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Unlabelled: Bisphenol A (BPA) belongs to chemicals that are produced in large quantities worldwide. It is commonly used as monomer in polycarbonate synthesis, plasticizer in the production of epoxy resins, as well as an additive for the elimination of surfeit of hydrochloric acid during the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production. BPA is not only used in the production of plastics intended to a direct contact with food, including plastic packaging and kitchenware, but also in inner coatings of cans and jar caps. There are various routes of human exposure to this substance such as oral, by inhalation and transdermal. The main sources of exposure to BPA include food packaging and dust, dental materials, healthcare equipment, thermal paper, toys and articles for children and infants. BPA is metabolized in the liver to form bisphenol A glucuronide and mostly in this form is excreted with urine. Due to its phenolic structure BPA has been shown to interact with estrogen receptors and to act as agonist or antagonist via estrogen receptor (ER) dependent signalling pathways. Therefore, BPA has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of several endocrine disorders including female and male infertility, precocious puberty, hormone dependent tumours such as breast and prostate cancer and several metabolic disorders including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Because of the constant, daily exposure and its tendency to bio-accumulation, BPA seems to require special attention such as biomonitoring. This observation should include clinical tests of BPA concentration in the urine, which is not only one of the best methods of evaluation of the exposure to this compound, but also the dependence of the daily intake of BPA and the risk of some endocrine disorders. Key words: bisphenol A, BPA, estrogens, endocrine disrupting chemicals.
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Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2015;66(1):5-11
*Corresponding author: Aleksandra Rutkowska, Department of Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, Medical University
of Gdańsk, Powstania Styczniowego 9B street, 81-519 Gdynia, Poland, e-mail: olarynio@gumed.edu.pl
© Copyright by the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene
HEALTH RISK OF EXPOSURE TO BISPHENOL A (BPA)
Aleksandra Konieczna, Aleksandra Rutkowska*, Dominik Rachoń
Department of Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland
ABSTRACT
Bisphenol A (BPA) belongs to chemicals that are produced in large quantities worldwide. It is commonly used as monomer
in polycarbonate synthesis, plasticizer in the production of epoxy resins, as well as an additive for the elimination of surfeit
of hydrochloric acid during the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production. BPA is not only used in the production of plastics
intended to a direct contact with food, including plastic packaging and kitchenware, but also in inner coatings of cans and
jar caps. There are various routes of human exposure to this substance such as oral, by inhalation and transdermal. The
main sources of exposure to BPA include food packaging and dust, dental materials, healthcare equipment, thermal paper,
toys and articles for children and infants. BPA is metabolized in the liver to form bisphenol A glucuronide and mostly in
this form is excreted with urine. Due to its phenolic structure BPA has been shown to interact with estrogen receptors and
to act as agonist or antagonist via estrogen receptor (ER) dependent signalling pathways. Therefore, BPA has been shown
to play a role in the pathogenesis of several endocrine disorders including female and male infertility, precocious puberty,
hormone dependent tumours such as breast and prostate cancer and several metabolic disorders including polycystic ovary
syndrome (PCOS). Because of the constant, daily exposure and its tendency to bio-accumulation, BPA seems to require
special attention such as biomonitoring. This observation should include clinical tests of BPA concentration in the urine,
which is not only one of the best methods of evaluation of the exposure to this compound, but also the dependence of the
daily intake of BPA and the risk of some endocrine disorders.
Key words: bisphenol A, BPA, estrogens, endocrine disrupting chemicals
STRESZCZENIE
Bisfenol A (BPA) należy do substancji chemicznych produkowanych na świecie w znacznych ilościach. Używany jest jako
plastyfikator i półprodukt w syntezie żywic epoksydowych, tworzyw sztucznych poliwęglanowych oraz jako dodatek do
usuwania nadmiaru kwasu chlorowodorowego przy produkcji polichlorku winylu (PCW). BPA nie tylko jest używany do
syntezy tworzyw sztucznych służących do produkcji materiałów mających bezpośredni kontakt z żywnością, włączając
opakowania z tworzyw sztucznych oraz sprzęt kuchenny, ale także stanowi składnik lakierów do pokrywania wewnętrznych
powierzchni puszek metalowych przeznaczonych do żywności i napojów. BPA stosowany jest w produkcji poliwęglanów
(PC) i żywic epoksydowych, wykorzystywanych w produkcji wyrobów do kontaktu z żywnością. Może być także stosowany,
jako przeciwutleniacz i inhibitor w procesie polimeryzacji tworzyw sztucznych, m.in. polichlorku winylu (PCW). Narażenie
na BPA może zachodzić drogą pokarmową, wziewną oraz przez skórę, a głównymi źródłami ekspozycji są opakowania
żywności, kurz, materiały stomatologiczne, sprzęt medyczny, papier termiczny, a także zabawki i artykuły przeznaczone dla
niemowląt i dzieci. BPA jest metabolizowany w wątrobie do glukuronianu bisfenolu A i w tej postaci jest usuwany z moczem.
Ze względu na swą fenolową strukturę BPA wykazuje zdolność jako agonista lub antagonista do interakcji z receptorami
estrogenowymi poprzez estrogenowe szlaki sygnalizacyjne. W wyniku takiego działania BPA odgrywa rolę w patogenezie
zaburzeń endokrynnych włączając zaburzenia płodności u kobiet i mężczyzn, przedwczesne dojrzewanie, nowotwory hor-
monozależne, jak rak piersi oraz rak prostaty oraz schorzeń metabolicznych włączając zespół wielotorbielowatych jajników
(PCOS). Biorąc pod uwagę stałe, codzienne narażenie na BPA z wielu źródeł oraz tendencje do bioakumulacji uzasadniony
jest monitoring biologiczny tego związku. Powinien on w szczególności uwzględniać monitoring BPA w moczu, jako sku-
teczną metodę szacowania narażenia na ten związek, umożliwiając jednocześnie badanie zależności pomiędzy narażeniem
na BPA a ryzykiem występowania niektórych chorób wynikających z zaburzenia czynności układu endokrynologicznego.
Słowa kluczowe: bisfenol A, BPA, estrogeny, związki endokrynnie czynne
A. Konieczna, A. Rutkowska, D. Rachoń
6No 1
INTRODUCTION
Bisphenol A (BPA) belongs to chemicals that are
produced in the large quantities. It is commonly used
as a plasticizer and an intermediate in the synthesis of
epoxy resins, polycarbonate plastics [29] as well as an
additive for the elimination of surfeit of hydrochloric
acid during the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fabrication.
BPA is widely used in the production of healthcare
equipment [52], dental composites [13], contact lenses,
spectacle lenses, toys, storage media and window foils
[2]. BPA is one of the Food Contact Materials (FCMs),
which means that it is used in the preparation of plastics
for the manufacture of materials that have direct contact
with food [10], plastic packaging, kitchenware, jar cap
coatings, and the wall of cans that isolates the food from
metal, therefore preventing its corrosion [8].
It is estimated that in 2008 the total world produc-
tion of BPA was approximately 5.2 million tons [2]. The
world’s largest producers are the United States (22.9%
of global production), Taiwan and Japan (13.1% and
13%, respectively). Synthesis of BPA in Poland is about
12 000 tons per year (0.3% of the world production)
[42]. The highest percentage of BPA is used as a com-
ponent of the polycarbonate (74% of the total amount
of produced BPA) and the epoxy resins (nearly 20%).
As a result of the mass production, a large number of
derivatives of BPA are released into the environment,
which consequently leads to increasing pollution and
contamination of the soil and groundwater [22]. It is
estimated than China itself (where 3.6% of the global
amount of BPA is synthesized) produces annually ap-
proximately 5 000 tons of post-production waste [57].
HUMAN EXPOSURE TO BPA IN
EVERYDAY LIFE
BPA is a widely used compound in daily life.
Therefore, there are various routes of human exposure
to this substance such as oral, by inhalation and trans-
dermal. The main sources of exposure to BPA include
food packaging and dust, dental materials, healthcare
equipment, thermal paper, toys and articles for children
and infants. Food products are the major source of BPA
exposure, which is an order of magnitude higher than for
other routes [20]. The most important source of dietary
exposure to BPA is canned foods, but it may also be
present in fresh foods such as meat, milk or eggs, when
animals are bred in the polluted areas or watered with
the contaminated water [51]. In addition, the presence
of BPA was detected in the food products stored in the
cardboard boxes [41].
BPA is widely used in the manufacture of cans for
food preservation and for the inside coatings of jar caps
[23, 41]. It is used to prevent the direct contact of food
with the metal, to ensure the thermal stability and the
mechanical strength of the can [8]. Coatings that are
the most commonly used for this purpose are made of
epoxy resins. Approximately 9% of BPA produced an-
nually is used for the production of the lining material
in cans [23]. Heating cans during sterilization or food
preparation causes the BPA to leak into the can content
from the epoxy coating of the can wall and therefore,
increases the potential of BPA dietary exposure [9]. The
highest increase of BPA concentration was observed
after heating the product at 121°C for 90 minutes. The
temperature of heating food products turned out to be
more relevant for the migration level of BPA than the
time of the heating [30]. Sterilization of the canned food
causes migration of the 80-100% of the unconjugated
BPA to the content of the can and it seems to depend
on the conditions of the process and the ingredients of
the product [24]. The foods with lower pH and higher
fat content contain higher concentrations of BPA [38].
Contamination with BPA may also be caused by the
migration to food stored in polycarbonate plastics (reus-
able containers, polycarbonate water bottles and drink
dispensers) or prepared for consumption, such as bottles
for infants and children, especially during heating and
microwave cooking [53].
BPA can also migrate into dust from laminate
flooring, adhesives containing epoxy resins, paints and
household electronic equipment [27]. This compound
was detected in 95% of 56 dust samples, with the con-
centrations ranging between 0.8 mg to 10 mg per gram
of dust [18, 36]. Higher values were detected in dust
from offices and laboratories, mainly because they were
equipped with a vast quantity of furniture and electronic
devices. Home exposure among children and infants
may be higher due to the presence of commonplace
items containing BPA, which very often are being taking
by children in to the mouth, as well as by the inhalation
of the contaminated air [7]. The exposure through dust
was estimated to be less than 5% of the total exposure
to BPA [21]. Exposure resulting from polluted air is less
than 0.4 ng/kg body weight per day in adults, whereas
in infants is estimated to be 5.3 ng/kg of body weight
per day [35].
Dental materials consist of monomers that may
contain BPA, particularly in the form of bis-GMA
(bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate). This compound
is often released from the dental fillings, sealants or
materials used to rebuild the crown of the tooth [13].
It has been shown that the highest concentration of
BPA was in the saliva of the patient immediately after
acquiring the dental fillings and decreased afterwards.
However, chronic exposure to BPA released from
dental materials in small doses for a long time cannot
be excluded [17]. After applying the reconstruction of
Health risk of exposure to Bisphenol A 7No 1
a molar tooth crown, 13 mg to 30 mg BPA per day has
been shown to be released [51], which may suggest that
dental treatments can be a significant source of BPA
exposure, especially in the case of patients who have
many dental fillings [20].
Small amounts of BPA (0.3-0.35 mg) can be released
from several medical devices, which contain polycarbo-
nate or polysulfone plasticizers such as contact lenses,
probes, inhalers, intravenous cannulas, catheters, neo-
natal incubators or haemodialysis apparatus [6, 21, 26].
BPA is also used in the production of paper for
thermal printing in cash registers and payment card
terminals. Exposure to BPA from thermal paper occurs
through the contact of unwashed hands with food or
mouth directly, as well as transdermally [21].
It has been shown that thermal paper receipts are
the second, after dietary exposure, most common source
of BPA exposure in people over the age of three [16].
Several studies show that the cashiers having prolonged
contact with such receipts, presented higher concen-
tration of this compound in the urine compared to the
general population (2.4 mg/g and 1.2 mg/g, respectively)
[5]. The overall exposure to BPA migrating from thermal
paper also depends on the frequency and time of use
and cleanliness of hands. It has been estimated that oc-
cupational exposure after ten hours of work as a cashier
is 71 mg per day whereas in general population it ranges
from 7.1 mg to 42.6 mg per day [4].
Long-term exposure to BPA may be also due to the
contact with toys and products intended for infants and
young children, such as baby dummies and teethers
that may be put into the mouth, for several hours dur-
ing the day. Saliva BPA concentration was shown to be
0.14 – 2.1 mg/l saliva for rattles and 0.11 mg to14 mg/l
saliva for pacifiers, after 24h contact with such products
[31]. One minute exposure of saliva with pacifiers and
teethers caused the presence of BPA at the concentration
of 0.3 mg/l and 5.9 mg/l, respectively [53].
METABOLISM AND TOXICOKINETICS
OF BISPHENOL A
BPA is metabolized in the liver by the uridine
5’-diphospho-glucuronyl transferase (UGT), which
catalyzes the glucuronidation of BPA (Figure 1) [56].
BPA can also be metabolized into other substances
such as BPA-sulfate or bisphenol-3,4-quinone [55].
The half-life of BPA in the human body is estimated to
be 5.4 hours [48].
HEALTH RISKS RELATATED TO BPA
EXPOSURE
Due to its phenolic structure BPA has been shown
to interact with estrogen receptors and to act as agonist
or antagonist via endocrine receptor (ER) dependent
signalling pathways (Figure 2) [36]. Therefore, BPA
has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of
several endocrine disorders including female and male
infertility, precocious puberty, hormone dependent
tumours such as breast and prostate cancer and several
metabolic disorders including polycystic ovary syndro-
me (PCOS) [12].
Increased levels of urinary BPA concentration
were correlated with a reduced number of sperm in the
ejaculate, as well as its reduced motility and viability
[33, 46]. The pathomechanism of the fertility disrupting
potential of BPA in women as well as in men seems to
be due to its estrogenic activity in the hypothalamus
which in turn disrupts the proper function of the GnRH
Figure 1. Glucuronidation of BPA in human
A. Konieczna, A. Rutkowska, D. Rachoń
8No 1
pulse generator thus the adequate secretion of the FSH
and LH is impaired [14].
Data from animal experiments show that BPA
exposure can also be the cause of precocious puberty.
Prenatal rat exposure to BPA concentrations of 2 mg/kg
body weight per day accelerated puberty in compari-
son to the control group [28]. It seems that the main
mechanism of precocious puberty due to BPA exposure
is due to its weak estrogenic activity, which through the
positive feedback mechanism stimulate the activity of
the GnRH pulse generator, therefore giving the rise in
the pituitary LH and FSH secretion [43].
There are reports on a potential role of BPA in the
pathogenesis of breast cancer. Studies conducted in
vitro have shown that the exposure of the human breast
cancer cell line to BPA increased its proliferation and
caused increased oxidative stress [54]. Similar results
were obtained for the MCF-7 estrogen receptor posi-
tive cells (ER +), where low levels of BPA significantly
increased its proliferation and the expression of the
progesterone receptors [32]. High serum BPA concen-
trations in postmenopausal women also correlated with
the mammographic density of the breast tissue [47]. It
is also suggested that occupational exposure to BPA
increased incidence of breast cancer [11].
BPA may be one of the factors that contribute to
the development of prostate cancer. Studies conducted
in men with prostate cancer showed a much higher
concentration of BPA in the urine of those patients in
comparison with the control group [50]. In vitro studies
have shown that BPA induces the proliferation of the
androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cells [54].
In rats treated with BPA an increase of prostate and
epididymis weight was also observed [25]. Moreover,
exposure to BPA in utero contributed to prostate enlarge-
ment in the male offspring [39].
Obesity is a metabolic disorder in which BPA has
also been shown to have an impact. Animal studies
have shown a correlation between prenatal exposure to
endocrine disrupting chemicals, including BPA, and the
prevalence of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and
lipid metabolism in mice [40]. Mice exposed to 10 mg
BPA/kg body weight per day had higher concentrations
of plasma triglycerides, and increased body weight in
four months of age comparing to the control group.
An endocrine disorder, in the pathogenesis of which
BPA may also be involved, is the polycystic ovary
syndrome (PCOS) which is the most common endo-
crinopathy among women of child-bearing age [44]. In
patients with PCOS, especially obese ones, BPA serum
concentrations were significantly higher compared to
healthy controls [49]. The pathogenesis of PCOS is
very complex. One of the proposed mechanisms by
which BPA may be involved in the pathogenesis of this
syndrome is through the activation of the hypothalamic
GnRH pulse generator leading to a constant increase of
plasma LH concentrations which in turn stimulate the
ovarian androgen production and impair proper ovarian
follicle development [3, 34]. In addition, BPA has been
shown to directly increase ovarian androgen synthesis
[58] (Figure 3).
BPA AS AN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING
CHEMICAL
According to the European Food Safety Authority
(EFSA), an endocrine disrupting chemical is every
synthetic or natural compound that meets the follow-
ing criteria: presents endocrine activity, causes adverse
Figure 2. Structural similarity of BPA to 17b-estradiol
Figure 3. Proposed mechanisms of the BPA action in the
pathogenesis of PCOS
Health risk of exposure to Bisphenol A 9No 1
health effects as well as link between its endocrine
activity and adverse affects is believable [15].
As aforementioned, BPA has been shown to present
a weak estrogenic activity and therefore may disrupt
the proper function of the endocrine system [10]. Thus
many international authorities express its concern
about the BPA exposure, especially among groups with
higher susceptibility to EDC [45]. EFSA applied a total
uncertainty factor of 150 (for inter- and intra-species
differences and uncertainty in mammary gland, re-
productive, neurobehavioural, immune and metabolic
system effects) to decrease recommended Tolerable
Daily Intake (TDI) from 50 μg/kg bw/day to 4 μg/kg
bw/day as a temporary TDI (t-TDI) [16].
As BPA meets all the above criteria it is indisputable
that BPA belongs to endocrine disrupting chemicals [1].
It is of human benefit to estimate the exposure to BPA
throughout biological monitoring ie. measuring BPA
concentration directly in human fluids like blood, urine
or breast milk [11]. Thus, biomonitoring seems to be the
best method of an assessment of BPA total intake from
diverse sources, because of many routes of exposure
to this compound.
CONCLUSIONS
Taking into account numerous sources of BPA and
endocrine disrupting potential of this chemical it seems
to be advisable to introduce a nation-wide biomonitoring
in order to evaluate health risk for man with the special
attention paid to perinatal and child exposure. Such mo-
nitoring may also provide a valuable tool for searching
relations between exposure to BPA and prevalence of
hormone-related disorders.
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Received: 07.11.2014
Accepted: 22.01.2015
SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE
UNDER THE HONORARY PATRONAGE
OF
Professor Mirosław J. Wysocki
NATIONAL CONSULTANT
ON PUBLIC HEALTH
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CONFERENCE TOPICS
1. Human nutrition
2. Physical activity
3. Health promotion
SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE OF THE CONFERENCE
prof. Jadwiga Charzewska (Warszawa), prof. Adam Czaplicki (Biała Podlaska), Jolanta Czarnocimska
PhD (Poznań), Ewa Czeczelewska PhD (Siedlce), prof. Jan Czeczelewski (Biała Podlaska), prof. Jan
Gawęcki (Poznań), Paweł Goryński PhD (Siedlce), prof. Krystyna Górniak (Biała Podlaska), Jadwiga
Hamułka PhD (Warszawa), prof. Marzena Jeżewska-Zychowicz (Warszawa), prof. Jerzy Jurkiewicz
(Siedlce), prof. Jan K. Karczewski (Białystok), Henryk Komoń PhD (Siedlce), Dominik
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(Warszawa), prof. Helena Popławska (Biała Podlaska), Jacek Putz PhD (Siedlce), prof. Barbara
Raczyńska (Biała Podlaska), prof. Jerzy Sadowski (Biała Podlaska), Małgorzata A. Słowińska PhD
(Olsztyn), prof. Mieczysław Szostek (Siedlce), prof. Andrzej Szpak (Białystok), prof. Lidia
Wądołowska (Olsztyn), prof. Andrzej Wojtczak (Siedlce), prof. Joanna Wyka (Wrocław)
ORGANISERS
Department of Biology and Anatomy
The Faculty of Physical Education and Sport
The Branch of Warsaw University of Physical
Education in Biała Podlaska
The Faculty of Health Sciences
Collegium MAZOVIA
Innovative Higher School in Siedlce
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... BPA rolls a play in asthma , ovarian apoptosis and autophagy (Huang et al., 2021), ovarian cancer (Dumitrascu et al., 2020), cardiac necrosis and apoptosis (Reventun et al., 2020), neurological deficits (Inadera, 2015), liver cancer (Wazir & Mokbel, 2019), and breast cancer (Konieczna et al., 2015). BPA can also switch on innate and chiefly adaptive immune response through the upregulation of ZDHHC1 protein and stimulator of IFNγ (interferon-gamma) (Sowers et al., 2020). ...
... Mutation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 as tumor suppressor genes with support of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), MAPK, and STAT3 signaling pathways with other genetic changes about apoptosis by DNA methylation, pave the way leading to tumorigenesis (Dumitrascu et al., 2020). Prostate cancer is also getting worse because of the stimulating task of BPA on androgen-sensitive human prostate cells (Konieczna et al., 2015). ...
... Due to the high similarity of BPA to 17β-estradiol, the most considerable receptors that BPs, especially BPA, impact, are estrogen receptors which cooperate with BPA to induce oxidative stress (Konieczna et al., 2015;Gassman, 2017). There are two types of estrogen receptors affected by BPA: nuclear receptors like α and β and membranous receptors such as G-protein coupled receptor30 (GPR30), also called GPER; the nuclear ones guarantee estrogen's effects via DNA-binding mechanisms (Hafezi & Abdel-Rahman, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Bisphenols (BPs), the main endocrine-disrupting chemicals used in polycarbonate plastics, epoxy-phenol resins, and some other manufacturers, have been interestingly focused to find their toxic effects in recent years. Due to the strong relation between bisphenols and some crucial receptors such as ERs, AR, glucocorticoid receptor, THRs, ERRs, hPXR, AhR, and etcetera, the disrupting and oncogenic role of these chemicals on reproductive, respiratory, and circulatory systems and a broad group of body tissues have been investigated. BPs induce oxidant enzymes, exert antioxidant enzymes from body cells, and result in the expression of proinflammatory genes, leading to cell apoptosis and inflammation. To maintain the homeostasis of human body cells, Nrf2, the key regulator of oxidative stress (Ashrafizadeh et al., 2020a; Ashrafizadeh et al., 2020c; Boroumand et al., 2018), confronts BP-induced ROS and RNS through the activation of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD1/2, CAT, GSH, GPX, HO-1, and etcetera. Chemicals and drugs such as LUT, NAC, GEN, l-NMMA, Ph2Se2, and GE can regulate the interactions between BPs and Nrf2. Despite the vital role of controlled levels of Nrf2 as an anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic element, the uncontrolled activity of this transcription factor could lead to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis through NQO1, SLC7a11, Gclm, HMOX1, NQO1 gene activation, and some other genes. To avoid the excessive activity of Nrf2, some protein complexes like CUL3-RBX1-Keap1 (as the primary regulator), β-TrCP, and WDR23 regulate Nrf2’s function. It is necessary to note that BPA, as the most famous member, is further reviewed due to its resemblance to the bisphenol family to each other.
... The process is carried out with an excess of phenol in the presence of a catalyst-hydrochloric acid or an ion-exchange resin containing strong sulfonic acid groups (R-SO 3 H). Water is a by-product of this reaction [11,21,22]. Int. ...
... The process is carried out with an excess of phenol in the presence of a catalyst-hydrochloric acid or an ion-exchange resin containing strong sulfonic acid groups (R-SO3H). Water is a byproduct of this reaction [11,21,22]. BPA can undergo various chemical reactions, e.g., hydrogenation, coupling, nitrosation, alkylation, nitration or esterification. ...
... The process is carried out with an excess of phenol in the presence of a catalyst-hydrochloric acid or an ion-exchange resin containing strong sulfonic acid groups (R-SO3H). Water is a by product of this reaction [11,21,22]. BPA can undergo various chemical reactions, e.g., hydrogenation, coupling nitrosation, alkylation, nitration or esterification. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component used in the production of polycarbonate plastics (PC) and epoxy resins, which are currently widely used in food and beverage packaging. Although BPA is not used in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) manufacturing, a recent study reported its presence in PET water bottles. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of storage conditions on the release of BPA from PET bottles as well as to assess health risks associated with the consumption of bottled water. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we measured the content of BPA in local brands of plastic bottled water sold in the Polish market. It has been established that temperature is one of the main factors that influences the migration of bisphenol A to products, as was confirmed by determination of the amount of bisphenol A in water, which was carried out without exposing the bottles to different temperatures. Despite the fact that the individual concentrations of BPA in bottled water were low (ng/L) at 0.6 mg/kg (body weight), the cumulative daily dose in the body may be much higher than the quoted concentrations due to the number of products containing BPA. Thus, prolonged usage of bottled water and beverages should be avoided to reduce the risk of human exposure to BPA through leaching. Additionally, it was found that high temperatures resulted in increased BPA leaching.
... BPA concentrations varied largely between various food types (Chen et al., 2016). As a xenoestrogen, the estrogenic activity of BPA is of concern for the development of several diseases (Konieczna et al., 2015;Schug et al., 2011;Vandenberg et al., 2007). For example, some epidemiological studies reported that increased urinary BPA levels were positively associated with obesity (Carwile and Michels, 2011;Do et al., 2017;Trasande et al., 2012), impairment of fertility (Ehrlich et al., 2012;Meeker et al., 2010), and cardiovascular disease (Gao and Wang, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Meat and meat products are often consumed in our daily diet, providing essential nutrients. Contamination by chemical hazards, including bisphenol A (BPA) in meat products, is a concern and is continuously monitored. BPA is well-known for its endocrine-disrupting properties, which may cause potential toxicological effects on reproductive, nervous, and immune systems. Dietary consumption is the main route of BPA exposure, and meat products are a major contributor. BPA exposure from meat consumption is the focus of this review. This review found that BPA has been widely detected in canned and non-canned meat products. BPA in canned meat is assumed to be predominantly from migration from can coatings. Relatively low levels are observed in non-canned products, and the source of contamination in these products has yet to be definitively identified. A recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) draft opinion has proposed to lower the tolerable daily intake of BPA from 4 μg kg body weight (bw)−1 day−1 to 0.04 ng kg body weight (bw)−1 day−1, therefore potential health risks need to be addressed. This review has investigated potential contamination at the farm, industrial processes, and retail levels. Data gaps in the literature are also identified to improve future food safety in the meat industry. Also, a unified risk assessment strategy has been proposed. Further understanding of BPA migration in meat products is needed as a part of the exposure assessment to reduce potential risk, and more data on the dose-response relationship will help comprehend potential adverse health effects of BPA on humans. This research will inform the public, meat producers and processing industry, and policymakers on potential exposure to BPA and risk reduction measures, thus, ensuring food safety.
... Phenols are classified in group B2 as a probable human carcinogen and reported as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) (Ahlborg et al. 1980). Poisoning with phenolic compounds causes gastrointestinal disorders, kidney damage, circulatory system failure, protein denaturation, lung edema, muscles tremor, and hormonal imbalance (Anku et al. 2017;Konieczna et al. 2015;Loganathan et al. 2020;Oluwasanu 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Water is an essential moiety for the human use since a long time. Availability of good-quality water is very essential, as it is used in almost all the industrial, agricultural, and household activities. However, several factors such as increased urbanization and industrialization, extensive use of chemicals, natural weathering of rocks, and human ignorance led to incorporation of enormous toxicants into the water. The water toxicants are broadly classified as inorganic, organic, and radiological toxicants. Inorganic toxicants include heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) and metalloids, ammonia, nitrate, and fluoride. Uranium is included in radiological toxicants which also causes chemical toxicity. Organic pollutants include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, phenolic compounds, phthalate esters, pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care products, perchlorates, and flame retardants. These toxicants are harmful for the ecosystem as well as for the human beings causing different types of health complications like lung cancer, nasal cancer, gingivitis, severe vomiting and abdominal pain, hormonal imbalance, skeletal damage, neurotoxicity like Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, renal toxicity, nephrotoxicity, etc. The USEPA and WHO specified the permissible concentration of these pollutants in the drinking water. Determination techniques having high sensitivity, low cost, rapid onsite, and real-time detection of traces of water pollutants are discussed. This review also covers in depth about the remediation techniques, for the control of water toxicants, such as chelation of the heavy metals, intoxication of pollutants using various plants, adsorption of toxicants using different sorbent medias, and photocatalytic breakdown of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Graphical abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used worldwide and research on the toxicity of BPA has advanced rapidly in the last few decades. This study aimed to evaluate the global scientific output of toxicity of BPA and explore the hot spots and research trends. All available articles related to the toxicity of BPA until 2022 were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection database. The VOSviewer, a bibliometric analysis software, was used to analyze the information of included articles, including countries/institutions, international cooperation, journals, citations, and keywords. Among 1644 retrieved articles, 1611 eligible studies were identified for analysis, and the annual publications increased with time in the past three decades. China and the United States were the most active contributors in this field. Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Dow chemical company conducted relatively more research than others about BPA toxicity. The journal “Chemosphere” published the most studies on “BPA toxicity”. Before 2015, most research focused on estrogenic activity and the test system mainly utilized animal experiments. However, in recent years, research related to toxic mechanisms of BPA at the cellular level and the toxicity of its analogs have received widespread attention. Considering some critical research gaps, future research on BPA toxicology should probably focus on the molecular biology of toxic mechanism, mixture toxicity, and co-exposure of BPA substitutes. This study will help researchers understand past and current research trends, hot spots, and trends of toxicity studies of BPA and, thus, contribute to further research and risk management of BPA.
Article
Full-text available
Within the European Joint Programme HBM4EU, Human Biomonitoring Guidance Values (HBM-GVs) were derived for several prioritised substances. In this paper, the derivation of HBM-GVs for the general population (HBM-GVGenPop) and workers (HBM-GVworker) referring to bisphenol S (BPS) is presented. For the general population, this resulted in an estimation of the total urinary concentration of BPS of 1.0 µg/L assuming a 24 h continuous exposure to BPS. For workers, the modelling was refined in order to reflect continuous exposure during the working day, leading to a total urinary concentration of BPS of 3.0 µg/L. The usefulness for risk assessment of the HBM-GVs derived for BPS and bisphenol A (BPA) is illustrated. Risk Characterisation Ratios (RCRs) were calculated leading to a clear difference between risk assessments performed for both bisphenols, with a very low RCR regarding exposure to BPA., contrary to that obtained for BPS. This may be due to the endocrine mediated endpoints selected to derive the HBM-GVs for BPS, whereas the values calculated for BPA are based on the temporary Tolerable Daily Intake (t-TDI) from EFSA set in 2015. A comparison with the revised TDI recently opened for comments by EFSA is also discussed. Regarding the occupational field, results indicate that the risk from occupational exposure to both bisphenols cannot be disregarded.
Chapter
Nanotechnology applications are expanding in numerous industrial sectors including the food industry. Numerous applications of nanotechnologies in food packaging industries have been proposed to convey antimicrobial barrier properties that prevent food putrefaction, augmenting mechanical properties such as emulsification, foaming, and water-binding capacity, enhancing physicochemical properties of biopolymers that are used as food packaging materials and those that enhance thermal stability and crystallinity. This chapter focuses on smart and intelligent packaging systems used in certain food industries. The smart packaging is capable of eliciting a response to external environmental stimulus thus carrying out an intelligent function of detecting, sensing, recording, tracing, communicating, and applying scientific logic thereby facilitating decisions on shelf life, safety, and quality improvement. The nanosensor systems embedded in these packaging systems have facilitated improved shelf life, the freshness of food and integrity of packaging materials.
Chapter
Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is a plant highly recognized in ancient traditional medicine, in particular the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The rhizomes, part of the plant commonly used, contain curcumin, the main active principle in the plant, a polyphenolic compound with potential pharmacological activities, but with very low solubility and bioavailability. Curcumin nanoformulations have shown the ability to overcome the natural barriers that limit their use and this review briefly shows the most relevant aspects in the development of different nanoformulation platforms for curcumin and the results obtained in preclinical and clinical studies.
Chapter
Full-text available
The sensory attributes that include factors such as appearance, taste, odor, flavor taste, and texture are often used in practice by consumers to evaluate food quality. During purchase, these indicators are compared with the already standardized reference food product and match the quality. Foodstuffs’ characteristics can be changed by utilizing these technologies and making them as per consumer needs/demand without changing the nutrient values. This chapter provides an adequate indication that nanostructured foods developed through nanotechnologies have an affinity to inspire customer thought processing. The consumer can be convinced to buy healthier and nutritious products with the anticipated organoleptic and/or desirable characteristics developed through these technologies. The chapter also summarizes how nanotechnology plays a significant role at the molecular level to improve the quality of food products using their sensory acceptance and major gaps in knowledge that require further research.
Article
Full-text available
Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond.
Article
Full-text available
Food Contact Materials (FCMs) are a major source of endocrine disrupting chemical substances (EDCs), thus forming an important part of human exposure to these compounds, to which this article is addressed. The potential impact of such exposures on endocrine function, and thereby health outcomes, requires scientifically valid evidence so that appropriate risk management decisions can be taken to diminish human exposure, particularly in vulnerable population groups like infants and small children. Relevant aspects of exposure assessment are discussed based on testing migration of EDCs from FCMs, together with the different approaches so used. The specific migration testing determines whether limits for defined substances are met. However not all EDCs present in the leachate may be found by these means. In fact, the chances of detecting EDCs in the food simulant (leachate) are improved when it is subjected the relevant biological testing, thus helping to provide improved protection against these chemical substances. Nevertheless, official controls and risk management decisions do not necessarily take such testing into account, as the relevant legislation is based on specific migration limits that may be easily quantified and addressed in the risk management process. Elucidating the link between observed endocrine activity and any toxic effects so arising, is complicated by the complexity of endocrine interrelationships coupled with relatively limited sensitivity of toxicological tests. Any risk assessment implies a rather high uncertainty and should include also any cumulative effects. This review discusses the effects of the EDCs like bisphenol A, phthalates and benzophenone found in FCMs. In addition, the approaches from the USA and EU for systematically evaluating man-made EDCs in the environment are also considered, including appropriate prioritisation criteria.
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Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and the most heterogeneous endocrine disorder in premenopausal women. Apart from signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, hirsutism and hair loss, women with PCOS usually present with menstrual irregularities and fertility problems.Additionally, they are often characterized by impaired glucose tolerance, which usually leads to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review article describes current and novel approach to the pathomechanisms of PCOS and the potential role of an endocrine disrupting chemical ("endocrine disruptor" - ED) - bisphenol A (BPA), which is commonly used as a plasticizer and due to its molecular structure can interact with estrogen receptors (ERs). Recent observations point to the higher levels of BPA in biological fluids of women with PCOS and its role in the pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia. It seems that mother's exposure to BPA during pregnancy may also lead to the development of PCOS in the female offspring.