for 3 h in order to obtain essential oil at a rate of 2-3 ml/min. The resulting essential oil was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and stored at 4 °C as described by Papajani et al. (2015). ...
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Article
Origanum vulgare L. essential oil possesses a wide spectrum of biological activities. Nanoencapsulation of O. vulgare essential oil into liposomes seems to be a promising strategy to maintain and improve these biological properties. This research was carried out to develop a suitable liposomal formulation for the effective encapsulation of O. vulgare essential oil in order to improve the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The characterization of liposomal nanocarriers was conducted in terms of size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. An MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxic activity of the prepared and characterized O. vulgare essential oil liposomes in MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Antioxidant activity was determined by assessing DPPH scavenging activity. O. vulgare essential oil exerted cytotoxic activity with an IC50 of 50 μg/ml. The essential oil of O. vulgare was effectively encapsulated in liposomes, with no significant change observed among the formulations. The antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced after encapsulating the essential oil in liposomes. Origanum vulgare essential-oil-loaded Phospholipon 90H liposomes demonstrated considerably increased cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells, whereas Lipoid S100 liposomes showed no significant differences from the non-encapsulated essential oil. Phospholipon 85G liposomes had the least cytotoxic impact. As a result, liposomes containing O. vulgare essential oil may be promising nanocarriers for the development of anticancer agents.
... The present systematic review showed that EOs and their VCs complexed with CDs improved their biological activities and pharmacological properties when compared to their non-complexed form. In vitro studies tested different EOs (Hyptis martiusii [44], Melaleuca alternifólia (terpinen-4-ol chemotype) [45], Thymus catharinae (carvacrol chemotype) [46], Lippia graveolens [47], Psidium guajava L. [48], Eugenia caryophyllata L. [49], Achillea millefolium L. [50], Anemopsis californica [51], Piper nigrum L. [52], Citrus sinensis L. [53], Satureja montana [54,55], Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis [56], Eucalyptus, peppermint, thyme, wasabi, cineole and menthol [57]) and isolated VCs (Eugenol [58], limonene [59], 2-nonanona [60], carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and thymol [61], thymol [62], αlongipinene, isolongifolene and α-humulene [63], thymol and carvacrol [64], trans-anethole, estragol, eugenol and isoeugenol [65]), complexed with different CDs (αCD, βCD, HPβCD, HPγCD and MβCD) (table 1). The preclinical studies evaluated several EOs (Lippia grata [66], Ocimum basilicum [67], Annona vepretorum [68], Cymbopogon winterianus [69], Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction (XFSWD) [70], Ocimum basilicum [71], Hyptis pectinata [72], Lippia grata [73] and XFSWD [74]) and isolated VCs ((-)-Linalool [75], citronellal [76], carvacrol [77], (-)-linalool [78], βcaryophyllene [79], geraniol [80] and linalool [81]) complexed with βCD. ...
... The second [55] showed that the complexation improved the antifungal properties of the EO and its stability after storage. Papajani et al. [56] tested the antifungal activity of Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis EOs complexed with βCD, showing that the complexation increased the antifungal properties of the oils, with higher activity of O. vulgare due to the high carvacrol concentration, suggesting the use of these two EOs incorporated in dermatological formulations as antifungal agent and industrial applications. Tatsuoka et al. [57] evaluated the EOs of eucalyptus, peppermint, wasabi and thyme and two major constituents (menthol and cineol) complexed with αCD and βCD on the ruminal production of methane and hydrogen, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and number of protozoa in vitro and showed that methane production was significantly reduced with eucalyptus-αCD, wasabiα-CD and -βCD, and increased with cineol-αCD and -βCD, while other complexes showed no changes. ...
Article
Background: Essential oils (EOs) and their volatile components (VCs) have varied biological and pharmacological activities, but the low solubility and bioavailability hamper their applications, so that the inclusion in cyclodextrins (CDs) is likely to improve their physicochemical properties and pharmacological effects. Objective: The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the biological activities and pharmacological applications of essential oils and their volatile components complexed with cyclodextrins. Methods: The search terms 'Cyxlodextrin', 'Inclusion Complex', 'Volatile oils', 'Essential oil' and 'Volatile components' were used to retrieve articles from the PUBMED, MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases. Results: A total of 38 articles were identified. In in vitro and preclinical studies, a greater efficacy of EOs and their VCs complexed with different CDs types was found when compared to free forms in the various biological activities and animal models of the pharmacological tests evaluated. Conclusion: This review of selected studies showed that the use of CDs promotes greater solubility, bioavailability and efficacy of EOs and their VCs indicating an interesting alternative for the biotechnological development of new therapeutic formulations.
... The essential oils extracted from Eremanthus erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus were shown to inhibit the growth of C. albicans, Cryptococcus gattii, Cryptococcus neoformans, and S. cerevisiae [33]. Papajani et al. [88] have reported the antifungal activity of rosemary essential oil against dermatophytes such as A. cajetani, E. floccosum, M. gypseum, M. canis, T. violaceum, T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and T. tonsurans and phytopathogens such as Botrytis cinerea and Pleomorphomonas oryzae. According to them, concentration below 20 g/mL was not effective and they suggested the use of concentrations above 100 g/ml for better antifungal activity. ...
... Continued. C. albicans, A. niger, M. gypseum, M. canis, A. cajetani, T. violaceum, T. mentagrophytes, E. floccosum, T. rubrum, T. tonsurans, phytopathogens B. cinerea and P. oryzae[52,56,88] C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. glabrata, C. ...
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A wide range of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) have been explored for their essential oils in the past few decades. Essential oils are complex volatile compounds, synthesized naturally in different plant parts during the process of secondary metabolism. Essential oils have great potential in the field of biomedicine as they effectively destroy several bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. The presence of different types of aldehydes, phenolics, terpenes, and other antimicrobial compounds means that the essential oils are effective against a diverse range of pathogens. The reactivity of essential oils depends upon the nature, composition, and orientation of its functional groups. The aim of this article is to review the antimicrobial potential of essential oils secreted from MAPs and their possible mechanisms of action against human pathogens. This comprehensive review will benefit researchers who wish to explore the potential of essential oils in the development of novel broad-spectrum key molecules against a broad range of drug-resistant pathogenic microbes.
... The goal of this study was to screening of the thirtyfour crude extracts on the mycelial growth of C. gloeospoioides.The management of all crude extract was the best for C. gloeospoioides control due to their harmless on enviromental condition, to user and to consumer. The study that the related to the several researcher have noted the antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oils including, the researchs of (Umar et al., 2011) and carvacrol and p-cymene from the leaves of O. vulgare (Papajani et al., 2015) This study noted that the thirty-four crude extracts can be use for C. gloeospoioides management and can be used the six plants crude extracts for anthracnose disease control. The six crude extracts (C. ...
... EOs can rapidly inhibit growth of dermatophytes and their spores. This is an attribute to the occurrence of high levels of phytocompounds, i.e., α-bisabolol (an alcohol) and eugenol (a phenylpropanoid), in their EOs (Bajpai et al. 2009;Maxia et al. 2009;Pragadheesh et al. 2013 Irkin and Korukluoglu (2009) (continued) Santos et al. 2015;Hammer et al. 2012;Hristova et al. 2013;Kocevski et al. 2013;Petretto et al. 2014;Pullagummi et al. 2014;Singh et al. 2014;Ibrahim et al. 2015a, b;Latifah-Munirah et al. 2015;Novy et al. 2015;Papajani et al. 2015;;Venturi et al. 2015;Souza et al. 2016). Most research on the antifungal activity is in the initial phases of clinical trials. ...
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Chapter
Essential oils (EOs) are extracted from flowers, leaves, barks, roots, and fruits of the medicinal plants using hydrodistilation or steam distillation and continuous solvent extraction. EOs are mixture of chemical constituents which have less molecular weight substances, such as alcohols, polyphenols, terpenoids, carbonyl compounds, and aliphatic compounds which provide smell and possess biological properties. EOs have been used as folk medicine throughout the history. Nowadays, EOs are widely used as an alternative medicine in varied industries such as pharmaceutical, agricultural, sanitary, and food industries due to their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitical, antidiabetic, anticancer (cytotoxic), insect repellent, food industry (flavoring), aromatherapy, antioxidant, perfume, and cosmetic properties. EOs have a great demand and interest as cosmetic and pharmaceutical substances. The isolation, identification, and characterization of major components of EOs have a premier significance. Individual compounds present in EOs mixture such as thymol, camphor, limonene, α-pinene, terpinolene, menthol, menthone, etc. exhibit wide-ranging biological properties. Commercially, still synthetic chemicals are widely used as biological activities than the EOs from the plants. However, EOs from natural sources are more effective and safe for human health and the environment compared to the synthetic chemicals. The aim of the present chapter is to discuss the specific chemical compounds occurring in EOs, their medical applications, and economic importance.
... Accordingly, a lower concentration of active agent could be used to achieve the effective concentration at the target sites. Several studies attempted to evaluate the effect of encapsulation on the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of essential oils (Arana-Arana-Sánchez et al. 2010;Dima et al. 2014;Hill et al. 2013;Kfoury et al. 2016a;Papajani et al. 2015). ...
Article
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... Rosemary commonly known as Satapatrika, belongs to the family Lamiaceae. It contains several essential oils like carvacrol, eugenol, oleanolic acid, thymol, and ursolic acid; antioxidant constituents such as carnosic acid and ferulic acid [80]. Carnosic acid, which was first isolated from the plant by Wenkert et al. has also shown to have neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons in vitro and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino mouse model. ...
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... There are no data reported for the composition of essential oil from L. nobils from Albania. These results were partly similar to those reported before from L. nobilis composition of essential oil mainly in the absence of high amounts of β-ocimene (Kilic et al., [27] [28]) and Ibraliu (Ibraliu et al., [26]), respectively. We can assume that O. vulgare we analysed is carvacrol chemotype differing from the reported Albanian O. vulgare. ...
Chapter
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Chapter
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The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass spectral data with those of the Wiley/NBS Library of Mass Spectra. MIC's and MFC's of the oils and their components were determined by dilution assays. Thymol (48.9%) and p-cymene (19.0%) were the main components of T. vulgaris, while carvacrol (12.8%), a-terpinyl acetate (12.3%), cis-myrtanol (11.2%) and thymol (10.4%) were dominant in T. tosevii. Both Thymus species showed very strong antifungal activities. In M. piperita oil menthol (37.4%), menthyl acetate (17.4%) and menthone (12.7%) were the main components, whereas those of M. spicata oil were carvone (69.5%) and menthone (21.9%). Mentha sp. showed strong antifungal activities, however lower than Thymus sp. The commercial fungicide, bifonazole, used as a control, had much lower antifungal activity than the oils and components investigated. It is concluded that essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species possess great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides.
Article
The antimicrobial effects of many herbs and spices have been well known for centuries and are used to increase the shelf-life of foods. These antimicrobial properties are attributed to the essential oil fraction. Essentials oils have a broad spectrum of activity, with inhibition observed against bacteria, yeasts and fungi. As natural products already used as food flavours, essentials oils are currently being studied to acquire a better understanding of their natural food preservative potential. The methods for testing the antimicrobial properties of essential oils and aroma compounds are reviewed, with a focus on micro-atmosphere, and direct contact in liquid or solid media. Hydrophobic compound dispersion is the main problem encountered by authors, although the use of colloïdal agar-agar mixtures seems to offer a valuable solution. Essential oils and aroma compounds have a negative effect on the growth (e.g. Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes), sporulation (e.g. Clostridium botulinum) and toxinogenesis (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus) of bacteria. Concerning yeasts, the compounds show some influence on growth and pseudomycelium production. In fungi, spore germination may be inhibited, as well as mycelium elongation (e.g. Aspergillus flavus), sporulation and toxinogenesis (e.g. Aspergillus ochraceus). Usually, the results obtained on synthetic culture media are confirmed in food assays, but only if a higher amount of essential oil is added, leading to concern over potential alteration of the organoleptic quality of foods.
Chapter
Cyclodextrins are chemically and physically stable molecules formed by the enzymatic modification of starch. They have the ability to form complexes with a wide variety of organic compounds. As a result of complexation of compounds by cyclodextrins, the apparent solubility of the molecule can be altered, the stability of the compound in the presence of light, heat and oxidizing conditions is increased and volatility of compounds is decreased. Cyclodextrins can also be used as processing aids to isolate compounds from natural sources and to remove unwanted compounds, such as cholesterol, from food products.
Article
Seventeen populations of Orignanum vulgare (four populations), Thymus capitatus (four populations) and Satureja montana (Origanum) were collected from different agro-climatically diverse sites in Albania. Their essential oils were subjected to detailed GC/FID and GC/MS analyses to determine similarities and differences among them for their chemical composition, especially the major compounds, such as Carvacrol and Thymol, which carry economic importance in medicinal plant industry and food industry. The concentrations of Carvacrol varied from 21.07 to 77.79%; Thymol from 0.72 to 39.9%; y-Terpinene from 4 to 13.8% and p-Cymene from 0.74 to 17.4%. From the cluster analysis (CA) accomplished by using the statistical software R, we came to two conclusions. (1) The collections of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum (rich in Carvacrol) and Th. capitatus (balanced concentration of compound) made from identical locations belonged to two different sub-groups, whereas the populations of S. montana were divided into these two groups based on their oil compositions. (2) There were no appreciable environmental effects on oil concentration.
Article
The essential oils obtained from Satureja montana L. harvested in central part of Dalmatia (Croatia) at three ontogenical stages were evaluated for their chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. GC/MS analyses revealed the presence of 33 compounds in the oils. Carvacrol (52.4>26.2>16.1%) was found to be the main constituent especially before flowering while p-cymene (3.8<15.2<25.6%) increased through flowering. The antimicrobial activity of S. montana oils against five Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi), four Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis) and five pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Candida rugosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was evaluated using the agar-plate dilution assay. The oil showed the strongest activity against all tests strains, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The maximum activity was observed against E. coli, S. aureus and fungal organisms. Escherichia coli had the lowest MIC of 0.06% with oils produced before and during the flowering period. These results support the notion that S. montana oil has a role as both a pharmaceutical and a preservative.
Article
Three Origanum essential oils, Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, Origanum dictamnus, and a commercially available Origanum oil, were analyzed by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS) and showed a high content of carvacrol, thymol, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene representing 73.7%, 92.8%, and 87.78% of the total oil, respectively. The three essential oils exhibited high levels of antimicrobial activity against eight strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Among the major components of the three oils, carvacrol and thymol exhibited the highest levels of antimicrobial activity, while their biosynthetic precursors γ-terpinene and p-cymene were inactive. The essential oil of O. vulgare ssp. hirtum was extremely bactericidal at 1/4000 dilution and even at dilutions as high as 1/50000 caused considerable decrease in bacterial growth rates. The same essential oil also exhibited high levels of cytotoxicity against four permanent animal cell lines including two derived from human cancers. Keywords: Origanum vulgare; Origanum dictamus; essential oils; carvacrol; thymol; antimicrobial activity; cytotoxicity; terpenes; cancer
Article
Carvacrol, (+)-carvone, thymol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde were tested for their inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium. In addition, their toxicity to Photobacterium leiognathi was determined, utilizing a bioluminescence assay. Their effects on the cell surface were investigated by measuring the uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN), by measuring their sensitization of bacterial suspensions toward detergents and lysozyme, and by analyzing material released from cells upon treatment by these agents. Carvacrol, thymol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde inhibited E. coli and S. typhimurium at 1-3 mM, whereas (+)-carvone was less inhibitory. trans-Cinnamaldehyde was the most inhibitory component toward P. leiognathi. Carvacrol and thymol disintegrated the outer membrane and released outer membrane-associated material from the cells to the external medium; such release by (+)-carvone or trans-cinnamaldehyde was negligible. Of the tested components, carvacrol and thymol decreased the intracellular ATP pool off. coli and also increased extracellular ATP, indicating disruptive action on the cytoplasmic membrane.
Article
The antimicrobial properties of 21 plant essential oils and two essences were investigated against five important food-borne pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The oils of bay, cinnamon, clove and thyme were the most inhibitory, each having a bacteriostatic concentration of 0.075% or less against all five pathogens. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to inhibition by plant essential oils than the Gram-negative bacteria. Campylobacter jejuni was the most resistant of the bacteria investigated to plant essential oils, with only the oils of bay and thyme having a bacteriocidal concentration of less than 1%. At 35 degrees C, L. monocytogenes was extremely sensitive to the oil of nutmeg. A concentration of less than 0.01% was bacteriostatic and 0.05% was bacteriocidal, but when the temperature was reduced to 4 degrees, the bacteriostatic concentration was increased to 0.5% and the bacteriocidal concentration to greater than 1%.
Article
The Sensititre YeastOne antifungal panel was used to test 49 dermatophytes belonging to the species Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The MICs of four antifungals obtained with the Sensititre YeastOne antifungal panel were compared with those obtained by the reference NCCLS microdilution method. The levels of agreement between the two methods (≤2 dilutions) were 81.6% with amphotericin B, 87.7% with itraconazole, 67.3% with fluconazole, and 69.4% with ketoconazole.
Article
Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. The steam-distilled volatile oil from cinnamon fruit stalks was analyzed with GC and GC-MS. It showed the presence of hydrocarbons (44.7%) and oxygenated compounds (52.6%). Twenty-seven compounds constituting ca. 95.98% of the volatile oil were characterized. (E)-Cinnamyl acetate (36.59%) and (E)-caryophyllene (22.36%) are found to be major compounds. The volatile oil was screened for its potential as an antioxidant by using in vitro models, such as the beta-carotene-linoleate and phosphomolybdenum complex method. The volatile oil showed 55.94% and 66.9% antioxidant activity at 100 and 200 ppm concentration, respectively. Also, the volatile oil showed good antioxidant capacity, using the formation of the phosphomolybdenum complex. A comparison of the chemical composition of the volatile oil was made with that of buds, flowers, and fruits. This is the first report on the chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit stalks of this species and its antioxidant activity.
Article
The increasing recognition and importance of fungal infections, the difficulties encountered in their treatment and the increase in resistance to antifungals have stimulated the search for therapeutic alternatives. Essential oils have been used empirically. The essential oils of Thymus (Thymus vulgaris, T. zygis subspecies zygis and T. mastichina subspecies mastichina) have often been used in folk medicine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate objectively the antifungal activity of Thymus oils according to classical bacteriological methodologies - determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) - as well as flow cytometric evaluation. The effect of essential oils upon germ tube formation, an important virulence factor, was also studied. The mechanism of action was studied by flow cytometry, after staining with propidium iodide. The chemical composition of the essential oils was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The antifungal activity of the major components (carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and 1,8-cineole) and also possible interactions between them were also investigated. The essential oils of T. vulgaris and T. zygis showed similar antifungal activity, which was greater than T. mastichina. MIC and MLC values were similar for all the compounds tested. At MIC values of the essential oils, propidium iodide rapidly penetrated the majority of the yeast cells, indicating that the fungicidal effect resulted primarily from an extensive lesion of the cell membrane. Concentrations below the MIC values significantly inhibited germ tube formation. This study describes the potent antifungal activity of the essential oils of Thymus on Candida spp., warranting future therapeutical trials on mucocutaneous candidosis.
Article
The essential oils from 19 samples of Satureja cuneifolia that is used as a substitute for thyme in Turkey have been analysed by GC and GC/ MS. The plant materials were collected from different regions of Turkey. The results are presented in a comparative manner. Eleven oil samples were found to be rich in carvacrol (26-72%) while in eight samples thymol (22-58%) was the main constituent.
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