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First record of the clingfish Apletodon dentatus (Gobiesocidae) in the Adriatic Sea and a description of a simple method to collect clingfishes

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... Table 3. Some meristic data and plastic characters (%) taken of Apletodon dentatus from literature and our data A. dentatus dentatus A. dentatus bacescui A. dentatus Source Briggs, 1986Brandl et al., 2012Hofrichter and Patzner, 1997Briggs, 1986Banarescu, 1964Bat et al., 2006 Our data, going aside reddish-brown stripes, separated by white spot of triangular form (Figure 6a). One specimen was green-colored with white points and rosy front part of the snout (Figure 6b).Head lateral-line system with 2 pores in nasal canal, 2 pore in postorbital canal, 3 pores in lacrymal canal, 1 upper and 1 lower pore in preopercular canal, and no open pores in mandibular canal. ...
... Valid species A. dentatus is distributed in the Eastern Atlantic from Scottish shores to Canarian Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea mostly in its western and northern parts. In articlesabout the Mediterranean Sea it has been marked that that this species fry is met more often on algae, adults are found on boulders and stones, covered with brown algae (Brandl et al., 2012;Goncalves et al., 2002). In a whole A. dentatus is considered to be one the most rare and small studied among 6 species of Apletodongenus (Bilecenoglu and Kaya, 2006;Brandl et al., 2012); there are practically no data on its biology. ...
... In articlesabout the Mediterranean Sea it has been marked that that this species fry is met more often on algae, adults are found on boulders and stones, covered with brown algae (Brandl et al., 2012;Goncalves et al., 2002). In a whole A. dentatus is considered to be one the most rare and small studied among 6 species of Apletodongenus (Bilecenoglu and Kaya, 2006;Brandl et al., 2012); there are practically no data on its biology. ...
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In this study, cryptobenthic communities of fishes and decapod in underwater caves of Tarkhankut peninsula, underwater caves of southwestern Crimea and mussel's farm in Sebastopol were described. Structure and features of cryptobenthic fauna were considered for mussel's settlements and underwater habitat (caves and grottoes), the study of which is extremely complex and are sketchy and incomplete in the Black Sea. In the cryptobenthic fish community of the mussel fouling two new for Crimea fish species - zebra goby Zebrus zebrus and small-headed clingfish Apletodon dentatus, were discovered, both of them were previously found only sporadically in the southern part of the Black Sea. For the first time early developmental stage and morphometric characteristics of the Black Sea population of zebra goby were studied, this made it possible to identify the morphological differences between similar species Zebrus zebrus and Millerigobius macrocephalus. Some morphological features of the Black Sea population Apletodon dentatus, which is one of the rarest species of this genus, have been described. Species biodiversity and quantitative relationships in the crypthodentic decapod community was investigated. Adult specimens of two rare species of shrimp (Lismata seticaudata, Alpheus dentipes), previously known in this area for only a few find plankton larvae were first found in the fauna of decapods of southwestern Crimea. Results from study confirm that it is promisingly investigate the species diversity and abundance of cryptobenthic species fish and decapod in artificial populations of mussel fouling.
... The sex of the clingfish specimens was determined based on the length and size of the urogenital papillae, which are larger and more elongated in males than in females [18,24], while, in A. incognitus, the sex was also determined based on the size of caniniform teeth, which are larger in males [18]. Fish were identified at the species level by using the identification keys of Jardas [40] and Marčeta [41] and by scientific articles with species diagnoses, descriptions, and keys for identification [9,19,29,42]. After laboratory examination, the clingfish specimens were released at the sites where they were collected. ...
... Artificial structures such as metal and plastic plates can be used as alternative shelters. The exploitation of artificial structures as hiding places by L. candolii and Diplecogaster bimaculata, a related species, was also reported by Brandl et al. [19]. Most of the stones on the sedimentary bottom near the coast are also the result of human activities (stones thrown by people). ...
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Cryptobenthic fishes were often overlooked in the past due to their cryptic lifestyle, so knowledge of their ecology is still incomplete. One of the most poorly studied taxa of fishes in the Mediterranean Sea is clingfish. In this paper we examine the habitat preferences of three clingfish species (Lepadogaster lepadogaster, L. candolii, and Apletodon incognitus) occurring in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic). The results show that all three species have a cryptic lifestyle and are well-segregated based on their depth distribution and macro- and microhabitat preferences. L. lepadogaster inhabits shallow waters of the lower mediolittoral and upper infralittoral, where it occurs on rocky bottoms under stones. L. candolii similarly occurs in the rocky infralittoral under stones, but below the lower distribution limit of L. lepadogaster, and in seagrass meadows, where it occupies empty seashells. Such hiding places in seagrass meadows are also occupied by A. incognitus, which mostly occurs below the lower distribution limit of L. candolii. Despite the overlap of depth and macrohabitat, the probability of individuals of two species encountering each other or competing in the same habitat is low when the depth range is combined with the microhabitat preferences of these species.
... As for many other small cryptobenthic fish species, knowledge of the distribution of Mediterranean gobiesocids is extremely poor. This could be attributed to their small size, hidden way of life, perfect camouflage, and limited scientific effort on the taxonomy of this family (Brandl et al., 2011). ...
... The two L. lepadogaster specimens were kept in the same jar under code REKWR056100518, separately from A. dentatus (code RZSH001270120). The morphological characteristics of these specimens are concordant with the description by Brandl et al. (2011). ...
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This Collective Article presents information about 17 taxa belonging to four Phyla (one Cnidaria, two Arthropo-da, four Mollusca, and ten Chordata) and extending from the Western Mediterranean to the Levantine Sea. The new records were reported from nine countries as follows: Algeria: first published records of the clingfishes Apletodon dentatus and Lepadogaster lepadogaster after 1955; France: first record of the tripletail Lobotes surinamensis in French Mediterranean waters; Italy: new records of the rare bonito Orcynopsis unicolor and the recently described nudibranch Elysia rubeni from Sicily; first records of the parasitic cirriped Sacculina eriphiae and the nudibranch Dondice trainitoi in the Ionian Sea; first record of the nudibranch Taringa tritorquis in the Mediterranean Sea; first record of the tripletail Lobotes surinamensis in the North Ionian Sea; first documented record of the cephalopod Macrotritopus defilippi in the Adriatic Sea; Slovenia: first record of the Mediterranean endemic cryptobenthic goby Odondebuenia balearica; Montenegro: several recent occurrences of the critically endangered bull ray Aetomylaeus bovinus in the Southeastern Adriatic Sea; Greece: records of the nudibranch Dondice trainitoi in the Eastern Medi-terranean Sea; new record of the occurrence of the Mediterranean spearfish Tetrapturus belone from Greece (Rhodes Island); Turkey: recent captures of the vulnerable ocean sunfish Mola mola, caught by purse-seine, in the Aegean Sea and the Dardanelles; new record of the luvar Luvarus imperialis along the Aegean coast of Turkey; Cyprus: first record of the habitat-forming hydroid Lytocarpia myriophyllum, often in considerable densities; first confirmed record 341 Medit. Mar. Sci., 21/2, 2020, 340-359 of the agujon needlefish Tylosurus imperialis; Syria: first record of the decapod Ethusa mascarone.
... Cryptobenthic fish species in the Adriatic Sea have attracted scientific interest in the last two decades, as evidenced by various studies (e.g. Kovačić, 1997Kovačić, , 2005Santin et al., 2005;Santin, 2008;Brandl et al., 2012;Kovačić et al., 2012. Some papers highlighting the occurrence of cryptobenthic species have also been published for the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea, such as those of Lipej & Richter (1999), Lipej et al. (2005Lipej et al. ( , 2012Lipej et al. ( , 2016b, Orlando-Bonaca & Lipej (2007, 2008 and Orlando-Bonaca & Trkov (2016). ...
... However, based on the published literature (e.g. Kovačič, 1997;Horichter & Patzner, 2000;Kovačić et al., 2012;Brandl et al., 2012) dealing with the occurrence of cryptobenthic fish species in the northern Adriatic, and new sampling techniques, other species are expected to be found in Slovenian waters in the future. This could be the case for two clingfish species, such as Opeatogenys gracilis (Canestrini, 1864) that is expected to be found in seagrass meadows, and Gouania willdenowi (Risso, 1810) that could be detected in a rocky environment on gravel beaches (gravel size 0.2 -2 cm). ...
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Cryptobenthic fish fauna constitute one of the less studied fish groups in the Adriatic Sea. As regards Slovenian coastal waters, only few papers dealing with cryptobenthic fish assemblages have been published to date. All the available data about cryptobenthic fish species in the Slovenian sea are presented in this paper, with particular interest in their geographic and depth distribution. Altogether 798 specimens of 11 different species were collected. Thorogobius macrolepis and Chromogobius quadrivittatus were found in Slovenian territorial waters for the first time only recently. The majority of fishes have been recorded using new techniques, associated with SCUBA diving equipment and the use of the narcotic Quinaldine.
... Малоголовая присоска -один из наиболее редких и малоизученных среди 6 видов рода Apletodon [7,8]. Сведения о его биологии практически отсутствуют, а для черноморских популяций дискуссионным является и таксономический статус этой рыбы, что и определяет актуальность полученных новых данных о находках, особенностях биологии и этологии малоголовой присоски у берегов Крыма. ...
... Особенности биологии малоголовой присоски совершенно не изучены. В работах по Средиземному морю сообщается, что молодь этого вида чаще встречается на водорослях, а взрослые особи отмечаются на валунах и камнях, покрытых бурыми водорослями [8,11]. По нашим наблюдениям, рыбы в основном обитают на верхних и боковых поверхностях крупных камней, покрытых слоем водорослевых обрастаний, в углублениях и трещинах, либо среди поселений моллюсков на коллекторах ферм, на незначительном удалении от поверхности воды. ...
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Cryptobenthic fauna investigations are highly relevant at studying biodiversity of regions. Studies of the species composition of Gobiesocidae family were carried out in order to clarify ichthyofauna of different regions, and a new species for the Black Sea coastal zone of Crimea was found. Information about its morphology, biology, behavior and other characteristics is very important because of weak study and indeterminate taxonomic status of this species. As a result of morphological studies of the Crimean specimens no significant difference with the type of the Atlantic-Mediterranean populations has been proven. Naturalization of small-headed clingfish in coastal waters of Crimea has been confirmed and some population characteristics, such as a length-weight relationship, have been described. Peculiarities of habitat which which small-headed clingfish prefers and features of localization, enabling competitiveness have been identified. Identification keys were compiled and are given in the paper.
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