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History, Ecology and Challenges of Citrus Production in Tropical and Subtropical Areas


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The center of genetic origin of Citrus is believed to be southeastern Asia. This includes the areas from eastern Arabia to the Philippines, and also from Himalayas south to Indonesia and northern Australia. The vegetation in that region subsumes rain forests and tropical shaded tall-tree habitats, and Citrus species might have thrived for many years in the understory of these forests. Before the fifth century B.C., Citrus fruits were recognized by its medicinal uses. First sailors used fresh citrus fruits to prevent scurvy. But when brought to Europe and the Americas after 1500 A.D., Citrus fruits were used as a general source of food. After the great voyages, plants of this genus became crop plants outside its natural environment. In South America, it was first introduced in northeast Brazil, and in the Andes. By the middle of the past century, São Paulo and Minas Gerais states in southeastern Brazil became one of the hot spots of Citrus production. Differently from lands that had long been used for agriculture, Citrus plantations in Brazil required the removal of native vegetation for producing sweet oranges for juice processing. This strategy, although successful, disregarded many morphological and functional traits of native plants on the southern border of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), which was displaced by orange tree plantations. These “invader plants” had to face the sunshiny plains in the center, north, and northwest São Paulo state, where savanna-type vegetation used to grow on soils that are acidic (pH < 4.0), rich in aluminum (Al), poor in macronutrients, and that are also subjected to five-month seasonal droughts. Cerrado woody plants possess long and deep roots, with low specific leaf area, traits which possibly help these species survive droughts and fire events. These species also evolved mechanisms to deal with Al in the metabolism. On the other hand, orange trees, which exhibit traits that are typical of forest species, had to be grafted on rootstocks that attenuate such harsh edaphic conditions. In addition, fertilizers and lime are still being used today as a means of overcoming the low fertility of Cerrado soils. In this chapter we rescue biological history and ecology, and revisit differences between Citrus and Cerrado woody species, which have developed as forest and savanna species, respectively. We focused on functional traits related to nutritional and photosynthetic apparatus of these plants. We believe that these discussions could improve reflections for Citrus breeding programs.
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... Citrus fruits grow in subtropical climate areas. While mainland China, Southeast Asia, and India are major producers of citrus fruits due to suitable ecological conditions, they are also cultivated in the Mediterranean and Aegean coastal regions and partly in the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey [12,13]. The distribution of species and varieties of citrus fruits has gained a regional identity. ...
Introduction. Kumquat is a good source of vitamin C, as well as phenolic and flavonoid substances. In this study, we used various solvents to obtain extracts from fresh and lyophilized dried fruits and leaves of kumquat plant, as well as six mutants, to compare their total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities. Study objects and methods. The total phenolic and flavonoid content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the colorimetric method, respectively. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts were determined by commonly used antioxidant tests, such as the DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and metal chelating activity. Results and discussion. The total phenolic content of the extracts was in the range of 3705–86 329 mg GAE/g extract. The total amount of flavonoid substance ranged from 5556 to 632 222 mg QUE/g extract. The highest free radical scavenging activity was observed in the kumquat leaves. We also found that the activity of dried fruit was lower than that of fresh fruit. According to our results, the differences in the phenolic contents of the studied plants affected their antioxidant properties. We determined that the extracts with a high phenolic content showed high antioxidant activity. No significant difference was detected between the rootstock kumquat type and its mutants. Finally, we found no chelating activity in the extracts obtained from fresh and lyophilized dried fruits. Conclusion. Kumquat fruit and its leaves can be considered as functional foods due to phenolic compounds, which are able to neutralize free radicals.
... C onsumption of Persian lime (Citrus  latifolia Tanaka ex Q. Jiménez) is on the rise globally, due to it being a source of antioxidants favorable for human health, in addition to its multiple uses when consumed fresh or processed (Habermann and Claro, 2014). The traits that make it more attractive to consumers are its less acidic taste, higher juice content, lack of seeds, and a larger fruit size (Hassanzadeh et al., 2017). ...
Objective: To physically and chemically characterize clonal selections of Persian lime(Citrus x latifolia Tanaka ex Q. Jiménez).Design/Methodology/Approach: The principal components analysis was employed,using a mixed data factorial analysis model. Genotype distribution was graphed usingprincipal components with the k-medoids method, while a Gower’s dissimilarity matrixwas determined for the conglomerate analysis and a dendrogram was developed usingWard’s minimum variance cluster method. For the morphological characterization of thefruits, the study considered the following trees: Citrus volkameriana, Citrus macrophylla,Citrus paradisi X Poncirus trifoliata, X Citroncirus spp., and Citrus X aurantium. Thefruit’s diameter, length, weight, color, and shape were analyzed, in addition to its baseshape, tip shape, surface texture, albedo adherence, number of seeds, ripening rate,juice weight, juice yield, pH, °Brix, and titratable acidity. Data were analyzed using Rsoftware and the factoextra and FactoMineR packages.Results: The physical and chemical traits of Persian lime fruit vary due to thecorrelations between the types of rootstock that are cultivated in the citrus zone studied. Study Limitations/Implications: Farmers do not know which clone or type of plantmaterial they propagate; they simply select clones that show outstanding morpho-agronomical traits.Findings/Conclusions: The morphological diversity and quality of the fruit is related tothe type of rootstock used in its propagation, in addition to internal and external traits inCitrus macrophylla standing out in fruit quality.
The peel’s essential oil of the Tunisian Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var ‘Maltaise demi sanguine’ cultivated in six regions and three bioclimatic stages was analyzed by gas chromatography. Essential oil yields were highly affected by the growing region and stage. The highest oil yield was observed at sub-humid stage: 1.41% in Oued-Mliz, 0.95% in Bizerte and 0.84% in Takelsa and the weakest yield percentage of 0.71% was found in Kairouan characterized by an arid superior stage. The main components limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, 4-Terpineol and β-myrcene showed significant variations in dry region. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering of composition revealed high effect of the bioclimatic stage, the coastal location and the altitude. Besides this, the results of this investigation provided a preliminary evidence for specific markers to each region that could constitute a useful tool in the quality control and the determination of the botanical origin of the oils.
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From experiments conducted over several seasons it was found that naringin production in grapefruit takes place mainly during the early stages of fruit development. In the most definitive study, developing grapefruit and adjacent leaves were exposed to ¹⁴ C labeled carbon dioxide at weekly intervals following fruit set. The relative amount of CO 2 fixed and available for conversion at different treatment times was determined by measuring the ¹⁴ C activity in the soluble carbohydrate and organic acid fraction of the fruit. Activity was also followed in the naringenin rhamnoglucoside fraction. Carbon dioxide incorporation into the sugar-acids did not vary by greater than a factor of 10 for those exposures conducted from early April to mid-November. The ratio of activity in the naringenin rhamnoglucoside fraction to that in the sugar-acid fraction reached a pronounced maximum in mid-April and then declined rapidly by mid-June to 1/3000 of the peak value. A uniformly low ratio of incorporation into the naringenin rhamnoglucoside fraction is maintained to early maturity (October). Preliminary evidence suggests that minor subsequent rises in naringin production may coincide with periods of rapid vegetative growth.
This second edition of Citrus , like the original by F.S. Davies and L.G. Albrigo, intends to provide the reader with an updated overview of citriculture from a worldwide perspective. Current theories and technological advances in citriculture are emphasized, citing specific examples of how and where they are used. The text begins with a discussion of major production areas with figures and current trends (Chapter 1). The confusing and controversial taxonomic situation for Citrus and related genera is then discussed, emphasizing molecular biology (biotechnological) advances that are clarifying the genetic relationships between various citrus species. This is followed by a discussion of the major commercially important citrus species and cultivars and traditional and current techniques in citrus breeding (Chapter 2). Chapter 3 covers the importance of rootstocks in citriculture and discusses the major rootstocks, their advantages and disadvantages. In Chapter 4, the role of climatic factors in worldwide citrus production is emphasized, including their effects on citrus yields, growth, economic returns and fruit quality. Plant husbandry, including nursery practices, irrigation, fertilizer application, freeze protection, pruning, growth regulator use and weed control is covered in Chapter 5. In Chapter 6, the major pests and recent changes in their distribution are covered. Diseases of citrus, emphasizing major problems and control measures are the topic of Chapter 7. The final chapter (8) deals with postharvest quality, harvesting and handling of citrus fruits, including the importance of biotic and abiotic problems, as well as packinghouse and processing techniques.
The world market for citrus ( Citrus spp.) products has undergone dramatic shifts over the last decade. These shifts are influencing development and planting of new citrus cultivars. Seedlessness and very easy peeling have become paramount in mandarin types ( C. reticulata and hybrids), and new cultivars are being developed through plant breeding and selection of new sports. In both sweet orange ( C. sinensis ) and grapefruit ( C. paradisi ), essentially all important cultivars are derived from a single original hybrid of each fruit type, and plant improvement has focused on selection of sports with redder color and extended maturity. The existence of many active citrus breeding programs makes it likely that we will continue to see evolution of new citrus cultivars over the foreseeable future.
On p. 211 of the February 2000 issue, “Identification and expression of isoflavone synthase, the key enzyme for biosynthesis of isoflavones in legumes” by Woosuk Jung, Oliver Yu, Sze-Mei Cindy Lau, Daniel P. O'Keefe, Joan Odell, Gary Fader, and Brian McGonigle, the following sentence gave the incorrect units for genistein yield: “The amount of genistein produced is ∼2 ng mg−1 of fresh weight, as determined by comparison with a quantified genistein standard.