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2010 Wind Catcher, a Natural Evaporating Cooling System

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Environmental and natural phenomena play a very significant role in laying the region's interrelated cultural, economic and social infrastructures. The buildings in the Iranian desert regions are constructed according to the specific climatic conditions and differ with those built in other climates. Due to lack of access to modern heating and cooling equipment in ancient times the architects were obliged to rely on natural energies to render the inside condition of the buildings pleasant. In the past, without modern facilities, it was only the intelligent architecture of the buildings that enabled people to tolerate the hot summer. The ventilation structures called Badgir were the most important means by which the interior was cooled. This paper is a synopsis of the results of a research on element in traditional architecture of Iran. It can be seen in cities with hot-dry and hot-humid climates. This analysis demonstrates wind towers' characteristics with emphasis on their morphology. Different ratio between different element of wind catchers such as length and width of plan, wind catcher height and shelf height that can be fundamental information to design a new wind catcher in modern buildings as a sustainable element.
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3rd International Graduate Conference on Engineering,
Science and Humanities (IGCESH)
School of Graduate Studies Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
2– 4 November 2010
System
M. Hossein Ghadiri , N. Lukman
1maryamg @email.com , 2lukman@eng.ukm.my
Abstract— Environmental and natural phenomena
play a very significant role in laying the region's
interrelated cultural, economic and social
infrastructures. The buildings in the Iranian desert
regions are constructed according to the specific
climatic conditions and differ with those built in
other climates. Due to lack of access to modern
heating and cooling equipment in ancient times the
architects were obliged to rely on natural energies to
render the inside condition of the buildings pleasant.
In the past, without modern facilities, it was only the
intelligent architecture of the buildings that enabled
people to tolerate the hot summer. The ventilation
structures called Badgir were the most important
means by which the interior was cooled. This paper is
a synopsis of the results of a research on element in
traditional architecture of Iran. It can be seen in
cities with hot-dry and hot-humid climates. This
analysis demonstrates wind towers' characteristics
with emphasis on their morphology. Different ratio
between different element of wind catchers such as
length and width of plan, wind catcher height and
shelf height that can be fundamental information to
design a new wind catcher in modern buildings as a
sustainable element.
Keywords— Wind Catcher, Natural Cooling System,
Wind catcher’s Blade
I. INTRODUCTION
Wind tower is a key element in traditional
architecture of Iran. It is seen in settlements in hot,
hot-dry and hot-humid climates. They look like big
chimneys in the sky line of ancient cities of Iran.
They are vertical shafts with vents on top to lead
desired wind to the interior spaces and provide
thermal comfort. This architectural element shows
the compatibility of architectural design with
natural environment. It conserves energy and
functions on the basis of sustainability principles.
[1]
II. ORIENTATION AND FUNCTION OF WIND
TOWER
The orientation of wind tower generally means
the positions of the wind tower flank based on the
four main geographical directions. It is determined
in view of function, use of wind power and the
desired direction in which the wind blows. There
are one-directional wind towers in Meibod, they
are facing to the desired wind and in some cases
one directional wind towers act as air suctioning
and the air flow turned its back to the wind to
locate itself in a negative pressure region to cause
warm air in interior to blow out of the house. The
desired wind currents in Yazd blow from the north-
west. The long sides of wind towers are, therefore,
oriented towards the north-west for maximum
usage of the wind to provide cooling for buildings.
In coastal regions like Bandar Lengeh, buildings
have an east-west orientation. Sea breeze that
blows during both days and nights but the most
desirable wind blows from the east to the west.
Fig. 1 A Wind Catcher in Yazd
Wind towers are theref ore, built with a four-
directional orientation in order to use all of the
desirable winds from north to south and from east
to west. Orientations of wind towers are different
according to the blow of main desired wind.
A Wind tower is a formal structural element in
Iranian architecture that is used to convey the wind
current to the interior spaces of buildings in order
to provide living comfort for occupants. In Iranian
architecture a wind tower is a combination of inlet
and outlet openings.
The tunnel provides cool air for the building while
serving as a conduit through which the stuffiness
1
2
1 2
Islamic Azad University, Dezful Branch, Architectural Department, Dezful, Iran
Univeristy Kebangsan Malaysia, Architectural Department, Bangi, Malaysia
Wind Catcher, a Natural Evaporating Cooling
3rd International Graduate Conference on Engineering,
Science and Humanities (IGCESH)
School of Graduate Studies Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
2– 4 November 2010
within the building is conveyed through its
shaft. There were wind towers in Bam which were
destroyed by earthquakes; they weren’t directly
connected to the living hall. They were built away
from the house. An additional underground tunnel
links the base of the wind tower to the basement.
In most wind towers, especially the four sided
types, the tower is divided by partitions. One of the
shafts operates all the time to receive the breeze
and the other three shafts work as outlet air
passages. They convey the stuffiness out of the
living space through the “flue” (chimney)
effect. The chimney effect is based on the
principle that the air density increases with the
increase in temperature. The difference in
temperature between the interior and exterior parts
of a building and between different regions creates
different pressures and result in air currents.
The average relative humidity in moisture in hot
and dry regions is low and it is necessary more
humidity there for wind towers are used to provide
living comfort through the use of the air current
and evaporation. Through the wind tower, the
air current first passes over a stone pond and
fountain after entering a building thereby bringing
humidity to the other spaces in the building.
In some places, mats or thorns are placed within
the wind tower, and users pour water on them in
order to increase the humidity and the Coolness of
the air flow. The hot weather in Yazd has the
potential effect of causing water to evaporate easily
to develop cooling in the living spaces and relative
humidity in the air, thereby reducing the heat and
dryness.
It is clear that there is usually high humidity in hot
and humid regions because of their being in
vicinity of the sea. In these regions, wind towers
reduce the temperature of the weather only through
the movement of the air they facilitate, not through
increased humidity. The level of humidity in this
region is already high and an increase in the
humidity would make living conditions
troublesome.
A wind tower in a hot and dry region brings
about comfort by evaporation and air motion but
a wind catcher in a hot humid region only moves
the air and conveys the wind into spaces.
Different function and shapes were designed for
different climates. [2]
III. HOW TO PERFORM AND SOME POINTS IN
WIND-CATCHERS DESIGNING
A wind-catcher is a device with real/noble form
and constant structure in Iran architecture, it leads
the suitable wind through the inner part of the
building and it is the most effective function in
making comfort. There are actually two kinds of
main functions about wind-catchers:
A. The function according to the principle of
traction of opening facing the wind and the
suction of openings back against the wind.
"The way a wind-catcher works is mainly based
on taking the fresh air into the building and sending
the hot and polluted air out or'' the suction
functions'' perhaps it is not so necessary to explain
that when the wind hits against the walls of internal
blades of the wind-catcher it necessarily falls down,
but it is necessary to refer to this point that the
other holes of the wind- catcher turning back to
the wind direction, gives the hot and polluted air
into the wind and so works like a ventilation and a
sucked machine (Pyrnia, 1981).
The function of this kind of a wind-catcher is
actually performed according to this fact that when
the wind hits an obstacle, and since the density of
the air is thick on the side of the wind direction, so
in this direction there is a positive pressure, but a
negative pressure on the other side. Therefore,
when the ventilation is open on the sided of the
wind there will be a positive pressure to a negative
pressure. In the wind- catchers, according to this
principal, the opening facing the wind takes the air
into the porch and the air in the porch with its
negative pressure on the opening back of the wind
is drawn out (Fig. 2). Sometimes according to the
superficial evaporation the wind-catcher supplies
the necessary moisture by conveying the wind over
the weather and the cold-storage.
B. The function according to temperature
difference.
But it seems that there is a little attention of
technicians about the function of a wind-catcher
regarding the temperature difference. In fact
when there is not a windy blast sensibly, the wind-
catcher acts according to this action.
During the day, since the sun hits on the southern
face of the wind catcher, the air heats in the
southern face of the wind catcher, and goes up.
This air taken above through the inner air of the
porch is compensated and in fact it makes a kind
of proportional vacuum inside the porch, and takes
the cool air of the inner court into itself, so the
existing air in the northern opening is pulled down
too (Fig. 3).
During the night it becomes cold outside, and the
cold air moves down. This air is saved by the heat
and becomes warm on parapets and then goes up.
This circle continues till the temperature of the
walls and outside temperature become equal. But
before it usually arrives at this situation the night
ends and once again the wind-catcher acts its
function as mentioned above. In general, in
most time, wind-catcher does as we explained it,
in order to the traction, suction, and the effect of
temperature difference. [8]
3rd International Graduate Conference on Engineering,
Science and Humanities (IGCESH)
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2– 4 November 2010
FIG. 2 TRACTION AND SUCTION IN WIND-CATCHER.
FIG. 3 WIND-CATCHER FUNCTION DURING THE DAY AND NIGHT
IV. WIND-CATCHER
ELEMENTS
Each elements of a wind-catcher form is affective in its
final formation. A wind-catcher in order from up to down is
formed of following parts: ceiling, shelf, stalk and channel [3].
A. Ceiling
There are 3 kinds of wind catcher ceiling in Iran.
1) Wind catcher with flat ceiling: About 90% of wind
catchers have flat ceiling. Generally 4side wind catchers have
flat ceiling.
2) wind catcher with slope ceiling: A few percent of
wind catchers have slope ceiling. They called Kermani wind
catcher in Yazd. They are usually two-side wind catchers.
The channel part of the wind-catcher is
usually
an
incomplete pyramid form. The different
pro-
portions of
upper part of the wind-catcher are
arranged with this part.
In some samples,
its
height is as high as a person's
height and
in
some other it is some meters
high.[4].
3) Wind catcher with curved ceiling: One side wind
catchers usually have curved ceiling. Curved ceiling help to
increase air suction speed.
Fig. 4 Slope ceiling (left) and flat ceiling (right)
B. Shelf:
The head of the wind-catcher is the shelf
which
includes
the blades, the channel of air
passing.
The common types of
geometric figure of
the
shelf include: a lengthened vertical
or horizontal rectangle
,
and
square.
C.
Stalk
That part of the wind-catcher which is
located
between
shelf and the roof is called the
"stalk";
the higher is the
wind-catcher the higher is
its
stalk too. The higher of the
stalk in Yazd
wind-
catchers according to the climatic
reasons and
the height of the wind-catcher is for taking
suita
ble wind which blows in heights.
This part of wind
catchers of Yazd is containing two parts. The upper part has
no decoration and it’s just for stability of shelf. The second
part is higher with decoration. The
beauty
of
this part is
mostly dependent on the brick-
work
ing
decoration.
Fig. 5 Elements of wind catcher
D.
Channel
V.
CATEGORIES BASED ON
WIND
CATCHER
DIRECTION
We can classified wind catchers into 5 groups based on
their direction. This classification is done by Roaf the famous
researcher of England.
A. The one directional towers (yek- tarafeh)
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2– 4 November 2010
These towers generally face north-west or north. They have a
sloping roof and one or two vents only. Otherwise they are
commonly described by the direction in which they face such
as “Shomali” or north facing. The survey of wind towers Roaf
(1988) reveals that 3% of the wind towers were unidirectional
in Yazd[5].
Fig. 6 One directional towers plan
B. The two directional towers (do- tarafe)
The tower, in a simple example, is divided in to two shafts by
a vertical brick partition. It has only two vents. They are often
called by direction, such as north-south towers. Roaf’s survey
indicates that 17% of the towers are in this kind in Yazd and
all are made on the ordinary houses.
Partitions are component in wind towers to divide it in to
several shafts. They are built of mud brick. These partitions
form a plane grid of vents ending to a heavy masonry roof on
top of the tower. Partitions can be classified in to group: main
partition and secondary partitions. Main partitions continue to
the centre of the tower, forming a separate shaft behind the
vents. These partitions often start between 1.5-2.5 m above
the ground floor level. The patterns of the partitions vary
from tower to tower, but the most commons are in forms of
I, H and diagonal. Secondary partitions remain as wide as the
external wall, about 20-25 cm. A shaft can be subdivided by a
number additional partitions performing either structural or
thermal role. These can separate the tower, respectively in two
or four shafts.
Fig. 7 Two directional towers plan
C. Three-sided wind-catcher
This kind of wind-catcher is not so usual, but types of wind-
catchers like the wind-catcher in Tabas are being made with
this form.
D. The four directional towers (chahar- tarafe)
Studies indicate that this is the most popular wind tower. They
have four main vertical shafts divided by partitions. More
than half of the wind towers in hot and dry region have been
of this kind, as reported. They are so common locally called
Yazdi. All of wind tower in hot humid region are four sided
type. [4]
Fig. 8 Four directional towers plan
VI. CATEGORIES BASED ON FORMS OF PLANS
Varied plans of wind catchers in Yazd are nowhere to seen at
least throughout the Middle East area. This indicates how
much genius and creativity the architects in the city of Yazd
have. Generally speaking, in Iran wind catchers have been
recognized in varied forms and plans such as circle, Octagon,
polygon, square and oblong. No triangular form of it has been
yet recognized or located nowhere in the Middle East area.
Wind catcher with a circular plan or form is the very rare.
Such type of wind catcher doesn't exist in Yazd. There is only
one sample of it Yazd suburb.
The square form is the type used in the four directional wind
towers in Yazd. The rectangular forms consist of one, two,
four directional wind towers. Eight directional wind towers
are those with an octagonal plan.
Partitions divide tower to small shafts to increase air motion
according to “Bernoly effect”. It express that air rate will be
increased when air pass from narrow section. Such an
arrangement provides more surfaces in contact with the
flowing air, so that the air can interact thermally with the heat
stored in the mass of these partitions. They act climatically in
spite of aesthetic aspects. They work as fins of cooler window
or fins of radiator because mud brick partitions give back
stored heat during night and they are prepare to absorb heat.
Warm wind contact with mud brick partitions there for its heat
transfer to partitions after that wind with less heat enter to
space.
A. wind catcher with square plan:
In this kind of wind catchers main blades are design in four
ways: +, x , H and compose of these 3 forms. The ratio
3rd International Graduate Conference on Engineering,
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2– 4 November 2010
between widths to length is 1:1 or much closed to it. The shelf
form of these wind catchers is not square. They are vertical
rectangle. These wind catchers are not very high. Their height
is usually 4 meters above the roof.
Fig. 9 Wind catcher with square plan
B.
wind catcher with octagonal plan
Main blades are design based on diameters of octagonal so
it doesn’t have any variety.
Fig. 10 wind catcher with octagonal plan
C.
wind catchers with oblong plan
This is the most commonly applied type of wind catcher. The
varied main blades that make up a wind catcher provide a plan
with an oblong shape in different types.
1) Wind catcher with X-form
blades:
This type of wind
catcher exists rarely or in a small number in Yazd. The length
of wind catcher of this species is fairly 1.5 times as many as
its width [7].
Fig. 11 Wind catchers with X-blade
2) Wind catchers with + shaped blades
Wind catchers with blades perpendicular to each other
and
with a + shape is the most dominant shape of a wind
catcher
in Yazd [4]. The different types of them with their
varied
symmetries have been seen there. The depth of its
canal
in
linear front is 1.2 of its latitudinal depth. In this
latitudinal
front the depth of its canal depends largely on its
length
and
number as well as forms of its separating blades.
This
specie
of wind catcher can be separated in to two more
subsets
[7].
Fig. 12 Wind catchers with + form blades
D. Wind catchers with equal
canals
In these types of wind catchers, the blades are
equally
spaced and as a result of it some tiny canals are created
with
equal sizes and spaces (fig13). This type of wind catcher is
the
most prevalent one in Yazd in view of plan. Plan
symmetries
(length-width) vary from 1 – 1.4 to 1 - 2.25
. The
height of this kind of wind catcher is between 6.5m to
19.75m from the ground and 2.8m to 10.85m from the roof
[7].
Fig. 13 Wind catchers with + form blades and equal canal
E. Wind catchers with different canals
Plan extension is more oriented in these species of wind
catcher and the symmetries of plan vary from 1-1.58 to 1-2.92
(fig 14). In species where the canals on the latitudinal form are
larger, the width of oblong plan faces the dominant winds. In
these patterns, the architect could not lay the wind catcher
exposed to northern dominant wind from longitudinal form
because of the plan form the house had and as a consequence,
having changed the plan form, the architect was able to
provide more wind to flow from the latitudinal to that of
longitudinal. The height of this kind of wind catcher is
between 6.62m to 11.7m from the ground and 2.2m to 6.6m
from the roof.
Fig. 14 Wind catchers with + form blades and different canals
F.
Wind catcher with H-form
blades
For these types of wind catchers, the plan is designed
that
the main blade of a wind catcher that isolates the duct of
3rd International Graduate Conference on Engineering,
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2– 4 November 2010
it
is
inserted in to the centre of canal and does not extend to
the
latitudinal walls of wind catcher. The symmetries of
plan
approach the square (quadrant) and plan is not extended
with
an oblong. The symmetries of a plan is 1-1.3 or
less.
Fig. 16 Wind catchers with K form blades
H.
Wind catcher with I-shape
blades
The main blade is hidden in the latitudinal front of the wind
catcher. One closed opening exists on the opposite side of an
opened hole to let wind escape, for the wind would have
escaped through a hole or gap on the opposite direction. This
is the most extended oblong. Shape plan in Yazd the
proportional plan of which is 1- 3.75.
This type of a wind catcher is seldom seen in Yazd. Four
of
them under study are adapted to this plan configuration.
This
specie reveals that the cross- section of canal in the
latitudinal
front is
larger
than canals that receive wind
from
the
longitudinal from
[7].
Fig. 15 Wind catchers with H form blades
Fig. 17 Wind catchers with I form blades
G. Wind catcher with a K-shaped
blade
Table I shows the specification of different wind catchers of
Yazd. Through the table we can see the ratio between length
and width, height of wind catcher, shelf height and so forth.
The perimeters are shown in figure 18.
This species of plan design is, indeed, combination of a plan
and X blade and + shape. This had been rarely seen in living
houses architecture.
TABLE I
SPECIFICATION OF YAZD WIND CATCHER
type Plan
a/b H Hr
ME
h/a
SE
h/b
S-1
H/a
S-2
H/b Hr/a Open
ME-SE
Closed
ME-SE
Oblong,+ 1.8 17.15 10.5 1 1.75 3.3 6.17 2.03 8-4 2-1
Oblong,+ 1.86 19.74 10.86 1 1.96 3.5 6.51 1.92 4-4 4-0
Oblong,+ 2.25 8.75 4.45 0.85 1.91 3.24 7.3 1.64 3-2 2-0
Oblong,+ 1.46 12.8 7.15 1 1.63 3.87 5.81 2.16 2-4 4-0
Oblong,+ 2.25 10.6 4.45 0.85 1.91 3.92 8.83 1.64 3-2 2-0
Oblong,+ 1.42 14 8 1.4 2 4.9 7 2.81 3-6 6-0
Oblong,+ 1.5 6.8 3.4 1.1 1.7 4.5 6.8 2.26 2-4 4-0
Oblong,+ 1.42 10.3 5.9 1.1 1.6 4.1 5.8 2.36 2-6 6-0
Oblong,+ 1.4 11 6 1.1 1.6 3.9 5.5 2.14 2-4 4-0
Oblong,+ 1.94 9.9 5.3 1 1.97 3.14 6.1 1.68 2-2 2-0
Oblong,+ 1.75 13 8.67 1.14 2 4.6 8.1 3.1 2-2 4-2
Oblong,+ 2 11.5 5.24 0.6 1.2 2.85 5.75 1.3 2-2 4-0
Oblong,+ 2.4 6.5 3.45 0.5 1.25 2.1 5.1 1.13 3-4 6-0
Oblong,+ 2.4 6.8 2.8 0.7 1.7 2.8 6.8 1.16 3-2 6-0
Oblong,+ 1.4 18.6 6 0.7 1.06 5.47 7.6 1.76 2-4 6-0
Oblong,+ 1.42 10.7 5.4 0.5 0.7 3.24 4.6 1.63 4-6 8-0
Oblong, H 1.8 10.17 5.1 1 1.91 5.3 9.6 2.67 2-3 4-0
Oblong, H 1.5 6.65 2.65 1.5 2.3 4.8 7.3 1.94 3-0 0-2
Oblong, H 1.4 9.8 5.2 0.4 0.6 4.6 6.5 2.47 6-2 0-4
Oblong, H 2.4 7.5 3.7 0.6 1.5 3.1 7.5 1.54 2-3 4-0
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Oblong, H 1.8 12.45 8.25 1.5 2.7 5.1 9.2 3.39 2-3 6-0
Oblong, H 1.32 10.7 5.4 0.5 0.6 3.24 4.28 1.63 10-2 2-6
Oblong, H 1.3 9.5 4.35 0.75 1 4.75 6.3 2.17 5-3 2-2
Oblong, K 1.45 17.6 10.6 2.4 3.55 6.06 8.8 3.65 6-4 0-0
Oblong, K 1.67 16.8 8.4 0.9 1.6 4.09 6.8 2.04 6-4 0-0
Oblong, K 1.34 8.95 4.95 1 1.4 4.1 5.6 2.3 3-2 0-0
Oblong ,x 1.4 13 6.5 1.1 1.6 4.6 6.5 2.32 4-4 2-0
Square (x & +) 1 10.23 4.1 1.6 - 6.4 - 2.92 3-4 2-0
S: section H: wind catcher height ME: main elevation h: shelf height SE: side elevation a: wind catcher length
b: wind catcher width Hr=height from roof
Fig. 18 Elevation, plan and section of a wind catcher
VII. THE EFFECT OF WIND CATCHERS ON DECREASING THE
TEMPERATURE
Four square form wind catchers with different blades form
including + , x, H and * which are shown in table2 as model 1
to 4 were investigated to find out the effect of wind catchers
on decreasing the temperature. The air temperature of inside
and outside of the wind catchers are measured by a
temperature during a hot day of Yazd. Through the chart ,
when the temperature of outdoor is maximise around 43c , the
badgir (wind catcher) room temperature is around 39c in
model 1, 38c in model 2 and 38.5c in model 3 and 36c in
model 4.hence these kinds of wind catchers can decrease the
temperature between 3c to 7c. but 36c is not the temperature
that we feel comfortable , that’s why ancient architecture
added water pound under the wind catchers to use the
evaporating to decrease the temperature more. Of course there
are many factors that have effect on the indoor temperature of
wind catcher such as wind velocity, wind direction, sun
radiation on the wind catcher wall, the area of the badgir room
and etc, that we can get nuance result by simulation wind
catchers by CFD software or wind tunnel based on these
various factors.
TABLEII
SPECIFICATION OF MODELS 1 TO 4
type Plan H Hr ME SE S-1 S-2 Hr/a Open Closed
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2– 4 November 2010
a/b h/a h/b H/a H/b ME-SE ME-SE
Square x
Model 1 1 10.74 4.4 1.4 - 4.3 - 1.76 2-2 0-0
Square (x
& +)
model 2
1 11 4.3 1.37 - 4.5 -
1.8
4-4 0-0
Square, H
Model 3
1 10.50 4 1.28 5.5 2.1 2-6 4-0
Square, +
Model 4
1 10.94 4.5 1.8 - 5 - 2.1 6-2 0-4
Fig. 19 Outdoor and indoor temperature of models
Fig. 20 Plan and elevation of investigated models
VIII. CONCLUSION The wind catcher is the most intelligent that proceeds of
exploitation from the wind energy and it makes possible the
coldness comfort ability in hot region. Categorising the wind
3rd International Graduate Conference on Engineering,
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catchers and having the ratio between different element of
wind catchers including height, width, and length could be
useful for designing the new type of wind catcher in modern
building with zero energy. The major advantage of the wind
towers is that they are passive systems, requiring no energy
for their operation; Badgir can be relied upon more than the
evaporative coolers to provide ventilation and passive cooling.
REFERENCES
[1] M.K. Pirnia,“wind catcher”, art and architecture, vol. 10, pp. 30-34,
1971
[2] P. Ghaemmaghami, and M. Mahmudi, “wind tower a natural cooling
system in Iranian traditional architecture”, 1st international conference
passive and low energy cooling for the built environment , vol. 1,
Greece, 2005
[3] G.H. Memarian, “residential architecture of Iran”, p.284, 1996
[4] M. Mahmudi, “wind catcher “ ,2009,
[5] A. Mahyari, “ the wind catcher”, PhD thesis, Sydney university,
Australia, 1996
[6] S. Roaf, “Air-conditioning avoidance: lessons from the wind catchers
of Iran” , 1st international conference passive and low energy cooling
for the built environment , vol. 1, pp.1053-1055., 1988
[7] M. Mahmudi, “Analyze on Iranian Wind Catcher and its Effect on
Natural Ventilation as a solution toward Sustainable Architecture”,
world Academy of science, Engineering and Technology, pp. 574-575,
2009
[8] A. Azami, “Badgir in Traditional Iranian Architecture” 1st international
conference passive and low energy cooling for the built environment,
vol. 1, pp. 1023-1024, 2005
... Typology of partition walls' arrangement in wind catchers (Adapted from[22,23] & Redrawing by Authors, 2019) ...
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Four-sided wind catchers are common examples of wind catchers in Yazd. Analysing the physical and structural features of these wind catchers can reveal part of the characteristics of traditional Iranian architecture and the ability of traditional architects to use such renewable energies as wind power. The present study attempts to examine the effect of the arrangement of main and accessory air-shaft partition walls on the structural behaviour and construction technology of four-sided wind catchers through conducting library and field research studies. The study also attempts to simulate the process of constructing a four-sided wind catcher based on an optimal type. The analyses indicate that in addition to the amount of air conditioning, the shape of the partition walls has a direct relationship with the wind catcher’s degree of resistance to the internal and external forces. Moreover, the extension of the partition walls into the entirety of the rack and canal, compared to other similar types with partition walls in the rack, are more resistant against the lateral forces and transfer their resultant pressure more consistently thanks to their connected and consistent structure. The analysis of the construction process of wind catchers revealed part of the characteristics of the traditional Iranian architecture, utilizing vernacular materials and aiming at constructing high structures that are efficient, resistant, and dependent on renewable wind energy.
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wind catchers have been served as a cooling system, used to provide acceptable ventilation by means of renewable energy of wind. In the present study, the city of Yazd in arid climate is selected as case study. From the architecture point of view, learning about wind catchers in this study is done by means of field surveys. Research method for selection of the case is based on random form, and analytical method. Wind catcher typology and knowledge of relationship governing the wind catcher's architecture were those measures that are taken for the first time. 53 wind catchers were analyzed. The typology of the wind-catchers is done by the physical analyzing, patterns and common concepts as incorporated in them. How the architecture of wind catcher can influence their operations by analyzing thermal behavior are the archetypes of selected wind catchers. Calculating fluids dynamics science, fluent software and numerical analysis are used in this study as the most accurate analytical approach. The results obtained from these analyses show the formal specifications of wind catchers with optimum operation in Yazd. The knowledge obtained from the optimum model could be used for design and construction of wind catchers with more improved operation Keywords— Fluent Software, Iranian architecture, wind catcher
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The use of centralized air-conditioning systems in buildings with fixed windows is becoming an increasingly high-risk strategy in buildings for a number of reasons. These include fuel insecurity and price rises, the need to reduce climate change emissions from the built environment, and the need to make buildings more robust in the face of the extreme weather events that are beginning to characterize climates in a warming world. The need to be able to naturally ventilate buildings to reduce energy use in them and to make them occupiable in brown and black-outs is accepted, but in hot regions of the world is this a realistic design aim as cities become more and more dependent on high energy air- conditioning solutions? This paper outlines how lessons can be learnt from the traditional wind- catchers of the Middle East
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The home network of the future will be a full-fledged subnetwork on the Infobahn. Access services to the home will be provided over public or private networks, including both wireline or wireless. Homes may have many client devices which will connect to services over the WAN. Inter-device communication within the home will also be common. This article treats the design of an architecture for the residential LAN and its interface to external networks. The requirements for a residential LAN are developed. It is proposed that the TCP/IP protocol suite coupled with existing and evolving Ethernet technology are the technologies of choice to support all residential requirements, including the distribution of real-time audio and MPEG video. In addition, the functional requirements for the gateway are developed, including service multiplexing, protocol conversion, routing, interworking, security and filtering functions
wind tower a natural cooling system in Iranian traditional architecture " , 1st international conference passive and low energy cooling for the built environment
  • P Ghaemmaghami
  • M H Mahmudi3 ] G
  • Memarian
P. Ghaemmaghami, and M. Mahmudi, " wind tower a natural cooling system in Iranian traditional architecture ", 1st international conference passive and low energy cooling for the built environment, vol. 1, Greece, 2005 [3] G.H. Memarian, " residential architecture of Iran ", p.284, 1996 [4]
Analyze on Iranian Wind Catcher and its Effect on Natural Ventilation as a solution toward Sustainable Architecture " , world Academy of science, Engineering and Technology
  • M Mahmudi
M. Mahmudi, " Analyze on Iranian Wind Catcher and its Effect on Natural Ventilation as a solution toward Sustainable Architecture ", world Academy of science, Engineering and Technology, pp. 574-575, 2009 [8] A. Azami, " Badgir in Traditional Iranian Architecture " 1 st international conference passive and low energy cooling for the built environment, vol. 1, pp. 1023-1024, 2005
wind tower a natural cooling system in Iranian traditional architecture
  • P Ghaemmaghami
  • M Mahmudi
P. Ghaemmaghami, and M. Mahmudi, "wind tower a natural cooling system in Iranian traditional architecture", 1st international conference passive and low energy cooling for the built environment, vol. 1, Greece, 2005
Air-conditioning avoidance: lessons from the wind catchers of Iran
  • S Roaf
S. Roaf, "Air-conditioning avoidance: lessons from the wind catchers of Iran", 1 st international conference passive and low energy cooling for the built environment, vol. 1, pp.1053-1055., 1988