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Occurrence of Lycogala epidendrum (Myxomycetes) in a mangrove environment in Brazil

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Occurrence of Lycogala epidendrum (Myxomycetes) in a mangrove environment in Brazil). The first record of Lycogala epidendrum (L.) Fries in Brazil was presented at the beginning of the 20 th century based on material collected in the state of Santa Catarina (south region of the country). This species has been recorded in six of the nine states in the northeastern region, where it occurs in fragments of the Atlantic Rainforest, exhibiting lignicolous behavior, as well as in environments altered by humans. In a survey of the myxobiota of Maranhão state, northeast Brazil, aethalia were collected in the Araçagy mangrove, Raposa municipality (02 o 21' to 02 o 32' S and 44 o 00' to 44 o 12' W). This is the first time that L. epidendrum is reported for this type of environment. This was also the first record of a representative of Liceales (Myxogastromycetidae, Myxomycetes) in the myxobiota found in the state of Maranhão.
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... Pesquisas desenvolvidas no Brasil registraram a presença desses organismos em microhabitates oferecidos por árvores características dos manguezais, pertencentes aos gêneros Rhizophora L., Avicennia L., Laguncularia Gaertn. f. e Conocarpus L., revelando uma insuspeitada diversidade de espécies (Damasceno et al., 2009(Damasceno et al., , 2011Cavalcanti et al., 2014Cavalcanti et al., , 2016Agra et al., 2010Agra et al., , 2015. ...
... Liceales compreendem as famílias Liceaceae, com um gênero e 76 espécies, Cribrariaceae, com dois gêneros e 47 espécies, e Reticulariaceae, com cinco gêneros e 36 espécies (Lado, 2005(Lado, -2019. As três famílias estão representadas em manguezais da China (Licea), Filipinas (Lycogala Adans.) e Brasil (Cribraria, Licea, Lycogala), porém com raros registros (Chung et al., 1998;Bezerra et al., 1999;Cavalcanti et al., 2000Cavalcanti et al., , 2014Cavalcanti et al., , 2016Agra et al., 2010Agra et al., , 2015Savillo, 2015;Barbosa e Cavalcanti, 2019). Na lista de Cavalcanti et al. (2000) para manguezais de Pernambuco Licea kleistobolus G. W. Martin. ...
... Entre outros destaques da ordem neste ecossistema estão Hemitrichia calyculata (Speg.) Farr, coletada em Pernambuco (Brasil), cujos esporocarpos foram coletados em associação com besouros do gênero Baeocera, o que anteriormente foi registrado apenas por Lemos et al. (2010) em fragmento de Floresta Atlântica. O primeiro registro de Oligonema flavidum (Peck) Peck neste ecossistema a nível mundial foi obtido no manguezal de Alcântara, no Maranhão, sendo a primeira referência da espécie para o Brasil (Agra et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
Os Fungos Micorrízicos Arbusculares (FMA), famosos pela formação de simbiose com raízes da maioria das famílias de plantas, são comuns em quase todos os ecossistemas terrestres. Entretanto, os ambientes aquáticos têm sido pouco investigados principalmente quanto a diversidade desses microrganismos benéficos. Apesar da notória negligência nas pesquisas sobre diversidade de FMA em áreas alagadas, há informações que requerem atenção. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi inventariar espécies de FMA em 7 ambientes aquáticos lênticos, oligotróficos do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Para isso, sedimento rizosféricos de 10 famílias de ma- crófitas aquáticas foram coletados, os glomerosporos extraídos por peneiramento úmido e centrifugação em água e sacarose 50%, montados em lâminas para microscopia, identificados e quantificados. Surpreendentemente, 105 espécies foram observadas distribuídas em 5 ordens, 11 famílias e 21 gêneros. A maior frequência foi das famílias Acaulosporaceae e Glomeraceae, com os gêneros Acaulospora e Glomus como mais representativos. Ambispora appendicula foi a única espécie comum às 7 lagoas. Os índices de diversidade foram elevados, exceto para a Lagoa do Boqueirão e Lagoa Azul, que apresentaram maiores índices de dominância. Os hospedeiros hidrófitos com maior riqueza foram Cyperaceae e Lentibulariaceae. O número de táxons encontrado é elevado, assim como a esporulação, revelando o potencial dos ecossistemas aquáticos em abrigar ampla riqueza de FMA.
... Pesquisas desenvolvidas no Brasil registraram a presença desses organismos em microhabitates oferecidos por árvores características dos manguezais, pertencentes aos gêneros Rhizophora L., Avicennia L., Laguncularia Gaertn. f. e Conocarpus L., revelando uma insuspeitada diversidade de espécies (Damasceno et al., 2009(Damasceno et al., , 2011Cavalcanti et al., 2014Cavalcanti et al., , 2016Agra et al., 2010Agra et al., , 2015. ...
... Liceales compreendem as famílias Liceaceae, com um gênero e 76 espécies, Cribrariaceae, com dois gêneros e 47 espécies, e Reticulariaceae, com cinco gêneros e 36 espécies (Lado, 2005(Lado, -2019. As três famílias estão representadas em manguezais da China (Licea), Filipinas (Lycogala Adans.) e Brasil (Cribraria, Licea, Lycogala), porém com raros registros (Chung et al., 1998;Bezerra et al., 1999;Cavalcanti et al., 2000Cavalcanti et al., , 2014Cavalcanti et al., , 2016Agra et al., 2010Agra et al., , 2015Savillo, 2015; Barbosa e Cavalcanti, 2019). Na lista de Cavalcanti et al. (2000) para manguezais de Pernambuco Licea kleistobolus G. W. Martin. ...
... Entre outros destaques da ordem neste ecossistema estão Hemitrichia calyculata (Speg.) Farr, coletada em Pernambuco (Brasil), cujos esporocarpos foram coletados em associação com besouros do gênero Baeocera, o que anteriormente foi registrado apenas por Lemos et al. (2010) em fragmento de Floresta Atlântica. O primeiro registro de Oligonema flavidum (Peck) Peck neste ecossistema a nível mundial foi obtido no manguezal de Alcântara, no Maranhão, sendo a primeira referência da espécie para o Brasil (Agra et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
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Mundialmente reconhecidos como suporte da biodiversidade da Natureza, os manguezais ocupam cerca de 150.000 km2 , distribuídos em 123 países, em zonas tropicais e subtropicais. Aproximadamente 7% da área ocupada encontram-se no Brasil, desde o Amapá até o Santa Catarina. Apesar do elevado nível de salinidade e das variações das marés, os mixomicetos compõem a microbiota dos manguezais, comportando-se como lignícolas, corticícolas e foliícolas. Estudos recentes em manguezais africanos demonstraram que podem atuar como biorremediadores, colaborando para a manutenção da qualidade do ambiente, além de terem potencial como bioindicadores. O primeiro registro, publicado em 1969, relata a presença de Arcyria cinerea em troncos mortos de Rhizophora mangle infestados por Phellinus gilvus, no Havaí. Até 1999, registros esporádicos informavam a ocorrência de 11 espécies, em manguezais norte-americanos e asiáticos. Atualmente, sabe-se que representantes de todas as subclasses e ordens de mixomicetos habitam manguezais na Ásia, África, América do Norte, Central e do Sul. Tem-se registro de 47 espécies, 22 gêneros e 10 famílias, destacando-se Stemonitaceae e Trichiaceae. Cerca de metade das espécies são raras, embora sejam frequentes em outros ecossistemas. Estudos desenvolvidos no Brasil avaliaram a associação dos mixomicetos com Avicennia germinans, A. shaueriana, Conocarpus erectus, Laguncularia racemosa e Rhizophora mangle. Espécies r-estrategistas, como Echinostelium minutum, habitam a casca das árvores vivas e o folhedo aéreo, enquanto as K-estrategistas, menos frequentes, desenvolvem-se em troncos mortos, como Lycogala epidendrum e Fuligo septica. Análises moleculares poderão determinar a presença dos mixomicetos no solo e na vegetação periodicamente submersa, contribuindo para um melhor entendimento da sua diversidade em microhabitates ainda inexplorados.
... The presence of Myxomycetes in a mangrove environment began to be documented by the end of 1960's (Kohlmeyer, 1969), however, the first study to describe these organisms in Brazilian mangrove swamps was only conducted early this century (Cavalcanti et al., 2000). Currently, knowledge on the species of Myxomycetes occurring in a mangrove environment in Brazil is restricted to eight publications, two of which regarding only a single species (Bezerra et al., 1999;Cavalcanti et al., 2000, In press;Trierveiler-Pereira et al., 2008;Agra et al., 2010;Damasceno et al., 2009Damasceno et al., , 2011. ...
... Material examined: BRAZIL, Maranhão: Alcântara, The only specimen obtained was collected directly in the field on a dead branch which was still attached to the mother plant above the tideline. This species was already reported from the Araçagy mangrove by Agra et al. (2010). ...
... On the surveyed mangroves, the majority of the species had r-strategist characteristics, such as C. confusa and E. minutum, which are typically corticicolous. Agra et al. (2010), considering characteristics such as fructification size (<1 cm), long life of plamodium, late maturing, long period of reproduction and production of few and large sporocarps, characterize L. epidendrum as a K-strategist species. For exhibiting similar characteristics and occupying the same microhabitat, O. flavidum and F. septica can be classified as K-strategist species. ...
Article
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Mangrove swamps and forests cover over 137,000 km2 distributed latitudinally among subtropical zones, 7% of which are in Brazil, with a greater density in the country's northernmost region. Considering that the community of Myxomycetes recorded for this environment is hardly known, three areas located in the state of Maranhão were investigated. Two field trips were conducted, one at the beginning of the rainy season and another during the dry season. In each area, two plots (125 m2) equidistant 100 m apart from each other were surveyed. In these areas, standing dead tree trunks and dead branches still attached to the mother plant that were above the tideline, were examined. On these same occasions, samples of the aerial litter and from the cortex of living trees (Rhizophora) were collected for the preparation of moist chambers cultures. Twenty-one specimens were obtained from field and moist chambers, belonging to 11 species, distributed in nine genera and five families. Seven species are new records from Maranhão. There was a predominance of r-strategist (73%) over K-strategist (27%) species. Cribraria violacea, Comatricha tenerrima, Echinostelium minutum, and Fuligo septica are new worldwide records from mangrove environments, and Oligonema flavidum is reported for the first time from Brazil.
... The presence of Myxomycetes in a mangrove environment began to be documented by the end of 1960's (Kohlmeyer, 1969), however, the first study to describe these organisms in Brazilian mangrove swamps was only conducted early this century (Cavalcanti et al., 2000). Currently, knowledge on the species of Myxomycetes occurring in a mangrove environment in Brazil is restricted to eight publications, two of which regarding only a single species (Bezerra et al., 1999;Cavalcanti et al., 2000, In press;Trierveiler-Pereira et al., 2008;Agra et al., 2010;Damasceno et al., 2009Damasceno et al., , 2011. ...
... Material examined: BRAZIL, Maranhão: Alcântara, The only specimen obtained was collected directly in the field on a dead branch which was still attached to the mother plant above the tideline. This species was already reported from the Araçagy mangrove by Agra et al. (2010). ...
... On the surveyed mangroves, the majority of the species had r-strategist characteristics, such as C. confusa and E. minutum, which are typically corticicolous. Agra et al. (2010), considering characteristics such as fructification size (<1 cm), long life of plamodium, late maturing, long period of reproduction and production of few and large sporocarps, characterize L. epidendrum as a K-strategist species. For exhibiting similar characteristics and occupying the same microhabitat, O. flavidum and F. septica can be classified as K-strategist species. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mangrove swamps and forests cover over 137,000 km2 distributed latitudinally among subtropical zones, 7% of which are in Brazil, with a greater density in the country’s northernmost region. Considering that the community of Myxomycetes recorded for this environment is hardly known, three areas located in the state of Maranhão were investigated. Two field trips were conducted, one at the beginning of the rainy season and another during the dry season. In each area, two plots (125 m2) equidistant 100 m apart from each other were surveyed. In these areas, standing dead tree trunks and dead branches still attached to the mother plant that were above the tideline, were examined. On these same occasions, samples of the aerial litter and from the cortex of living trees (Rhizophora) were collected for the preparation of moist chambers cultures. Twenty-one specimens were obtained from field and moist chambers, belonging to 11 species, distributed in nine genera and five families. Seven species are new records from Maranhão. There was a predominance of r-strategist (73%) over K-strategist (27%) species. Cribraria violacea, Comatricha tenerrima, Echinostelium minutum, and Fuligo septica are new worldwide records from mangrove environments, and Oligonema flavidum is reported for the first time from Brazil.
... In Brazil, the myxobiota of mangroves has been the subject of research, with important contributions on its composition and ecology being presented by Trierveiler- Pereira et al. (2008), Agra et al. (2010Agra et al. ( , 2015, Damasceno et al. (2009Damasceno et al. ( , 2011 and Cavalcanti et al. (2014Cavalcanti et al. ( , 2016. The majority of specimens have been found on the bark of live trees, but also occur on aerial litter and, more rarely, on dead trunks (Cavalcanti et al. 2019, Cavalcanti & Agra 2019. ...
Article
The global distribution of Licea testudinacea is updated with a new record from a mangrove environment in Brazil. This myxomycete possesses a broad global distribution despite the scarcity of records, which is probably due to its small size and inconspicuous sporocarp color, which make it difficult to observe in the field. The species occurs on all continents, from sea level up to elevations ≥3000 m, and is known to sporulate in several types of forests, grasslands, taigas and tundras. In the Neotropics, it has been recorded in Mexico, Guatemala and Costa Rica, in forested and non-forested areas at high elevations and with high rainfall. The present study represents the first record of the occurrence of L. testudinacea in South America and the first for a mangrove environment throughout its range. The record is based on sporulating specimens found on a living tree of Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The specimens of L. testudinacea are described and illustrated. Characteristic features of its microhabitat, its global distribution and an identification key for sessile species with peridial dehiscence by plates and free and warted spores are presented.
... In mangroves, live or dead plants often come into contact with seawater. Despite these environments have sufficient environmental humidity to allow the development of plasmodium, the salinity level and substrate instability are generally not favorable for sporulation and completion of the life cycle, particularly for K-strategist species (Agra et al. 2010). Although this study did not directly evaluate the influence of estuarine area where phorophytes are found on their microhabitat potential for myxomycetes, the data obtained suggest that the salinity levels of areas commonly inhabited by A. nitida, L. racemosa and R. mangle interfere with the composition of myxobiota, and with the abundance and frequency of species among the microhabitats they offer. ...
Article
Background Mangroves are distributed among tropical and subtropical coastlines of all oceans, and associated macroflora and macrofauna are generally well studied. However, information on mangrove-associated microbiota is still scarce. To help fill this gap in knowledge, we conducted research on the occurrence of Myxomycetes in the southern coast of Pernambuco state, northeastern Brazil. In the Rio Formoso estuary, we examined adult Rhizophora mangle (Rm), Laguncularia racemosa (Lr) and Avicennia nitida (An), collecting samples of live trunk bark (Bk), twigs from aerial litter (Tg), and aerial leaf litter (Lf) for moist chamber culture (n = 600). ResultsThe following species were identified: Arcyria cinerea (Rm/Tg); A. pomiformis (Rm;Lr/Bk); Collaria arcyrionema (Rm/B); Clastoderma debaryanum (Lr/Bk; Rm/Tg); Cribraria violacea (Rm/Bk;Tg); Physarum auriscalpium (Rm/Tg); P. tenerum (Rm/Bk); Stemonitis fusca (Lr/Tg); S. herbatica (Rm/Lf); S. virginiensis (Rm/Tg) and Stemonaria irregularis (An/Lf). The percentage of positive cultures was very low (24 %), with Rm as the predominant substrate with eight species and Tg as the predominant microhabitat. The majority of species are rare (60 %) and Physarum auriscalpium was the only species frequently registered. The taxonomic diversity indices ranged from 1.00 (Lf;Bk) to 1.20 (Tg). Conclusions There was no similarity in the composition of myxobiota found on the substrates and microhabitats analyzed. Only S. irregularis was found in mangroves that inhabit areas of higher salinity. Physarum tenerum is reported here for the first time in the mangrove environment.
... Many previously reported myxomycete records on mangrove plants were obtained from living bark or decaying wood , Agra et al. 2010, Damasceno et al. 2009, 2011. However, in the studied area, more than half of the species were recorded from aerial litter (leaves and twigs), a microhabitat first explored in mangrove environments by Damasceno et al. (2011). ...
Article
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The occurrence of myxomycetes on mangroves was studied along the southern coast of the state of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, with a primary focus on those species associated with Conocarpus erectus L. (Combretaceae). Field trips were carried out over a period of two years to the municipality of the Formoso River (8° 37' - 8° 41' S, 35° 04' - 35° 08'W) to collect specimens of myxomycetes and samples of bark from living trees, fruits and litter (ground and aerial) in order to prepare 380 moist chamber cultures. Seventyeight specimens of myxomycetes were obtained, representing all orders of the Stemonitomycetidae and Myxogastromycetidae. Clastoderma debaryanum, Cribraria confusa, Hemitrichia calyculata, Physarum auriscalpium, P. echinosporum and P. roseum constitute new worldwide records for mangrove environments. Nearly half of the 20 species recorded on C. erectus were determined to be rare, while 25 % were infrequent, with Stemonitis fusca and Diachea leucopodia as the most frequent. Within the investigated microhabitats, aerial litter was the most productive, followed by the bark of living trees. Only S. fusca occurred in all of the microhabitats investigated, but was associated predominantly with aerial litter. Differences were observed in the composition of the corticicolous and foliicolous myxobiota of C. erectus.
... Exsicatas representativas do material estudado foram depositadas no herbário UFP. A distribuição mundial e nos Neotrópicos baseou-se em Martin & Alexopoulos (1969), Farr (1976) e Lado & Basanta (2008); a distribuição nas regiões e biomas do Brasil baseou-se em Cavalcanti et al. (2008), Bezerra et al. (2009), Alves et al. (2010), Agra et al. (2010), ) e Cavalcanti (2012. O índice de diversidade taxonômica (S/G) e a semelhança entre o conjunto de espécies registradas nas áreas de estudo (CC) foram avaliados segundo Novozhilov et al. (2006). ...
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The Caatinga biome, situated in the Brazilian semi-arid region, is distributed among the territories of nine states, including Pernambuco. The objectives of this study were: (1) to understand the alpha and gamma diversity of the Caatinga myxobiota; and (2) to compare the composition of the myxobiota present in two areas of typical xerophilous vegetation situated in Serra Talhada (ST) and Mirandiba (M) municipalities with an enclave of rain forest situated in the municipality of Triunfo (T). Specimens were collected on woody debris (173), litter (26), debris of succulent plants (3), bark of a living tree (1) and dung (1). Hemitrichia calyculata was the most abundant species (60 records). Other common species were Arcyria cinerea (20), Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa (19), A. denudata (16) and H. serpula (13), which were collected during dry and humid periods. An annotated list is presented with records of 37 species from 17 genera, seven families and five orders. Myxomycetes assemblages differed from each other: CCM/ST = 0.25, CCM/T = 0.06, CCST/T = 0.39. The species/genus ratio was rather low in the caatinga and relatively high in the humid forest (S/GM = 1.0, S/GST= 1.3, S/GT = 2.14). Specimen abundance and the total number of species (M = 4/4, ST= 26/12, T= 172/29) increased with increasing precipitation and altitude. Fuligo megaspora is reported for the first time for the Northeast Region and Didymium perforatum is a new record for Brazil.
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We reported the occurrence of the myxomycete Stemonitis splendens on red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Although S. splendens was reported previously from Puerto Rico, its presence on R. mangle suggests that mangroves, although usually neglected as a potential substrate for myxomycetes, may support a larger assemblage of species than indicated by the few published records.
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Myxomycetes do Estado de Roraima, com especial referência para a Estação Ecológica de Maracá (Amajari - RR, Brasil). Este levantamento eleva para 28 o número de espécies de Myxo-mycetes encontradas para o estado de Roraima. Destas, 24 foram coletadas na Estação Ecológica dc Maracá ( Lat. 3°15' - 3°35'N, Long. 61°22' - 61°58'WG). As seguintes famílias e gêneros são registrados: Ceratiomyxaceae (Ceratiomyxa, 4 sp); Cribrariaceae (Cribraría, lsp, Dictydium, lsp); Didymiaceae (Didymium, 2 sp); Enteridiaceae (Lycogala, lsp, Tubifera,2 sp); Physaraceae (Craterium, 2sp, Fuligo, lsp, Physarum, 2 sp); Stemonitaceae (Comatrícha, lsp, Stemonitis, 4 sp); Trichiaceae (Arcyria, 3 sp, Hemitrichia, 2 sp, Perichaena, lsp, Trichia, lsp). Uma família, sete gêneros e onze espécies são novas referências para o estado; uma delas, Ceratiomyxa sphaerosperma Boedj., é nova para o estado de Roraima e para a Região Norte. São apresentados comentários e a distribuição geográfica das espécies no Brasil.
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The external morphology of the adult, egg, larva, and pupa of Agathidium oniscoides Beauvois is described. The natural history of the genus is reviewed, including associations with Myxomycetes and fungi and techniques for field collection and laboratory study. The phylogenetic species concept is discussed and applied in this study. A key and brief diagnoses are provided for the genera of Agathidiini (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Leiodinae) of North and Central America. Volvoxis Kugelann is regarded as a nomen oblitum, and its junior synonym Agathidium Panzer is regarded as the valid name (nomen protectum) for this taxon by invoking article 23.9 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. A key to species groups of Agathidium Panzer is presented. Species are revised for the A. sexstriatum, A. brevisternum., and A. revolvens species groups, including keys, diagnoses, descriptions, and figures of important morphological features. Lectotypes are designated for A. bistriatum Horn and A. sexstriatum Horn. The following new species are described: A. angustoperculum, n.sp., A. dioperculum, n.sp., A. dubitanoides, n.sp., A. falcatoperculum, n.sp., and A. rhinocerellum, n.sp.