ArticlePDF Available


Social media content can spread quickly, particularly that generated by users themselves. This is a problem for businesses as user-generated content (UGC) often portrays brands negatively and, when mishandled, may turn into a crisis. This paper presents a framework for crisis management that incorporates insights from research on social media users’ behaviour. It looks beyond specific platforms and tools, to develop general principles for communicating with social media users. The framework’s relevance is illustrated via a widely publicised case of detrimental UGC. The paper proposes that, today, businesses need to identify relevant social media platforms, to monitor sentiment variances, and to go beyond simplistic metrics with content analysis. They also need to engage with online communities and the new influencers, and to respond quickly in a manner that is congruent with said social media platforms and their users’ expectations. The paper extends the theoretical understanding of crisis management to consider the role of social media as both a cause and a solution to those crises. Moreover, it bridges information management theory and practice, providing practical managerial guidance on how to monitor and respond to social media content, particularly during fast-evolving crises.
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
Fall and redemption: Monitoring and engaging in
social media conversations during a crisis
Ana Isabel Canhoto
*, Dirk vom Lehn
, Finola Kerrigan
, Cagri Yalkin
, Marc Braun
and Nicola
Abstract:Social media content can spread quickly, particularly that generated by
users themselves. This is a problem for businesses as user-generated content (UGC)
often portrays brands negatively and, when mishandled, may turn into a crisis. This
paper presents a framework for crisis management that incorporates insights from
research on social media users’ behaviour. It looks beyond specific platforms and
tools, to develop general principles for communicating with social media users. The
framework’s relevance is illustrated via a widely publicised case of detrimental UGC.
The paper proposes that, today, businesses need to identify relevant social media
platforms, to monitor sentiment variances, and to go beyond simplistic metrics with
content analysis. They also need to engage with online communities and the new
influencers, and to respond quickly in a manner that is congruent with said social
media platforms and their users’ expectations. The paper extends the theoretical
understanding of crisis management to consider the role of social media as both a
cause and a solution to those crises. Moreover, it bridges information management
*Corresponding author: Ana Isabel
Canhoto, Faculty of Business,
Department of Marketing, Oxford
Brookes University, Wheatley Campus,
Wheatley, Oxford OX33 1HX, UK
E-mail: adomingos-canhoto@brookes.
Reviewing editor:
Tahir Nisar, University of Southampton,
Additional information is available at
the end of the article
The activities of the authors centre on both
research and practice. Their research activity
focuses on the various forms of relationships
between brands and consumers and social media.
This collaboration merges the academic and the
practical aspects of managing social media crises.
Ana Isabel Canhoto researches, writes and
advises organisations on how to identify and
manage dicult customers, and terminate bad
commercial relationships.
Dirk vom Lehn’s research is concerned with
social interaction and the experience of public
places, such as museums and street markets.
Finola Kerrigan researches a range of issues in
marketing, with specific interest in marketing and
consumption of arts and culture, branding and
social media.
Cagri Yalkin researches consumer socialisation,
online and oine consumer resistance, and the
export and consumption of soap operas.
Marc Braun is Brand Services Manager at
Nicola Steinmetz works at Nestle Germany in
Frank fur t.
This paper highlights the importance of proactive
rather than reactive approach to managing
crises on social media. It provides insight into
how monitoring and engaging in social media
conversations benefit organisations in instances
of crises.
Received: 03 June 2015
Accepted: 11 August 2015
© 2015 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution
(CC-BY) 4.0 license.
Page 1 of 16
Page 2 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
theory and practice, providing practical managerial guidance on how to monitor and
respond to social media content, particularly during fast-evolving crises.
Subjects: Consumer Behaviour; Internet / Digital Marketing / e-Marketing; Marketing
Keywords: social media; crisis management; sentiment analysis; online communities;
user-generated content; social media in management
1. Introduction
Social media have made it possible for one single Internet user to damage an organisation’s reputa-
tion with a simple tweet or video upload. Creating and sharing content online is not only increasingly
easy, but also seen as a source of consumer empowerment (Christodoulides, Jevons, & Bonhomme,
2012). User-generated content (UGC) criticising brands can spread widely and quickly (Kietzmann &
Canhoto, 2013), achieve viral status and threaten those brands (Vanden Bergh, Lee, Quilliam, &
Hove, 2011). In turn, the organisation’s response can amplify the virality of the message (Kietzmann
& Canhoto, 2013) and influence referrals and purchase intentions (Gelbrich & Roschk, 2011).
Despite social media’s popularity, organisations still struggle to handle two-way communication
with customers, particularly during a crisis. Recent examples include problems faced by Findus in the
UK in 2013 following the Horse Meat scandal; by HMV following the firing of 190 sta members; and
by J.P. Morgan when they urged the public to tweet their questions using the hashtag #AskJPM. The
communication dynamics between businesses and customers have changed, and practical guid-
ance is urgently needed on how firms should react to social media conversations (Blackshaw, 2011).
The principles well established in the information management literature do not work well in the
new socio-technical context (Sultan, 2013). There is empirical research on the behavioural drivers of
social media participation and the impact of online conversations on brand perception (e.g. Vanden
Bergh et al., 2011) as well as guidance on how to mine social media data (e.g. He, Zha, & Li, 2013).
However, the research addressing the organisation’s response (e.g. Kietzmann & Canhoto, 2013;
Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy, & Silvestre, 2011) tends to be conceptual rather than empirical.
Hence, there is a need for managerial guidance and further theoretical understanding of crisis man-
agement in the social media age. This paper addresses that gap.
This paper highlights shortcomings of the dominant literature, proposing a nuanced approach to
understanding and responding to negative social media conversations. It presents a framework that
incorporates the findings from research on social media users’ behaviour and updates the current
theoretical understanding of crisis management. The framework is operationalised using a classic,
well-known case of social media crisis: when employees of Domino’s Pizza posted a video showing
unhygienic food preparation practices.
Domino’s is a pizza delivery company established in the US state of Michigan in 1960, which has
since opened operations in more than 70 countries. On 13th April, 2009, two employees filmed and
uploaded videos of themselves performing unsanitary and vulgar acts while preparing food in one of
the fast food chain’s kitchens. A video entitled “Domino’s Pizzas Special Ingredients” shows footage
of one of the employees, Michael Setzer, putting cheese up his nose, smearing nasal mucus on food
and passing gas on salami; while the other employee, Kristy Hammonds, can be heard joking and
laughing in the background throughout. Other videos entitled “Poopie Dishes”, “Sneeze Sticks” and
“Dominos Pizza Buger” show Setzer in vivid detail wiping his behind with a sponge prior to cleaning
pizza pans, sneezing on bread and engaging in additional acts of food contamination. Within hours
of the news going public, it was a trending topic on various social media channels, influencing or-
ganic search results and consumers’ purchase intentions.
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
Page 3 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
This case was chosen because food is the most widely discussed topic on social media (Forsyth,
2011), yet receives little attention in the information systems literature (He et al., 2013). Moreover, the
negative UGC depicted deliberate product contamination; the biggest threat to a food and beverage
company’s reputation (Nickson, 2000). Yet, it is widely acknowledged that Domino’s not only survived
this crisis, but even managed to restore their brand reputation. Using the case of a company that faced
its worst-case scenario and survived allows us to explore the long-term eects of a social media crisis.
The paper proceeds as follows. The next section reviews the dominant thinking in the field of crisis
management and introduces the research questions. Then, findings from research on social media
users and communication are used to develop the research framework. Subsequently, the applica-
tion of the framework is demonstrated through analysis of the Domino’s case study. The purpose of
the empirical study is not to develop generalisable findings about UGC-related crisis, but rather to
bring to life what the proposed framework can oer to information management theory and prac-
tice. The case shows how consumers’ sentiment evolved over time and explores how communica-
tion initiatives influenced the brand’s reputation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the
implications for companies’ use of social media in an era where firm-initiated communication is
“rapidly losing ground” (Blackshaw, 2011, p. 109) to UGC.
2. Detecting and handling crises arising from UGC
It is well established in the crisis management literature (e.g. Ashcroft, 1997) that once a crisis
occurs, rapid and eective communication is crucial to reduce uncertainty and insecurity of consum-
ers. In the contemporary knowledge economy, crisis management is closely related to reputation
risk and, as organisations are subject to higher levels of transparency, their reputation risk increases
(Scott & Walsham, 2005). The management of reputation risks cannot be realised by one-o eorts
or reactive solutions (Scott & Walsham, 2005). Rather, organisations need to proactively monitor the
market environment (Ritchie, 2004), manage information flow (Day, Burnice McKay, Ishman, &
Chung, 2004) and treat customers as key stakeholders (Elliott, Harris, & Baron, 2005).
As perceptions are armed over time, altering a negative reputation is more complex than build-
ing a new one (Mahon & Mitnick, 2010). Hence, it is very important to be able to detect the early
warning signs of a crisis (Stephens Balakrishnan, 2011). The temporal element gains even more
significance in the face of the current media landscape, as the Internet spreads news faster than
ever (Vanden Bergh et al., 2011). Consequently, our first research question focuses on: How can
social media help organisations detect early signs of a negative reputation shift?
There have been cases, such as the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy crisis that caused about
200 human deaths globally, that escalated more due to ineective communication than by the crisis
itself (Ashcroft, 1997). Hence, it is essential that firms communicate in a way that restores confi-
dence in the brand (Stephens Balakrishnan, 2011). Communication should be anchored in the his-
torical context and instances that caused the reputation crisis, and take into account how the
content relates to the brand’s reputation (Mahon & Mitnick, 2010). The response needs to address
the negative perceptions of key stakeholders (Stephens Balakrishnan, 2011) and the public at large
(Tew, Lu, Tolomiczenko, & Gellatly, 2008). Organisations should also seek enlarged media exposure,
as research (e.g. Wartick, 1992) has demonstrated that increased media exposure with a positive
tone stands in direct relation to enhanced corporate reputation. Furthermore, as Dijkmans, Kerkhof,
and Beukeboom (2015) note, engagement in social media is positively related to corporate reputa-
tion, especially among non-users. As such, the second research question is: What is the role of social
media channels and users during crisis communication?
2.1. The role of social media in reputation monitoring
Organisations should implement scanning processes alerting them to important trends (Ritchie,
2004). Social media is a source of rich market insight (Christiansen, 2011) as users often discuss
brands in those platforms (Berno & Li, 2008; Canhoto & Clark, 2013). Hence, organisations need to
add social media channels to their market scanning eorts (He et al., 2013).
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
Page 4 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
The large number and variety of social media platforms, volume of content available (Nunan & Di
Domenico, 2013) and spreadability of social media content (Jenkins, Ford, & Green, 2013) impede the
task of monitoring social media. However, Kietzmann et al. (2011) note that users favour particular plat-
forms for specific activities—for instance, users may prefer to share content on YouTube rather than
LinkedIn. The preferred platform may also vary by industry and country (Canhoto, Clark, & Fennemore,
2013). Therefore, to eectively monitor UGC, firms must first recognise and understand the social media
landscape (Kietzmann et al., 2011), both the technical aspects such as what type of content may be
shared, and the sociological ones such as users preferences or the mechanics of content dispersion.
Proposition 1: Firms need to monitor UGC on the SM platforms that particularly reflect their core activi-
ties and their users’ preferences, and that are also relevant for their specific socio-technical ecosystem.
Reputation may vary independently of the firm’s actions and, therefore, it is necessary to monitor
how it changes over time (Fombrun, Gardberg, & Sever, 2000). The focus on variance, rather than
absolute measures, is particularly relevant for the social media context, as characterised by a wealth
of information and a poverty of attention (Kietzmann & Canhoto, 2013). The temporal perspective
enables managers to detect dramatic changes resulting from a social media crisis.
The volume of data available and pressure for timely analysis means that, increasingly, data collection
and analysis occurs without human intervention (Nunan & Di Domenico, 2013). Specifically, various spe-
cialist software products are now available to mine documents, identifying words or phrases that denote
sentiments (He et al., 2013; Sterne, 2010). The software generates a “sentiment score” reflecting the per-
centage of posts that express a “positive”, “negative” or “neutral” sentiment (Yi & Niblack, 2005), referred
to as sentiment polarity (Thelwall, Buckley, & Paltoglou, 2011), which can be monitored over time.
Proposition 2: Firms need to monitor changes in consumer sentiment.
In addition to considering sentiment polarity and how it changes, it is important to analyse the
values of the message (Stephens Balakrishnan, 2011). Messages triggering emotional responses to
core reputation elements are particularly damaging for brands (Mahon & Mitnick, 2010). This is a
concern for managers as negative UGC often uses parody, mockery or even oensiveness (Vanden
Bergh et al., 2011), likely to trigger emotional reactions. Thus, managers need to go beyond measur-
ing sentiment in UGC and also monitor the topics being discussed.
Despite their popularity, automated sentiment analysis tools have limited ability to capture the qual-
ity of the argument (Li & Zhan, 2011), detect irony (Canhoto & Clark, 2013), and cope with linguistic and
cultural dierences (Nasukawa & Yi, 2003). They also struggle with subtle elements such as the use of
clauses (Kim & Hovy, 2006) or the choice of words and their placement (Davis & O’Flaherty, 2012). The
analysis of SM data needs to take into account contextual information (Kozinets, 2002, 2010).
Proposition 3: Firms need to qualitatively analyse UGC, including the context in which it emerged.
2.2. The role of social media in crisis management
A firm failing to communicate during a crisis may be deemed struggling (Stephens Balakrishnan, 2011) or
not to care about its customers (Kietzmann & Canhoto, 2013). The issue of when a firm should intervene
in social media conversations is not an exact science (Kietzmann et al., 2011) and depends on issues such
as spreadability (Jenkins et al., 2013), the degree of change in customer sentiment and the reputational
elements attacked by the negative UGC, as discussed previously. In terms of how to intervene during a
crisis, firms should communicate regularly through a variety of media (see Stephens Balakrishnan, 2011).
Some firms have created online communities to engage with consumers (see Gruner, Homburg, &
Lukas, 2014), though these are ineective if users are unaware of their existence (Kietzmann et al., 2011).
To reach customers quickly, firms must use channels where UGC-related conversations are taking place.
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
Page 5 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
Proposition 4: Respond quickly through the channels that social media users are aware of.
In terms of the message itself, firms are advised to focus on symbolic brand components (Stephens
Balakrishnan, 2011). The response needs to consider the drivers of UGC creation, involvement and
consumer-based brand equity (Christodoulides et al., 2012). Social media users may have specific
expectations about how and when firms should interact with them on a particular platform (Canhoto
& Clark, 2013). So, it is important that the response is congruent with the functionalities of the social
media platform (Kietzmann et al., 2011).
Proposition 5: The response needs to be congruent with the brand’s reputation, users’ motivations
and the functionalities of the SM platform.
Finally, researchers agree that positive referrals from trusted parties are crucial in changing brand
perception during a crisis. Barwise and Meehan (2010) highlight the abundance of options oered by
social media for engagement and collaboration, while Kietzmann et al. (2011) suggest that firms
engage credible social media influencers in their marketing communication strategies. Others
showed the value of online communities for businesses (e.g. Gruner et al., 2014). However, little is
known about motivations and impact of spontaneously produced UGC in response to an event out-
side of what could be conceptualised as an online community, as is likely to be the case with nega-
tive UGC. Here, we are referring to classical definitions of what constitutes an (online) community
from the work of Muniz and O’Guinn (2001), who defined brand communities as bounded “based on
a structured set of social relations among admirers of a brand” (p. 142). Such communities can have
clear community leaders, opinion leaders and so on, which can be identified by the brands and their
opinions monitored.
Proposition 6: Engage influencers outside of the established brand community.
Figure 1 brings together the propositions developed above in a framework that summarises how
social media can assist in identifying and handling crisis arising from UGC.
Figure 1. The role of social
media in crisis communication.
SCREEN UGC across the
relevant SM platforms
MONITOR changes in
consumer sentiment
qualitatively and in
DEVELOP congruent
ENGAGE influencers
outside of established
brand community
RESPOND quickly
through channels used by
SM users
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
Page 6 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
3. Applying the framework
The framework in Figure 1 will be operationalised through a well-known case study, where a crisis
developed and was successfully handled on social media. The use of case studies is highly recom-
mended in crisis management to obtain “a deeper understanding of the dynamics and nuances of
communicating during a crisis” (Carroll, 2009, p. 67). Using a public case study of an organisation
that faced a serious crisis and survived has two advantages. First, the public nature of the case helps
with familiarity. Second, in this case, the organisation has clearly recovered from the crisis.
The disadvantage of using a case from 2009 is that technology, and social media in particular, has
evolved since then. For instance, whereas YouTube was the main platform for sharing video content
in 2009, many users now share short clips through Instagram. Hence, the illustration below also con-
siders the impact of technical evolution on specific aspects of the framework, both between 2009 and
now, and looking ahead.
Christodoulides et al. (2012) advise that the study of UGC should analyse how social media users
attempt to inform and influence others through shared online content. Accordingly, data collected and
presented here captures online behaviour and communication before, during and after the crisis. In terms
of what data should be used, this study followed Greyser’s (2009) assessment that reputation studies
should draw on multiple sources external to the organisation, rather than internal ones. Accordingly, this
study mimics the actions of consumers engaging with the brand online, collecting publicly available
online data using the search terms “Domino’s Pizza” and “Domino’s”, as well as the Twitter handle “@
dominos”; the most mainstream references to the brand on social media (Li, Sun, Peng, & Li, 2012). The
use of public online materials allows data to be available for collection and analysis over an extended
period of time (O’Reilly, Rahinel, Foster, & Patterson, 2007), which facilitates future replication studies.
Rather than engaging in sampling, the researchers collated the entire data-set of social media men-
tions related to the incident. The goal was to produce an immersive and descriptive account (Kozinets,
2010) of evolving sentiment among social media users. The online search identified mentions to the
incident on blogs and forums, as well as posts on Twitter and Facebook. The resulting data pool con-
sisted of several thousands of entries. The extensive data collection, which will be discussed in the
following sections, enabled us to assess the extent of discussion and dissemination of the crisis, and
perform quantitative as well as qualitative analysis of sentiment towards the brand, as discussed next.
3.1. Monitoring sentiment
The oending videos appeared on YouTube on 13th April, 2009 and, within two days, had been
viewed by over one million users. They have since been removed from YouTube, though the clips and
references to them are still widely available on the Internet (Figure 2).
The distribution of these clips generated a “communication crisis” (Coombs, 2007), with large
numbers of people sharing the videos, and criticising the quality of Domino’s food. On Twitter, for
instance, the topic was trending within hours of the news going public (Cliord, 2009) (Figure 3).
The incident was picked up by a blogs worldwide, including two very popular blogs at the time, and The Consumerist. The volume of content associating the videos with the
brands was such that three days after the clips were published the top search results for “Domino’s”
on Google contained references to the incident (Figure 4).
Because content may spread through formal and informal networks, over many platforms, firms
should monitor both bottom-up and top-down communications (Jenkins et al., 2013). Domino’s was
not doing so at the time of the crisis. So, even though the issue was widely discussed on social media,
Domino’s did not directly notice it. According to Tim McIntyre, VP of Corporate Communications at
Domino’s Pizza, it was the blog that had alerted him to the oending videos
(Solis, 2009). As a result of this crisis, currently Domino’s has a team of social media specialists moni-
toring and responding to UGC (He et al., 2013).
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
Page 7 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
Sentiment analysis tools can measure sentiment towards a brand at a particular point in time, and
how it changes over time. In this case, the UGC was analysed with the tool Sysomos; a popular software
package used by many advertising and PR companies to measure and manage their clients’ online
reputation. The software collects online content, and mines using keywords that denote sentiment.
Furthermore, the content is analysed via language processing to produce a sentiment polarity score.
The analysis of social media content gathered for this case shows a dramatic change in consumer
sentiment towards Domino’s (Figure 5). Up until 12th April (one day before the incident), a relatively
small proportion of social media content (13%) referred to Domino’s in a negative manner. Forty-
eight per cent of mentions at this time were neutral, while 39% were positive. Once the videos were
released, there was a striking shift in consumer sentiment towards Domino’s. Forty per cent of the
posts referred to Domino’s Pizza in a negative manner, while only 12% remained positive.
Figure 2. Five years later, the
negative UGC is still available.
Figure 3. Number of tweets
containing “Domino’s” in the
days following the incident.
Source: Lardinois (2009).
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
Page 8 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
Whilst sentiment scores illustrate general trends, they cannot provide insight into the reasons
beyond those scores. For that, it is necessary to qualitatively examine the blog posts, tweets and
other social media content. Qualitative, ethnographic methods were used to study the context and
the content of the social media data, as described in Kozinets (2010). One type of qualitative analysis
widely available to companies is the buzz graph which illustrates key terms appearing in social
media mentions related to the topic and illustrates the link between them through the use of dashed
lines, thin or thick lines denoting the strength of the association. The buzz graph (Figure 6) captures
the terms most commonly used in association with the brand once the video was released. These
included “prank” and “YouTube”, which would have immediately directed the company to the ori-
gins of the change in sentiment. In turn, the terms “disgust” and “employee” indicate a case of
tampering with food, particularly when associated with other terms captured by the tool, such as
““nose”, “booger” or “food”. Given that deliberate product contamination is the biggest reputation
threat for a food brand (Nickson, 2000), this analysis would signal to Domino’s that it was facing a
major crisis.
Figure 4. Google search results
for “Domino’s” shortly after the
Source: Sietsema (2009).
Figure 5. Sentiment towards
Domino’s Pizza.
Up to April, 12th
April 13th-16th
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
Page 9 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
3.2. Reacting to social media users
Unfamiliar with communication on social media, Domino’s management first tried to brush the clips
aside, then considered the publication of an ocial apology on their website, but McIntyre (VP
Communications) argued that posting an ocial apology would draw even more attention to the inci-
dent: “We knew what was going to happen. As soon as we posted a statement on our website, we were
essentially posting chapter two, and we knew people were [now] going to find chapter one” (Tan, 2010).
However, the corporation soon realised that they would have to break their silence. McIntyre
understood the importance of actively using social media channels for crisis communication: “(M)
any of the comments and questions on Twitter were ‘What is Domino’s doing about it?’ […] well, we
were doing and saying things, but they weren’t being covered in Twitter” (Cliord, 2009). Domino’s
established a Twitter account—@dpzinfo—on 15th April and used it to answer numerous questions
and comments regarding the incident. As McIntyre explained, Domino’s had learned that “if some-
thing happens in this medium, it’s going to automatically jump to the next. So we might as well talk
to everybody at the same time” (Sarno & Semuels, 2009). Domino’s shifted from a defensive to a
proactive approach, having realised that:
(I)n the old days, […] you could handle a situation, put out a fire. […] Now […] if there’s a crisis
happening in the social media realm, […] there’s a segment of the population that […] want
you to describe how you’re putting out the fire. (Jacques, 2009)
Domino’s twitter activity was well received as exemplified by the comments in Figure 7.
Domino’s also issued an ocial apology on their website (Figure 8), directing visitors to a YouTube
video. The company used the same title for the video and the same tags that Hammonds and Setzer
had used for the oending clip. This allowed Domino’s to eectively target viewers of the original video,
Figure 6. Terms most commonly
associated with “Domino’s” in
the days following the incident.
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
Page 10 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
thereby driving trac to the apology video. In the video, the President of Domino’s USA, Patrick Doyle,
sought to reassure customers of the quality, cleanliness and safety of Domino’s Pizza products:
We sincerely apologise for this incident. […] We are taking this incredibly seriously. This
was an isolated incident in Conover, North Carolina. The two team members have been
dismissed, and there are felony warrants out for their arrests. […] There is nothing more
important or sacred to us than our customers trust. […] We have auditors across the country
in our stores every day of the week, making sure our stores are as clean as they can possibly
be and that we are delivering high-quality food to our customers day in and day out.
Last but not least, McIntyre engaged in an email exchange with the bloggers that had dedicated
prominent posts to the incident—GoodAsYou and The Consumerist. For instance, in response to The
Consumerist’s post about the incident, McIntyre wrote:
I don’t have the words to say how repulsed I am by this (…) The “challenge” that comes with
the freedom of the Internet is that any idiot with a camera and an Internet link can do stu
like this—and ruin the reputation of a brand that’s nearly 50years old, and the reputation
of 125,000 hard-working men and women across the nation and in 60 countries around the
world. (Hames, 2009)
Figure 7. Comments referring
to Domino’s Twitter account
Source: Twitter.
can say first hand that they answered a LOT of questions and responde
a LOT of people. When I tweeted at them, they twattet [sic!] right back
thin 5 minutes with a great response (by Ryan Jones on,
April 2009).
Figure 8. Domino’s ocial
website a few days after the
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
Page 11 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
In turn, The Consumerist replied: “[Our readers] may seem harsh at times, but they can be equally
impressive when a corporation appears to be doing the right thing. It’s a relatively popular site, so
that may count for something”. And, indeed, readers of The Consumerist identified the franchise
where the videos had been filmed. A reader with the username whyerhead commented on The
Consumerist’s original post about the incident:
I FOUND IT! Dominos Pizza, Conover NC. How did I find it? I used part of your intel. Googled
for lilangel6979, found the myYearbook for that email, looked at the city … There’s a Jack in
the box across from this Dominos. Searched for it, found it at 509 10th St
NW, Conover NC. […] I’m not sure how to get in contact with the folks at dominos corporate
… but, I’m sure they’re reading our blog by now.
Through engagement of users of The Consumerist’s community, the perpetrators, Setzer and
Hammonds, were identified and charged with delivering prohibited foods (Cliord, 2009). Hammonds
apologised to McIntyre saying:
It was all a prank and me nor Michael expected to have this much attention from the videos
that were uploaded! No food was ever sent out to any customer. […] Michael never would do
that to any customer, EVER!! I AM SO SORRY!
Most importantly, the quick response, use of relevant social media channels, the clever use of tags
and titles for search engine optimisation, the nature of the communications, and the engagement
with the blogger community helped save the brand. By April 16th, Domino’s began to recover con-
sumer confidence (Table 1). While participants’ positive responses after having viewed the apology
video were not quite as high as before they had been aware of the scandal, the results do show an
upwards tendency following Doyle’s apology.
Domino’s approach also impressed the community that had initially mobilised against the brand:
It clearly wasn’t the fault of Domino’s as a whole, [and] it sends a good image that they
came forward and made it clear that they’re just as disgusted as everyone else is. (comment
by tlsgirl on
It was important for management to respond. Would have been better to speak o the
cu […] but kudos to Domino’s for communicating via the same social channel its wayward
employees used. (comment by starbux347 on CNET News)
Financially, too, the company has recovered. Following the incident, Domino’s share price suered
(arrow in Figure 9); but just a few months later, it had recovered.
Table 1. Responses at three points in time
Source: Lardinois (2009).
Before viewing prank
video (%)
After viewing prank
video (%)
After viewing apology
video (%)
Total (n=243) Total (n=243) Total (n=243)
Go to a Domino’s 29 10 20
Order Domino’s for
46 15 24
Visit Domino’s website 25 14 24
Search for information on
14 10 20
Watch an advertisement/
commercial on Domino’s
61 27 42
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
Page 12 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
4. Discussion
The first research question asked how monitoring UGC could help organisations identify sentiment
change. It was argued that organisations needed to monitor a range of relevant social media chan-
nels. However, it is not possible to be prescriptive regarding specific platforms as the most popular
channels vary by intended function, industry and geography, as discussed previously. Moreover, the
technology landscape is constantly evolving (Sultan, 2013), requiring organisations to adjust their
monitoring focus. Also, monitoring sentiment requires the analysis of content over various plat-
forms, which presents technical challenges. Specifically, while some platforms are open, others, like
individual Facebook accounts, are closed, meaning that it is dicult to automatically extract data.
More challenging than the technology, however, is the changing relationship between humans and
technology (Martini, Massa, & Testa, 2013) and, with it, the changing communication dynamics. For
instance, consumer conversations occur in channels not traditionally associated with corporate
communications. Moreover, users may expect conversations held in such closed platforms to be
private, and oppose their messages being mined.
In terms of identifying sentiment polarity, there are semantic challenges hindering automated
analysis (e.g. colloquial language, abbreviations and emoticons), as well as those associated with
irony and sarcasm (Canhoto & Padmanabhan, 2015; Vanden Bergh et al., 2011). Likewise, while much
content is shared in text format, it is increasingly common for users to publish images (He et al.,
2013), which are dicult to monitor automatically. As exemplified with the Domino’s case study,
complementing sentiment measurement with analysis of the topics discussed and the context sur-
rounding the publication of the content helps overcome those limitations. For instance, the themes
identified in the buzz graph would not only direct the management’s attention to YouTube, but also
give an idea of the video’s topic and the source of customer disgust.
In summary, if the Internet has emerged as a platform for electronic word of mouth with consum-
ers now basing perceptions and decisions on the opinions of others that they may never have met,
and whose reputation is determined by factors not yet thoroughly understood (Marwick, 2013), it is
also true that technology allows firms to detect those changes and their causes.
The second research question asked how social media might assist with crisis management.
Domino’s initially attempted to control the situation, and its initial response to customers’ concerns
was more detrimental to the company’s reputation than helpful (Cliord, 2009). However, at the
time of the crisis (April 2009), sentiment analysis was not widely adopted, and only a handful of
Figure 9. Domino’s share price
between 29th December 2008
and 10th March 2014.
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
Page 13 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
companies had teams in place to monitor social media conversations. Today, the role of social
media in company reputation management in general, and crisis communication in particular, is
more widely acknowledged (Dijkmans et al., 2015; Jones, Temperley, & Lima, 2009).
Analysis of cases of such social media crisis confirms the need for information management meth-
ods and techniques that dier from PR activities in the broadcast media world (Jenkins et al., 2013).
Our case study data confirms Mahon and Mitnick’s (2010) call for an audience-focused approach when
communicating during a crisis and begins to unpack this approach. Specifically, the Domino’s case
shows that an audience-focused approach requires detailed knowledge, about where the conversa-
tion is taking place, and identifying the key themes and language used, and who the audience is.
This study highlighted the role of bottom-up influencers in amplifying UGC reach. Detecting senti-
ment changes towards a brand requires firms to identify the relevant influencers. While the concept
of “influencers” is not new to marketing, social media led to the emergence of a new class of users
with heightened power to shape brand perception in the market, dierent from those with influence
in the oine environment (Kim, Choi, Qualls, & Han, 2010). In this particular case, the two blogs
mentioned had not previously captured the company’s attention. They were a new type of influ-
encer, and it is argued that Domino’s underestimated the influencing power of such blogs on their
customers. The fact that such influencers can change rapidly requires nuanced and adaptable meth-
ods of interpretation, such as those aorded by qualitative approaches.
This paper presents and applies a framework that updates the conceptual understanding of crisis
management as a form of reputation risk management in the contemporary knowledge economy
(Scott & Walsham, 2005), through uniting classical crisis management literature and recent social
media research. The paper illustrated the application of the framework in practice via the social me-
dia crisis faced by Domino’s. Unlike previous research on social media conversations (e.g. He et al.,
2013), the choice of social media platforms for analysis was not dictated by the researchers. Instead,
it followed the conversations, therefore revealing where social media discussions actually occur, and
how they spread over more than one platform.
The first insight derived from this paper concerns the power of social media as a source of infor-
mation and communication among, about and with individuals. Domino’s initially underestimated
the power, reach and speed of social media conversations. By ignoring online discussions, manage-
ment allowed the crisis to grow. Conversely, when they used the same channels through which the
crisis had spread, it caught consumers’ attention. One way of energising fans’ and followers’ interest
in a brand is by posting video clips on social networking sites like YouTube. Video clips may be shared
between networks of fans and friends of fans, leading to large number of views. Furthermore, view-
ers can comment on the clips, and organisations can capture and analyse these comments with
social media monitoring tools. What we can understand is the desire for some very active consum-
ers to act as co-creators with brands, conscious of their social media profile (measured by tools such
as Klout scores), and being recognised by brands as part of the meaning-making involved in corpo-
rate identity. With a focus on producing what Jenkins et al. (2013) referred to as “spreadable” mes-
sages, these consumers or community members increase their social media presence.
The second insight concerns the content of the communications. As previously discussed, analysis
of buzz data reveals specific issues damaging a company’s reputation. This insight can be used to
tailor a company’s messages and improve the eectiveness of its crisis communication. By commu-
nicating with those spreading negative messages as “insiders” in the crisis rather than external
threats, organisations can turn a negative relationship positive.
The third insight concerns the role of social media users themselves in crisis recovery. In the case
of Domino’s, social media users accepted and amplified the company’s apologies. They empathised
with the company’s problem and set out to identify and shame the employees who had caused the
crisis. Thus, UGC should not be seen as a matter of a firm’s communications versus consumers’
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
Page 14 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
conversations, but rather as ongoing dialogue about the brand’s actions, with all the customer in-
sight and the engagement opportunities that this oers. UGC also has the added benefit of higher
credibility than organisation-generated messages (Blackshaw, 2011). Influencers can help in recov-
ery eorts.
Additionally, our study highlights a number of managerial implications. Firstly, companies’ reputa-
tions are subject to the content of online conversations about their products and services.
Management can influence conversations by taking the participants’ concerns seriously and
responding convincingly. Secondly, in order to appropriately respond to people’s concerns and criti-
cisms, it is necessary to examine in detail the content of online conversations. Thirdly, managers
should use social media networks where bad sentiment has occurred, to disseminate their response
to the UGC. In doing so, they should avoid blaming employees or users for negative sentiment;
rather, they should include a call to action, which treats consumers as allies in co-creating a
Like any new framework, however, this one needs refinement. Application to a variety of research
settings will provide evidence of its generalisability, while confirming its key contributions and clari-
fying its limitations.
One limitation arises from the specific case analysed. It may be argued that the nature of the videos
posted by Domino’s employees was so outrageous (tampering with food) that they caused an extreme
reaction unlikely to be faced by others and, therefore, that the lessons from this case have limited rel-
evance for other situations. While food hygiene may be a particularly sensitive topic, the lessons
regarding the mechanics by which the crisis spread and was later contained are applicable and rele-
vant regardless of the scale of the crisis.
Another limitation, relates to the type of crisis considered. A crisis may arise because of spill-over
eects from issues with a competitor or about the industry in general, as it happened with the horse
meat scandal in the UK. Further studies should attempt to conceptualise the approach to crisis man-
agement in the case of spill-over eects. Moreover, as the concept of organisational reputation
reflects the organisation’s standing among its counterparts (Deephouse & Carter, 2005), in addition
to the temporal perspective, organisations should develop regular comparisons with other compa-
nies in the industry (Fombrun et al., 2000; He et al., 2013).
A further issue arises from the use of Sysomos for data analysis. As with many other software
packages (see Canhoto & Padmanabhan, 2015), Sysomos does not r eveal the algorithm that in-
forms the analysis of online data. Therefore, researchers cannot assess how the analysis was per-
formed. Further research could model the same social media data-set through alternative software
packages and, possibly, manually. While time-consuming, such research would help to identify dis-
crepancies between the various platforms and, eventually, biases.
This paper has repeatedly noted the role of influencers in amplifying and reversing the crisis. It
was noted that social media influencers are not necessarily the same as those with influence in the
oine environment, and that the factors aecting the reputation of this new breed of influencers
are not yet fully understood. Further research should investigate how and why particular individuals
and organisations emerge as influencers in the social media environment.
UGC is a growing phenomenon, which will be further amplified by the continuous popularisation of
technology and software that enables the production and sharing of content by anyone with an
Internet connection. There is an urgent need for the advancement of guidance to support practition-
ers increasingly requiring information about ongoing online conversations about their brands. This
paper contributes to that discussion, highlighting the value of engaging in a combination of activities
to measure sentiment and the impact of social media conversations on corporate reputation.
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
Page 15 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
The authors received no direct funding for this research.
Author details
Ana Isabel Canhoto
Dirk vom Lehn
Finola Kerrigan
Cagri Yalkin
Marc Braun
Nicola Steinmetz
Faculty of Business, Department of Marketing, Oxford
Brookes University, Wheatley Campus, Wheatley, Oxford
OX33 1HX, UK.
Department of Management, King’s College London, Strand,
London WC2R 2LS, UK.
Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham,
University House, Edgbaston Park Road, Birmingham B15
2TY, UK.
Brunel Business School, Brunel University, Eastern Gateway
Building, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH, UK.
GlossyBox, London, UK.
Nestle, Frankfurt, Germany.
Citation information
Cite this article as: Fall and redemption: Monitoring and
engaging in social media conversations during a crisis,
Ana Isabel Canhoto, Dirk vom Lehn, Finola Kerrigan, Cagri
Yalkin, Marc Braun & Nicola Steinmetz, Cogent Business &
Management(2015), 2: 1084978.
Ashcroft, L. S. (1997). Crisis management—Public relations.
Journal of Managerial Psychology, 12, 325–332.
Barwise, P., & Meehan, S. (2010). The one thing you must get
right when building a brand. Harvard Business Review, 88,
Berno, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the power of the oh-so-
social web. MIT Sloan Review, 49, 35–42.
Blackshaw, P. (2011). User-generated content in context.
Journal of Advertising Research, 51, 108–111.
Canhot o, A. I., & Clark, M. (2013). Customer service 140
characters at a time: The users’ perspective. Journal of
Marketi ng Management , 29, 522–544. doi:10.1080/02672
Canhot o, A. I., Clark, M ., & Fennem ore, P. (2013). Emerging
segmentation practices in the age of the social customer.
Journal of Strategic Marketing, 21, 413–428.
Canhot o, A. I., & Padmana bhan, Y. (2015). “We (don’t) know
how you feel”—A comparative study of automated vs.
manual analysis of social media conversations. Journal of
Marketi ng Management , 31, 1141–1157.
Carroll , C. (2009). Defying a reputational crisis—Cadbury’s
salmonella scare: Why are customers willing to forgive
and forget? Corpo rate Re putat ion Rev iew, 12, 64–82.
Christiansen, L. (2011). Personal privacy and Internet
marketing: An impossible conflict or a marriage made in
heaven? Business Horizons, 54, 509–514.
Christodoulides, G., Jevons, C., & Bonhomme, J. (2012). Memo
to marketers: Quantitative evidence for change: How
user-generated content really aects brands. Journal of
Advert ising Res earch, 52, 53–64.
Cliord, S. (2009, April 14). A video prank at Domino’s damages
its brand. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.
Coombs , W. T. (2007). Protecting organization reputations
during a crisis: The development and application of
situational crisis communication theory. Corporate
Reputa tion Revie w, 10, 163–176.
Davis, J. J., & O’Flaherty, S. (2012). Assessing the accuracy
of automated Twitter sentiment coding. Academy of
Marketi ng Studies Journal, 16, 35–50.
Day, B., Burnice McKay, R., Ishman, M., & Chung, E. (2004). It
will happen again. Managem ent Decision , 42, 822–836.
Deephouse, D. L., & Carter, S. M. (2005). An examination of
dierences between organizational legitimacy and
organizational reputation. Journal of Management
Studies, 42, 3–23.
Dijkmans, C., Kerkhof, P., & Beukeboom, C. J. (2015). A stage
to engage: Social media use and corporate reputation.
Tou r is m M an ag e me nt , 47, 58–67. doi:10.1016/j.
Elliott, D., Harris, K., & Baron, S. (2005). Crisis management
and services marketing. Journal of Services Marketing, 19,
Fombr un, C. J., G ardberg , N. A ., & S ever, J . M. ( 2000). The
reputation quotientsm: A multi-stakeholder measure of
corporate reputation. Journal of Brand Management, 7,
Forsy th, J. (2011). Coee —UK (p. 169). London: Mintel.
Gelbrich, K., & Roschk, H. (2011). A meta-analysis of
organizational complaint handling and customer
responses. Journal of Service Research, 14, 24–43.
Greyser, S. A. (2009). Corporate brand reputation and brand
crisis management. Managem ent Decisio n, 47, 590–602.
Gruner, R. L., Homburg, C., & Lukas, B. A. (2014). Firm-hosted
online brand communities and new product success.
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 42, 29–48.
Hames, M. (2009). What will Domino’s do? Retrieved from
He, W., Zha, S., & Li, L. (2013). Social media competitive
analysis and text mining: A case study in the pizza
industry. International Journal of Information
Management, 33, 464–472.
Jacques, A. (2009). Domino’s delivers during crisis: The
company’s step-by-step response after a vulgar video goes
viral. Retrieved from
Jenkins, H., Ford, S., & Green, J. (2013). Spreadable media—
Creating value and meaning in a networked culture. New
Yor k: New York Un ive rsi ty Pres s.
Jones, B., Temperley, J., & Lima, A. (2009). Corporate reputation
in the era of Web 2.0: The case of Primark. Journal of
Marketi ng Management , 25, 927–939.
Kietzmann, J. H., & Canhoto, A. I. (2013). Bitter–sweet!
Understanding and managing electronic word of mouth.
Journal of Public Aairs, 13, 149–159. doi:10.1002/pa.1470
Kietzmann, J. H., Hermkens, K., McCarthy, I. P., & Silvestre,
B. S. (2011). Social media? Get serious! Understanding
the functional building blocks of social media. Business
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
Page 16 of 16
Canhoto et al., Cogent Business & Management (2015),
2: 1084978
Horizons, 54, 241–251.
Kim, J. W., Choi, J., Qualls, W., & Han, K. (2010). It takes a
marketplace community to raise brand commitment:
The role of online communities. Journal of Marketing
Management, 24, 409–431.
Kim, S.-M., & Hovy, E. (2006, July). Automatic identification of
pro and con reasons in online reviews. Paper presented at
the COLING/ACL, Sydney.
Kozine ts, R. V. (2002). The field behind the screen: Using
netnography for marketing research in online
communities. Journal of Marketing Research, 39, 61–72.
Kozine ts, R. V. (2010). Netnography: Doing ethnographic
research online. London: Sage.
Lardi nois, F. ( 2009). Domino’s: How one YouTube video can ruin
a brand. Retrieved from
Li, J., & Zhan, L. (2011). Online persuasion: How the written
word drives WOM—Evidence from consumer-generated
product reviews. Journal of Advertising Research, 51,
Li, L., Sun, T., Peng, W., & Li, T. (2012, February 21). Measu ring
engagement eectiveness in social media. Paper
presented at the SPIE 8302, Imaging and Printing in a
Web 2.0 World III , Bur ling ame, CA.
Mahon, J. F., & Mitnick, B. M. (2010). Reputation shifting.
Journal of Public Aairs, 10, 280–299.
Martini, A., Massa, S., & Testa, S. (2013). The firm, the platform
and the customer: A “double mangle” interpretation of
social media for innovation. Information and Organization,
23, 198–213.
Marwick, A. (2013). Status update: Celebrity, publicity, and
branding in the social media age. New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press.
Muniz, A. M. J., & O’Guinn, T. C. (2001). Brand community.
Journal of Consumer Research, 27, 412–432.
Nasukawa, T., & Yi, J. (2003). Sentiment analysis: Capturing
favorability using natural language processing. Paper
presented at the 2nd International Conference on
Knowledge Capture, Sanibel, FL.
Nickson, S. (2000). Protecting your good name. Risk
Management, 47, 9.
Nunan, D., & Di Domenico, M. (2013). Market research and
the ethics of big data. International Journal of Market
Research, 55, 505–520.
O’Reilly, N., Rahinel, R., Foster, M., & Patterson, M. (2007).
Connecting in megaclasses: The netnographic advantage.
Journal of Marketing Education, 29, 69–84.
Ritchie, B. W. (2004). Chaos, crises and disasters: A strategic
approach to crisis management in the tourism industry.
Tou r is m M an ag e me nt , 25, 669–683.
Sarno, D., & Semuels, A. (2009, April 20). Ignore the
Twittersphere? Major brands learn that they had better
respond – and qu ick. LA Times. Retrieved from http://
Scott, S. V., & Walsham, G. (2005). Reconceptualizing and
managing reputation risk in the knowledge economy:
Tow ard r ep uta bl e ac ti on. Organization Science, 16,
Sietsema, C. (2009). Real-time reputation management:
Assessing the Domino’s debacle. Retrieved from http://
Solis, B. (2009). The Domino’s eect. Retrieved from http://bub.
Stephens Balakrishnan, M. (2011). Protecting from brand burn
during times of crisis. Managem ent Research Review, 34,
Sterne, J. (2010). Social media analytics: Eective tools for
building, interpreting, and using metrics. London: Wiley.
Sultan, N. (2013). Knowledge management in the age of
cloud computing and Web 2.0: Experiencing the power
of disruptive innovations. International Journal of
Information Management, 33, 160–165.
Tan , R. v. (2010). A crisis management plan is critical for
quick serves. QSR Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.
Tew , P. J ., Lu , Z. , To lo mi cz enk o, G ., & Ge ll at ly, J. ( 2008). SARS:
Lessons in strategic planning for hoteliers and destination
marketers. International Journal of Contemporary
Hospitality Management, 20, 332–346.
Thelwall, M., Buckley, K., & Paltoglou, G. (2011). Sentiment
in Twitter events. Journal of the American Society for
Information Science and Technology, 62, 406–418.
Vand en Berg h, B. G ., Lee, M., Qu illi am, E. T., & Ho ve, T. (2011).
The multidimensional nature and brand impact of user-
generated ad parodies in social media. International
Journal of Advertising, 30, 103–131.
Wart ick, S. L. (1992). The relationship between intense media
exposure and change in corporat e reputation . Business
and Society, 31, 33–49.
Yi, J. , & Nib lack, W. (2005, April). Sentiment mining in
WebF ounta in. Paper presented at the 21st International
Confere nce on Da ta Engine ering, Tokyo.
© 2015 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
You are free to:
Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.
Under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made.
You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
No additional restrictions
You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
Downloaded by [] at 03:07 16 September 2015
... Social media experts believe that publicly addressing the issue on social media can help save the brand's image and credibility. Retailers who have had a crisis and have failed to address the issue made their customers feel upset and ignored (Canhoto et al. 2015). Thus, it is important for retailers to address such a problem right away and apologize for their mistakes (Managing the Reality of Consumers Protesting with Their Wallets 2018). ...
... Over time, people will forget about the crisis, but the peak of the fallout can be detrimental (Pfeffer et al. 2014). Many retailers do not know how to combat negative posts, but they must handle it right away to save their brand's reputation (Canhoto et al. 2015). ...
... Loyal customers that follow a brand can help it to combat negative posts (Pfeffer et al. 2014). These loyal customers are typically trusted by others and can help maintain a positive brand perception during a time of crisis (Canhoto et al. 2015). Kim et al. (2017) found customers with high brand loyalty often feel empathic and defend the retailer during a crisis. ...
Full-text available
Consumers have been advocating for a variety of causes, and in turn, retailers are expressing their political opinions through social-media posts in hopes of aligning with their customers’ views. This study looks at a single case in which customers reacted to a retailer’s political opinion posted on a social media account. Data was collected at the time of the retailer’s political post and up to three years afterward. Content analysis was employed to identify themes from the customer reviews posted, and four themes were identified. Of significance, this study found that customers of a retail store typically merge feelings on the retailer’s product and political post or the retailer’s service and the political post within their social media responses. Thus, a majority of customers in this case were not exclusively focused on battling the political post on social media. Also, a shift in customers’ opinions of the retailer shifted positively over time.
... Such user-generated content may travel quickly on social media and pose reputational threat to an organization (Moretti and Tuan 2015). When the content is noticed and endorsed by a wide range of stakeholders, it may progress into a full-blown crisis (Canhoto et al. 2015;Ott and Theunisse 2015). To preclude a crisis, an organization needs to respond to the threats or risks under potentially the full view of all publics (Moretti and Tuan 2015). ...
... Facing the current media landscape, scholars have discussed the significance of temporal elements in monitoring social media crises on multiple channels (Canhoto et al. 2015). For paracrisis management, understanding of temporal development patterns is also essential. ...
Paracrises, as publicly visible crisis risks, may or may not evolve into full-blown crises that pose severe reputational and/or operational damages. To preclude paracrises’ possible escalation into crises, organizations must evaluate paracrises' evolution statuses and make appropriate public responses. This research explores a paracrisis’ temporal evolution on social media and traditional news media and the roles of social media influencers (SMIs) who impacted the evolution. A multi-method, single-case study of the #DeleteUber paracrisis was conducted to analyze tweets and traditional news media coverage. It is found that despite intense attention from social media and traditional news media, #DeleteUber did not escalate into a full-blown crisis. In addition to social media accounts owned by traditional news media, individuals with limited follower sizes and digital-born media also gained influence by providing objective information and subjective interpretations with different stances. Compared to follower sizes, SMIs’ network structures may be more effective in explaining and predicting their content virality. As one of the few studies examining paracrisis evolution processes, this research is of practical implications to crisis managers addressing crisis risks emerging from and/or spreading on social media.
... A crisis is an unpredictable situation that negatively affects normal functioning and basic structures of business (Canhoto, et al., 2015). Leadership with effective crisis management is required to overcome the crisis condition. ...
... According to (Canhoto, et al., 2015), the crisis is a situation in which basic structures, facilities, and norms are negatively affected due to unexpected changes. A leader's role becomes very important to lead a company during a crisis. ...
Full-text available
There have been various studies regarding the factors that influence the overall performance of medium enterprises. An organization's overall success depends on its employees. Leadership, employee motivation, and management are some important factors that affect an organization. This research deals with the importance of leadership in motivating employees during the pandemic of Covid-19 in medium enterprises within Australia. This study tries to figure out the commonly used leadership style for employee motivation during the crisis of Covid-19 within an organization. The hypothesis discusses leadership theories and their impact on motivating employees in medium enterprises. This research study is planning to use a qualitative method to find an answer to its research problems. Qualitative method is used for collecting and analysing data that is required for the research study. The qualitative method deals with data collection, capturing themes, analysis, recommendations, and obtaining a conclusion based on people's group.
... Esta investigación es una contribución en América Latina, donde existe poco estudio de comunicación de crisis, pese a que la región andina es recurrentemente afectada por desastres asociados a fenómenos naturales como inundaciones, deslizamientos, terremotos y erupciones volcánicas entre otros (Obregón, Arroyave & Barrios, 2009 Coombs (2015ª), la crisis de comunicación por desastre natural alude a esas expectativas informativas que se originan "por desastres naturales y crisis de salud pública" (Coombs, 2015b: 1). Desde ese punto de vista, las redes sociales son medios propicios para comunicar durante la crisis por sus características de rápida actualización y facilidad de compartir información (Procopio & Procopio, 2007;Hilding, 2012;Pimienta, 2014;Canhoto et al., 2015), por la forma directa de comunicar al usuario (Utz & Schultz, 2013 (2013)-, asumen un enfoque experimental para apuntar hacia modelos que prescriban el uso adecuado de las redes sociales en la gestión de las crisis de comunicación. ...
... ;Medina & Losada, 2016;Lee, 2016), por su formato multimedia(Palen, 2008), por descongestionar vías más convencionales de comunicación como las líneas telefónicas(Oliveira & Huertas, 2018) y porque proveen soporte emocional después de una crisis (Mendoza, Poblete y Castillo, 2010; Liu, Austin & Jin, 2011; Qu, Huang, Zhang & Zhang, 2011).Numerosas investigaciones se han dedicado al estudio del uso de las redes sociales en la comunicación de crisis, algunas desde el análisis de casos particulares(Freber, Palenchar & Veil, 2013;Liu, Jin, Briones, & Kuch, 2012;Pimienta, 2014;Gurman & Ellenberger, 2015;Canhoto et al, 2015;Oliveira & Huertas, 2018), con la intención de proponer buenas prácticas, como protocolos 2.0(Martínez, Frazão & Valarezo, 2017), o el modelo STREMII(Stewart & Wilson, 2015) que interconecta seis elementos: vigilancia y escucha social; dirigiéndose a la audiencia apropiada; respondiendo a la crisis y conversación; monitoreando y evaluando resultados; interactuando con consumidores y públicos, implementando los cambios necesarios; este modelo ha sido recientemente evaluado por Stewart y Young ...
Full-text available
En la presente investigación, se toma el terremoto de Manabí (Ecuador) de 2016 como caso de estudio, a partir de la crisis asociada a la pérdida del servicio de telecomunicaciones de la empresa Movistar®. Con este propósito, se desarrolló un experimento con 180 estudiantes universitarios. En el experimento se manipulan las variables tipo de medio y exposición a la crisis y se miden las percepciones alrededor de tres variables dependientes: reputación, reacción de crisis y comunicación secundaria de crisis. Los resultados señalan que los cibermedios siguen siendo más creíbles que Facebook® y Twitter® en la comunicación de crisis; y que los participantes que afrontaron directamente a las afectaciones por el terremoto evaluaron mejor la reputación organizacional de Movistar® y mostraron menos reacciones secundarias. La reputación construida por la empresa, previo a la crisis, y las acciones de RSE después del terremoto pudieran explicar estos resultados.
... The current literature has been found to describe the attributes and advantages of DCM, and numerous empirical studies have been conducted to find the influences of SNM on OPI (Yang et al., 2016;Bolat and O'Sullivan, 2017). Research on the impact of Social Media Content Marketing (SMCM) on brand health indicated that SMCM plays a vital role in brand health since it acts as the inter-connection for a potential customer to grasp the brand's information (Canhoto et al., 2015;Ahmad et al., 2016;Kareem et al., 2016;Mason et al., 2021a). However, no study has investigated the effectiveness of DCM on both immediate and long-term OPI simultaneously. ...
Full-text available
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of Digital Content Marketing (DCM) on a Mixed Reality (MR) training platform environment with the consideration of online purchase intention (OPI) through social media. E-commerce today encounters several common issues that cause customers to have reservations to purchase online. With the absence of physical contact points, customers often perceive more risks when making purchase decisions. Furthermore, online retailers often find it hard to engage customers and develop long-term relationships. In this research, a Structural Equation Model (SEM) is proposed to examine the efficacy of DCM from both immediate and long-term OPI. The results examine whether adopting DCM on an MR training platform environment through social media brings positive results in OPI. Empirical research was carried out through online questionnaires collected in 2021 and 2022. A total of 374 questionnaires were qualified for data analysis in this study, conducted with IBM SPSS and AMOS. The results imply that DCM is critical to stimulating both immediate and long-term OPI. The immediate OPI is positively affected by increasing perceived value through MR in DCM. Regarding the long-term OPI, increased customer engagement with DCM under MR environment can cultivate brand trust and significantly affect the long-term OPI.
... Crisis is an unplanned transformation process, rendering the entire organization into a state of dissolution by threatening its assets, goals and resource, creating tension among the member of the organization due to uncertainties and time pressure, as well as covering a limited time period for removing or minimizing the effects via necessary precautions. According to (Canhoto, et al., 2015), crisis is the situation in which the basic structures, norms are affected negatively due to unexpected developments. According to (Minh Ly-Le, 2015), the crisis is simply an important state of imbalance, destroying the normal activities of the public sectors. ...
Full-text available
The main aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between leadership styles and crisis management in the ministry of planning in Erbil. A quantitative technique used in order to purse the objectives this research. 630 participants were involved in the survey. The findings revealed that the highest value among all leadership styles was charismatic leadership. The study suggested that charismatic leadership has turn out to be rigorous in latest decades and that firms growth tactics usually request modifying during crisis time. The findings of the current study will have a reference value for government institutions and particularly the ministry of planning in Erbil to find appropriate employees for the charismatic leadership style during crisis time.
Full-text available
This research study is to determine the effect of influencers on social media on interest in buying East Java cuisine. This is important so that consumers' perceptions of the reliability of influencer advertising on social media are known and their effect on audience interest in buying. An influencer's specific strategies and skills that must be adapted to attract consumer purchase intention to be effective across social media are important. This study was designed to examine and analyze the effectiveness of influencer promotions broadcast on social media in attracting consumer purchase intentions. The sample used was 225 respondents who were actively using social media in East Java, consisting of 130 female participants, 95 male participants, and most of them aged 18 to 24 years. Respondents' ratings illustrate that influencers who build their honesty and trustworthiness can change consumer behavior and purchase intentions. Attractiveness and relationship with the product there is a match. Optimism and agreement with the differences in the effectiveness of an influencer's advertising on consumer purchase intentions are also the focus of consumer assessments. The influencer's expertise which is reflected in knowledge and ability also has an impact on purchase intention. The perception of female respondents towards culinary promotions in East Java by influencers is more than that of men, this is due to the frequency of using the internet. Optimism and agreement with the differences in the effectiveness of an influencer's advertising on consumer purchase intentions are also the focus of consumer assessments. The influencer's expertise which is reflected in knowledge and ability also has an impact on purchase intention. The perception of female respondents towards culinary promotions in East Java by influencers is more than that of men, this is due to the frequency of using the internet. Optimism and agreement with the differences in the effectiveness of an influencer's advertising on consumer purchase intentions are also the focus of consumer assessments. The influencer's expertise which is reflected in knowledge and ability also has an impact on purchase intention. The perception of female respondents towards culinary promotions in East Java by influencers is more than that of men, this is due to the frequency of using the internet.
The study aims to determine consumers' perception of the advertising efficacy of social media influencers regarding their purchase intention. The researcher believes that specific strategies and skills should be customised to attract consumers' buying intention for an influencer to be effective across social media. The study adopted the "social media influencer questionnaire" developed by Xin Jean Lim. It is an organised questionnaire designed to assess and analyse the effectiveness of social media influencers connected to consumers' purchase intention. A total of 200 respondents from NCR, Metro Manila, participate in this study, with 129 female participants, 71 male participants and mostly from 18 to 24 years old. The respondents' assessment implies that an influencer who establishes most of their honesty and is trustworthy can change consumers' behaviour and purchase intention. Attractiveness and relationships with the product are seen to be also adequate. The respondents' assessment also implies that there is an optimistic and agreeable attitude towards the different advertising efficacy of an influencer for the purchase intention of consumers. Furthermore, there is a significant relationship between the advertising effectiveness and purchase intention of consumers. Female respondents have a higher perception of social media influencers than male respondents because women use the internet more often.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Social media has become an increasingly important means of communicating for governments, practitioners, and activists in the Inter-American Development Bank’s borrowing member countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. This Technical Note, commissioned as part of the IDB’s strategic review of gender mainstreaming (Betts, Castillo Páez, and Kearney 2016), summarizes the relevant social media analysis methodology and reports the results of a pilot study to understand and describe communication related to gender issues on Facebook, Twitter, and blogs in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico. The pilot was conducted over a month-long period in November and December of 2015. This Technical Note analyzes the timing, content, and network structure of the captured communications from each country. It finds that social media can be a valuable communication and listening tool, but that usage patterns vary substantially from country to country. Understanding the characteristics of the network is critical to understanding when to communicate, how to communicate, and with whom to communicate.
Full-text available
The ever-growing volume of brand-related conversations on social media platforms has captivated the attention of academics and practitioners, as the analysis of those conversations promises to offer unparalleled insight into consumers’ emotions. This article takes a step back from the hype, and investigates the vulnerabilities related to the analysis of social media data concerning consumers’ sentiment. A review of the literature indicates that the form, focus, source and context of the communication may negatively impact on the analyst’s ability to identify sentiment polarity and emotional state. Likewise, the selection of analytical tool, the creation of codes, and the classification of the data, adversely affect the researcher’s ability to accurately assess the sentiment expressed in a social media conversation. Our study of Twitter conversations about coffee shows low levels of agreement between manual and automated analysis, which is of grave concern given the popularity of the latter in consumer research.
Full-text available
The term 'big data' has recently emerged to describe a range of technological and commercial trends enabling the storage and analysis of huge amounts of customer data, such as that generated by social networks and mobile devices. Much of the commercial promise of big data is in the ability to generate valuable insights from collecting new types and volumes of data in ways that were not previously economically viable. At the same time a number of questions have been raised about the implications for individual privacy. This paper explores key perspectives underlying the emergence of big data, and considers both the opportunities and ethical challenges raised for market research.
Social media have provided consumers with numerous outlets for disseminating their brand-related comments. Given the impact of these comments on brand image and brand success, marketers have begun to rely on third-party companies to automatically track, collect and analyze these comments with regard to their content and sentiment. There is, however, an absence of controlled research which objectively and systematically assesses the accuracy of these companies automated sentiment coding. This research evaluated the automated sentiment coding accuracy and misclassification errors of six leading third-party companies for a broad range of comment types and forms. Overall, automated sentiment coding appears to have limited reliability and appears to be accurately accomplished only for very simple statements in which a keyword is used to convey its typical meaning. Statements without keywords or statements in which keyword meaning is reversed through negation or context are accurately coded at very low levels. Neutral statements appear to be problematic for some, but not all, companies. Implications of the research for the use of automated sentiment analysis for brand decisionmaking are presented.
Social media technologies such as YouTube, Twitter, and Facebook promised a new participatory online culture. Yet, technology insider Alice Marwick contends in this insightful book, "Web 2.0" only encouraged a preoccupation with status and attention. Her original research-which includes conversations with entrepreneurs, Internet celebrities, and Silicon Valley journalists-explores the culture and ideology of San Francisco's tech community in the period between the dot com boom and the App store, when the city was the world's center of social media development.Marwick argues that early revolutionary goals have failed to materialize: while many continue to view social media as democratic, these technologies instead turn users into marketers and self-promoters, and leave technology companies poised to violate privacy and to prioritize profits over participation. Marwick analyzes status-building techniques-such as self-branding, micro-celebrity, and life-streaming-to show that Web 2.0 did not provide a cultural revolution, but only furthered inequality and einforced traditional social stratification, demarcated by race, class, and gender.
The following conversation is an edited excerpt from a broader roundtable discussion, organized and moderated by Cinema Journal between June and July 2013. In this section, the conversation focuses on popular culture, fans, and niche cultures. The contributors responded to a series of prompts that asked them to consider the relationship between Spreadable Media and past and current work in fan studies (including Henry Jenkins’s Textual Poachers and Convergence Culture).1 Participants also explore Spreadable Media’s relationship to fan studies scholarship and ask whether Spreadable Media represents a shift in the way we think of fans in relationship to popular culture. The full conversation addresses Spreadable Media’s engagement with questions of transmedia, digital culture, and online social activism more broadly, and it will be published online in an upcoming edition of Transformative Works and Cultures. [End Page 152] Although Spreadable Media is ultimately not a fan studies book, nor does it try to be, it purposefully engages the concept of the fan and thus gets read in conjunction with fan scholarship, including Jenkins’s previous works, Textual Poachers and Convergence Culture. Given that trajectory and the way the book repeatedly deploys specific examples of fan activities within its larger project, it raises the question as to how Spreadable Media uses the fan and how it engages with fan scholarship. Looking at the way Spreadable Media stretches the concept of being a fan to a point of seeming unrecognizability, I would suggest that the book is ultimately not interested in fans, except what they tell us about larger audiences. There are obviously strategic reasons to expand the term fan from the narrow confines that Henry Jenkins’s earlier Textual Poachers set out. In the intervening years, many aspects of fandom have mainstreamed, a move that Henry has both described extensively and partly helped bring about. There are many benefits to conceptualizing active audiences as fans, but I’d like to look at some of the drawbacks. In particular, I’d like to look at what happens when the definition of fan changes from one based on identity to one based on action. I’d like to look at what gets left out when the definition of fan is as broadly conceived as it is in Spreadable Media, when any “like” click on Facebook, any forwarding of a YouTube link, constitutes a fan activity. I am concerned that such a broadening of the concept facilitates a shift from the fans studied in Textual Poachers to general audiences. Such a shift moves the focus away from the marginal media fan, who was mostly commercially nonviable, often resistant, and uncooperative, and whose dedication to a gift economy was often in spite of capitalist alternatives and not because they didn’t exist. In its stead, the fans who take center stage in Spreadable Media are the commercializable audiences, who happily seem to collaborate in their own exploitation, free laborers creating value of which they cannot even assume ownership. What gets excluded and marginalized in Spreadable Media, then, are the very founders of the concept of fan, the unruly and aggressively anticommercial, the queered and sexually explicit, the anticapitalist and anticopyright. What gets excluded are the audiences whose practices may have been adapted and adopted and celebrated but whose presence is ultimately not desired in this brand-new, commercially viable fan universe. Spreadable Media acknowledges this danger: “We all should be vigilant over what gets sacrificed, compromised, or co-opted by media audiences as part of this process of mainstreaming the activities and interests of cult audiences.”2 But when reading through the chapters, I am distressed by observing that very compromise the authors warn against. I fear the actual driving force of...
Consumer-generated product reviews are important sources of information for producers and consumers. This research includes two studies designed to investigate how language style, organizational structure, and other content features affect the perceived helpfulness of online product reviews. In study 1, researchers analyzed a data set of online product reviews regarding a consumer electronic device and identified content characteristics shared by helpful reviews. Study 2 used an experimental approach to probe the boundary conditions under which specific content features may or may not influence review helpfulness.