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FISHING THROUGH TIME. Archaeoichthyology, Biodiversity, Ecology and Human Impact on Aquatic Environments. Programme and Abstracts of the 18th ICAZ -FISH REMAINS WORKING GROUP Meeting. 28th September – 3rd October, 2015. Lisbon.

Authors:
  • Directorate-General for Cultural Heritage (DGPC). Portugal
  • Laboratório de Arqueociências (LARC)-DGPC; Instituto Dom Luiz (IDL); Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones Prehistóricas de Cantábria (IIIPC)

Abstract and Figures

In this volume of Trabalhos do LARC we present the Program and Abstracts of the 18th biennial meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology - Fish Remains Working Group (ICAZ-FRWG), hosted by the Directorate-General for Cultural Heritage - Archaeosciences Laboratory (DGPC - LARC) and the Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources – Environmental Archaeology Research Group (CIBIO - EnvArch). The meeting is aimed primarily for archaeozoologists interested in the systematic study of fish bones retrieved from archaeological sites around the world, and also to archaeologists, ichthyologists, historians, ethnographers, and fishery biologists. To this end the conference is structured to encompass a multiplicity of approaches to the study of fish remains and their contribution to our understanding of how fishing, fish trade, fish consumption, biodiversity, ecology and human impact on aquatic environments have changed through time.
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8
2015
LISBOA
ALHOS DO LARC TRABALHOS DO LARC TRABALHOS DO LARC TRABALHOS DO LARC
FISHING THROUGH TIME
Archaeoichthyology, Biodiversity, Ecology and Human Impact on Aquac Environments
28th September - 3rd October 2015
Lisbon
18th Fish Remains Working Group
Internaonal Council for Archaeozoology
!
Cover: PENASCOSA 5 (Upper Paleolithic), Prehistoric Rock Art Sites of the Côa Valley (Portugal). Drawing used by kind permission of António
Martinho Baptista (Fundação Côa Parque)
PROGRAM AND ABSTRACTS OF THE 18TH INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR ARCHAEOZOOLOGY
FISH REMAINS WORKING GROUP
ICAZ - FRWG
FISHING THROUGH TIME
Archaeoichthyology, Biodiversity, Ecology and Human Impact on Aquatic
Environments
28th September 3rd October, 2015
Lisbon
ABSTRACT
In this volume of Trabalhos do LARC we present the Program and Abstracts of the 18th biennial meeting of
the International Council for Archaeozoology - Fish Remains Working Group (ICAZ-FRWG), hosted by the
Directorate-General for Cultural Heritage - Archaeosciences Laboratory (DGPC - LARC) and the Research
Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources Environmental Archaeology Research Group (CIBIO -
EnvArch).
The meeting is aimed primarily for archaeozoologists interested in the systematic study of fish bones
retrieved from archaeological sites around the world, and also to archaeologists, ichthyologists, historians,
ethnographers, and fishery biologists. To this end the conference is structured to encompass a multiplicity
of approaches to the study of fish remains and their contribution to our understanding of how fishing, fish
trade, fish consumption, biodiversity, ecology and human impact on aquatic environments have changed
through time.
Trabalhos do LARC n.º 8
Lisboa, 2015
Organizing Committee
Sónia GABRIEL - DGPC - LARC & CIBIO EnvArch
Ana Cristina ARAÚJO - DGPC - LARC & CIBIO EnvArch
Ana COSTA - DGPC - LARC & CIBIO EnvArch
Simon JM DAVIS - DGPC - LARC & CIBIO EnvArch
Patrícia MENDES - DGPC - LARC & CIBIO EnvArch
Carlos PIMENTA - DGPC - LARC & CIBIO EnvArch
Cooperating members
João ANDRADE/ Sara FERREIRA - ICETA - U.Porto
Fátima PERALTA - DGPC
João SEABRA - DGPC
Scientific Committee
Philippe BÉAREZ - Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (France)
Richard COOKE - Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Panama)
Lembi LÕUGAS - Tallinn University (Estonia)
Daniel MAKOWIECKI - Nicolaus Copernicus University (Poland)
Arturo MORALES-MUÑIZ - Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)
Heide PLOGMANN - Universität Basel (Switzerland)
Elizabeth REITZ - Georgia Museum of Natural History (U.S.A)
Wim VAN NEER - Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (Belgium)
Editorial Coordination
Sónia Gabriel, Simon J.M. Davis, Ana M. Costa
LARC/DGPC - EnvArch/CIBIO/InBIO
Graphic Design
Ana M. Costa
Print date
September 2015
Edition
Laboratório de Arqueociências, LARC
Direcção-Geral do Património Cultural
Rua da Bica do Marquês, nº2
1300-087 Lisboa. Portugal
TEL: +351 21 362 5369
INDEX
Schedule ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7
Detailed schedule for conference (28, 29 and 30 September) ........................................................................................... 8
SESSION 1 - TAXONOMY AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 14
Andrew K. G. Jones. Widening the net. New approaches to the analysis of fish remains from archaeological sites:
identifying the unidentifiable ............................................................................................................................................ 14
Ivana Živaljević. Revealing an extirpated species: identification of cyprinid pharyngeal teeth from the Mesolithic-
Neolithic Danube Gorges .................................................................................................................................................. 15
SESSION 2 - COST - Oceans Past Platform (OPP) .............................................................................................................. 16
James H. Barrett, David C. Orton, Sheila Hamilton-Dyer, Mark Culling, Bernd Hänfling, Lori Lawson Handley, Tamsin C.
O’Connell, Michael P. Richards and William F. Hutchinson. The globalization of naval provisioning: stable isotope and
aDNA analyses of stored cod from the wreck of the Mary Rose, AD 1545 ....................................................................... 16
Jennifer Harland. From the fish middens to the herring: Archaeological and historical evidence for later medieval and
early modern fishing in the Northern Isles, Scotland ........................................................................................................ 17
Lembi Lõugas. Long and short distance fish trade during the Middle Ages in the eastern Baltic region ......................... 18
Daniel Makowiecki. Fish fauna in Kołobrzeg and Gdańsk between 9th and 15th century. Reasons for diversity and
changes ............................................................................................................................................................................. 19
Eve Rannamäe and Lembi Lõugas. Fish consumption and assertion of trade with coastal regions in medieval Karksi and
Viljandi, Estonia ................................................................................................................................................................ 20
Dimitra Mylona. Fishing and fish eating in the southern Aegean through time. Fishing traditions and innovations ...... 21
Eufrasia Roselló-Izquierdo, Eduardo González Gómez de Agüero, Carlos Fernández-Rodríguez and Arturo Morales-
Muñiz. The Iberian medieval fisheries: a search for origins .............................................................................................. 22
SESSION 3 ROMAN FISHERIES, AND FISH PRODUCTS .................................................................................................... 23
Monica K. Dütting. Fish and fishing in the northern part of the Roman Empire: evidence from the Netherlands ........... 23
Sally Grainger. Roman fish sauces: amphora shape, fish sauce residues and the practicalities of supply ....................... 24
Rebecca Nicholson. More sauce from the Thames: fish and fishing in and around the Thames estuary, England ......... 25
Tatiana Theodoropoulou and Antonio M. Sáez-Romero. From beyond the Pillars of Herakles to the East: a fresh look at
the remains of salted fish and transport amphorae from the Punic Amphora Building at Corinth .................................. 26
Gaël Piquès, Margaux Tillier, David Djaoui and Corinne Sanchez. Sauces and salted-fish for sailors: palaeocontent
analysis of jars from the ports of Gallia Narbonensis ....................................................................................................... 28
Dario Bernal-Casasola, Ricard Marlasca, José Ángel Expósito-Álvarez and José Juan Díaz-Rodriguez. Roman Tuna fish
and Garum from Baelo Claudia. Recent archaeozoological evidence .............................................................................. 29
SESSION 4 FISH, RITUAL, FEASTING, AND SOCIAL STATUS............................................................................................. 30
Wim Van Neer. A Greco-Roman votive deposit of fish at Oxyrhynchus (Al Bahnasa, Egypt) ........................................... 30
Sharyn Jones and William Landon. Fishing, feasting and friendship; a cross cultural comparison of fish rituals in
maritime contexts (c. 1500-1900 AD) ............................................................................................................................... 31
Elizabeth J. Reitz. Charleston, South Carolina (USA): A case study of fish as evidence of social status and environmental
impact ............................................................................................................................................................................... 32
Omri Lernau. Fish consumption in the Beit Shean Valley as studied in two major excavations: Tel Beth Shean and Tel
Rehov ................................................................................................................................................................................ 33
SESSION 5 MORPHOMETRY AND OSTEOMETRY ............................................................................................................ 34
Sofía C. Samper-Carro, Julien Louys, Stuart Hawkins and Sue O'Connor. A geometric morphometric approach to shape
variation in fish vertebrae for taxonomic and habitat identification ................................................................................ 34
María Fernanda Martínez-Polanco, Máximo Jimenéz and Richard Cooke. Estimating body length of two puffer-fish
species (Diodon) to predict the size of archaeological individuals from two sites of differen t ages and palaeohabitats in
the Pearl Island Archipelago, Panama .............................................................................................................................. 35
SESSION 6 FISH AS PALAEOCLIMATIC AND PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL PROXIES ISOTOPIC DATA .............................. 36
Elise Dufour, Hélène Jousse and Paul Sereno. Isotopic sclerochronology provides insight into fishing seasonality in a
palaeo-lake at Gobero (Niger) during the mid-Holocene ................................................................................................. 36
Simone Häberle, Jörg Schibler and Heide Hüster Plogmann. Stable Isotope ratios of archaeological and modern fish
bone collagen reflect interactions between men, fish and aquatic ecosystems ............................................................... 37
SESSION 7 FISHING CULTURES OF THE WORLD: ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN IMPACT ON FISH RESOURCES ........ 38
1.S7: SOUTH AMERICA AND THE
CARIBBEAN……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ...................................... 38
Philippe Béarez, Nicolas Goepfert and Aurélien Christol. Bayovar 1: A pre-Hispanic fish-processing camp in the Sechura
Desert, Northern Peru ....................................................................................................................................................... 38
Caroline Borges and Sandrine Grouard. Tracking fish and fishing practices over time in sambaquis of the Santos
estuarine complex, southeastern Brazil (4900 1900 years BP) ...................................................................................... 39
SESSION 7 FISHING CULTURES OF THE WORLD: ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN IMPACT ON FISH RESOURCES ........ 40
2.S7: NORTH AMERICA, ALASKA AND ASIA…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
Virginia L. Butler. The effects of mega-earthquakes on northeast Pacific fish populations over the past 2000 years ..... 40
Olga Krylovich. Decline of Rock greenlings from Adak Island (Aleutian Islands, Alaska) .................................................. 41
Ying Zhang, Dorian Fuller, Ling Qin and Louise Martin. The Rice-fish Economy: wetland fishing and rice cultivation in the
Neolithic of the lower Yangtze River region, China ........................................................................................................... 42
SESSION 7 FISHING CULTURES OF THE WORLD: ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN IMPACT ON FISH RESOURCES ........ 43
3.S7:EUROPE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 43
Katariina Nurminen. Burbot (Lota lota) and winter fishing in Finland during the Stone Age ........................................... 43
Harry K. Robson and Søren H. Andersen. Eel fishing in the Mariager Fjord during the Ertebølle and Funnel Beaker
cultures: new archaeo-ichthyological data from the kitchen midden at Thygeslund ....................................................... 44
Kenneth Ritchie. The Chalcolithic fishery at Pietrele, Romania described from fish and fishing technology remains. .... 45
Eufrasia Roselló Izquierdo, Mª Milagrosa Ros-Sala, J.A. López-Padilla, Arturo Morales-Muñiz. Fishing in the Iberian
Bronze Age: the fishes from the Cabezo Pardo and Cerro de los Gavilanes ..................................................................... 46
Àngel Blanco, Josep M. Vergés and Jordi Agustí. Fish remains from the Neolithic site of El Mirador cave (Atapuerca,
Spain): seasonality and resource management ................................................................................................................ 47
SESSION 8 NATURAL DEPOSITS VS. FISHING, FISH PROCESSING AND CONSUMPTION EVIDENCE ................................ 48
László Bartosiewicz, Alfred Galik and Gábor Ilon. Troubled Waters: Fish remains from Ménfőcsanak–Széles-földek,
Hungary ............................................................................................................................................................................ 48
Gabriele Carenti. Garbage into the well: exploitation of fish in two historical phases of Sant'Antioco (SW Sardinia, Italy)
.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
Lisa Yeomans. A pit full of fish: fishing and fish storage at the Late Islamic settlement of Freiha, Qatar ........................ 51
Wim Wouters. Fishing and eating plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) from Roman to modern times in Belgium ................. 52
SESSION 9 MULTI-DISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF FISH REMAINS: ARCHAEOLOGY, WRITTEN AND
ILLUSTRATED SOURCES ..................................................................................................................................................... 53
Richard C. Hoffmann. What can be learned from the fisheries regulations of late medieval Europe?............................. 53
Hans Christian Küchelmann. Hanseatic trade in the North Atlantic: the archaeozoological evidence ............................. 54
Rebecca Reynolds. The nature of Anglo-Saxon fishing and fish consumption: A Multi-disciplinary approach to the study
of fish remains .................................................................................................................................................................. 55
Susan D. deFrance. Fishing and fish consumption in the colonial lower Mississippi valley: fish remains from European
colonial and early American sites in the historic New Orleans French quarter ................................................................ 56
Arlene Fradkin. Fish illustrations of colonial America by artist-naturalist Mark Catesby and the ichthyo-archaeological
record ................................................................................................................................................................................ 57
SESSION 10 POSTER SESSION ......................................................................................................................................... 58
1.S10: COST - OPP Oceans Past Platform (OPP)………………………………………………………………………………... .......................... 58
Harry K. Robson. A reappraisal of eel fishing: new analysis on archaeological remains .................................................. 58
Rachelle E. V. Martyn, David Orton, Callum Roberts, George A. Wolff and Oliver Craig. In cod we trust: determining
long-term changes to North Sea ecosystems through δ15N analysis of single amino acids from historic fish bone ........ 59
2.S10 - TAXONOMY, OSTEOMETRY, MOLECULAR ANALYSIS, AND PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL DATA .............................. 60
Els Thieren, Anton Ervynck, Dick Brinkhuizen, Alison Locker and Wim Van Neer. The Holocene occurrence of sturgeon
in the southern North Sea ................................................................................................................................................. 60
Caroline Borges and Elise Dufour. When this fish was fished? Otolith sclerochronology in a Brazilian sambaqui .......... 61
Thomas C.A. Royle, George P. Nicholas and Dongya Y. Yang. Ancient DNA analysis of Late Period (3500 to 200 cal.
years BP) archaeological fish remains from the Interior Plateau region of British Columbia, Canada ............................. 62
Dyliara N. Galimova, Igor V. Askeyev, Oleg V. Askeyev, Danijela Popović and Hanna Panagiotopoulou. The study of fish
bones from medieval town of Staraya Ladoga. ................................................................................................................ 63
Suzanne Needs-Howarth and Alicia L. Hawkins. Diagnostic bones” for Great Lakes taxa revisited: Lessons from
deposits with (mostly) whole fish ..................................................................................................................................... 65
Nayeli Jiménez Cano. Estimation of fish size from archaeological bones of marine catfishes (Ariopsis felis): assessing
pre-Hispanic fisheries of two Mayan sites ........................................................................................................................ 66
Kathryn A. Mohlenhoff. El Niño and trans-Holocene trends in Eastern Pacific fish: a pilot study from Abrigo de los
Escorpiones, Baja California .............................................................................................................................................. 67
3. S.10 - FISHING, FISH CONSUMPTION AND INTEGRATED ARCHAEOICHTHYOLOGICAL ANALYSIS………………………….... . 68
Àngel Blanco, Jordi Agustí, Hugues-Alexandre Blain, Robert Sala and Isidro Toro. Fish remains from the Early
Pleistocene hominid site of Barranco León (Guadix-Baza Basin, SE Spain) ...................................................................... 68
Ivana Živaljević and Milica Lopičić. Fishing the sensitive information: reconstructing fish processing practices from the
Mesolithic-Neolithic Iron Gates (north-central Balkans) .................................................................................................. 70
Kenneth Ritchie. A Tale of Two Shell Deposits: aquatic resource use at the Copper Age site of Pietrele,
Romania………………............................................................................................................................................................71
Barbara Wilkens. Fish remains from the Middle Ages well in via Satta at Sassari (Sardinia, Italy) .................................. 72
Jan K. Bakker. On an ichthyo-archaeological method to trace Jewish urban households. A study of fish remains from
Post-Medieval Amsterdam and Medieval Cologne ........................................................................................................... 73
Miroslawa Zabilska-Kunek. Fishing methods used in the past from archaeological, archaeo-ichthyological and
ethnographic perspective ................................................................................................................................................. 74
Lee Antonio Graña Nicolaou. Tackling fishbones: an integrated approach to Roman fisheries ....................................... 75
Main features of the ICAZ FRWG Meetings: Table showing the numbes of participants, papers and posters presented
.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 76
Main features of the 18th ICAZ FRWG, Portugal: Map illustrating the represented countries ...................................... 77
List of participants and contributors to the 18th ICAZ FRWG, Portugal ......................................................................... 78
MONDAY 28
TUESDAY 29
WEDNESDAY 30
THURSDAY 1
FRIDAY 2
SATURDAY 3
8:45
Registration
FIELDTRIP
9:30
Session 4. Fish, ritual, feasting, and social
status
Session 8. Natural deposits vs. fishing, fish
processing and consumption evidence
9:35
Opening remarks
10:10
Session 1. Taxonomy and
molecular analysis
10:30
10:50
Coffee break
Coffee break
11:10
Coffee break
11:20
Session 9. Multi-disciplinary approaches
to the study of fish remains: Archaeology,
written and illustrated sources
11:30
Session 5. Morphometry and osteometry
12:00
Session 2. COST- Oceans Past
Platform (OPP)
12:10
Session 6. Fish as palaeoclimatic and
palaeoenvironmental proxies Isotopic
data
12.40
12:30
Lunch
12:50
Lunch
Lunch
13:50
Session 2. COSTOPP
14:00
Session 7. Fishing cultures of the World:
environmental and human impact on fish
resources
S.7 (1). South America and the Caribbean
Session 10. Poster session
S.10 (1) COST- Oceans Past Platform (OPP)
14:20
14:40
Session 7. Fishing cultures of the World:
environmental and human impact on fish
resources
S.7 (2). North America, Alaska and Asia
S.10 (2) Poster session
S10 (2) Taxonomy, molecular analysis,
palaeoenvironmental data, osteometry
and morphometry
15:00
15:20
15:30
Coffee break
15:40
Coffee break
15:50
Coffee break
16:00
16.20
Session 3. Roman fisheries,
and fish products
Session 10. Poster session
S10 (3) Fishing, fish consumption and
general archaeoichthyological analysis
16:30
Session 7. Fishing cultures of the World:
environmental and human impact on fish
resources
S.7 (2). North America, Alaska and Asia
16:50
Session 7. Fishing cultures of the World:
environmental and human impact on fish
resources
S.7 (3). Europe
17:10
17:30
Closing remarks and general discussion
Proposals for the next FRWG
18.30
18th International Council for Archaeozoology Fish Remains Working Group
ICAZ-FRWG
8
DETAILED SCHEDULE FOR CONFERENCE DAYS 28, 29 AND 30 SEPTEMBER
18TH ICAZ - FRWG
FISHING THROUGH TIME
Archaeoichthyology, Biodiversity, Ecology and Human Impact on Aquatic Environments
MONDAY 28
8:45 9:30 REGISTRATION
9:35 10:09 OPENING REMARKS:
Sónia Gabriel Archaeosciences Laboratory (LARC)
Luís Aires-Barros President of the Lisbon Geographic Society (SGL)
Ana Cristina Martins Lisbon Geographic Society (SGL), President of the Archaeological division
Nuno Vassalo e Silva Director of General Directorate for Cultural Heritage (DGPC)
Ana Cristina Araújo Coordinator of the Archaeosciences Laboratory (LARC)
Nuno Ferrand de Almeida Director of CIBIO - InBIO
SESSION 1. Taxonomy and molecular analysis
Chair: LEMBI LÕUGAS
1. 10:10 10:29 - JONES A.K.G.J., Widening the net. New approaches to the analysis of fish remains from
archaeological sites: identifying the unidentifiable
2. 10:30 10:49 - ZIVALJEVIĆ I., Revealing an extirpated species: identification of cyprinid pharyngeal teeth from
the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges
10:50 11:29 COFFEE BREAK
SESSION 2. COST- Oceans Past Platform (OPP)
Chair: ELIZABETH REITZ
11:30 11:39 - Paul HOLM, COSTOPP Project presentation
3. 12:00 12:19 - BARRETT J.H., ORTON D.C., HAMILTON-DYER S., CULLING M., HÄNFLING B., HANDLEY L.,
O’CONNELL T.S., RICHARDS M.P. and HUTCHINSON W.F. The globalization of naval provisioning: stable isotope and
aDNA analyses of stored cod from the wreck of the Mary Rose, AD 1545
4. 12:20 12:39 - HARLAND J., From the fish middens to the herring: Archaeological and historical evidence for
later medieval and early modern fishing in the Northern Isles, Scotland
12:40 13:49 LUNCH
5. 13:50 14:09 - LÕUGAS L., Long and short distance fish trade during the Middle Ages in the eastern Baltic
region
6. 14:10 14:29 - MAKOWIEKI D., Fish fauna in Kołobrzeg and Gdańsk between 9th and 15th century: Reasons
for diversity and changes
7. 14:30 14:49 - RANNAMÄE E. and LÕUGAS L., Fish consumption and assertion of trade with coastal regions
in medieval Karksi and Viljandi, Estonia
FISHING THROUGH TIME
Archaeoichthyology, Biodiversity, Ecology and Human Impact on Aquatic Environments
9
8. 14:50 15:09 - MYLONA D., Fishing and fish eating in the southern Aegean through time. Fishing traditions
and innovations
9. 15:10 15:29 - ROSELLÓ-IZQUIERDO E., GONZÁLEZ-GÓMEZ E.A., FERNÁNDEZ-RODRÍGUEZ C., MORALES-
MUÑIZ A. The Iberian medieval fisheries: a search for origins
15:30 16:19 COFFEE BREAK
SESSION 3. Roman fisheries, and fish products
Chair: WIM VAN NEER
10. 16:20 16:39 - DUTTING M., Fish and fishing in the northern part of the Roman Empire: the evidence from
the Netherlands
11. 16:40 16:59 - GRAINGER S., Roman fish sauces: amphorae shape, fish sauce residues and the practicalities
of supply
12. 17:00 17:19 - NICHOLSON R., More sauce from the Thames: fish and fishing in and around the Thames
estuary, England
13. 17:20 17:39 - THEODOROPOULOU T., SÁEZ-ROMERO A.M., WILLIAMS Ch. K., From beyond the Pillars of
Herakles to the East: a fresh look at the remains of salted fish and transport amphorae from the Punic Amphora
Building at Corinth
14. 17:40 17:59 - PIQUÈS G., TILLIER M., DJAOUI D., SANCHEZ C., Sauces and salted-fish for sailors:
palaeocontent analysis of jars from the ports of Gallia Narbonensis
15. 18:00 18:19 - BERNAL-CASASOLA D., MARLASCA R., EXPÓSITO-ÁLVAREZ J.A., RODRIGUEZ J.J.D. Roman Tuna
fish and Garum from Baelo Claudia. Recent archaeozoological evidence
TUESDAY 29
SESSION 4. Fish, ritual, feasting, and social status
Chair: PHILIPPE BÉAREZ
16. 9:30 9:49 - VAN NEER W., A Greco-Roman votive deposit of fish at Oxyrhynchus (Al Bahnasa, Egypt)
17. 9:50 10:09 - JONES S. and LANDON W., Fishing, feasting and friendship; a cross cultural comparison of fish
rituals in maritime contexts (c. 1500-1900)
18. 10:10 10:29 - REITZ E., Charleston, South Carolina (USA): A case study of fish as evidence of social status and
environmental impact
19. 10:30 10:49 - LERNAU O. Fish consumption in the Beit Shean Valley as studied in two major excavations: Tel
Beth Shean and Tel Rehov
10:50 11:29 COFFEE BREAK
SESSION 5. Morphometry and osteometry
Chair: REBECCA NICHOLSON
20. 11:30 11:49 - SAMPER-CARRO S. LOUYS J., HAWKINS S. and O'CONNOR S., A geometric morphometric
approach to shape variation in fish vertebrae for taxonomic and habitat identification
18th International Council for Archaeozoology Fish Remains Working Group
ICAZ-FRWG
10
21. 11:50 12:09 - MARTÍNEZ-POLANCO M.F., JIMENÉZ M. and COOKE R., Estimating body length of two puffer-
fish species (Diodon) to predict the size of archaeological individuals from two sites of different ages and
palaeohabitats in the Pearl Island Archipelago, Panama
SESSION 6. Fish as palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental proxies Isotopic data
Chair: JAMES BARRETT
22. 12:10 12:29- DUFOUR E., JOUSSE H., and SERENO P., Isotopic sclerochronology provides insight into fishing
seasonality in a palaeo-lake at Gobero (Niger) during the mid-Holocene
23. 12:30 12:49 - HÄBERLE S., SCHIBLER J. and PLOGMANN H.H., Stable Isotope ratios of archaeological and
modern fish bone collagen reflect interactions between men, fish and aquatic ecosystems
12:50 13:59 LUNCH
SESSION 7. Fishing cultures of the World: environmental and human impact on fish resources
S.7 (1). South America and Caribbean
Chair: VIRGINIA BUTLER
24. 14:00 14:19 - AREZ P., GEOPFERT N. and CHRISTOL A. Bayovar 1: A pre-Hispanic fish-processing camp in
the Sechura Desert, Northern Peru
25. 14:20 14:39 - BORGES C. and GROUARD S. Tracking fish and fishing practices over time in sambaquis of the
Santos estuarine complex, southeastern Brazil (4900 1900 years BP)
SESSION 7. Fishing cultures of the World: environmental and human impact on fish resources
S.7 (2). North America, Alaska and Asia
Chair: RICHARD HOFFMANN
26. 14:40 14:59 - BUTLER V. The effects of mega-earthquakes on northeast Pacific fish populations over the
past 2000 years
27. 15:00 15:19 - KRYLOVICH O. Decline of Rock greenlings from Adak Island (Aleutian Islands, Alaska)
28. 15:20 15:39 - ZHANG Y., FULLER D., QIN L. and MARTIN L. The Rice-fish Economy: wetland fishing and rice
cultivation in the Neolithic of the lower Yangtze River region, China
15:40 16:29 COFFEE BREAK
SESSION 7. Fishing cultures of the World: environmental and human impact on fish resources
S.7 (3). Europe
Chair: DANIEL MAKOWIEKI
29. 16:30 16:49 - NURMINEN K., Burbot (Lota lota) and winter fishing in Finland during the Stone Age
30. 16:50 17:09 - ROBSON H. and ANDERSEN S.H., Eel fishing in the Mariager Fjord during the Ertebølle and
Funnel Beaker cultures: new archaeo-ichthyological data from the kitchen midden at Thygeslund
31. 17:10 17:29 - RITCHIE K., The Chalcolithic fishery at Pietrele, Romania described from fish and fishing
technology remains
32. 17:30 17:49 - ROSELLÓ-IZQUIERDO E., ROS-SALA M.M., LÓPEZ-PADILLA J.A. and MORALES-MUÑIZ A., Fishing
in the Iberian Bronze Age: The fishes from the Cabezo Pardo and Cerro De Los Gavilanes
FISHING THROUGH TIME
Archaeoichthyology, Biodiversity, Ecology and Human Impact on Aquatic Environments
11
33. 17:50 18:09 - BLANCO A. and AGUSTÍ J., Fish remains from the Neolithic site of El Mirador (Atapuerca,
Spain): seasonality and resource management
WEDNESDAY 30
SESSION 8. Natural deposits vs. fishing, fish processing and consumption evidence
Chair: ARTURO MORALES
34. 9:30 9:49 - BARTOSIEWICZ L., GALIK A. and GÁBOR I., Troubled Waters: Fish remains from Ménfőcsanak–
Széles-földek, Hungary
35. 9:50 10:09 - CARENTI G., Garbage into the well: exploitation of fish in two different historical phases of
Sant'Antioco (SW Sardinia, Italy)
36. 10:10 10:29 - YEOMANS L., A pit full of fish: fishing and fish storage at the Late Islamic settlement of Freiha,
Qatar
37. 10:30 10:49 - WOUTERS W., Fishing and eating plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) from Roman to modern times
in Belgium
10:50 11:19 COFFEE BREAK
SESSION 9. Multi-disciplinary approaches to the study of fish remains: Archaeology, written and
illustrated sources
Chair: HEIDE H. PLOGMANN
38. 11:20 11:39 - HOFFMAN R., What can be learned from the fisheries regulations of late medieval Europe?
39. 11:40 11:59 - KÜCHELMANN C., Hanseatic trade in the North Atlantic: the archaeozoological evidence
40. 12:00 12:19 - REYNOLDS R., The nature of Anglo-Saxon fishing and fish consumption: A Multi-disciplinary
approach to the study of fish remains
41. 12:10 12:49 - DeFRANCE S., Fishing and fish consumption in the colonial lower Mississippi valley: fish
remains from European colonial and early American sites in the historic New Orleans French quarter
42. 12:30 12:49 - FRADKIN A., Fish illustrations of colonial America by artist-naturalist Mark Catesby and the
ichthyo-archaeological record
12:50 14:00 LUNCH
SESSION 10. Poster Session
S.10 (1) COST- Oceans Past Platform (OPP)
Chair: SÓNIA GABRIEL
COSTOPP
P1. 14:10 14:29 - ROBSON H., A reappraisal of eel fishing: new analysis on archaeological remains
P2. 14:30 14:39 - MARTYN R., ORTON D., ROBERTS C., WOLFF G.A. and CRAIG O., In cod we trust: determining
long-term changes to North Sea ecosystems through δ15N analysis of single amino acids from historic fish bone
18th International Council for Archaeozoology Fish Remains Working Group
ICAZ-FRWG
12
SESSION 10. Poster Session
S.10 (2) Taxonomy, molecular analysis, palaeoenvironmental data, osteometry and
morphometry
Chair: KENNETH RITCHIE
P3. 14:40 14:49 - THIEREN E., ERVYNCK A., BRINKHUIZEN D., LOCKER A. and VAN NEER W., The Holocene
occurrence of sturgeon in the southern North Sea
P4. 14:50 14:59 - BORGES C. and DUFOUR E., When this fish was fished? Otolith sclerochronology in a Brazilian
sambaqui
P5. 15:00 15:09 - ROYLE T., NICHOLAS G.P. and YANG D.Y., Ancient DNA analysis of Late Period (3500 to 200 cal.
years BP) archaeological fish remains from the Interior Plateau region of British Columbia, Canada
P6. 15:10 15:19 - GALIMOVA D., ASKEYEV I.V., ASKEYEV O.V., POPOVIĆ D.and PANAGIOTOPOULOU H., The
study of fish bones from medieval town of Staraya Ladoga.
P7. 15:20 15:29 - NEEDS-HOWARTH S. and HAWKINS A., “Diagnostic bones” for Great Lakes taxa revisited:
Lessons from deposits with (mostly) whole fish
P8. 15:30 15:39 - JIMÉNEZ-CANO N., Estimation of fish size from archaeological bones of marine catfishes
(Ariopsis felis): assessing pre-Hispanic fisheries of two Mayan sites
P9. 15:40 15:49 - MOHLENHOFF K., El Niño and trans-Holocene trends in Eastern Pacific fish: a pilot study from
Abrigo de los Escorpiones, Baja California)
15:50 16:19 COFFEE BREAK
SESSION 10. Poster Session
S.10 (3) Fishing, fish consumption and integrated Archaeoichthyological analysis
Chair: TATIANA THEODOROPOULOU
P10. 16:20 16:29 - BLANCO A., AGUSTÍ J., BLAIN H.A., SALA R. and TORO I. Fish remains from the Early Pleistocene
hominid site of Barranco León (Guadix-Baza Basin, SE Spain)
P11. 16:30 16:39 - ZIVALJEVIĆ I. and LOPIČIĆ M. Fishing the sensitive information: reconstructing fish processing
practices from the Mesolithic-Neolithic Iron Gates (north-central Balkans)
P12. 16:40 16:49 - RITCHIE K. A Tale of Two Shell Deposits: aquatic resource use at the Copper Age site of
Pietrele, Romania
P13. 16:50 16:59 - WILKENS B. Fish remains from the Middle Ages well in via Satta at Sassari (Sardinia, Italy)
P14. 17:00 17:09 - BAKKER J. On an ichthyo-archaeological method to trace Jewish urban households. A study of
fish remains from Post-Medieval Amsterdam and Medieval Cologne
P15. 17:10 17:19 - ZABILSKA-KUNEK M. Fishing methods used in the past from archaeological, archaeo-
ichthyological and ethnographic perspective
P16. 17:20 17:29 - GRAÑA L. Tackling fishbones: an integrated approach to Roman fisheries
17:30 18:15 Closing remarks and general discussion: LÁSLÓ BARTOSIEWICZ
Proposals for the next FRWG
FISHING THROUGH TIME
Archaeoichthyology, Biodiversity, Ecology and Human Impact on Aquatic Environments
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THURSDAY 1, FRIDAY 2 AND SATURDAY 3
FIELD TRIP
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
14
SESSION 1 - TAXONOMY AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS
CHAIR: LEMBI LÕUGAS
Widening the net. New approaches to the analysis of fish remains from archaeological sites:
identifying the unidentifiable
Andrew K. G. Jones
5 Newton Terrace, York YO1 6HE, England
Abstract
The last 40 years have seen many significant advances to the analysis of fish remains which have done
much to increase the value of our studies to archaeologists, historians, fishery managers and the general
public. Nevertheless, many challenges remain. The widespread use of sieving on excavations has done
much, but we must acknowledge that many, dare I say most, of the fish remains recovered remain
unidentified once post-excavation analysis and publication are complete.
Several reasons account for this woeful situation. The detailed osteological descriptions produced by 19th
and early 20thC comparative anatomists are still lacking for many important food fishes. Accessible and well
curated reference collections of fish bones, otoliths and scales are still widely scattered and often lack
important species. Computer and internet based resources designed to assist identification can be
frustrating to use, and like many reference collections, do not contain all distinctive elements and may lack
important species.
Recent developments in mass spectroscopy, particularly the analysis of protein sequences in fish collagen
has potential to meet some of the challenges outlined above. This paper is a call to assemble an
international team of researchers who will collaborate to investigate the limits of this new technology and
help transform archaeoichthyology from a subject based on 19thC comparative anatomy into one which
uses all the tools of 21stC science.
Keywords: mass spectroscopy, identification, unidentifiable fragments
FISHING THROUGH TIME
Archaeoichthyology, Biodiversity, Ecology and Human Impact on Aquatic Environments
15
Revealing an extirpated species: identification of cyprinid pharyngeal teeth from the Mesolithic-
Neolithic Danube Gorges
Ivana Živaljević
Laboratory for Bioarchaeology, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Philosophy,
University of Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract
This paper presents and discusses the results of the first archaeozoological and DNA analysis of cyprinid
pharyngeal teeth uncovered at Mesolithic-Neolithic sites in the Danube Gorges (North-Central Balkans) in
the 1960s and the 1970s. Found primarily in burials, they caught the attention of early researchers and
were recognized as grave goods specific to the region (Srejović and Letica, 1978; Boroneanţ, 1990). Recent
technological, use-wear and residue analyses (Cristiani and Borić 2012; Cristiani et al. 2014) have shown
that they were worn as appliqués attached to clothing by sinew threads and/or binding compounds.
However, until recently, no precise species identification has been undertaken, and the teeth have been
identified to the family level only. Continuing archaeozoological and DNA analysis has demonstrated that a
single species was targeted for the production of teeth appliqués - Rutilus frisii (vyrezub, pearlfish), which
has not so far been documented in the Middle-Lower Danube in the historical record. At present, this
species inhabits the Аzov, Caspian and Black Sea basins, but is absent in the Danube drainage apart from
landlocked lake populations in Austria, where they are commonly referred to as Rutilus meidingeri (Kottelat
and Freyhof, 2007). In terms of genetics, recent studies have shown that there are no significant differences
between the populations in the Austrian lakes and the populations in the Black and Caspian sea basins
(Kottlík et al. 2008). The occurrence of Rutilus frisii remains in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges of
the Balkans further demonstrates that the past habitat of the species has been wider and included the
whole stretch of the Danube at least up to the Middle Holocene. In addition to discussing new
archaeozoological and genetic data on Rutilus frisii, my paper emphasizes the importance of precise
cyprinid pharyngeal teeth identification in revealing the diversity of the prehistoric Danubian fish fauna and
the geographical distribution of fish species which have long been extirpated.
Keywords: Rutilus frisii, cyprinid pharyngeal teeth, ornaments, Mesolithic, Neolithic
References
Boroneanţ, V., 1990. Les enterrements de Schela Cladovei: nouvelles données, in: Vermeersch, P.M., Van Peer, P.
(Eds.), Contributions to the Mesolithic in Europe (Papers presented at the Fourth International Symposium ‘The
Mesolithic in Europe’, Leuven 1990). Leuven University Press, Leuven, pp. 121-126.
Cristiani, E., Borić, D., 2012. 8500-Year-old Late Mesolithic garment embroidery from Vlasac (Serbia): Technological,
use-wear and residue analyses. Journal of Archaeological Science 39(11), 34503469.
Cristiani, E., Živaljević, I., Borić, D., 2014. Residue analysis and ornament suspension techniques in prehistory: cyprinid
pharyngeal teeth beads from Late Mesolithic burials at Vlasac (Serbia). Journal of Archaeological Science 46, 292-310.
Kotlík, P., Marková, S., Choleva, L., Bogutskaya, N., Ekmekçi, F.G., Ivanova, P., 2008. Divergence with gene flow
between Ponto-Caspian refugia in an anadromous cyprinid Rutilus frisii revealed by multiple gene phylogeography.
Molecular Ecology (2008)17, 10761088.
Kottelat, M., Freyhof, J., 2007. Handbook of European Freshwater Fishes. Imprimerie du Démocrate SA, Délemont.
Srejović, D., Letica, Z., 1978. Vlasac. Mezolitsko naselje u Đerdapu (I arheologija). Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti,
Belgrade.
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
16
SESSION 2 COST-OCEANS PAST PLATFORM (OPP)
CHAIR: ELIZABETH REITZ
The globalization of naval provisioning: stable isotope and aDNA analyses of stored cod from the
wreck of the Mary Rose, AD 1545
James H Barrett1, David C Orton2, Sheila Hamilton-Dyer3, Mark Culling4, Bernd Hänfling4, Lori Lawson
Handley4, Tamsin C O’Connell1, Michael P Richards5 and William F Hutchinson4
1 McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of
Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3ER, United Kingdom
2 Department of Archaeology, University of York, York, YO1 7EP, United Kingdom
3 5 Suffolk Avenue, Shirley, Southampton, SO15 5EF, United Kingdom
4 Evolutionary Biology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, United Kingdom
5 Department of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver Campus, 6303 NW Marine Drive, Vancouver,
British Columbia, V6T 1Z1, Canada
Abstract
The growth of long-range trade in high-bulk staple products in medieval and post-medieval Europe
underpinned the development of urbanized market economies, colonialism, empires and concomitant
environmental impacts. Concurrent with conquest and deforestation for increased cash-crop production,
these periods saw the expansion of extensive sea fishing. Historical research, zooarchaeological evidence
and stable isotope analysis of archaeological fish bones all indicate that preserved Arctic Norwegian and
North Atlantic cod were increasingly transported to consumers around the North Sea particularly
expanding urban populations between the 11th and 16th centuries. An open question is whether the
requirements of naval provisioning may also have played a role in the development of extensive sea
fisheries and, concurrently, whether the availability of preserved fish from distant seas helped sustain
Europe’s first navies. This question is especially pertinent for the 16th century, which saw both the birth of
European trans-Atlantic colonialism and a growing importance of sea power in increasingly global conflicts.
An unparalleled opportunity to investigate the role of fish in early naval provisioning is provided by cod
bones recovered from the Mary Rose a Tudor warship which sank in the Solent, southern England, in
1545 while sailing with crew and provisions to military action. New methods for investigating stable
isotopes provide a promising way to detect non-local imports of cod and genetic markers have proven
useful for studying population differentiation in marine fish. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are
especially well suited for identifying source populations using DNA from archaeological samples because
they combine the power to detect even weak structuring on a small geographical scale with their ability to
genotype highly degraded ancient DNA samples. Because the stable isotope data employed (δ13C and δ15N)
reflect diet, whereas genetic markers reflect heredity and adaptation, the methods are independent. Thus
together they can provide complementary information on the source of traded fish. We explore the
potential and limitations of these approaches, while addressing the role of military provisioning in creating
demand for preserved fish from distant waters, and of distant food sources in underpinning the
provisioning of a navy.
Keywords: stable isotope analysis, ancient DNA, cod, fish trade, globalization
FISHING THROUGH TIME
Archaeoichthyology, Biodiversity, Ecology and Human Impact on Aquatic Environments
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From the fish middens to the herring: Archaeological and historical evidence for later medieval
and early modern fishing in the Northern Isles, Scotland
Jennifer Harland
Archaeology Institute, University of the Highlands and Islands, Scotland
Abstract
The heyday of Viking Age and medieval fishing in the Northern Isles of Scotland can be traced in the huge
deposits of fish bones that appear circa AD 1000. This "fish event horizon", as it has come to be known, is a
phenomenon now recognized throughout Europe. It can be explained by numerous factors, including
Christian fasting, the rise of urbanism, and developing market economies. However, a few hundred years
later, fishing in the Northern Isles had taken a dramatic downturn. Small-scale, subsistence fishing in
relatively safe coastal waters became the norm. Early modern writers deplored the state of fishing in the
islands in the late 18th century, while repeated attempts to develop commercial fisheries floundered due
to lack of knowledge and investment. This paper examines archaeological evidence for the decline of
fishing, looking at the fish bones from later medieval and early modern sites. Using estimates of fish sizes,
species present and historical sources, it reconstructs fishing methods and likely fishing grounds, and asks
why there was such a striking decline in fishing fortunes in the Northern Isles. The curious absence of
herring bones from the archaeological record will also be discussed, a particularly relevant and perplexing
question given that the herring industry became so important to the Northern Isles in recent centuries.
Keywords: Scotland, late medieval, early modern, herring
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
18
Long and short distance fish trade during the Middle Ages in the eastern Baltic region
Lembi Lõugas
Institute of History, Tallinn University, Rüütli 6, 10130 Tallinn, Estonia
Abstract
Fish was an important food for people living in Medieval towns, especially during the fast. According to
written sources the assortment of fish was very varied in Medieval markets both in the form of raw as well
as processed fish. The knowledge obtained from the accounting books of Medieval towns concerns the fish
species sold in markets as well as the sources and destinations of the trade in fish. However the
archaeological evidence from these towns demonstrates local fisheries and it is not always possible to
detect the distances involved in the trade of fish. The latter is based on our knowledge of fish distribution in
local or distant water bodies. In the eastern Baltic region the long distance trade of fish basically means
trade from the Atlantic side, whereas short distance means trade from neighbouring areas. However, there
are no criteria for distinguishing between local fishing from the short distance trade and the archaeological
fish bones, especially when the habitats of fish are similar in both areas.
In this paper the data from the Medieval accounting books of Tallinn (Reval) - one of the Hanseatic trade
centres, and the archaeological material excavated from different Medieval towns are compared in order
to ascertain similarities and/or differences in fish trade and consumption. This comparison of two different
source materials (written and archaeological) will provide somewhat different information on fish and the
role of fish in markets.
Keywords: fish trade, fish bones, Medieval, Tallinn, Baltic Sea
FISHING THROUGH TIME
Archaeoichthyology, Biodiversity, Ecology and Human Impact on Aquatic Environments
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Fish fauna in Kołobrzeg and Gdańsk between 9th and 15th century. Reasons for diversity and
changes
Daniel Makowiecki
Institute of Archaeology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Szosa Bydgoska 44/48, 87-100 Torun, Poland
Abstract
From the 9th10th century onwards Kołobrzeg and Gdansk were among the most important centres in the
southern coastal region of the Baltic Sea. This is very clearly confirmed both by archaeological discoveries
and historical records, which provide an excellent opportunity to trace the main stages of cultural, social,
political and economic development in both towns. As far as fish remains are concerned, thousands of
these have been systematically collected during multiple seasons of excavation in different areas and
representing each stage of historical development. They have formed the basis for a number of detailed
studies into aspects of fish and the importance of fishing, which have already been discussed in several
papers (Zbierski 1976, Leciejewicz 1991) and book chapters (Makowiecki 2003). In both centres it was
possible to emphasize one feature of fishing, e.g. herring in Kołobrzeg and sturgeon in Gdansk. This paper
presents a comparative review of fish fauna in both towns from the early medieval to the post-medieval
period. The main goal is to present fish taxa and their diversity and significance in dietary, social and
historical contexts. The similarities and differences between the compared centres are also considered.
Keywords: Middle Ages, fishing, south Baltic coast, settlements, towns
References
Leciejewicz L., 1991. Zum frühmittelalterlichen Heringshandel im südlichen Ostseegebiet, Zeitschrift für Archäologie,
25, 209214.
Makowiecki D., 2003. Historia ryb i rybołówstwa w holocenie na Niżu Polskim w świetle badań archeoichtiologicznych
(History of fishes and fishing in Holocene on Polish Lowland in the light of archaeoichthyological studies), Instytut
Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Poznań.
Zbierski A., 1976. Ichthyological studies on fishing in Gdańsk in the 9th-11th centuries based on archaeological
materials from Pomerania, Archaeologia Polona, 17, 247255.
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
20
Fish consumption and assertion of trade with coastal regions in medieval Karksi and Viljandi,
Estonia
Eve Rannamäe1 and Lembi Lõugas2
1Department of Archaeology, Institute of History and Archaeology, University of Tartu, Jakobi 2, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
2 Department of Archaeobiology, Institute of History, Tallinn University, Rüütli 6, 10130 Tallinn, Estonia
Abstract
Historical evidence from towns and castles demonstrates that fish were an important resource during the
Middle Ages in Estonia (13th to 16th centuries AD). The variability of species and the relative frequencies
(NISP) of fish remains imply a certain amount of trade between the coast and the interior.
In this paper comparison is made between the fish bone assemblages recovered from the Medieval castles
at Karksi and the contemporaneous castle and town at Viljandi. Since both sites are situated inland,
discussion on coastal-hinterland trade will be presented. In addition social differences within the town’s
population will be outlined, and comparisons will be made with other sites in Estonia.
In brief, a large quantity of fish remains, including several freshwater and marine taxa, the latter from the
Baltic Sea basin and the Atlantic, were recovered from Karksi. In addition numerous remains of juvenile
domesticated livestock indicate that the castle’s inhabitants were of a higher social status. Despite the
smaller assemblage from Viljandi, located 20 km away, a similar pattern was observed. However
differences in the consumption of certain taxa between the castle and the town were identified.
Keywords: Middle Ages, Livonia, coastal trade, fish consumption
FISHING THROUGH TIME
Archaeoichthyology, Biodiversity, Ecology and Human Impact on Aquatic Environments
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Fishing and fish eating in the southern Aegean through time. Fishing traditions and innovations
Dimitra Mylona
Institute for Aegean Prehistory, Study Centre for East Crete, Greece
Abstract
Intensive archaeological research and a broadening of the research agenda to include an interest in bio-
archaeological remains, have lead, in the last few decades, to the accumulation of a rich body of fishing
related remains. These include both fish bones and fishing tools from archaeological sites on the southern
Aegean coasts, both mainland and insular. These data indicate diachronic trends in the exploitation of
marine resources in the area.
I shall present the available data and describe the main features of the exploited fish populations. These
highlight the persistent and shifting choices made by fishermen and consumers from Neolithic to Roman
times. Resource availability, technological possibilities and culinary preferences are all considered as
equally important factors in the shaping of fishing and fish eating strategies in particular periods. I shall
discuss the emergence of fishing and fish eating traditions that are still alive in the Aegean today.
Keywords: fishing traditions, fishing, fish eating, South Aegean, fish bones
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
22
The Iberian medieval fisheries: a search for origins
Eufrasia Roselló Izquierdo1, Eduardo González Gómez de Agüero2, Carlos Fernández Rodríguez2 and Arturo
Morales Muñiz1
1Departamento de Biología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain
2Departamento de Historia, Universidad de León, Spain
Abstract
The origin and development of the Iberian medieval fisheries is a poorly documented phenomenon both
from the standpoint of historical (documentary) and material (archaeological) evidence. Such dearth of
knowledge can be explained in terms of proximal (i.e., a deficient retrieval of fish remains) and ultimate
causes. Among the latter, the Muslim invasion, that lasted ca. 800 years of the “medieval millennium” in
the Iberian Peninsula, needs to be taken into account as it probably delayed the development of fishing
fleets within the Christian kingdoms for a substantial period of time. Be it as it may, the lack of knowledge
does not allow one to explore a range of critical issues of Spanish and Portuguese history, such as the role
played by the ever-expanding fishing fleets of Portugal and Castilla in the process of maritime discovery and
colonization that these two kingdoms fostered by the end of the Middle Ages.
In this paper, the results from a comparative analysis of selected fish assemblages from primary (i.e.
coastal) deposits of the northern Iberian shores are presented. The aim is to check whether changes can be
documented both at the level of (1) the range of species occurring in sites from the late Iron Age (Castreña
culture, IV-IBC) to the Early Middle Ages (VII AD), and (2) the skeletal spectra of certain species that could
reveal a differential processing of taxa meant for local consumption and those that appear in inland sites.
Keywords: Fish, Fishing, Northern Iberia, Medieval age
FISHING THROUGH TIME
Archaeoichthyology, Biodiversity, Ecology and Human Impact on Aquatic Environments
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SESSION 3 ROMAN FISHERIES, AND FISH PRODUCTS
CHAIR: WIM VAN NEER
Fish and fishing in the northern part of the Roman Empire: evidence from the Netherlands
Monica K. Dütting
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium
Abstract
Preservation of fish remains from archaeological sites tends to be excellent in most parts of the
Netherlands, due to wetland conditions. Furthermore, finds that provide information on fishing, such as
wooden fish traps, metal hooks, and stone, ceramic and metal net-sinkers have been excavated. Until now
however, there has been no comprehensive study of ancient fishing practices in the Netherlands. A first
attempt is now being undertaken for the Roman period, in an area under Roman jurisdiction.
Roman period sites in the Netherlands have been the subject of continuous study over the last fifty years.
As the River Rhine formed the northern border of the Roman Empire, finds in this region come from both
military and civilian sites. These range from farmsteads and hamlets to watchtowers, forts, harbours, and
urban centres.
All available excavated fish remains from these sites are being (re-)studied to understand which species
were consumed by the inhabitants, both native and Roman(ized). Information on fishing equipment was
gathered from site and specialist reports, and by studying finds from archaeological depots.
By bringing together this information with site type, occupation and period, we provide, for the first time,
an integrated view of consumption, production and trade of fish and fish products in Roman Netherlands.
Keywords: fishing, Roman, limes, military, civilian, the Netherlands
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
24
Roman fish sauces: amphora shape, fish sauce residues and the practicalities of supply
Sally Grainger
Independent scholar (BA Ancient History, MA archaeology)
Timberua, Glen Road, Grayshott, Hindhead, Surrey, GU266NB, England
Abstract
The amphorae designed to transport preserved fish products in the Roman world come in a great variety of
shapes and sizes and we are currently unable to recognise whether a fish sauce or a salted fish product was
shipped in the various vessels. There are so many subtle differences between the shapes of fish sauce
amphorae and it seems self evident that at least initially the differences were related to the various kinds
and qualities of fish products rather than the simple need for the potter or manufacturer to identify
themselves via elaborate amphorae shapes.
There is considerable doubt and inconsistency among experts how to distinguish between the fish bones
found in and around amphorae that were originally a solid product and those that formed the residue of a
sauce. Currently species’ (clupeiforme, sparids), estimated size (under c. 10cm), and state of bone
preservation (poor), as well as find site (land rather than shipwreck), are the criteria used to distinguish a
sauce (Desse-Berset and Desse 2000). However, ocasionally larger fish such as mackerel could make a high
quality sauce and it is now possible to suggest that fish sauces were shipped with their bone residue which
is necessarily well preserved (Grainger 2013). The current consensus on the meaning of the various tituli
picti that designate these products also indicates that salted fish and fish sauce were shipped
indiscriminately in the various vessels: there is no discernable pattern in the use of the various amphora
shapes. Vessels that ship garum or liquamen, clearly a sauce, could equally have been used to transport a
product such as cord(yla) - understood to have been a form of salted tuna or a saxitanus: understood to be
a form of mackerel from the epigraphic evidence. This necessarily means that we have simple ‘presence’
and ‘absence’ patterns of distribution of fish products within the Roman Empire and this will remain while
we are unable to be more precise about what is being distributed when fish amphorae appear in large
numbers without epigraphic or osteological evidence. I shall re-consider the nature of fish amphora in
relation to the residues of the various products and offer a new interpretation of their use.
Keywords: Roman fish sauce, fish bone residues, amphora, muria, liquamen, garum
References
Grainger, S. 2013 Roman fish sauce: fish bone residues and the practicalities of supply, in Irit Zohar and Arlene Fradkin
(eds) Fish and fishing: Archaeological, Anthropological, Taphonomical and Ecological perspectives, Proceedings of the
I.C.A.Z Fish remains working group, Jerusalem, October 22nd 30th 2011 p.12-28
Desse-Berset N. and Desse J. 2000 Salsamenta, garum, et autres preparations de poisson. Ce qu’en disent les os
Mélanges de L’école Francaise de Rome Antiquités 112 pp. 73-97.
FISHING THROUGH TIME
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More sauce from the Thames: fish and fishing in and around the Thames estuary, England
Rebecca Nicholson
Oxford Archaeology, Janus House, Osney Mead, Oxford, OX2 0ES, UK.
Abstract
Excavations at Standford Wharf Nature Reserve, on the northern bank of the Thames estuary in Essex,
south-eastern England, uncovered evidence for Iron Age and Roman salt production. A dense concentration
of salt-encrusted remains of tiny fish and crustacea, probably shrimp, in a ditch fill dating to the Late
Roman period suggests the local manufacture of a salted fish product, probably allec. The deposit contrasts
with a concentration of bones from whole, juvenile clupeids previously discovered at Peninsula House,
London, which were interpreted as evidence of local garum manufacture (Bateman and Locker 1982). The
kinds of fish represented in the deposit from Stanford Wharf are very typical of fish found today in the
nearby Thames estuary, which strongly suggests that fishing took place close by, using fine nets suspended
in mid-water. The similarity between the fish fauna from Standford Wharf and those present in the tidal
Thames today demonstrates the improvement in water quality that has taken place in the Thames as a
result of human action over the last century. Although the origins and extent of fish sauce production are
unknown, it is possible that it may have begun as a response to the disruption in trade from the rest of the
Roman empire.
Keywords: fish sauce, Roman, Stanford Wharf, Thames estuary
References
Bateman, N. and Locker, A. (1982). The sauce of the Thames. The London Archaeologist 4 (8), 204-7.
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
26
From beyond the Pillars of Herakles to the East: a fresh look at the remains of salted fish and
transport amphorae from the Punic Amphora Building at Corinth
Tatiana Theodoropoulou1 and Antonio M. Sáez Romero2
1Equipe de Protohistoire Egéenne, CNRS-UMR7041, Maison René Ginouvès, 21 allée de l'Université, 92023 Nanterre
Cedex, France
2Grupo de Investigación HUM-440, Área de Arqueología (Universidad de Cádiz), Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Avda.
Dr. Gómez Ulla, s/n 11003, Cádiz, España
Abstract
Although archaeo-ichthyological studies in the Aegean are increasing, the discovery of remains associated
with processed fish from the Classical and Roman periods remains scarce. The earliest faunal material
found in Greece so far comes from the so-called Punic Amphora Building at Corinth (mid-5th c. BC). The
abundant remains of fish found together with Punic transport amphorae have been interpreted as evidence
for an important trade of tarichos (the ancient term for preserved fish) between the West and the East as
early as the 5th century BC (Zimmermann-Munn 2003). More western Punic amphorae found at Olympia
and Athens, as well as quotes in the Greek literary sources of the 5th c. BC confirm the importance of these
trading links.
The first publication of the archaeological assemblage from Corinth underlined the commercial role of the
building (Williams, 1978, 1979, 1980; Williams and Fisher 1976). The amphorae and fish bones were found
together in the courtyard of the building, mixed with other Greek imports (wine) and some Carthaginian
amphorae. Archaeometric analysis of the western Punic vessels (Maniatis et al. 1984) indicated two
different groups of fabrics, suitable for wet and dry contents. At the same time, only brief accounts of the
fish bones have been included in the first publication of the archaeological assemblage. Fish remains,
essentially consisting of packs of scales, scarce vertebrae and cranial bones, were primarily attributed to
tunny and gilthead sea bream.
A new thorough study of the faunal material provides a detailed account of the fish bones and suggests
how these fish were processed. The faunal analysis is part of a larger integrated project, including an
updated study of the Punic imports found in the building (including both western and central
Mediterranean amphorae). Increasing data in the last decades concerning the typology of amphorae and
their fabrics, archaeo-ichthyological remains, and the excavation of several fish-salting plants and pottery
workshops in the western Punic cities allows us to review the initial hypothesis published for the finds of
the Punic Amphora Building, a major reference in the international commercialization of fish by-products
from the Straits of Gibraltar region in the Classical period.
Keywords: Tuna, Tarichos, Salsamenta, Greece, Corinth, Punic amphorae
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References
Maniatis, Y., Jones, R.E., Whitbread, I.K., Kostikas, A., Simopoulos, A., Karakalos, Ch., Williams II, C. K., 1984. Punic
amphoras found in Corinth, Greece: an investigation of their origin and technology. Journal of Field Archaeology 11,
207222.
Williams II, C. K., 1978. Corinth 1977: Forum Southwest. Hesperia 47, 139.
Williams II, C. K., 1979. Corinth 1978: Forum Southwest. Hesperia 48, 105144.
Williams II, C. K., 1980. Corinth Excavations. Hesperia 49, 107134.
Williams II, C. K., Fisher, J. E., 1976. Corinth 1975: Forum Southwest. Hesperia 45, 99162.
Zimmerman Munn, M.-L., 2003. Corinthian trade with the Punic West in the Classical period. In: Williams, C. K.,
Bookidis, N. (Eds.), Corinth. The Centenary 1896-1996. Results of Excavations conducted by the American School of
Classical Studies at Athens. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp. 195217.
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
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28
Sauces and salted-fish for sailors: palaeocontent analysis of jars from the ports of Gallia
Narbonensis
Gaël Piquès1, Margaux Tillier1, David Djaoui2,3 and Corinne Sanchez1
1ASM - Archéologie des Sociétés Méditerranéennes, UMR5140, Univ Paul-Valéry Montpellier, CNRS, MCC, F-34000
Montpellier, France
2Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, CCJ UMR 7299, F-13628 Aix en
Provence, France
3 Musée départemental Arles antique, F-13200, Arles, France
Abstract
This paper focuses on the analysis of the palaeo-contents of a class of Roman jars found in southern Gaul.
These jars produced in the Latium are known in Ostia under the designation « Ostia II-401 ». In Gaul, they
are only attested in ports, especially Arles, Narbonne and Marseille (Djaoui et al., 2014). Their absence from
terrestrial sites suggests they belonged to sailors. The discovery of two jars containing fish remains, one in
Pompeii and the other in the ancient port of Narbonne (Port-La-Nautique) had led the pottery specialists to
identify these ceramics as « garum jars ».
Reviewing thirty of these jars from different collections, allowed us to confirm that these pots contained
fish-based products. In fact 34 of 38 studied jars still contained remains of fish caught in the pitch which
had been smeared on the inside walls. The contents of six of these jars were sampled and sieved. They
provided sufficient fish remains to be able to characterize the products they contained. The
archaeozoological analysis has thus identified potted mackerels, sauces or rather "fish mash" made from
young sardines or a preparation from a mixture of small fishes and topping waste. Archaeobotanical
remains (seeds) were also found in one of these jars which could signify the presence of condiments.
These studies thus improve our knowledge of salted fish produced in Latium, and also the food consumed
by sailors or passengers aboard ships during their trip from Ostia to the ports of Gaul.
Keywords: Roman period, salsamenta, palaeocontent, fish remains, Gallic ports
References
Djaoui, D., Piquès, G., Botte, E., 2014, Nouvelles données sur les pots dits «à garum» du Latium, d’après les
découvertes subaquatiques du Rhône (Arles), in : Botte, E., Leitch, V. (Eds), Fish & Ships. Production et commerce des
salsamenta durant l’Antiquité. Errance, BIAMA 17, pp. 175-197.
This work is supported by Labex ARCHIMEDE from "Investissement d’Avenir" program ANR-11-LABX-0032-01.
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Roman Tuna fish and Garum from Baelo Claudia: recent archaeozoological evidence
Dario Bernal-Casasola1, Ricard Marlasca2, José Ángel Expósito Álvarez3 and José Juan Díaz RodriguezZ1
1Área de Arqueología. Universidad de Cádiz. Facultad de Filosofía y Letras. Avda. Dr. Gómez Ulla 1, 11003 Cádiz
(Spain).
2Posidonia S.L. Av. Sant Jordi nº 13, 4º c. 07800 Ibiza (Spain).
3 Conjunto Arqueológico de Baelo Claudia. Consejería de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. Junta de Andalucía. Ensenada
de Bolonia, s/n, 11380 Tarifa, Cádiz (Spain).
Abstract
Recent archaeological research was undertaken in the maritime quarter of the Roman city of Baelo Claudia,
located on the European side of the Straits of Gibraltar and funded by the HAR2013-43599-P project of the
Spanish Government (2014-2016). Two new fish-salting plants were discovered. These were built in the I c.
AD and abandoned in the V c. AD. Special attention was focused on the archaeozoological and other
organic remains which were absent from other contexts of the Roman and Late Roman city. The
archaeological trenches revealed at least 10 new salting vats. So far four have been completely excavated.
In the inner layers of two of them we recovered fish remains in primary position related to the marine
preserves that were being produced at the site in the V c. AD. These are of exceptional interest as it is the
first time that these kinds of biological remains appear in Baelo Claudia and so well preserved. In one of the
vats remains of small sparidae were identified - most belonged to Axillary Seabream (Pagellus acarne).
After the abandonment of one of the fish-factories many fins and raquis of tuna fish remains were found in
a sandy layer, where an organic dump was created after cutting and eviscerating recent catches, by the
beach. It is the fourth deposit with similar characteristics found regionally (together with Gadir -“Teatro
Andalucía” site, V c. BC; “Punta Camarinal” also at Bolonia, II c. BC; and Septem – modern Ceuta - I c. AD).
We shall present for the first time the preliminary results of the archaeozoological characterization of the
species found and the cutting processes, as well as a discussion of the historical and archaeological contexts
where the fish bones were found.
Keywords: Baelo Claudia, Roman & Late Roman layers, Garum, Allec, Tuna fish.
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
30
SESSION 4 FISH, RITUAL, FEASTING, AND SOCIAL STATUS
CHAIR: PHILIPPE BÉAREZ
A Greco-Roman votive deposit of fish at Oxyrhynchus (Al Bahnasa, Egypt)
Wim Van Neer
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium
Abstract
The site of Oxyrhynchus is at about 190 km south of Cairo and is located close to the Bahr Youssef which is
a watercourse connecting the Nile with Lake Fayum. The site dates to the Greco- Roman period and is
named after a fish that was venerated here, called oxyrhynchos in Greek (meaning sharp-nosed). This refers
to fish of the family of the Mormyridae (elephant-snout fish) of which evidence for their worshipping was
thus far limited to a few wall paintings and bronze figurines. Although excavations have been ongoing on
the site since the end of the 19th century, it was only in 2012 that a deposit was found with thousands of
complete fish that were piled up next and on top of each other, with in between layers of matting and
wrapping. Although it was possible to lift some of the larger specimens (up to more than 1 meter total
length) individually, they did not remain in articulation, and as a consequence enormous amounts of
isolated fish bones need to be studied. The present paper will describe the deposit and will focus on the
species represented (not only the expected Mormyrus), on their reconstructed sizes, and on the protocol
that was developed to deal with hundreds of thousands of fish bones. Finally, the archaeological data will
be confronted with information from the written sources to further clarify the cultic role this fish played.
Keywords: ritual, religion, Nile fish, Ptolemaic, Roman
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Fishing, feasting and friendship; a cross cultural comparison of fish rituals in maritime contexts
(c. 1500-1900 AD)
Sharyn Jones1 and William Landon2
1Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Philosophy, Northern Kentucky University, USA
2Department of History and Geography, Northern Kentucky University, USA
Abstract
We explore the role of fish in ritual, cross-culturally drawing from regions as diverse as Italy (c. 1500),
England (c. 1600), Hawaii and Fiji (c. 1800-1900). Specifically, we discuss how fish were acquired and
consumed (in feasts, in mass quantities), and shared attributes of fishing across different cultures. While it
has long been established that feasts characteristically reinforce alliances, celebrate life events, people and
important religious dates, as well as reaffirming communities, and enhancing collaboration, we investigate
more precisely how fish, the art of catching them and their presentation plays into these traditions. We
have found, by bringing to bear archaeological, anthropological and historical methods, some surprising
resonances in practices and fish-associations beyond mere subsistence. For example, the quantities of fish
provided at such feasts, across the cultures being discussed, were indicators of wealth, prestige, and
gender. Our discussions make clear that these phenomena cross-cut all social strata including, commoners,
intellectuals, ambassadors, nobles, chiefs, and kings. The evidence that we draw is indebted to the French
concept of material textuality, where text is used to reconstruct material culture and intellectual
stratigraphy, or specifically in the case of our project - food rituals. We explore and reconstruct feasts and
food practices by using ethnohistory and personal letters. In due course, our project will elaborate upon
these themes using archaeology and zooarchaeology.
Keywords: fishing, feasting, Renaissance, Pacific Islands, material textuality
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
32
Charleston, South Carolina (USA): A case study of fish as evidence of social status and
environmental impact
Elizabeth J. Reitz
Georgia Museum of Natural History, 101 Cedar Street, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA,
30602-7882
Abstract
Charleston (South Carolina, USA) was founded as part of the English Carolina proprietorship in 1663 and
moved to its present location on the south-eastern Atlantic coast of North America in 1680. We now have a
record of the social and ecological aspects of fishing which extends into the early twentieth century.
Charleston was the centre of a highly stratified social system, with wealthy plantation owners and an urban
business community largely sustained by the labour of enslaved Africans. The record can be divided into
four briefer periods: 1710-1750, 1750-1820, 1820-1850, and 1850-1900. Fish constitute ca. 20% of the
vertebrate individuals in each period. All but three of the 55 collections from Charleston contain at least
one of the 62 fish taxa found in the city’s archaeological record. A core group of local fish were used
throughout the city’s history - animals that could be captured from local estuarine waters using relatively
simple gear. These were primarily sea catfishes (Ariidae), sea basses (Centropristis spp.), sheepsheads
(Archosargus probatocephalus), drums (Sciaenidae), mullets (Mugil spp.), and flounders (Paralichthys spp.).
Over time, the percentage of fish in the faunal remains declined slightly, but dietary contribution
(measured as biomass) and number of fish taxa (richness) increased. Fish were used by all social strata in
Charleston. The townhouse assemblage is richer and more diverse than assemblages from sites occupied by
people of lower socio-economic status. This higher diversity was achieved by using fish less frequently used
by other social groups and probably more costly to acquire. The mean trophic level exploited in each period
was 3.4. Most fish individuals were taken from trophic levels 3.4 and 3.5 regardless of period, occupant’s
status, or site function. Thus we find in Charleston’s archaeological record evidence that fish were an
important part of the local economy and cuisine, that social distinctions are reflected in fish remains, and
that a fishery which by today’s standards is considered a high-trophic level one was sustained for decades
by Charleston’s estuarine system.
Keywords: Southeastern Atlantic coast, post-Columbian North America, social status, trophic levels
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Fish consumption in the Beit Shean Valley as studied in two major excavations: Tel Beth Shean
and Tel Rehov
Omri Lernau
Zinman Institute of Archaeology, University of Haifa, Israel
Abstract
Two large tels were excavated in the Beit-Shean Valley south of Lake Galilee in Israel directed by Prof.
Amihai Mazar. One is in Tel Beit Shean (1989-1996) and the other at Tel Rehov (1997-2012). Both
excavations produced medium-sized assemblages of fish remains which are more or less contemporary and
date from the Bronze Age to the Early Islamic period (second millennium BC to the 7th century AD).
Study of the fish remains, which were mostly imported from the Mediterranean (some 50 km to the west)
and from the Nile (400 km to the south), has provided an insight into the nature of the organization of long-
distance trade in fish in this area over time. Other issues were examined including questions about the
relationship between the variety of consumed fish and the socio-economic status of the inhabitants of the
sites. It was also interesting to learn from the new study of the finds at Tel Rehov, that previous suggestions
made at Tell Beth Shean about the possible role of cultural preferences concerning the consumption of fish,
could not be confirmed.
Keywords: commerce, cultural preferences, socio-economic status.
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
34
SESSION 5 MORPHOMETRY AND OSTEOMETRY
CHAIR: REBECCA NICHOLSON
A geometric morphometric approach to shape variation in fish vertebrae for taxonomic and
habitat identification
Sofía C. Samper-Carro1, Julien Louys1, Stuart Hawkins1 and Sue O'Connor1
1College of Asia & the Pacific. Department of Archaeology and Natural History. H.C. Coombs Building, 0200, ACT. The
Australian National University, Australia
Abstract
Zooarchaeological studies that have incorporated vertebrae in fish identifications have demonstrated a
significant increase in sample size (NISP and MNI) and species diversity. Such studies provide more
comprehensive information critical for the accurate reconstruction of the total fish diversity in any
assemblage. Traditional methods for identifying fish vertebrae require detailed reference material, which
needs to include every element from a neural spine for each taxon. These methods are labour intensive and
require a great deal of training. Here we propose to improve these methods by applying a geometric
morphometric approach for identifying the vertebrae of fish families in the Asia-Pacific region. We also
relate shape variations within fish vertebrae to habitat. Our methods involve several steps. First, we
digitized vertebrae of some reef (Balistidae and Serranidae) and pelagic/open water (Scombridae and
Carangidae) families from the reference collection of the Department of Archaeology and Natural History
(ANH), Australian National University. We scored each vertebra using 2D landmarks. Results were subjected
to Procrustes fitting and analysed using standard shape analysis algorithms in order to assess whether
shape differences can be used to separate the different families and habitats. These results were then
applied to archaeological material from a recently excavated site in Alor (Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia).
Fish remains from Alor were first classified according to the morphological criteria based on the ANH
reference collection. These results were compared to the quantitative shape variations observed, allowing
us to compare archaeological fish identification methods, specifically inter- and intraspecific variations
associated with family and habitat. This case study will provide insights into human exploitation of marine
resources during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene on faunally depauperate islands in Southeast Asia.
Keywords: geometric morphometrics, vertebrae, taxonomy, habitat, shape analysis
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Estimating body length of two puffer-fish species (Diodon) to predict the size of archaeological
individuals from two sites of different ages and palaeohabitats in the Pearl Island Archipelago,
Panama
María Fernanda Martínez-Polanco1, Máximo Jimenéz1 and Richard Cooke1
1Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
Archaeology Laboratory, 352 building, Naos Island, Calzada de Amador, Ancón, Ciudad de Panamá, Panamá.
Abstract
This paper addresses the advantages and pitfalls of using allometry to estimate size ranges of two species
of puffer-fish in pre-European archaeological samples from two ancient settlements in the Pearl Island
Archipelago of Panama, 30-50 Km from the Pacific mainland. They are: 1) Playa Don Bernardo (PG-L-19/20),
a Preceramic site (6.2-5.6 ka), and 2) Bayoneta Island (LP-8/10) a Ceramic site (~1 kya). Two puffer-fish
species (Diodon hystrix and D. holocanthus) have a high rank at both sites although size range and relative
species abundance differ between them. Four, not necessarily mutually exclusive, hypotheses may account
for this situation: 1) a diachronic increase in small mangrove-estuary habitats due to changes in coastal
geomorphology, 2) differential distribution of these habitats on the two islands despite their closeness, 3)
temporal changes in captured diodont species owing to a shift in capture methods, and 4) diachronic
decline in fish size due to human predation. We seek the best relationship between the dimensions of
several body parts and fish length referring to allometric regression equations. A modern collection of both
species was used. The most robust body part (maxilla/dentary) is the least reliable. This is a study-in-
progress. By the time of the workshop we expect to have analyzed sufficient material to present a
preliminary evaluation of our hypotheses and offer meaningful interpretations of resource use and fishing
strategies vis-à-vis technological and ecological change. The paper will be presented by the first author.
Keywords: Diodon, pufferfish, Pearl Island Archipelago, Panama, osteometry
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
36
SESSION 6 FISH AS PALAEOCLIMATIC AND PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL PROXIES ISOTOPIC
DATA
CHAIR: JAMES BARRETT
Isotopic sclerochronology provides insight into fishing seasonality in a palaeo-lake at Gobero
(Niger) during the mid-Holocene
Elise Dufour1, Hélène Jousse2 and Paul Sereno3.
1Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle – CNRS, UMR 7209, 55 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France.
2INRAP, centre de recherches archéologiques de Carquefou, 4 rue du Tertre, 44477 Carquefou cedex, France
3University of Chicago, Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Abstract
Isotopic sclerochronology is a discipline which combines the analysis of periodic growth marks and their
stable isotopic composition. It provides an insight into the climate of the past, as well as the season of
mollusk harvest or fish capture. It is usually used in marine contexts. Here we analyzed Tilapinii otoliths
from the Gobero complex (Niger). The site is located on the edge of a palaeo-lake and provides an
exceptional testimony of human occupation of the central Sahara (Tenere desert) during Holocene humid
intervals. Otoliths were recovered from middens dating from the mid-Holocene (5200-2500 BC). They were
used to document hydrologic conditions and seasonality of fishing and site occupation.
Sagittal sections were prepared for ten Tilapinii otoliths recovered from two middens. For each otolith, an
oxygen isotopic profile was generated by micromilling and classical mass spectrometry. The quality of
preservation of the aragonite was checked by SEM observation of the microstructure and analysis of the
mineralogy form by localized optical FTIR analysis.
All isotopic profiles exhibit both large ontogenetic variation and regular cyclical changes. The cyclicity in
18Ooto values correspond to narrow periodic growth structures observed in sagittal sections. Adult fish
inhabited water bodies with more or less regular seasonal hydrological variations. The reading of the
outermost portion and its positioning within the annual cycle indicates that Tilapinii were captured at
different times within the hydrological cycle. Fishing was practiced at different times of the year and the
site occupied in different seasons. Very low 18Ooto values measured during early life suggest that young
Tilapinii inhabited bodies of water fed by precipitation from high altitude such as the Air Massif. Much
higher 18Ooto values during adulthood show that fishing was practiced in evaporative shallow water -
lakeside or in marginal basins - where fish are more vulnerable to human predation. Good hydrological
conditions, abundance and stability of palaeo-lake resources might have favoured the permanent or semi-
permanent human occupation of Gobero during the mid-Holocene.
Keywords: otoliths, oxygen stable isotopes, seasonality, hydrology
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Stable Isotope ratios of archaeological and modern fish bone collagen reflect interactions
between men, fish and aquatic ecosystems
Simone Häberle1, Jörg Schibler1 and Heide Hüster Plogmann1
1IPNA, University of Basel, Switzerland
Abstract
Freshwater fish remains are regularly recovered from archaeological contexts in Switzerland. This attests
the importance to people of these aquatic food resources in the past. We measured carbon and nitrogen
isotope ratios of freshwater fish bone samples from sites dating between the 11th and the 21st centuries AD
in order to provide information about the human influence on fish stocks and aquatic ecosystems. The
species considered include Esox lucius, Perca fluviatilis, Barbus barbus, Rutilus rutilus and Cyprinus carpio.
The δ15N results indicate a natural size and age-related trophic level effect. Heterogeneous carbon isotope
signatures from samples from the same site could indicate spatial variation in isotope values within single
ecosystems or alternatively represent the use of different fishing grounds. In comparison to the
archaeological material, the modern fish samples show 15N-enriched and 13C-depleted isotope values. This
is probably related to the beginning of the pervasive impact of industrialisation.
Keywords: Switzerland, historic time, aquatic ecosystems, fresh water fish isotope signatures
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
38
SESSION 7 FISHING CULTURES OF THE WORLD: ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN IMPACT ON
FISH RESOURCES
1. S7: SOUTH AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN
CHAIR: VIRGINIA BUTLER
Bayovar 1: A pre-Hispanic fish-processing camp in the Sechura Desert, Northern Peru.
Philippe Béarez 1, Nicolas Goepfert 2 and Christol Aurélien3
1 CNRS-MNHN UMR 7209 Archéozoologie, Archéobotanique: sociétés, pratiques et environnements, Muséum national
d’Histoire naturelle, 55 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France
2 CNRS-Paris 1 UMR 8096 'Archéologie des Amériques', Maison de l’Archéologie et de l’Ethnologie, 21 allée de
l’Université, 92023 Nanterre, France
3 Université de Lyon (Lyon 3), UMR 5600 EVS, Lyon, France
Abstract
The Sechura Desert is the northernmost extension of the coastal Peruvian desert. However its littoral
region is under the physical and ecological influences of the cold Humboldt Current that flows north from
southern Chile to northern Peru. This area is strongly affected during El Niño events and appears to be a
strategic place for studying this weather phenomenon through time. Our study of the subsistence
strategies and resource management helps us understand how man has adapted to environmental
constraints. We shall present the results of the excavation of a small site occupied by fishermen, dating to
the Early Intermediate Period (ca. AD 547-766). The faunal assemblage contains an overwhelming amount
of fish skeletal and otolith remains, and, in much smaller proportions, sea turtles, marine birds, and
terrestrial mammals. The presence of such a quantity of fish remains and of the many recognized hearths
lead us to propose the existence of a fish-processing site.
Species diversity seems at first sight relatively low, however the fish are represented by specimens of
varied sizes whose weight ranged from 100 grams to several kilograms. The presence of shallow and warm
water species such as the sciaenid Micropogonias altipinnis (Golden croaker), indicates that the
environment was probably different from what it is today. The eventual presence of a lagoon environment,
nowadays absent from the area, raises new questions about the environmental conditions at the time of
the site’s occupation.
Keywords: pre-Hispanic fishing, fish processing, palaeoenvironment, coastal desert, Peru
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Tracking fish and fishing practices over time in sambaquis of the Santos estuarine complex,
southeastern Brazil (4900 1900 years BP)
Caroline Borges1 and Sandrine Grouard2.
1Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle CNRS UMR 7209, Archéozoologie, Archéobotanique : sociétés, pratiques,
environnements. 55, rue Buffon - F-75231 Paris cedex 05, France
2Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle CNRS UMR 7209, Archéozoologie, Archéobotanique : sociétés, pratiques,
environnements. 55, rue Buffon - F-75231 Paris cedex 05, France
Abstract
Sambaquis are shell mounds constructed along the southern and southeastern, Atlantic coast of Brazil by
fisher-hunter-gatherer groups during the mid-Holocene.
Faunal remains from four archaeological sites located in various areas of the estuarine complex of Santos,
São Paulo State, south-east of Brazil, were studied and compared with the archaeozoological results
published for other sambaquis in the same region. These sites, Piaçaguera, Mar Casado, Maratuá and
Buracão, have dates ranging between 4930 and 1950 years BP.
The aim was to determine the diet of their human inhabitants, and to identify the subsistence practices and
the ecosystems that they exploited.
The results indicate that the marine resources, primarily fish (teleostei and chondrichthyes), were the most
important food resource in all of the archaeological sites studied. The wide spectrum of fauna at these sites
illustrates an opportunistic pattern of exploitation of a varied range of the estuarine and marine habitats by
the inhabitants of the sambaquis.
The ichthyological profile identified is roughly equivalent between sites, with a dominant presence of the
families Ariidae, Sciaenidae, Centropomidae, Eleotridae and Mugilidae, but the importance of each family
and each species differs over time, indicating that human groups exploited their environment in different
ways.
Size estimation of archaeological fish was made using osteometric models and the measurements taken on
the archaeological bones and otoliths. This provides further insight into the type of fishing techniques that
could have been potentially employed as well as the identification of associated fishing practices.
On the basis of these data, we discuss the changes and continuities of the fishing strategies and ecosystem
exploitation in the Santos estuarine complex.
Keywords: sambaquis, fishing strategies, subsistence practices, archaeoichthyology, Brazil
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
40
SESSION 7 FISHING CULTURES OF THE WORLD: ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN IMPACT ON
FISH RESOURCES
2. S7: NORTH AMERICA, ALASKA AND ASIA
CHAIR: RICHARD HOFFMANN
The effects of mega-earthquakes on northeast Pacific fish populations over the past 2000 years
Virginia L. Butler
Department of Anthropology, Portland State University, Portland, OR, 97207 U.S.A.
Abstract
The extent to which past human populations were vulnerable to abrupt environmental change such as
volcanic eruptions, flooding, drought, and earthquakes, has interested anthropologists and archaeologists
for many years. Research into the archaeology of disaster response suggests communities sometimes
suffered significant stress, restructuring, or abandoning settlement after such events. Sometimes the
effects of a “catastrophic” event were not all negative, and may have even enhanced environmental
productivity. Research has also shown that catastrophes are not just natural events but are mediated by
socio-cultural factors such as subsistence, settlement-mobility patterns, population size and
infrastructure/technology. The northeast Pacific coastline adjacent to the Cascade Subduction Zone (CSZ)
of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, is an ideal setting to study human response to catastrophes
given the region’s geological history of “mega-earthquakes” (magnitude 8.0 and greater on the Richter
scale) and the record for large populations of sedentary “complex foragers” living there. Over the last 3,500
years, at least seven CSZ mega earthquakes at 400-600 year intervals have occurred; the latest in AD 1700.
The recently excavated Tse-whit-zen village site on the coast of Washington State (United States), dating
from ~2000 B.P. to the early 20th century, provides an excellent opportunity to explore ways past mega
earthquakes affected indigenous populations of the north Pacific. In 2004, the site, a traditional village of
the Lower Elwha Klallam, was extensively excavated (518 m², 261 m³) with fine geo-stratigraphic control,
resulting in one of the largest samples of houses, artifacts and fauna (including >500,000 fish remains) on
the Northwest Coast. In 2012, a large-scale study began of a large sample of the invertebrate and
vertebrate remains and associated geological matrix, to understand how the animals and in turn the
humans, were affected by earthquakes and other environmental forces. This paper explores the results of
this project and reviews patterns in the fish faunal record (~80,000 fish specimens) from one house area,
represented by five periods defined by 40 radiocarbon dates.
Keywords: marine fish, environmental impacts, Northeast Pacific Ocean
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Decline of Rock greenlings from Adak Island (Aleutian Islands, Alaska)
Olga Krylovich
Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 33, Moscow, 119071 Russia
Abstract
We studied remains of Rock Greenlings (Hexagrammos lagocephalus) from the ADK-009 archaeological site
(Adak Island, Aleutian Islands). This shell midden, with a depth of 160 cm, was well stratified with several
layers that had accumulated gradually. Radiocarbon dates of terrestrial bird bone collagen show that the
cultural layer was formed from 800 to 300 years cal BP. About 16,000 remains of different taxonomic
groups of fish were identified - Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) and Rock Greenling being the most
numerous. The share of Rock Greenling bones gradually increases from 14% of NISP in the lower layers
(800-700 years cal BP) to 78% in the upper layers (400-300 years cal BP). As a result, Rock Greenling
replaced Pacific Cod in the catches made by local people. Reconstruction of population abundance shows
the same tendency, abundance of Greenlings increased with time as well. The increase both in the
abundance and the proportion of Greenlings in catches occurred during the period between 500 and 300
years cal BP. It is most noteworthy that these changes coincide with a period of comparative cooling in the
Northern Hemisphere also known as the Little Ice Age. Rock Greenling is a demersal solitary fish
inhabiting shallow rocky areas. In the Aleutian Islands it is the most abundant and widely distributed
species in inshore rock and algae community. Greenling body size was calculated from 617 bones. The
average length of Greenling decreased by 2 cm (from 36 to 34 cm) over time. The average size of modern
Greenling from Adak Island is about 35 cm. We suppose that this size decrease is a result of over-
exploitation of the local Rock Greenling population.
Keywords: Aleutian Islands, Hexagrammos lagocephalus, Holocene, Rock Greenling
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
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The Rice-fish Economy: wetland fishing and rice cultivation in the Neolithic of the lower Yangtze
River region, China
Ying Zhang1, Dorian Fuller2, Ling Qin1 and Louise Martin2
1School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University, China
2 Institute of Archaeology, University College London, England
Abstract
China’s Yangtze River region, especially the lower Yangtze basin with its abundant water bodies, has a long
history of rice-fish economy. Historical records state that rice, fish, and wild aquatic plants here were the
most important subsistence resources at least since the Bronze Age. Archaeologists suggested that fishing
persisted as an important subsistence strategy in the Neolithic Yangtze region (Yuan et al, 2008). However,
this assumption has not been proved archaeologically because the fish remains were usually overlooked
during excavation and were rarely studied.
This research focuses on the fish and rice remains from Tianluoshan, a late Neolithic site in the lower
Yangtze River region. Domesticated rice has been identified from Tianluoshan (Fuller et al, 2009); the fish
remains were relatively well preserved and retrieved. A thorough analysis of the fish remains indicates that
most fish were probably from the freshwater wetlands close to the settlement. Although the ocean was not
so far from Tianluoshan, it was rarely exploited. Easy access made freshwater fish a reliable food resource
which was exploited throughout the year. The connections between fish and rice in the subsistence can be
summarized into three parts. First, fish and rice were from the same environment. Although rice
domestication had begun, the rice field had not been separated from the natural wetlands, where most fish
were captured. Second, the analysis of seasonality shows that the fishing seasons differ from the rice
harvest season, indicating the management of labour. Third, the statistics indicate that the fish assemblage
changed during the occupation of the site (about 1,000 years), along with the increase of domesticated
rice.
The fish remains and the rice-fish economy in the Neolithic of the lower Yangtze River region is still under-
studied, and so research at Tianluoshan is of a pioneering nature. The nature of the fish economy will be
better investigated as more archaeological materials are retrieved and studied.
Keywords: the rice-fish economy, wetland fishery, lower Yangtze region, Neolithic
References
Fuller, D., Qin, L., Zheng, Y., Zhao, Z., Chen, X., Hosoya, A., Sun, G., 2009. The domestication process and domestication
rate in rice: spikelet bases from the Lower Yangtze. Science 323, 1607-1610.
Yuan, J., Flad, R., Luo, Y., 2008. Meat-acquisition patterns in the Neolithic Yangzi river valley, China. Antiquity 82, 351-
366.
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SESSION 7 FISHING CULTURES OF THE WORLD: ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN IMPACT ON
FISH RESOURCES
3. SESSION 7: EUROPE
CHAIR: DANIEL MAKOWIEKI
Burbot (Lota lota) and winter fishing in Finland during the Stone Age
Katariina Nurminen
University of Helsinki, Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies/ Archaeology, Agronominkatu 4 C 93,
00790 Helsinki, Finland
Abstract
Stone Age dwelling sites in Finland are typically located by lake shores. Finland was then as it is now a
“land of a thousand lakes”. Freshwater fishing has been an important source of livelihood throughout
history. Pike (Esox lucius), perch (Perca fluviatilis), whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) and Cyprinid fish are
common in the Stone Age refuse faunas found in hearths and waste pits.
Winters in Finland are cold and snowy and the lakes and rivers freeze over. Winter fishing under the ice has
been widely practiced during historic times. It requires different methods than open water fishing. For
instance, pike and perch are easy to catch under the ice.
Recently I have found clear evidence of winter fishing during the Stone Age. Burned burbot (Lota lota)
bones have been found at many Stone Age dwelling sites, almost throughout the country. Burbots spawn in
the mid-winter in coastal waters. The rest of the year adult burbots stay in the deep waters of an open lake.
The burbot bone finds derive from adult and spawning mature fish. It suggests that fishing occurred during
the winter.
Keywords: winter, fishing, Stone Age, burbot, Finland
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
44
Eel fishing in the Mariager Fjord during the Ertebølle and Funnel Beaker cultures: new archaeo-
ichthyological data from the kitchen midden at Thygeslund
Harry K. Robson1 and Søren H. Andersen2
1BioArch, University of York, S-Block, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK, hkrobson@hotmail.co.uk
2Moesgård Museum, Moesgård Allé 20, DK-8270 Højbjerg, Denmark
Abstract
Thygeslund is one of a number of Danish stratified ‘køkkenmødding’ (kitchen middens) spanning the late
Mesolithic (Ertebølle) and the early Neolithic (Funnel Beaker) cultures, and has been dated from
approximately 4400 to 3300 cal BC. A total 4 m2 have been excavated at the kitchen midden during trial
trenching undertaken in 2013 and 2014.
Here we present the results of a study conducted on the fish remains recovered by hand as well as on site
dry screening of materials (4.0, 2.0 and 1.0 mm mesh) that were excavated through the midden sequence.
The results are compared with contemporary kitchen middens in the fjord, including Havnø to the east-
northeast and Visborg to north-northeast. All three kitchen middens are located < 5 km from one another,
and the species spectra for the three sites comprised marine and to a lesser extent freshwater fish, the
majority of which migrate between fresh and salt waters.
The material is quantified and estimates of total fish lengths are provided. Interpretation focuses on
taphonomy, including element size distribution and percentage completeness, relative importance of the
fish represented, especially the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), significance of the three-spined
stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the greater weever (Trachinus draco), presence of freshwater
taxa, possible fishing methods employed, and season(s) of capture.
Keywords: Denmark, kitchen midden, Mesolithic, Neolithic, fish
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The Chalcolithic fishery at Pietrele, Romania described from fish and fishing technology remains
Kenneth Ritchie
Centre for Baltic and Scandinavian Archaeology, Schloss Gottorf, Schleswig, Germany 24837
Abstract
The Chalcolithic period of the 5th millennium BC in the area of the Lower Danube River is of particular
interest for archaeologists because it provides evidence for very early metallurgy, incipient social
stratification, and, at many sites, a renaissance in the exploitation of wild animals in the subsistence
economy even though domesticated animals continue to be important. Since 2002, excavations at the tell
near Pietrele, Romania on the floodplain of the Danube River, have produced abundant evidence of the
exploitation of fish and other aquatic animals both in the form of faunal remains and some of the
technologies used to procure them. Although examples of very large catfish and cyprinids are common in
the assemblage, wet-sieving of soil samples has also revealed the presence of numerous bones from very
small fish indicating a very intensive exploitation of aquatic resources by the site’s occupants. Although
analysis is continuing, the data produced so far can begin to address questions of where, when and how
aquatic resources were procured and how the settlement was provisioned.
Keywords: Chalcolithic, Romania, Danube, tell
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
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Fishing in the Iberian Bronze Age: the fishes from the Cabezo Pardo and Cerro de los Gavilanes
Eufrasia Roselló Izquierdo1, Mª Milagrosa Ros-Sala2, J.A. López Padilla3 and Arturo Morales Muñiz1
1 Departamento de Biología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain
2Universidad de Murcia, Spain
3MARQ (Museo arqueológico provincial, Alicante), Spain
Abstract
The Bronze Age of the Iberian peninsula has been a period with little archaeoichthyological information.
The traditional explanation to account for such dearth of data has been to consider that Iberian Bronze Age
communities, focused their interest on mineral resources, agriculture and stockbreeding. But, at least in the
case of the eastern Iberian shores, another equally important, often neglected, reason may have had to do
with sea level fluctuations occurring over a tectonically active littoral that witnessed large changes
throughout the second millennium BC.
In this presentation we will provide an overview of ichthyoarchaeological developments in the SW sector of
the Iberian Peninsula, focusing on the assemblages from two sites. Cabezo Pardo (province of Alicante) is a
rural settlement which presently lies ca. 5 km inland from the Mediterranean coast but that during the
Bronze Age was stationed at the shoreline of a huge coastal lagoon. Cerro de los Gavilanes is a small rocky
outcrop on the present day city of Mazarrón (province of Murcia) which for a prolonged period that
spanned from the Early Bronze Age (ca. 1900 cal. BC) to republican times (ca. 200 cal. BC) served as a
harbor and fishing village. The fish faunas from both sites exhibit differences and similarities that, along
with fishes from other sites from SW Iberia allow one to grasp some features of the fishing strategies
carried out during this interesting and enigmatic period of Iberian prehistory.
Keywords: Fish, Fishing, Bronze Age, Sw Iberia, Coastal morphology
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Fish remains from the Neolithic site of El Mirador cave (Atapuerca, Spain): seasonality and
resource management
Àngel Blanco1, Josep M. Vergés2,3 and Jordi Agustí2,3,4
1 Institut für Naturwissenschaftliche Archäologie, Universität Tübingen, Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and
Paleoenvironment (HEP), Rümelinstr. 23, 72070 Tübingen, Germany
2 IPHES, Institut català de Paleoecologia Humana I Evolució Social, C/ Marcel·lí Domingo s/n (Edifici W3), Campus
Sescelades, E-43007 Tarragona, Spain
3 Àrea de Prehistòria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Avinguda de Catalunya, 35, E-43002 Tarragona, Spain
4 ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerca I Estudis Avançats, Barcelona, Spain
Abstract
Ichthyoarchaeological analyses were undertaken of the freshwater fish remains from levels 19 and 20 in El
Mirador cave (Atapuerca, Spain). Fish were always present as a source of animal protein, although their
importance in the human diet was not fully exploited by people during the Neolithic on the Iberian
Peninsula. Two principal goals are treated here: a taxonomic study of the fish remains and a
characterization of the exploitation of this resource. The results show that the human community of El
Mirador cave practiced fishing, and that fish was part of their diet and social life.
Keywords: freshwater fish, resource, Neolithic, El Mirador cave, Atapuerca
References
Martín, P., Rosell, J. & Vergés, J.M. (2009) La gestión de los recursos faunísticos durante el Neolítico en la Sierra de
Atapuerca (Burgos): los niveles 19 y 20 de la Cueva del Mirador. Trabajos de Prehistoria 66(2): 77-92
Vergès, J.M., Allué, E., Angelucci, D.E., Cebrià, A., Pérez, C., Fontanals, M., Mányanos, A., Montero, S., Moral, S.,
Vaquero, M. & Zaragoza, J. (2002) La Sierra de Atapuerca durante el Holoceno: Datos preliminares sobre las
ocupaciones de la edad del Bronze en la Cueva de El Mirado (Ibeas de JuarrOs, Burgos). Trabajos de Prehistoria 59:
107-126.
Vergès, J.M., Allué, D., Angelucci, D.E., Burjachs, F., Carrancho, Á., Cebrià, A., Expósito, I., Fontanals, M., Moral, S.,
Rodríguez, A. & Vaquero, M. (2009) Los niveles neolíticos de la cueva de El Mirador (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos):
nuevos datos sobre la implantación y el desarrollo de la economía agropecuaria en la submeseta norte. In Actas del IV
Congreso del Neolítico Peninsular, Alacant: MARQ, 2008, p. 418-427. - ISBN: 9788496979000. Proceedings of: IV
Congreso del Neolítico Peninsular, Alacant, 2008
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
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SESSION 8 NATURAL DEPOSITS VS. FISHING, FISH PROCESSING AND CONSUMPTION EVIDENCE
CHAIR: ARTURO MORALES
Troubled Waters: Fish remains from Ménfőcsanak–Széles-földek, Hungary
László Bartosiewicz1, Alfred Galik2 and Gábor Ilon3
1Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University, Lilla Frescativägen 7, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
2Institute of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210
Vienna, Austria
3National Heritage Centre, Hungarian National Museum, Múzeum körút 16 18, 1088 Budapest, Hungary
Abstract
The site of Ménfőcsanak–Széles-földek is located on a sand bank in the ancient floodplain, of the Holt-
Marcal and Ős-Rába rivers. It is near the city of Győr on the right bank of the Danube in NW Hungary. The
settlement falls within an area of 150 hectares covered by archaeological sites. The periods relevant to the
fish remains discussed in our presentation include the Late Bronze and Iron Ages, and the Roman Empire.
Water-sieved samples show that fish have always been present. It is hard to tell, however, which remains
originate from fish consumption and which are natural deposits resulting from inundations. The latter
option needs to be considered in the light of environmental archaeological investigations that show
dynamic fluviation and intensive sedimentation (Kreiter and Pető 2012). However, the remains of grasses
and cultivated cereals indicate the exploitation of relatively dry habitats. According to observations made
during the excavation and following extensive rainfall, deeper sections of the Ménfőcsanak archaeological
site became inundated, despite water-regulation on the modern landscape: even temporary water cover in
the area resulted in the occurrence of small fish, including small Cyprinids. Prehistoric hydrological
properties of the region make natural deposition a likely interpretation, especially in the case of numerous
bones of unusually small fish of negligible economic importance.
Meanwhile the remains of relatively large carp and pike came to light from Late Iron Age and Roman Period
features in the eastern section of the site. These indicate their dietary roles in these periods. The remains
of five large pike originate from what was considered a Late Bronze Age Tumulus probably a sacrificial
feature. They fall into the size category of individuals that can be caught by active fishing, as opposed to
potting usually practiced in small, residual flood pools (Kovács et al. 2010: 248). This admittedly
hypothetical argument concerning the pike sizes from Ménfőcsanak is confirmed by two bronze angle finds
associated with the period between the Copper and Late Bronze Ages.
Keywords: natural deposition, angling, pike, carp, Danube
References
Kovács, Zs. E., Gál, E., Bartosiewicz, L., 2010. Early Neolithic animal bones from Ibrány–Nagyerdő, Hungary, in:
Kozłowski, J. K., Raczky, P. (Eds.), Neolithization of the Carpathian Basin: Northernmost distribution of the
Starčevo/Körös culture. Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, KrakówBudapest, pp. 238254.
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Kreiter, A., Pető, Á. (Eds.) 2012. Összesített kutatási jelentés a Győr–Ménfőcsanak, Széles-földek lelőhelyen (KÖH:
34305) felvett talajszelvények talajtani, geokémiai, archaeobotanikai és malakológiai adatairól [Summary report on
the pedological, gochemical, archaeobotanical and malacological data from Győr–Ménfőcsanak, Széles-földek (KÖH:
34305)]. Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum Nemzeti Örökségvédelmi Központ Restaurálási és Alkalmazott
Természettudományi Laboratórium, Budapest.
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
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Garbage into the well: exploitation of fish in two historical phases of Sant'Antioco (SW Sardinia,
Italy)
Gabriele Carenti
Sassari University, Department of Nature and Environmental Sciences. Via Muroni 25 07100 Sassari, Sardinia, Italy
Abstract
Several excavations were undertaken in recent years in the ancient town of Sulky on the island of
Sant'Antioco (SW Sardinia). These reveal evidence of the way of life of the inhabitants from the foundation
of the city in the 8th century BC until Roman Imperial times. We studied fish remains found in the fill of
certain architectural structures related to the use of water and food resources in the city centre. The first
structure was a silo used during the Archaic phase for storing food. It fell out of use and was filled during
the 8th c. BC. Other structures include two drainage pits related to the urban street closed and filled during
the 1st c. AD. Findings allowed us to speculate on some important features concerning the exploitation of
fish. Technological or cultural differences were identified between different contexts and historical phases.
Keywords: archaeozoology, taphonomy, fish remains, Sardinia, Phoenician, Roman
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A pit full of fish: fishing and fish storage at the Late Islamic settlement of Freiha, Qatar
Lisa Yeomans
Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Abstract
A large assemblage of fish bones was studied from the Late Islamic settlement of Freiha on the northwest
coast of Qatar. One pit provided an exceptional collection of thousands of fish bones preserved below a
capping deposit. This was interpreted as a fish storage pit and ethnographic parallels have been
documented in Oman where dried and salted fish would be preserved for future consumption. A
consideration of the species represented and calculations of fish size indicates that small fish were stored in
this manner. Rabbitfish (Siganus sp.) were by far the most common species preserved. Intertidal stone fish
traps would have yielded large catches of fish and the ability to store the surplus produce would have been
hugely beneficial to settlement in such a harsh environment.
I shall present the results of my study of the fish bones from the fish storage pit and, in conjunction with
the rest of the studied faunal assemblage, examine how the inhabitants were catching and processing fish
at the settlement. Results are also compared to the assemblage from the slightly later settlement of
Zubarah a few kilometers along the coast illustrating how the immediate marine environs of each
settlement influenced fishing practices in the inshore waters. Both settlements also exploited the coral
reefs reached by fishing boats and occasionally fished in open waters bringing home catches of pelagic fish.
Keywords: Qatar, fish storage, Freiha, Zubarah
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
52
Fishing and eating plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) from Roman to modern times in Belgium
Wim Wouters
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium
Abstract
The evidence for marine fish consumption from coastal and inland sites in Belgium shows a heavy reliance
on herring, gadids (cod, haddock, whiting) and flatfish (plaice, flounder and dab). Within the last group,
plaice is the most common. I shall provide an overview of the occurrence of this species from Roman to
post-medieval times in sites along the Scheldt basin. The diachronic analysis focusses upon the contribution
of this flatfish to the diet and on the way it was marketed. The intraskeletal distribution (head versus
postcranial bones) and reconstructed fish lengths (based on new regression equations) are considered for
the consumption sites. These data are compared to those seen at a major production site along the North
Sea coast with the aim of establishing whether plaice was traded whole or as prepared fish, and whether
particular size categories were chosen for export to the consumption sites. Finally, I shall consider to what
extent the diachronic pattern seen in the size distributions can be considered as a possible marker of
overfishing.
Keywords: plaice, fish curing, size reconstruction, overfishing
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SESSION 9 MULTI-DISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF FISH REMAINS:
ARCHAEOLOGY, WRITTEN AND ILLUSTRATED SOURCES
CHAIR: HEIDE H. PLOGMANN
What can be learned from the fisheries regulations of late medieval Europe?
Richard C. Hoffmann
Department of History, 2140 Vari Hall, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 Canada
Abstract
From the early 1200s public regulation of fisheries became common across much, but not all, of western
and central Europe. This was probably due to a simultaneous response to perceived depletion and the
expanding purview of secular governments. Authorities with some claim to regional effectiveness such as
Italian city states, regional princes and some national rulers, issued wide-ranging codes for economic and
sustained use of inland and inshore (but rarely marine) biota. The scope of these ordinances grew over time
and increasingly asserted their service of public rather than private interest. The protection and wise use of
aquatic resources had considerable political importance. Certain characteristic measures reveal
contemporary understanding of aquatic life and these help scholars interpret the varieties and sizes of
archaeological fish remains. Other provisions, including some demonstrably enforced, identify specific
capture techniques and socio-economic conflicts over their use. The contribution of public law to the
sustainability of European fish populations should at least be considered. The paper draws upon laws and
court cases from Britain, France, the Low Countries, German-speaking territories, northern Italy, and the
Iberian kingdoms during the 13th through 16th centuries.
Keywords: Middle Ages, Europe, fisheries regulations, fish varieties, capture techniques
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
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Hanseatic trade in the North Atlantic: the archaeozoological evidence
Hans Christian Küchelmann
Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum Bremerhaven, Hans-Scharoun-Platz 1, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany
Abstract
In May 2013 a conference concerned with the "Hanseatic trade in the North Atlantic" was held in
Avaldsnes, Norway. The focus of the conference was the trade of Hanseatic merchants with Iceland, the
Shetlands and the Faroes between the 13th and 17th century on which only a relatively small amount of
research had been undertaken, compared to historic research on other Hanseatic destinations. The topic
was tackled from historical, archaeological, etymological and archaeozoological aspects. Following the
initial steps taken at the conference a research group was founded in 2014 which intends to make a more
profound study of the topic. The application for the project entitled "Zwischen Nordsee und Nordmeer:
Interdisziplinäre Studien zur Hanse" ("Between North Sea and North Atlantic: interdisciplinary studies
towards the Hanse) has been granted by the Leibniz-Gemeinschaft and began its work in March 2015 at the
Schiffahrtsmuseum (DSM) in Bremerhaven. The research group currently consists of four researchers:
Natascha Mehler (archaeologist), Mike Belasus (marine archaeologist), Bart Holterman (historian) and
myself (archaeozoologist).
As the most numerous and economically most important item in the Hanseatic North Atlantic trade was
stockfish, the core of the archaeozoological study will mainly concern fish. My initial concern at the
Avaldsnes conference was the evidence for the Hanseatic stockfish trade from the point of view of the
consumer sites, the Hanse cities in Germany (Küchelmann in prep.). The counterpart of which was a study
by Ramona Harrison and collaborators of the North Atlantic Biocultural Organisation (NABO) of fish remains
from producer sites on the North Atlantic Islands (Harrison and Maher 2014). Within the new project I aim
to study the Hanseatic stockfish (and other animal products) trade in the North Atlantic in general,
integrating archaeozoological, archaeological and historical data. In cooperation with the Alfred-Wegener-
Institut we will try to link the historical and archaeozoological data to relevant questions in ichthyology,
ecology, population and fishery biology.
In my presentation I shall introduce this new research project, outline the evidence accumulated so far,
show potentials and limitations of the data and present preliminary results.
Keywords: Gadidae, North Atlantic, Hanseatic trade
References
Küchelmann, H.C., in prep. Hanseatic fish trade in the North Atlantic: the evidence of fish remains from Hanse cities in
Germany, in: Mehler, N., Gardiner, M. (Eds.), Hanseatic trade in the North Atlantic. New discoveries from archaeology
and history. Proceedings of the conference in Avaldsnes, Norway, September 2012
Harrison, R., Maher, A. 2014 (Eds.). Human Ecodynamics in the North Atlantic: A Collaborative Model of Humans and
Nature through Space and Time, Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland.
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The nature of Anglo-Saxon fishing and fish consumption: A Multi-disciplinary approach to the
study of fish remains
Rebecca Reynolds
Freelance zooarchaeologist. 611 Southleigh Road, Emsworth, PO10 7TE, England
Abstract
The Anglo-Saxon period saw considerable change as well as continuation in England’s society and economy.
Numerous identities were formed while some were broken or changed. The importance of fish in the
Anglo-Saxon diet and its place within the economy and society has long been debated, however the nature
of fish remains has made their study fraught with problems. In addition, the rigidity of the framework in
which many Anglo-Saxon contextual studies are conducted has meant that fishing as a whole has not often
been seen to be of major significance in Anglo-Saxon England. Recent zooarchaeological studies of Anglo-
Saxon faunal material have highlighted the major role that animals played in the formation of identities but
also worldviews. However, these studies have merely touched upon the fish remains. This study sought to
remedy this. In order to achieve this and to counter-act the limitations associated with fish bone analysis
other evidence such as isotope data from human remains, fish-related place-names, weirs and material
culture associated with fishing such as hooks and sinkers were studied and discussed alongside each other
in order to achieve a full picture of the role of fishing and fish consumption throughout the Anglo-Saxon
period. This has provided a more colourful view of fishing one that is beyond purely economic factors and
has highlighted the importance of socio-cultural factors. Unsurprisingly, many more questions remain to be
answered and most of these relate to the multi-disciplinary approach adopted.
Keywords: fish, Anglo-Saxon, worldview, multi-disciplinary
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
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Fishing and fish consumption in the colonial lower Mississippi valley: fish remains from
European colonial and early American sites in the historic New Orleans French quarter
Susan D. deFrance
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida,USA
Abstract
Located along the lower Mississippi River, the city of New Orleans, in addition to the river itself, is
surrounded by rich waterways including the numerous bayous, bays, and lake systems. New Orleans,
established in 1718, rapidly became an amalgam of Native American, European, and African American
peoples. Fishing and fish consumption was a feature of life in this inland coastal city prior to European
colonization, and fish and seafood consumption became signature elements of the city’s unique cuisine.
The zooarchaeological study of fish remains from three sites is used to examine changing habits of fish
consumption, provisioning, and the roles of markets in providing fish to French Quarter residents and hotel
guests. Diachronic analysis of the fish remains demonstrates how European and other occupants created
distinct patterns of fish use. The site of St. Anthony's Garden located behind St. Louis Cathedral was
extensively excavated. It is the locale of the city’s first European settlement at the site of a Native American
settlement. Fish remains from St. Anthony’s Garden and the Rising Sun Hotel site provide a record of fish
use from early French and Spanish colonial occupations of the eighteenth century until the American period
of the late nineteenth century and the rise of the hospitality industry. Fish remains from the excavation of
the Ursuline Convent, one of the oldest structures in the lower Mississippi Valley, provide information on
how this all female religious order, the first such religious order to arrive in the city, was provisioned with
fish products. Analysis of the patterns of fish use at these sites helps us to understand the enduring role
that fish have played in the city’s culture and cuisine.
Keywords: New Orleans, French Colonial, Spanish Colonial, historical fishing
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Fish illustrations of colonial America by artist-naturalist Mark Catesby and the ichthyo-
archaeological record
Arlene Fradkin
Department of Anthropology, Florida Atlantic University, USA
Abstract
British artist-naturalist Mark Catesby was a key figure in American environmental history. He made two
extended trips to the American colonies and the Bahamas in the early 18th century. Exploring the colonial
wilderness, he collected plant and animal specimens and made drawings and paintings of the various
species he encountered. His illustrations and notes were the basis for his monumental two-volume
publication, The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands, one of the most
comprehensive illustrated documentations of the flora and fauna of the New World. His depictions and
accompanying descriptive accounts, in turn, can serve as a valuable resource for environmental
archaeologists studying sites of that time. This presentation examines the various fish that Catesby visually
documented and their representation in zooarchaeological assemblages from several colonial period sites
in southeast North America and the Bahamas.
Keywords: fish, fish illustrations, colonial America, Bahamas
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
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SESSION 10 POSTER SESSION
1. S10: COST OCEANS PAST PLATFORM (OPP)
CHAIR: SÓNIA GABRIEL
A reappraisal of eel fishing: new analysis on archaeological remains
Harry K. Robson
BioArch, University of York, S-Block, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK
Abstract
The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) has traditionally been viewed as a catadromous species breeding in
the Sargasso Sea and maturing in the river systems of Europe. It had been suggested that the juveniles
swam upstream during the spring where they would spend variable periods in freshwater before a final
migration during the autumn towards marine waters. However recent analyses demonstrate that our
understanding of their life history and habitat use has been “grossly oversimplified” (Harrod et al. 2005,
681).
Throughout the course of the last 8,000 years eels were intensively exploited indicating that they were
considered an important resource. In part this view is supported by the large numbers of eel remains
routinely recovered during archaeological excavations (Kettle et al. 2008) as well as the presence of
numerous stationary-fishing devices (for example fences or weirs) from coastal localities.
In this paper the complexities surrounding the habitat use and life history of the eel will be presented,
based in part on the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values (n = 96) of eel bone collagen recovered from
26 archaeological sites throughout northern Europe and the eastern Baltic region. These data will be
compared with modern specimens (n = 16) caught from six Danish localities as well as the data reported by
Harrod et al. (2005). Thus, a number of aquatic habitats are represented. A re-evaluation of eel
procurement strategies will be considered that will be supported by ethnographic, historical and modern
data. In addition the use of the eel as a seasonal indicator will be discussed taking into consideration eel
size frequencies from archaeological sites.
Keywords: northern Europe, Baltic, eel, isotopes, seasonality
References
Harrod, C., Grey, J., McCarthy, T.K., 2005. Stable isotope analyses provide new insights into ecological plasticity in a
mixohaline population of European eel. Oecologica 144, 673-683.
Kettle, A.J., Heinrich, D., Barrett, J.H., Benecke, N., Locker, A., 2008. Past distributions of the European freshwater eel
from archaeological and palaeontological evidence. Quaternary Science Reviews 27, 1309-1334.
Pedersen, L., 2013. Eelers in Danish waters interactions between men and their marine environment over 8000
years. In: Daire, M-Y., Dupont, C., Baudry, A., Billard, C., Large, J-M., Lespez, L., Normand, E., Scarre, C. (Eds.), Ancient
Maritime Communities and the Relationship between People and Environment along the European Atlantic Coasts.
BAR International Series 2570, Oxford, 163-173.
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In cod we trust: determining long-term changes to North Sea ecosystems through δ15N analysis
of single amino acids from historic fish bone
Rachelle E. V. Martyn1, David Orton1, Callum Roberts2, George A. Wolff3 and Oliver Craig1
1 BioArCh, Department of Archaeology, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, England
2Department of Environment, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, England
3Department of Earth, Ocean and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpol L69 7ZX, England
Abstract
The zooarchaeological record is an often neglected but fundamentally important resource in environmental
studies. When analysed using the appropriate methods, it provides physical confirmation of the presence of
species, their exploitation, diversity, and abundance, and offers a perspective of past peoples,
environments, and ecosystems which lie beyond the confines of contemporary research. However, despite
this cache of potential data, the utilisation of archaeological fish remains in addressing the often rancorous
issue of global fisheries decline is largely in its infancy. Large-scale changes in marine ecosystems are
commonly attributed to the intensification of demand, and technological development (either progressive
or reactionary); enabling fisheries to prosper even as stocks decline. A suite of methods has been used to
quantify the efficiency with which humans have exploited these resources over the last century, but the
nature of this process over a much longer period is yet to be evaluated. Here we offer a possible approach,
through the application of compound specific isotope analysis of amino acids (CSIA-AA) to archaeological
and modern cod (Gadus morhua) material, to establish the trophic level of this target opportunistic
predatory fish. We hypothesise that following the Fish Event Horizon (c. 11th century AD), in which marine
species replace freshwater species in the archaeological record of the intensified exploitation of marine
resources in the North Sea caused a gradual narrowing of biodiversity. This manifested itself as a decline in
the trophic position of this species as higher trophic prey were replaced by lower ones. It is anticipated that
our analyses will allow us to broadly trace the long-term development of ecosystems along the east coast
of England, and view the large-scale changes of 20th and 21st century fisheries as part of a much longer
history of marine exploitation.
Keywords: CSIA-AA, fishing, North Sea, Gadus morhua
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
60
SESSION 10 POSTER SESSION
2. S10: TAXONOMY, OSTEOMETRY, MOLECULAR ANALYSIS, AND PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL DATA
CHAIR: KENETH RITCHIE
The Holocene occurrence of sturgeon in the southern North Sea
Els Thieren1, Anton Ervynck2, Dick Brinkhuizen3, Alison Locker4 and Wim Van Neer1
1 Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium; Laboratory of Biodiversity
and Evolutionary Genomics, KU Leuven, Ch. Debériotstraat 32, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
2 Flanders Heritage, Koning Albert II-laan 19 box 5, B-1210 Brussels, Belgium
3 Koninginnelaan 18A, 9717 BT Groningen, The Netherlands
4 Edifici L’Ingla, Atic 1ª, 58 Avenguda del Pessebre, Escaldes-Engordany, AD700, Andorra
Abstract
Archaeological remains of sturgeon from the southern North Sea basin used to be automatically attributed
to Acipenser sturio, since this was the only sturgeon species believed to occur in the region. However, these
species identifications were in need of revision after a growing number of indications was found for the
historical presence of A. oxyrinchus in western Europe. In our study, morphological and genetic data on
sturgeon remains from archaeological sites along the southern North Sea have been revised. A large
number of Dutch, Belgian, British and some French archaeological sturgeon remains, dating from the
Mesolithic to Late Modern times, were morphologically examined and fish sizes were reconstructed. This
study of more than 7000 sturgeon bones proves the sympatric occurrence of European sturgeon Acipenser
sturio and Atlantic sturgeon A. oxyrinchus in the southern North Sea at least since the Neolithic (4th
millennium BC onwards), with A. oxyrinchus remains always outnumbering those of A. sturio. Human
impact is documented by the decrease in finds through time, but no clear evidence was found for a
diachronic change in fish lengths that could possibly be related to fishing pressure.
Keywords: Acipenser sturio, Acipenser oxyrinchus, archaeozoology, zoogeography
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When this fish was fished? Otolith sclerochronology in a Brazilian sambaqui
Caroline Borges1 and Elise Dufour2
1Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle CNRS UMR 7209, Archéozoologie, Archéobotanique : sociétés, pratiques,
environnements. 55, rue Buffon - F-75231 Paris cedex 05, France
2Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle CNRS UMR 7209, Archéozoologie, Archéobotanique : sociétés, pratiques,
environnements. 55, rue Buffon - F-75231 Paris cedex 05, France
Abstract
Sambaquis are unique testimonies of the long-term interactions between people and marine environments
in South America. These shell mounds were constructed by fisher-hunter-gatherer groups during the
middle Holocene and occur mainly along the south and south-east Brazilian Atlantic coast.
Archaeozoological studies indicate that fishing was the main economic activity. However, questions still
remain about the level of mobility, the fishing strategies and the patterns of site occupation of these
people. Concerning these questions, otolith sclerochronology has the potential to document the
seasonality of fishing at the sambaquis.
The present work focuses on abundant otoliths of Micropogonias furnieri (Sciaenidae, Demarest 1823)
found in the site of Piaçaguera dated to 4930 ± 110 years ago and located inside the Santos estuarine
complex (São Paulo region, SE Brazil). M. furnieri is a demersal marine fish and estuarine-dependent. It has
an extensive distribution and is economically significantly important. Its biology and ecology are relatively
well known. This species is one of the most important in the sambaquis. Thin sections from four well-
preserved archaeological specimens and two modern specimens were studied using a sclerochronological
and isotopic approach.
Otoliths of M. furnieri show regular growth marks composed of translucent and opaque zones. To estimate
the timing and periodicity of deposition of the growth marks, intra-otolith isotopic profiles were made. A
clear match was observed between the alternation of growth marks and the cyclical variations in δ18O
values that are related to cyclical variations in sea temperature. Results showed that growth marks are
deposited annually, corroborating previous studies of the marginal increment, and enabling the
determination of the season of formation of the translucent and opaque zones in the margin of
archaeological individuals. In Piaçaguera, M. furnieri was captured during the warm season and the early
dry season and, so far, there is no evidence for seasonal fishing.
This is the first study of archaeological otolith sclerochronology in Brazil. The preliminary results are very
promising, but further analyses are needed to improve our data. Beyond that, this technique can provide
more evidence concerning the way of life of these people who lived on the Brazilian coast.
Keywords: sambaquis, seasonality, sclerochronology, Micropogonias furnieri, otoliths
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
62
Ancient DNA analysis of Late Period (3500 to 200 cal. years BP) archaeological fish remains from
the Interior Plateau region of British Columbia, Canada
Thomas C.A. Royle1, George P. Nicholas1 and Dongya Y. Yang1
1Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada V5A
1S6, Canada
Abstract
EeRb-144 is a large Early (>7000 cal. years BP) to Late Period (3500 to 200 cal. years BP) campsite located
on a river terrace in the Interior Plateau region of British Columbia, Canada. A multi-year excavation of the
site conducted as part of the Secwepemc Cultural Education Society-Simon Fraser University Archaeological
Field School has recovered a large number of fragmented fish remains associated with the Late Period
occupations of the site. This fragmentation has generally precluded the identification of these remains
through morphological analysis to a taxonomic level lower than class. Consequently, little is known about
the taxonomic focus and breadth of the Late Period fishery at EeRb-144. This study sought to identify the
focus of this fishery by employing ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis to assign species identifications to a sample
of Late Period fish remains from the site. The results indicate EeRb-144’s Late Period fishery probably
focused on Largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), but also harvested a variety of other locally
abundant fish species in smaller quantities. Ethnographic accounts of indigenous fishing activities in the
region and the ecology of the identified species suggest fishing was undertaken in spring and summer. This
study also highlights how aDNA analysis can be used to identify fish remains that are difficult to identify
morphologically due to a lack of species specific morphological features.
Keywords: ancient DNA analysis, Interior Plateau, Late Period, Pacific Northwest, species identification
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A study of the fish bones from the medieval town - Staraya Ladoga
Dyliara N. Galimova1, Igor V. Askeyev1, Oleg V. Askeyev1, Danijela Popović2 and Hanna Panagiotopoulou3
1The Institute of Problems in Ecology and Mineral Wealth, Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, 420087
Kazan, Daurskaya 28, Tatarstan Republic, Russian Federation
2Centre of New Technologies, University of Warsaw, 02-089 Warsaw, Zwirki i Wigury 93, Poland
3Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Science, 02-106 Warsaw, Pawinskiego 5a, Poland
Abstract
We present results of a study of fish bones, obtained during excavations of the archaeological site of
Staraya Ladoga (Leningrad region, Russian Federation) in 2009 and 2010. Most of the bone was removed
from the layers of the object “Zemlyanoe gorodishe” which date from the 9th 10th century AD
(Kirpichnikov, 2011).
The first studies of fish bones from the site were conducted M.I. Tichiy (Tichiy, 1923) and V.D. Lebedev
(Lebedev, 1960). In collections made in 2009 and 2010 (NISP > 10,000) we have identified 23 fish species.
These are dominated in number of bones by Sander lucioperca, Acipenser oxyrinchus, Abramis brama, Esox
Lucius and Silurus glanis. We also identified bones of Acipenser sturio, Carassius carassius, Ballerus
ballerus, Ballerus sapa, Blicca bjoerkna, Aspius aspius, Leuciscus idus, Leuciscus leuciscus, Rutilus rutilus,
Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Vimba vimba, Pelecus cultratus, Tinca tinca, Coregonus albula ladogae,
Coregonus baerii, Salmo salar, Salmo trutta, Lota lota, and Perca fluviatilis. Bones of sturgeon species were
identified using the morphological criteria of Desse-Berset (2011) and these indicated the predominance of
A. oxyrinchus (> 90%) and A. sturio. Coregonidae and Salmonidae comprised less than 1% of all fish remains.
Another interesting find was bones of interspecific hybrids: Rutilus rutilus × Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna
× Abramis brama and Acipenser sturio × A. oxyrinchus.
The estimated sizes (total length) and age determination are as follows:
Acipenser oxyrinchus - 52,8 - 370 cm, age 3 - 45 years;
Sander lucioperca - 33,8 - 108,2 cm, age 3 - 16 years;
Esox Lucius - 29,2 - 139 cm, age 2-15 years;
Abramis brama - 25,1 - 70 cm;
Silurus glanis - 45,3 - 169,4 cm.
In addition to the morphological determination of Acipenser oxyrinchus and A. sturio, we made genetic
studies of these species (Galimova et al., 2013). The extraction of ancient DNA (mitochondrial and nuclear
DNA) from 50 bones (mtDNA analysis) showed that 45 samples are A. oxyrinchus, and only 5 samples are A.
sturio. Analysis of nDNA (Aox23; Ludwig et al., 2008) revealed 1 hybrid and 2 introgressed specimens.
This is the first study of ancient DNA of Acipenser oxyrinchus and A. sturio from the Russian Federation.
Keywords: Staraja Ladoga, fish bones, ancient DNA
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
64
References
Desse-Berset N. Discrimination of Acipenser sturio, Acipenser oxyrinchus and Acipenser naccarii by morphology of
bones and osteometry. In: Williot P, Rochard E, Desse-Berset N, J. Gessner J, Kirschbaum F, eds. Biology and
conservation of the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio L. 1758: the reunion of the European and Atlantic sturgeons.
Berlin: Springer; 2011: 2352.
Galimova DN, Popović D, Panagiotopoulou H, Askeyev IV, Askeyev OV. Preliminary results of ancient DNA of fish
remains from archaeological sites. In: Askeyev IV, Askeyev OV, Ivanov DV, eds. Proceedings of the Third Russian Scientic
Conference on the Dynamics of Modern Ecosystems in the Holocene. Kazan: Otechestvo; 2013: 118-122 (in Russian).
Kirpichnikov AN. Excavation report Staraya Ladoga archaeological expedition of the Institute of History and Material
Culture Russian Academy of Sciences, in the Staraya Ladoga settlement of Volkhov district of Leningrad region in 2010.
Archive of the Archaeology Institute Russian Academy of Sciences; 2011 (in Russian).
Lebedev VD. The freshwater ichthyofauna of the Quaternary of the European USSR. Moscow: Moscow State
University; 1960 (in Russian).
Ludwig A, Arndt U, Lippold S, Benecke N, Debus L, King TL, Matsumura S. Tracing the first steps of American sturgeon
pioneers in Europe. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2008; 8: 221. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-221.
Tichiy MI. Acipenser from excavations of Staraya Ladoga. In: Deriugin KM, ed. Proceedings of the first congress of the
Russian zoologists, anatomists and histologists in Petrograd 15-21 December 1922. Petrograd: Russian Hydrological
Institute typography; 1923: 35-36 (in Russian).
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“Diagnostic bones” for Great Lakes taxa revisited: Lessons from deposits with (mostly) whole
fish
Suzanne Needs-Howarth1, 2 and Alicia L. Hawkins3
1Perca Zooarchaeological Research, Toronto
2Trent University Archaeological Research Centre, Peterborough, c/o Department of Anthropology and Archaeology,
Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough Ontario K9J 7B8, Canada
3Archaeology Program, School of the Environment, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury Ontario P3E
2C6, Canada
Abstract
The representation of the various cranial bones differs among fish taxa commonly recovered from
archaeological sites. Various researchers have proposed basing quantification on subsets of bones in order
to circumvent this variability (e.g., Leach 1986; Harland et al. 2003). In a continuing project, we have been
following up from Needs-Howarth’s (2001) initial work on establishing so-called diagnostic bones for Great
Lakes fish families, with the incorporation of larger datasets, from different drainages, and with differing
proportions of the various fish taxa (Needs-Howarth and Hawkins 2014). Coinciding with that, Needs-
Howarth analyzed a large assemblage of Clupeidae bones that probably resulted from a die-off (Needs-
Howarth et al. 2013). Surprisingly (or perhaps not), this assemblage, which one might anticipate to have
similar MAU values for the various elements, still had quite an uneven representation of the different
bones. A survey of previously published assemblages that we would also expect to have more “ideal” bone
representation than we find in typical Great Lakes assemblagessuch as dried flatfish production waste
and preserved herringshows that these assemblages, too, have uneven MAU representation of the
readily identifiable cranial bones. We explore various taphonomic explanations relating to the Great Lakes
assemblages and offer some suggestions as to how zooarchaeologists might deal with this bias, while
acknowledging that there is no ideal solution.
Keywords: element representation, taphonomy, MAU
References
Harland, J.F., Barrett, J.H., Carrott, J., Dobney, K., Jaques, D., 2003. The York system: An integrated zooarchaeological
database for research and teaching, Internet Archaeology 13, http://dx.doi.org/10.11141/ia.11113.11145.
Leach, B.F., 1986. A method for the analysis of Pacific island fishbone assemblages and an associated database
management system, Journal of Archaeological Science 13 147159.
Needs-Howarth, S., 2001. Diagnostic elements to facilitate inter- and intra-site comparison of pre-contact fish remains
from the Great Lakes area, in: Buitenhuis, H., Prummel, W. (Eds.), Animals and Man in the Past: Essays in Honour of
Dr. A.T. Clason. ARC-Publicatie 41, Archaeological Research and Consultancy, Groningen, pp. 400407.
Needs-Howarth, S., Hawkins, A.L., 2014. All fish are not created equal: “Diagnostic elements” for Great Lakes taxa
revisited. Paper presented at the 41st Annual Symposium of the Ontario Archaeological Society, Peterborough,
Ontario.
Needs-Howarth, S., Mandrak, N., Weland, C., Longstaffe, F., Yau, G., Austin, S., 2013. DNA barcoding and stable
isotope analysis shed new light on the time-depth of Alosa pseudoharengus in Lake Ontario. Poster presented at the
International Council for Archaeozoology Fish Remains Working Group, Tallinn.
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
66
Estimation of fish size from archaeological bones of marine catfishes (Ariopsis felis): assessing
pre-Hispanic fisheries of two Mayan sites
Nayeli Jiménez-Cano
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Laboratorio de Arqueozologia Calle Darwin, 2. Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco,
28049, Madrid, Spain
Abstract
The presence of marine catfishes (Ariopsis felis) in several pre-Hispanic Mayan sites indicates their
importance in the economy of the region. The present study presents a method for predicting marine
catfish body size, standard length, total length and weight, from bones usually recovered from
archaeological sites. Osteometrical studies provide allometric formulae with high regression coefficients
that were derived from 36 fresh catfish. Based on the regression coefficients, reliability of the
measurements and survivorship of the bones in archaeological contexts, the following measurements were
used: length of the parasupraoccipital, width and length of the otoliths, width of the dorsal spine, and
width of the pectoral spines. The resulting equations were applied to archaeological fish bones from two
Maya sites, Xcambó and Mayapán. The application of the osteometric results provides an assessment of
the contribution of fish to the economy and permits the identification of fishing methods from two Mayan
settlements. These range in date from the Classic (250-750 A.P) to Postclassic (900-1461 A.P) periods.
Keywords: osteometry, catfishes, pre-Hispanic fisheries, Maya
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67
El Niño and trans-Holocene trends in Eastern Pacific fish: a pilot study from Abrigo de los
Escorpiones, Baja California
Kathryn A. Mohlenhoff
University of Utah, USA
Abstract
Many questions surround trends in the dynamics of prehistoric fisheries and fish use along the Pacific Coast
of North America. Marine fish are particularly sensitive to changes in their environment. These include
changes in sea surface temperature (SST) that change cyclically with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation
(ENSO). Trans-Holocene palaeontological or archaeological sites with large faunal assemblages, although
relatively rare, are the ideal tool for use in reconstructing these palaeoenvironmental records. Here, I
report a pilot study from Abrigo de los Escorpiones, a well-dated and stratified site from the Pacific Coast of
Baja California. This initial study provides a record of the the last ~2000 years. A wide variety of fish taxa
were identified, including a large proportion of surfperch (Embiotocidae). Rockfish (Sebastes sp.), sharks
and rays (Elasmobranchii), and California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher), were also identified in this
assemblage. Richness and evenness values were calculated for each level to track relative taxonomic
abundance through time. Evenness values in particular have the potential to reflect El Niño frequency;
higher values through time could indicate an expanding diet breadth due to decreased encounter rates in
the highest-ranked fisheries. A significant increase in evenness values through time was revealed, which
tracks with the increase in El Niño frequency in the late Holocene. This work has modern value as well as it
reconstructs an extended record of marine environments that can inform on modern rehabilitation and
conservation efforts.
Keywords: ENSO, palaeoenvironment, Baja California, marine fish
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
Fishing Remains Working Group ICAZ / FRWG
68
SESSION 10 POSTER SESSION
3. S10: FISHING, FISH CONSUMPTION AND GENERAL ARCHAEOICHTHYOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
CHAIR: TATIANA THEODOROPOULOU
Fish remains from the Early Pleistocene hominid site of Barranco León (Guadix-Baza Basin, SE
Spain)
Àngel Blanco1, Jordi Agustí2,3,4, Huges-Alexandre Blain2,3, Robert Sala2,3 and Isidro Toro5
1Institut für Naturwissenschaftliche Archäologie, Universität Tübingen, Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and
Paleoenvironment (HEP), Rümelinstr. 23, 72070 Tübingen, Germany
2IPHES, Institut català de Paleoecologia Humana I Evolució Social, C/ Marcel·lí Domingo s/n (Edifici W3), Campus
Sescelades, E-43007 Tarragona, Spain
3Àrea de Prehistòria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Avinguda de Catalunya, 35, E-43002 Tarragona, Spain
4ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerca I Estudis Avançats, Barcelona, Spain
5Museo Arqueológico de Granada, C/ Carrera del Darro, 41, E-18010 Granada, Spain
Abstract
The Guadix-Baza basin is located in the Betic Ranges (southern Iberian Peninsula) and overlies Mesozoic
rocks. This basin was filled by marine rocks during part of the Miocene and continental infill was active until
the middle Pleistocene. The Plio-Pleistocene basin infill is built up by the alluvial and fluvial Guadiz
Formation (Viseras, 1991) while the lacustrine and palustrine formations are those of Baza, Gorafe-Huélago
and Sola (Vera, 1970). The early Pleistocene archaeo-palaeontologial site of Barranco León (Guadix-Baza
Basin, SE Spain) is located in the shallow lacustrine areas close to the basin margin and records the oldest
hominin occurrence in Europe (Toro et al., 2013) as well as a great number of stone tools and one human
tooth with an abundant fauna of large and small vertebrates.
This paper describes the study of one taxon of small vertebrates, the ichthyofauna, which has hitherto been
little studied at this site (Doadrio & Casado, 1989; De Marfà, 2007). The studied fish remains were
recovered during the excavation and washing campaigns of 2010-11 and correspond to levels D1 and D2
(both belonging to the early Pleistocene, 1.4 My). All remains recovered belonged to the Cyprinidae family
which are well conserved. This study improves our knowledge of the palaeogeography and
palaeoclimatology during the early Pleistocene of the Guadix-Baza basin.
This study was financed by the national research project CGL2012-38358.
Keywords: Barranco León, Guadix-Baza Basin, Early Pleistocene, ictiofauna, Cyprinidae
References
De Marfà, R. (2007) Microfauna del Plesitoceno inferior de Barranco León y Fuente Nueva 3 (Orce, Granada, España):
Estudio Preliminar. Actas del III Encuentro de Jóvenes Investigadores en Paleontología. Almécija, S, Casanovas-Vilar, I;
Furió, M; Madurell, J; Marmi, J; Vila, B. (eds), 2007, pp 45-55
Doadrio, I, & Casado, P. (1989) Nota sobre la ictiofauna continental de los yacimientos de la cuenca de Guadiz-Baza
(Granada). Geología y Paleontología de la Cuenca de Guadiz-Baza. Trabajos sobre Neógeno-Cuaternario 11, 139-150
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Toro-Moyano, I., Martínez-Navarro, B., Agustí J., Souday, C., Bermúdez de Castro, J.M., Martinón-Torres, M., Fajardo,
B., Duval, M., Falguères, C., Oms, O., Parés, J.M., Anadón, P., Julià, R., García-Aguilar, J.M., Moigne, A.M., Espigares,
M.P., Ros-Montoya, S., Palmqvist, P. (2013) The oldest fossil in Europe, form Orce (Spain). Journal of Human Evolution
65, 1-9
Vera, J.A.(1970) Estudio estratigráfico de la Depresión de Guadiz-Baza, Boletín Geológico Minero 84, 429-462
Viseras, C. (1991) Estratigrafía y sedimentología del relleno aluvial de la Cuenca de Guadix (Cordilleras Béticas). Tesis
Doctoral, univ. De Granada, 327 p.
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
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Fishing the sensitive information: reconstructing fish processing practices from the Mesolithic-
Neolithic Iron Gates (north-central Balkans)
Ivana Živaljević1 and Milica Lopičić2
1Laboratory for Bioarchaeology, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade, Serbia
2Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract
The Iron Gates area (Danube Gorges, north-central Balkans) have revealed fascinating evidence of human
occupation over a long time, spanning the Late Pleistocene to Middle Holocene. It has been hypothesized
that favourable fishing conditions lead to the prolonged stay of human communities at least from the
regional Early Mesolithic (c. 9500-7400 cal. BC). Intensive exploitation of river resources enabled the
establishment and development of the first (semi)sedentary settlements during the Late Mesolithic and
Neolithic (c. 7400-5500 cal. BC). Numerous fish remains and isotopic signatures of individuals buried at the
sites confirm the significant role of aquatic resources in peoples’ subsistence. The occurrence of large
quantities of stone and bone tools have led to conclusions that some of them must have been used in fish
procurement and processing. However, to date, no clear connections between knapped stone artifacts and
fish processing activities have been demonstrated. The poster presents preliminary results of the
experimental work undertaken in order to reconstruct fish scaling and butchering practices. We have
knapped chert and used non-retouched flakes to clean slime, scales, to filet and decapitate different fresh
water fish whose presence in the Iron Gates has been documented via archaeozoological evidence. In
addition, chert artifacts and fish bones with traces of butchery have also been documented in this
particular context. The aim of this continuing research is to shed more light on the relationship between
tools and fish processing activities, which were of vital importance in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Iron Gates.
Keywords: fish processing, knapped stone artifacts, experimental, cut-marks, use-wear
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A Tale of Two Shell Deposits: aquatic resource use at the Copper Age site of Pietrele, Romania
Kenneth Ritchie
Centre for Baltic and Scandinavian Archaeology, Schloss Gottorf, Schleswig, Germany 24837
Abstract
Two shell deposits at a Copper Age tell site at Pietrele, Romania (one on the tell and one in the outer
settlement) have faunal assemblages that point to significantly different utilization of aquatic resources,
despite their being approximately contemporary. Most of the shells in the deposit on the tell are aquatic
snails while those from the outer settlement are mostly freshwater mussels. Although the types of fishes
present are substantially the same, the relative importance of the fishes varies significantly. The identified
fish bones from the outer settlement are predominately cyprinid fishes, but on the tell there is a more even
distribution of fish taxa. The sizes of the fishes also vary, with larger specimens represented in the remains
on the tell. The causes and meanings of these differences are still uncertain, but continuing analyses of
other materials from these contexts may help to resolve these questions.
Keywords: Chalcolithic, Romania, Danube, tell
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
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Fish remains from the Middle Ages well in via Satta at Sassari (Sardinia, Italy)
Barbara Wilkens
Dipartimento di Scienze della Natura e del Territorio, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Via Muroni 25, 07100 Sassari,
Sardinia, Italy
Abstract
Archaeological remains from a well in via Satta in Sassari have been dated to the beginning of the
fourteenth century A.D. On the basis of the botanical finds, the filling of the well probably accumulated in a
few months and represents the diet of a wealthy family of the period. There are numerous remains of fish,
of which I have identified many species - both small and medium-sized. The town of Sassari is not on the
seaside and so fish were imported from the coast. A contemporary code of laws regulated the sale of fish
and other food in the town.
Keywords: fish, Middle Ages, Sardinia
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On an ichthyo-archaeological method to trace Jewish urban households. A study of fish remains
from Post-Medieval Amsterdam and Medieval Cologne
Jan K. Bakker
Independent ichthyo-archaeologist, Maartensdijklaan 323, 2541XL The Hague, The Netherlands.
Abstract
This study focuses on 18th century fish remains from an urban site located at the Valkenburgerstraat in
Amsterdam. The location of the Valkenburgerstraat 130-146 site within Amsterdam’s old Jewish quarter
makes it probable that it was inhabited by Jews. Because of this presumed Jewish background it is to be
expected that the Jewish dietary laws of kashrut may be reflected in its faunal assemblage. Besides a
prohibition on the consumption of ruminants lacking cloven hooves and a number of other mammals and
birds, according to kashrut the consumption of fish without fins and/or scales is also forbidden. These
animals are considered to be ‘unclean’ - in Yiddish treif (meaning unclean food). The word is derived from
the Hebrew Tareif meaning the same). Additionally, a number of supplementary criteria apply for the
designation of treif fish. Most important may be the fact that the fish’s scales need to be removable
without damaging its skin. An example of a treif fish which meets the above mentioned criteria, and which
is perhaps one of the most frequently consumed species of fish in the Low Countries, is the European eel.
The exclusion of fish like European eel from the Valkenburgerstraat may indicate that it was indeed
occupied by Jews. Unfortunately, similar research on fish consumption by Jews has only been done
sporadically. Therefore, in order to compare the Valkenburgerstraat’s fish record with other North-Western
European sites, the contents of four cesspits located at the predominantly Jewish area of the Waterlooplein
in Amsterdam together with four complexes located within the Medieval Jewish quarter of Cologne were
added to this study. The result of this comparative study indicates that treif fish were consumed in very
small quantities at most of these sites, including the Valkenburgerstraat. Because these amounts are
considered to be very low and most probably the result of a sporadic unorthodox consumption or
misunderstanding, together with the fact that European eel appears to have been consumed in far greater
quantities at non-Jewish sites in Amsterdam, one can conclude that the Valkenburgerstraat was probably
occupied by Jews.
Keywords: Amsterdam, Cologne, Judaism, Kashrut, eel
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
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Fishing methods used in the past from archaeological, archaeo-ichthyological and ethnographic
perspective
Miroslawa Zabilska-Kunek
Institute of Archaeology University of Rzeszow, Moniuszki 10, PL 35-015 Rzeszow, Poland
Abstract
Fishing methods used in the past are of interest to archaeologists and archaeozoologists for several
reasons. They can be the basis for a consideration of technological knowledge and skills of prehistoric
societies. They can also be used to discuss such issues as the time and energy involved in fishing, that may
indicate the relative importance of fish in the diet and economy.
Reconstructions of prehistoric fishing techniques are usually based on artefacts (hooks, fishing traps,
sinkers etc.) and fish remains. The first type of finds, however, is rather rare in Poland. Many of them were
probably lost during fishing and nowadays they are often found outside the archaeological sites. The
chronological identification of such artefacts is possible only by comparison with similar, well dated finds
from other regions of Europe. Fish remains are more numerous and their chronology is usually well known
(see for example Makowiecki, 2003). Old fishing methods have been detailed as described in ethnographic
references (Znamierowska-Prüfferowa, 1957, 1988). These three kinds of data, however, have not yet been
brought together in one article.
This paper will present an overview of fishing techniques used in the Polish territory since the Stone Age to
the Middle Ages. It will be based upon archaeological, archaeo-ichthyological and ethnographic data.
Moreover, when possible, written sources and historical documents will also be used.
Keywords: fishing methods, Poland, archaeology, ichthyology, ethnography
References
Makowiecki, D., 2003. Historia ryb i rybołówstwa w holocenie na Niżu Polskim w świetle badań archeoichtiologicznych,
Poznań.
Znamierowska-Prüfferowa, M., 1957. Rybackie narzędzia kolne w Polsce i w krajach sąsiednich, Toruń.
Znamierowska-Prüfferowa, M., 1988. Tradycyjne rybołówstwo ludowe w Polsce na tle zbiorów i badań terenowych
Muzeum Etnograficznego w Toruniu, Toruń.
FISHING THROUGH TIME
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Tackling fishbones: an integrated approach to Roman fisheries
Lee Antonio Graña Nicolaou
University of Reading, Whiteknights, Box 227, Reading, RG6 6AB, England
Abstract
What can the study of fishbone remains from Roman sites tell us about ancient fisheries and fishermen?
The growing number of fishbone remains recovered and studied from Roman contexts continues to feed
the debate on the socio-economic importance of fishing in the ancient world. However, although the
number of case studies is increasing, there continues to be a focus on fish processing sites. As a result,
'Roman fishing' is frequently associated with 'fish sauce'. Although the industrial scale salting of fish for
sauce or dry salted products is of notable importance, to concentrate solely on this sector often clouds an
underlying structure of equal or greater significance: the fisheries. Whether a permanent fixture to the
processing sites, or independent organization within local settlements, Roman fishermen were able to
exploit the local resources to an unprecedented scale. There have been few attempts to interpret how
these fisheries functioned: the number of fishermen, the tools used, the seasons of fishing and the targeted
species or marine habitats. These all require closer attention. The disparity between different research
projects is often a result of the scarce archaeological evidence and the need for a complex interdisciplinary
approach. This poster will outline preliminary results of a continuing project which seeks to demonstrate
the significance of fishbone remains, in combination with other influential studies, in identifying the
diversity and distribution of Roman fisheries. By focusing on the Iberian Peninsula and several case studies
therein, hypotheses will be tested on how tools and species may be correlated. I will argue that fishbone
analysis can ultimately successfully tell us about both small-scale and large-scale fisheries.
Keywords: fishbones, Roman, fisheries, Iberian Peninsula
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
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Number of participants, papers and posters presented, in former FRWG Meetings1
1 after MAKOWIECKI D., HAMILTON-DYER S., RIDDLER I., TRZASKA-NARTOWSKI N. and MAKOHONIENKO M. (eds.) 2009. The 15th
Meeting of the ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group (FRWG) Fishes Culture Environment Through Archaeoichthyology,
Ethnography & History”, ŚRODOWISKO I KULTURA, Tom 7 (ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURE, Vol. 7): 10; ZOHAR I. and FRADKIN A.
(eds.), 2013. “Fish and Fishing. Archaeological, Anthropological, Taphonomical and Ecological perspectives. Archaeofauna, 22;
LÕUGAS L. (ed.), 2013. A fish Story or History? Evidence from the past. Program and Abstracts. 17th Meeting of the ICAZ Fish
Remains Working Group, Tallinn
Meeting
Participants (N)
Papers (N)
Posters (N)
Copenhagen 1981
16
7
Sophia Antipolis 1983
30
19
Groningen 1985
28
19
5
York 1987
38
35
3
Stora Kornö 1989
32
31
6
Schleswig 1991
33
37
5
Leuven 1993
48
36
6
Madrid 1995
57
50
12
Panama City 1997
38
32
3
New York City 1999
43
35
Paihia 2001
56
39
Guadalajara 2003
45
34
Augusta Raurica, Basel 2005
45
31
6
Antibes 2007
87
38
17
Poznań - Toruń 2009
75
43
7
Jerusalem 2011
64
40
12
Tallinn 2013
35
32
3
TOTAL
770
558
85
Lisboa 2015
71
42
16
18thInternational Council for Archaeozoology
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List of Participants and Contributors
* in bold conference participants, plain text coauthors of paper or poster presentations
Jordi AGUSTÍ
Institut català de Paleoecologia Humana I Evolució
Social; Universitat Rovira i Virgili; Institució Catalana
de Recerca I Estudis Avançats. Catalunya, Spain
Søren H. ANDERSEN
Moesgård Museum. Denmark
Ana Cristina ARAÚJO
Direcção Geral do Património Cultural - Laboratório de
Arqueociências; EnvArch-CIBIO-InBIO. Portugal
e-mail: acaraujo@dgpc.pt
Oleg V. ASKEYEV
The Institute of Problems in Ecology and Mineral
Wealth, Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. Russia
Igor V. ASKEYEV
The Institute of Problems in Ecology and Mineral
Wealth, Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. Russia
Nina Vieira AZEVEDO
Departamento de História, Faculdade de Ciências
Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa.
Portugal
ninavieira.pt@gmail.com
Jan K. BAKKER
Independent ichthyo-archaeologist. Netherlands
e-mail: jan.k.bakker@gmail.com
James H. BARRETT
McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research,
Department of Archaeology and Anthropology,
University of Cambridge. UK
e-mail: jhb41@cam.ac.uk
László BARTOSIEWICZ
Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm
University. Sweden
e-mail: bartwicz@yahoo.com
Philippe BÉAREZ
CNRS-MNHN UMR 7209 Archéozoologie,
Archéobotanique: Sociétés, Pratiques et
Environnements, Muséum National d’Histoire
Naturelle. France
e-mail:bearez@mnhn.fr
Dario BERNAL-CASASOLA
Área de Arqueología. Universidad de Cádiz. Facultad
de Filosofía y Letras. Spain.
dario.bernal@uca.es
Huges-Alexandre BLAIN
IPHES, Institut català de Paleoecologia Humana I
Evolució Social; Àrea de Prehistòria, Universitat Rovira
i Virgili. Catalunya, Spain
Àngel BLANCO-LAPAZ
Institut für Naturwissenschaftliche
Archäologie, Universität Tübingen, Senckenberg
Center for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment.
Germany
e-mail: angel.blanco.geoterna@gmail.com
Caroline BORGES
Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle CNRS UMR
7209, Archéozoologie, Archéobotanique : sociétés,
pratiques, environnements. France
e-mail: arqueocarol@gmail.com
Dick BRINKHUIZEN
Koninginnelaan 18A, 9717 BT Groningen. Netherlands
Cristina BRITO
Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas -
Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Centro de História de
Além-Mar. Portugal
Virginia L. BUTLER
Department of Anthropology, Portland State
University. USA
e-mail: virginia@pdx.edu
Gabriele CARENTI
Sassari University, Department of Nature and
Environmental Sciences. Italy
e-mail: gabrielecarenti@gmail.com
Aurelien CHRISTOL
Université de Lyon (Lyon 3), UMR 5600 EVS. France
Richard COOKE
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Archaeology
Laboratory. Panama
Ana COSTA
Direcção Geral do Património Cultural - Laboratório de
Arqueociências; EnvArch-CIBIO-InBIO. Portugal
e-mail: acosta@dgpc.pt
Cláudia COSTA
The Interdisciplinary Center for Archaeology and
Evolution of Human Behavior (ICArEHB). Universidade
do Algarve
e-mail: ccordeirocosta@gmail.com
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Oliver CRAIG
BioArCh, Department of Archaeology, University of
York. UK
Mark CULLING
Evolutionary Biology Group, Department of Biological
Sciences, University of Hull. UK
Simon DAVIS
Direcção Geral do Património Cultural - Laboratório de
Arqueociências; EnvArch-CIBIO-InBIO. Portugal
e-mail: simonjmdavis@gmail.com
Susan D. DeFRANCE
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida.
USA
e-mail: sdef@ufl.edu
José Juan DÍAZ-RODRÍGUEZ
Área de Arqueología. Universidad de Cádiz. Facultad
de Filosofía y Letras. Spain.
David DJOUI
Aix Marseille Université, CNRS , Ministère de la Culture
et de la Communication, CCJ UMR 7299, F-13628 ;
Musée départemental Arles antique, F-13200. France
Elise DUFOUR
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle CNRS UMR
7209, Archéozoologie, Archéobotanique : sociétés,
pratiques, environnements. France
e-mail: edufour@mnhn.fr
Monica DÜTTING
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. Belgium
e-mail: mdutting@naturalsciences.be
Anton ERVYNCK
Flanders Heritage. Belgium
José Ángel EXPÓSITO-ÁLVAREZ
Conjunto Arqueológico de Baelo Claudia. Consejería
de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. Junta de Andalucía.
Cádiz. Spain.
Carlos FERNÁNDEZ-RODRÍGUEZ
Departamento de Historia, Universidad de León. Spain
Arlene FRADKIN
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida.
USA
e-mail: afradkin@fau.edu
Dorian FULLER
Institute of Archaeology, University College London.
UK
Sónia GABRIEL
Direcção Geral do Património Cultural - Laboratório de
Arqueociências; EnvArch-CIBIO-InBIO. Portugal
e-mail:sgabriel@dgpc.pt
Alfred GALIK
Institute of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology,
University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna. Austria
Dilyara N. GALIMOVA
The I