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Message design is an interdisciplinary area of knowledge. Good design is simple, bold, and direct. It provides rational, functional aesthetics, as well as effective and efficient layouts for all media. A group of design disciplines all deal with the design of messages. The main components in message design are words, visuals and forms. These main components may be used in many different ways to design , produce, transmit and interpret messages.
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Peersson - Introducon to Message Design
Journal of Visual Literacy, 2012
Volume 31, Number 2, ____
Introduction to Message Design
Rune Pettersson
Retired Professor of Information Design
Tullinge, Sweden
Abstract
Message design is an interdisciplinary area of knowledge. Good
design is simple, bold, and direct. It provides rational, functional
aesthetics, as well as effective and efcient layouts for all media. A
group of design disciplines all deal with the design of messages. The
main components in message design are words, visuals and forms.
These main components may be used in many different ways to de-
sign, produce, transmit and interpret messages.
Keywords: Design principles, design processes, design tools,
graphic design, information design, instruction design, mass design,
message design, persuasion design
Journal of Visual Literacy, Volume 31, Number 2
A
Introduction
The concept design science is a large eld of academic research, education
and training. There are common problem areas regardless of what we design.
In a common terminology the top level may be named “Families.” Next level
may be called ”Genera.” The third level is “Species” (or disciplines). In ve
design families the classication depend on the purpose with the design. We
can design artifacts, different messages, performances, systems and process-
es, and our own environments. These design families are called: 1) Artifact
design. 2) Message design. 3) Performance design. 4) Systems design or sys-
tems development. 5) Environment design. 6) Design philosophy. A group of
design disciplines all deal with the design of messages.
Design of Messages
Several denitions of the term message may be summarized as: A message
is information content conveyed from a sender to a receiver in a single con-
text on one occasion. In principle the term message is valid for all media. Dif-
ferent combinations of linguistic expressions are usually employed in mass
communications. For example, a newspaper generally uses both the printed
word and different kinds of pictures. A television programme employs words,
images and sounds, such as music.
The main components in message design are words, visuals and forms.
These main components may be used in many different ways to design, pro-
duce, transmit and interpret messages. Depending on different objectives of
messages we can see ve different “message design genera.” These groups
are: 1) Graphic design. 2) Information design. 3) Instruction design. 4) Mass
design. 5) Persuasion design.
Message design encompasses inuences and facts from more than fty
established academic disciplines. The main areas may be divided into groups
with “base disciplines.” These groups are: 1) Language disciplines. 2) Art
and aesthetic disciplines. 3) Information disciplines. 4) Communication dis-
ciplines. 5) Behavioral and cognitive disciplines. 6) Business and law. 7) Me-
dia production technology disciplines. 8) Society. 9) Individuals (Figure 1).
This “message design model” shows that different areas of knowledge
inuence and contribute to a central part, message design. The ovals in the
illustration above, representing the various disciplines, are not sharp and dis-
tinct. All borders are rather blurred, unclear, and indistinct. Furthermore, the
model is not intended to show any exact relationships between the “base
disciplines.” The importance and inuence of these base disciplines differ
between various design areas.
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Peersson - Introducon to Message Design
Figure 1. Message design (MD) is interdisciplinary and encompasses inu-
encse and facts from many established disciplines.
All message design disciplines have got a theoretical as well as a practi-
cal component and message designers need to have theoretical knowledge
as well as practical skills. In order to perform sound reections and make a
qualied reection regarding theory and practice, we need concepts both to
structure our thoughts, and to describe them verbally.
Graphic Design
Although we may not think about it, the practice of graphic design is
as old as recorded history. We see the results of graphic design (GD) every
day. We see books, magazines, packages, papers, posters, symbols, and many
other products.
Within a given area, such as a computer screen, a label, a page in a book,
a poster, a projected image or a screen, the designer may alter the design
of headings, margins, ornaments, pictures, space, symbols, text and words.
Deliberate typographic variation is used to present the content in the text in
a clear way.
In graphic design the main objective is to provide functional, aesthetic,
and organized structure to groups of diverse graphical elements. The indi-
vidual information interpreters might be seen as “readers” or ”viewers.” They
may develop attention, awareness, emotions, relaxation, understanding and
views. In the writing of graphic design objectives it may be an advantage
to use verbs like nd, identify, read, and recognize. These verbs all denote
Journal of Visual Literacy, Volume 31, Number 2
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observable behavior. An example of a performance objective for a table may
be: “100% of the users should be able to nd the time for departure of the
train to XY.”
Information Design
In order to satisfy the information needs of the intended receiver’s
information design (ID) comprises analysis, planning, presentation and
understanding of a message – its content, form and language. Regardless of the
selected medium, a well-designed information material, with its message, will
satisfy aesthetic, economic, ergonomic, as well as subject matter requirements.
Information design is complementary to information technology in the
same way as architectural design is complementary to building technology.
Information design has its origin and roots in: 1) Graphic design. 2) Education
and teaching. 3) Architecture and engineering, or rather construction and
production.
As an area of knowledge information design rests on a foundation, which
can be expressed in four basic statements: 1) ID is multi-disciplinary. 2) ID
is multi-dimensional. 3) Theory and practice co-operate in ID. 4) There are
no rm rules in ID.
In information design the main goal is clarity of communication. We
may also expect presentations to be aesthetically pleasing, and in some cases
also intellectually rewarding. To fulll this main goal all messages must be
accurately designed, produced and distributed, and later correctly interpreted
and understood by most of the members of the intended audience. We can note
a paradigm shift from the old and traditional focus on printed information sets
to a focus on digitally stored information sets.
The main objective is to provide information materials needed by the
interpreter in order to perform specic tasks. The information interpreters
might be seen as “doers.” They may develop experience, new skills and
understanding. In the writing of information design objectives it may be an
advantage to use verbs like apply, arrange, assemble, build, change, code,
complete, compose, conduct, construct, cut, demonstrate, develop, draw,
explain, nd, generate, get, identify, illustrate, install, label, locate, make,
modify, name, operate, pack, paste, predict, prepare, produce, put, read,
recognize, reconstruct, remove, revise, sort, specify, start, type, verify, and
write. These verbs all denote observable behavior. An example of a performance
objective for a trafc information system: “100% of motorists should recognize
the signs while they are passing during night.”
Today Communication design, Information design, and Presentation
design are more or less different names for the same area of knowledge.
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Peersson - Introducon to Message Design
Instruction Design
The term instruction design (InD) is an umbrella term bringing related
instruction areas together. Instruction design includes parts of the areas audio-
visual instruction, educational technology, instructional technology, visual
literacy, technology of instruction, instructional design, instructional message
design, and design of instructional materials. Instruction design includes
main aspects from several areas dealing with instruction and learning, but
with different emphasis and from different perspectives. Within each area
the various denitions and descriptions have changed over time, which is
sometimes confusing.
In instruction design the receiver is (normally) supposed to learn
from the message. The main intentions are to provide courses, lessons and
materials intended for learning. The interpreter/s may develop comprehension,
experience, understanding, knowledge, insight, and nally wisdom. We can
note a paradigm shift from the old and traditional focus on teaching to a focus
on learning.
It may be an advantage to use verbs like apply, arrange, complete, compose,
conduct, construct, dene, demonstrate, explain, nd, identify, illustrate, label,
modify, name, predict, prepare, recognize, reconstruct, revise, specify, verify,
and write in the writing of instruction design objectives. These verbs all denote
observable behavior. An example of a performance objective for an exercise
may be: 100% of the students should be able to complete the exercise within
15 minutes.
Today Instructional design, Instructional message design, and Instructional
technology are more or less different names for the same area of knowledge.
Mass Design
The term mass design is an umbrella term bringing related mass design
areas together. This group could also be labeled “entertainment design.” Mass
design includes aspects from communication studies, mass-communication,
media studies, photography, and journalism. Thus it is a very diverse and large
eld. Main intentions with the “messages” are to provide entertainment, news
and views to large audiences for movies, newspapers, radio and television. We
can note a paradigm shift from the old and traditional focus on mass distribution
to a focus on serving the individuals with specic materials.
The individual information interpreters might be seen as “relaxers.” In
mass design it may be an advantage to use verbs like feel, laugh, look, read, and
relax. These verbs all denote observable behavior. An example of a performance
objective for entertainment on television may be: “80% of the viewers should
have fun and laugh at the jokes.”
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Persuasion Design
The term persuasion design is an umbrella term bringing the related
persuasive areas together. Persuasion design includes main aspects from
advertising, persuasive communication, planned communication, and
propaganda.
Persuasion design comprises studies on carefully planned information
activities, where the goals are related to some kind of change in the behavior
of the receivers. Receivers are typically asked to do something. Ads may
ask people to go to church, stop smoking or to vote in an election. Often the
intention is to persuade them to buy an attitude, a product or a specic service.
Persuasion is used so frequently and is so pervasive in our daily lives that we
often fail to recognize when we are using persuasive communication, as well
as when we are exposed to it.
As a minimal condition, to be labeled as ”persuasive,” a communication
situation must involve a conscious attempt by one individual to change the
attitudes behavior or beliefs of another individual or group of individuals
through the transmission of messages. The information interpreter might be
seen as a “possible buyer”, a “prospect”. In the writing of performance design
objectives it may be an advantage to use verbs like appreciate, believe, buy,
change (behavior), desire, dread, fear, feel (relaxed), hate, and have (fun).
An example of a performance objective in persuasion design may be:
50% of the readers should buy the new consumer product within two weeks.
Preliminary and Designed Messages
The term design refers to a deliberate and systematic process of analysis
and synthesis that 1) begins with the identifying of a problem, 2) comprises the
intellectual creative effort of an originator, and 3) concludes with a concrete
plan or blueprint for a solution. This product may be drawings, plans, schemes
and specications. (It is not printed manuals or other information sets.)
Theory and Practice
Like the two faces of a coin infography and infology are the two main
components of message design. The theoretical component of message
design is called infology. It is the science of verbal and visual presentation
and interpretation of messages. On the basis of man’s prerequisites, infology
encompasses studies of the way a combined verbal and visual representation
should be designed and produced in order to achieve optimum communication
between a sender and an intended group of receivers.
Infology models contain both theoretical (descriptive) elements as
well as normative (prescriptive) elements. Producers of information and
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Peersson - Introducon to Message Design
learning materials can facilitate communication, and the learning processes
of the receivers. Complicated language, in both texts and pictures, will
impair the understanding of the message. Active voice, attention, clarity,
comprehensibility, consistency, emphasis, information ethics, legibility,
memory, perception, precision, processing, quality, readability, reading value,
simplicity, structure, and unity are all key concepts. Any graphic message
should be legible, readable, and well worth reading for the intended audience.
Any audio message should be audible, distinct, and well worth listening to.
Any message with moving pictures should be audible, distinct, well worth
listening to and viewing.
The practical component of message design is called infography.
It is the actual, practical work with design and execution of structured
combinations of audio, pictures, texts, video, and graphic design. Therefore
a designer of messages needs to have good skills in writing comprehensible,
clear and consistent texts, in creating clear illustrations, and in creating a
clear, transparent typography and layout that will aid attention, perception,
interpretation, understanding and learning for the intended receiver. The task of
designing complete information materials may often be far too overwhelming
for one single individual. For that reason a team of people, with skills in
different areas, are often working close together.
Message Design Processes
Several activities are involved when an intended message is communicated
from a sender to a receiver, and received as an internalized message. These
processes are guided by principles, performed with the help of tools and
inuenced by the social context (Figure 2).
Models for design processes include cognitive as well as practical activities
and aspects. My own “message design model” and “information design model”
include the following four process activities: 1) Analysis and synopsis. 2)
Production of draft. 3) Production of script. 4) Production of original and
master. Each activity includes a design sub-process, activity documentation,
and a review process (Figure 3).
A “sender” or ”information provider” may be anyone who wants to
convey a message to one or more receivers. Sometimes the sender engages an
information designer to design the messages and develop information materials.
A “representation” is a medium with a specic message. It is the link
between the sender and the intended receiver. Each medium has its particular
advantages and disadvantages. It is always important to select the most suitable
medium to carry the intended message.
Journal of Visual Literacy, Volume 31, Number 2
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Figure 2. MDesign processes are guided by design principles and performed
with the help of design tools and always inuenced by the social context.
The goal is to produce some kind of master for production of a number of
artifacts.
Figure 3. Message design processes include production (P1) of analysis and
synopsis (1), production (P2) of draft (2), production (P3) of script (3), pro-
duction of (P4) original (4) and master (5). Each process activity includes a
review process (R1-R4), C=Commission.
There are literally many thousands of possible groups of “receivers,”
“audiences,” or ”information interpreters.” The more information we have
on a particular group, the greater our ability is to address this group in such a
way that our messages are understood. Receiver processes include search and
selection of information, and mental processing of information. People do not
derive the same information and understanding from things they hear, read,
or see. The meaning of any message, verbal or visual, is resident not only in
words, visuals, shapes and colors, but to a large degree in ourselves.
Factors inside the medium provide an inner context. In a book it is the
relationships between headings, illustrations, margins, tables, texts and other
elements of graphic design. Movies and television programs have images,
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Peersson - Introducon to Message Design
music, sound effects, speech, and maybe texts. The inner context is an internal
context. When we read a book or view projected images the lighting in the
room may exemplify the close context. The entire communication situation,
i.e., the senders and the intentions of the message, the receivers and their
circumstances all provide the social context. Each context will inuence our
interpretations of the message. The close context and the social context are
both external contexts.
Several authors have pointed out that form follows function. Thus the
content of the message is more important than the actual execution of the
message. Therefore, we should always begin by dening what any message
is supposed to show. What is the problem we want to solve? The information
in each message will have to be structured and adapted to the needs of the
intended listeners, readers or viewers.
An originator, like an author, a designer, an illustrator and a painter, may
want to tell somebody something. Then he or she has got an “intended message”
as well as one or more mental images to communicate. By creating a number of
physical outlines or sketches the originator is able to explain and demonstrate
her or his mental images. These outlines include “preliminary messages” and
they seldom reach any large audience. The mental and creative process, and
the physical and practical work make it possible for an illustrator and a painter
to make an original drawing or an original painting. This nished original has
got a “designed message.” Each person looking at the nal design will create
an individual “interpretation of the message.”
Message Design Principles
A number of authors have offered design principles in different areas, such
as data graphics, general design, graphic design, message design, instructional
design, instructional message design, information design, and persuasion
design. Some principles are general, while others are specic. However, all
message design principles should contribute to the design of effective and
efcient messages.
My own studies of processes of message design and information design
resulted in 16 design principles and 150 guidelines to be used in the production
of information and learning materials as well as in instructions.
Functional principles. This group includes the following six principles:
1). Dening the problems. 2) Providing structure. 3) Providing clarity.
4) Providing simplicity. 5) Providing emphasis. 6) Providing unity.
Administrative principles. This group includes the following
four principles: 1) Infor-mation access. 2) Information costs. 3)
Information ethics. 4) Securing quality.
Journal of Visual Literacy, Volume 31, Number 2
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Aesthetic principles. This group includes the following two principles:
1) Harmony. 2) Aesthetic proportion.
Cognitive principles. This group includes the following four
principles: 1) Facilitating attention. 2) Facilitating perception. 3)
Facilitating processing. 4) Facilitating memory.
A number of authors have noted that it is not possible to provide any rm
rules for design. Several say: “It Depends.” It depends on the audience, on
the context, on the economy, on the medium, on the message, and more. Too
many factors inuence design. In each case the message designer must be able
to analyze and understand the problem, and nd one or more practical
design solutions.
There is only one rule! Any message designer must respect copyright
as well as other laws and regulations that are related to design, production,
distribution, storage, and use of the nal artifacts. This concerns the use of
artwork, illustrations, logos, lyrics, music, photographs, specic sounds,
symbols, text, and trademarks. It is also very important to respect different
ethical rules, media-specific ethical guidelines, and honor all business
agreements.
Message Design Tools
The design process, with its sub-processes, is performed with message
design tools that are suitable for the type of representation that is selected during
an early phase of the work. Main message design tools include graphic design
(layout and typography), pictures (drawings, lms and photographs), sound
(music, sound effects and speech), symbols, and text (printed and spoken).
These tools have different properties that offer and restrict the foundations
for communication.
The systems of rules that govern verbal language, spoken and written, are
similar in many ways. Originally, writing was a way of depicting speech, but the
two coded systems have later followed separate courses. Verbal languages have
digital coding using combinations of letters (including numerals) to represent
content. There is no direct correspondence between groups of letters, words,
and reality. Each meaning is dened and must be learned. The properties of
letters are limited. A letter has a given position in an alphabet. It has a name.
It is represented by one or more sounds and is used in a specic context.
A written text works well when the content of the message is analytical,
detailed, logical, narrative, sequential, and theoretical. The text can describe
facts as well as feelings as long as the language is comprehensible for the
intended audience. People usually have no difculty in reading the jargon
used in professional or technical languages but understanding the concepts that
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Peersson - Introducon to Message Design
the words represent may be difcult for a non-specialist. The more abstract a
word is the harder it is to relate it to any specic activity. The use of images
does not always automatically improve the achievements of the learners. For
some objectives text is enough.
Visual languages have analogue coding employing combinations of basic
graphic elements (dots, lines, areas, and volumes). A given set of basic elements
can be combined to form completely different images. Visual languages attempt
equivalence with reality. Visuals are iconic and normally resemble the thing
they represent. It may take only a few seconds to recognize the content in an
image. Meaning is apparent on a basic level, but the visual language must be
learned for true comprehension. Pictures can have a positive, a neutral, and
also a negative effect on learning.
Visual messages are superior to verbal messages when content is
emotional, holistic, immediate, spatial and visual. Images and visual language
speak directly to us in the same way experience speaks to us: holistically
and emotionally. Factors in visual language are related to criteria such as the
content and execution of a visual, its context and format, and the subsequent
perception, learning, and memory. Content is more important than execution,
context, and format. Pictures have a strong emotional impact.
The effectiveness of a visual depends on the medium, on the type of
information, and also on the amount of time learners are permitted to interact
with the material. All types of visuals are not equally effective. Line drawings
are most effective in formats where the learner’s study time is limited. More
realistic versions of artwork, however, may be more effective in formats where
unlimited study time is allowed.
Texts and pictures represent different languages that complement each
other when they are used at the same time. Both text and images can be
designed, presented, perceived and interpreted in many different ways. The
possibilities for using typography and layout, and for combining texts and
pictures are virtually unlimited. The interplay between text, picture, and graphic
form needs to be studied thoroughly before optimal combinations can be found.
There are always several opportunities to convey a message.
References
Pettersson, R. (2013). Information Design 1. Message Design. Tullinge:
Institute for Infology.
Pettersson, R. (2013). Information Design 2. Text Design. Tullinge:
Institute for Infology.
Pettersson, R. (2013). Information Design 3. Image Design. Tullinge:
Institute for Infology.
Pettersson, R. (2013). Information Design 4. Graphic Design. Tullinge:
Journal of Visual Literacy, Volume 31, Number 2
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Institute for Infology.
Pettersson, R. (2013). Information Design 5-. Tullinge:
Institute for Infology.
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Behaviour change theories have been documented and explored by social and behavioural researchers for some time over the decades. Behaviour change theories are useful in understanding why people act the way they do and why behaviours change. These theories are helpful to guide behaviour program design and help you focus on what or who to address in your program. These theories deals with different set of factors to explain behavioural change and area of focus—the individual, their intention to change their behaviour or their surrounding environment. The theories provide appropriate design of behaviour change interventions and its socio-ecological approach in changing human behaviour. There are also behaviour theories published in literature that proposes moving away from the individual to focus on the behaviour itself, or relationships between behaviour, individuals and the social and physical environments in which they occur. These theories of innovation (such as diffusion of innovation, and disruptive innovation theories), focuses on behaviours themselves as agents of change. There other theories that come from sociological, anthropological, and geographical research described as social practice theory and socio-technical systems, has tended to focus on behaviour as an outcome of complex inter-relationships and shared social practice. These theories suggest that individuals perform or reproduce behaviours, which are a product of relationships between people, their environment, and the technology that surrounds them. In this sense, objects and environments become active in the production of behaviour. These theories draw heavily on social theory. Literature emphasis that analysis of behaviour is profoundly political and research often reflects the structures and complexities of the behaviour it seeks to investigate. Certain formulations of behaviour are clearly easier to integrate with current dominant paradigms of policy and policy-making
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This experimental investigation considers how the inherent conceptual structure of external representations influences individuals' knowledge structure, and in addition proposes a measure of global collective knowledge to account for the influence of pre-existing knowledge structure. In two studies, undergraduates in a hospitality management course completed a pre-knowledge structure (pre KS) measure, a prior knowledge pretest, then read parallel versions of either a text or a table about the Internet of Things, then completed a post knowledge structure (post KS) measure, and finally completed a comprehension posttest. Analysis of the comprehension posttest data showed that the text group significantly outperformed the table group (p < .05) mainly due to performance on factual and main idea items, but not inference items. The pre- and post-KS data were analyzed as Pathfinder networks. Descriptive comparisons of between group networks (group–group) and within group networks (pre-post) showed that the table and text between-group networks were quite alike before reading and were even more alike after reading (i.e., peer convergence of local collective knowledge structure). The within-group network overlap from pre-to-post was also substantial. In addition, pre-to-post similarity with the expert shows the text group networks became more like the expert referent but the table group networks became less like the expert referent. Exploratory findings for this global collective knowledge network approach based on Google Ngram frequency dependencies were partially supported. For theory building, the results show how the influence of external representations can be framed in terms of a representation's inherent conceptual structure. For practice, this list-wise measure for eliciting knowledge structure provides a quick way to elicit individual and group-level knowledge structure networks that can be used in ordinary classrooms for formative and summative assessment.
Research
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This study using Research and Development Method (R&D) aims to develop infographics for promoting Patum's culture and tourism in Phrao District, Chiangmai Province. The study employs a research method using 3 instruments including 1) interview form to seek the needs of topics and scopes from 40 Patum's local people for promoting Patum's area as an important learning resource and cultural tourism destination in Chiang Mai 2) assessment form for evaluating the quality and appropriateness of 8 infographics from 3 experts, and 3) questionnaires to investigate values and satisfactions of using these infographics from 92 participants. Purposive random sampling was used to select the participants in each instrument. The descriptive analysis was used to describe the quantitative data including frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. Meanwhile, the content analysis was used to classify the qualitative data into themes. This research found that; 1) The needs of topics and scopes related to promote Patum's culture and tourism include 8 topics. 2) The overall quality and appropriateness of the 8 infographics are at a very high level, excepted the topic "Fermented soybean: Authentic Patum's food" is at a high level (X ̅=4.33). 3) Six values of using the infographics include 1) self-knowledge creation 2) benefit to education sector 3) historical understanding 4) Arts, culture, religion and belief promotion 5) tourism promotion, and 6) aesthetic. 4) The overall participants' satisfaction of using the infographics is at a high level (x ̅=4.46). This research is important as it provides 8 infographics for promoting Patum's area as a significant learning resource and cultural tourism destination in Chiang Mai province. This also helps further development in Patum's area in terms of making and distributing local people incomes. Moreover, the knowledge from this research can provide a foundation for further researches in information visualization and related fields.
Conference Paper
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The learning process in an online learning environment is complicated among online learners due to the long and wide learning structure. The more elongated learning structure will create many tasks to be performed by the learners. This situation leads to poor time management for online learners. A proper instructional strategy will make a meaningful learning structure with a significant task. Message design can be part of lesson design because it contributes information required by the interpreter to perform specific tasks. In performing the task, the learners tend to interact aggressively through the medium. Open University Malaysia (OUM) have practices blended and online learning for almost nineteen years since it's established in 2001. The long journey of experiencing the two modes of education have achieved its maturity in practising online learning to the learners. The learner's cognitive ability to the learning resources is among the issues that are needed to be resolved. The learning resources' design and development are considered part of the 'back-end' process before the learning process. Some resources might not be working due to a lack of pedagogical input during the design process. This study intends to determine an essential indicator in designing an interactive on-line learning prototype (IOLP). The method of developing IOLP is based on the message design logic by Hullman (2004) and Pettersson (2012). The task in IOLP is designed based on an adaptive learning approach. This study will report on the effects of the components in IOLP synthesised from Hullman (2004) and Pettersson (2012) that is translated into the learning process embedded into appropriate pedagogical input. The analytic learning data from the Moodle-based Learning Management System report is used to measure the learner's cognitive ability on IOLP
Chapter
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This paper reports the findings of a Systematic Literature Review of extant literature on Recommender Systems (RS) and message design. By identifying, analyzing and synthesizing relevant studies, we aim to generate a contemporary mapping of studies related to user-RS interaction, extend the body of knowledge regarding effective recommendation messages, inform practitioners about the effect of recommendation message design choices on the user’s experience, and motivate researchers to conduct related future research on new RS message factors identified in the literature. To conduct this SLR, 132 papers were collected and analyzed; after assessing their relevance and quality, 41 papers were selected, classified, interpreted and synthesized under a strict methodology producing the results reported in this paper, and concluding with a concept matrix outlining opportunities for future research on how to optimize the design of RS in support of a managerial decision-making context.
Book
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Message design is an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. It encompasses influences and facts from more than fifty established disciplines and areas of research. The main areas of research may be divided into six groups with “base disciplines” such as language, art and aesthetics, information, communication, behaviour and cognition, business and law, as well as media production technologies. The main components in message design are words, visuals and forms. These main components may be used in many different ways to produce, transmit and interpret messages of various kinds in different communication situations. Depending on the different objectives of the messages we can see different “message design genera.” These groups are graphic design, information design, instruction design, mass design, and persuasion design. Message design principles contribute to the design of effective and efficient messages. You can download the previous edition of this book from IIID Public Library < http://www.iiid.net/public-library/iiid-library/ > (almost at the bottom of the page). IIID will soon upload the new editions here./Rune Pettersson
Book
Full-text available
In this book the focus is on graphic design. The practice of graphic design is as old as recorded history. The purpose of work with graphic design is to find a suitable presentation for the content with respect to the receiver, the subject matter, the medium, and the financial situation. Within a given area, such as a page in a book, a poster, a label, a computer screen, or a projected image the designer may alter the design of headings, margins, ornaments, pictures, space, symbols, and text. Graphic design is used as an important “tool” in the other four parts of message design. The most fundamental design technique is reduction. In graphic design the main objective is to provide functional, aesthetic, and organised structure to all kinds of information sets. You can download the previous edition of this book from IIID Public Library < http://www.iiid.net/public-library/iiid-library/ > (almost at the bottom of the page). IIID will soon upload the new editions here./Rune Pettersson
Information Design 1. Message Design. Tullinge: Institute for Infology
  • R Pettersson
Pettersson, R. (2013). Information Design 1. Message Design. Tullinge: Institute for Infology.
Information Design 2. Text Design. Tullinge: Institute for Infology
  • R Pettersson
Pettersson, R. (2013). Information Design 2. Text Design. Tullinge: Institute for Infology.
Information Design 3. Image Design. Tullinge: Institute for Infology
  • R Pettersson
Pettersson, R. (2013). Information Design 3. Image Design. Tullinge: Institute for Infology.
Information Design 5-. Tullinge: Institute for Infology
  • R Pettersson
Pettersson, R. (2013). Information Design 5-. Tullinge: Institute for Infology.