ArticlePDF Available

A review on ethnomedicinal and traditional uses of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. (Rudraksha)

Authors:

Abstract

In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the botanical, phytochemical, ethno medicinal, pharmacological information on Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. belongs to family Elaeocarpaceae. It is prevalent for its fascinating fruit stones and medicinal properties. It procures a remarkable position in Hinduism and Ayurveda, the indigenous system of medicine. In Hindi it is recognized as Rudraksha, is a large evergreen broad-leaved tree whose seed is conventionally used for prayer beads in Hindu religion. In traditional system of medicine, different parts (beads, bark, leaves and outer shell of beads) of Rudraksha are taken for the alleviation of various health problems such as mental disorders, headache, fever, skin diseases, and for healing the wounds. Ayurvedic texts categorise Rudraksha fruits as thermogenic, sedative, cough alleviator and are useful for the treatment of bronchitis, neuralgia, cephalagia, anorexia, migraine, manic conditions and other brain disorders. It is employed in folk medicine as a counter agent of stress, anxiety, depression, palpitation, nerve pain, epilepsy, lack of concentration, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and liver diseases. Furthermore it is retrieve to exhibit multifarious pharmacological activities like anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypoglycemic, antiulcerogenic and very high antimicrobial activity. Phytosterols, fats, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins and tannins have been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potential of E. ganitrus. Aqueous extract of leaves contains glycosides also. Ethanolic extract of leaves contains gallic acid, ellagic acid & quercetin. This review provides a scientific basis for pharmacological/medicinal properties and therapeutic uses of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb.
Internationally indexed journal
Internationally indexed journalInternationally indexed journal
Internationally indexed journal
Indexed in Chemical Abstract Services (USA), Index coppernicus, Ulrichs Directory of Periodicals,
Google scholar, CABI ,DOAJ , PSOAR, EBSCO , Open J gate , Proquest , SCOPUS , EMBASE ,etc.
.
Indexed in Elsevier Bibliographic Database
(Scopus and EMBASE)
SCImago Journal Rank 0.129
Impact factor 0.67*
Rapid and Easy Publishing
Rapid and Easy PublishingRapid and Easy Publishing
Rapid and Easy Publishing
The “International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences” (IJPBS) is an international journal in English
published quarterly. The aim of IJPBS is to publish peer reviewed research and review articles rapidly
without delay in the developing field of pharmaceutical and biological sciences
www.ijpbs.net
*Instruction to Authors visit www .ijpbs.net
For any Queries, visit “contact” o f www.ijpbs.net
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 495
Review Article Pharmacology
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences ISSN
0975-6299
A REVIEW ON ETHNOMEDICINAL AND TRADITIONAL USES OF
ELAEOCARPUS GANITRUS ROXB. (RUDRAKSHA)
SURESH C. JOSHI* AND PRATIBHA K. JAIN
Center for advanced studies, Department of Zoology
University of Rajasthan, Jaipur – 302 055 (India).
ABSTRACT
In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the botanical,
phytochemical, ethno medicinal, pharmacological information on Elaeocarpus ganitrus
Roxb. belongs to family Elaeocarpaceae. It is prevalent for its fascinating fruit stones
and medicinal properties. It procures a remarkable position in Hinduism and Ayurveda,
the indigenous system of medicine. In Hindi it is recognized as Rudraksha, is a large
evergreen broad-leaved tree whose seed is conventionally used for prayer beads in
Hindu religion. In traditional system of medicine, different parts (beads, bark, leaves and
outer shell of beads) of Rudraksha are taken for the alleviation of various health
problems such as mental disorders, headache, fever, skin diseases, and for healing the
wounds. Ayurvedic texts categorise Rudraksha fruits as thermogenic, sedative, cough
alleviator and are useful for the treatment of bronchitis, neuralgia, cephalagia, anorexia,
migraine, manic conditions and other brain disorders. It is employed in folk medicine as
a counter agent of stress, anxiety, depression, palpitation, nerve pain, epilepsy, lack of
concentration, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and liver diseases. Furthermore it is
retrieve to exhibit multifarious pharmacological activities like anti-inflammatory,
analgesic, hypoglycemic, antiulcerogenic and very high antimicrobial activity.
Phytosterols, fats, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins and tannins have been
found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potential of E. ganitrus. Aqueous
extract of leaves contains glycosides also. Ethanolic extract of leaves contains gallic
acid, ellagic acid & quercetin. This review provides a scientific basis for pharmacological
/medicinal properties and therapeutic uses of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb.
KEY WORDS: Phytochemicals, Pharmacological, Antioxidant,Therapeutic
SURESH C. JOSHI
Center for advanced studies, Department of Zoology
University of Rajasthan, Jaipur – 302 055 (India).
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 496
INTRODUCTION
Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. (Syn. E. sphaericus
Gaertn; family Elaeocarpaceae) is commonly
known as Rudraksha
1
. The word Rudraksha,
literally derived from two Sanskrit words –‘rudra’,
a synonym for Lord Shiva and ‘aksha’ meaning
eyes
2
. It is also called blueberry beads as, beads
are covered by an outer shell of blue color on
fully ripening
3
. The seed is borne by several
species of Elaeocarpus, with E. ganitrus being
the principal species. The specific appellation
ganitrus is plausibly taken from ganitri, the name
for this species in Sundanese and Malay. It has
been adored in almost all ancient ayurvedic texts
for its extraordinary medicinal properties. It is
ethnomedicinally important plant and possesses
ameliorating pharmacological properties which
have been used for the treatment of various
ailments.
Figure 1
Elaeocarpus ganitrus roxb.
Botanical classification
Kingdom
Plantae
Division
Magnoliophyta
Class
Magnoliopsida
Order
Oxalidales
Family
Elaeocarpaceae
Genus
Elaeocarpus
Species
E. ganitrus
Binomial name
Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Roxb.)
Common name
Rudraksha
Origin and distribution
Rudraksha botanically called Elaeocarpus
ganitrus raise in tropical and subtropical regions
at the eminence ranging from seacoast to 2,000
meters above the sea level
4
. Rudraksha cultivate
in the area from the Gangetic Plain in foothills of
the Himalayas to South-East Asia, Indonesia,
New Guinea to Australia, Guam, and Hawaii
5
.
Rudraksha tree flourish on mountains and hilly
region of Nepal, Indonesia, Java, Sumatra and
Burma.
Morphology
Elaeocarpus ganitrus is a large evergreen broad
leaved tree. The tree of Rudraksha is about 50-
200 feet long and possess cylindrical trunk with a
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 497
grayish white & rough textured bark. The
diameter of trunk is up to 1.22 meter. The
morphological & organoleptic examination
6,7
demonstrates that rudraksha leaves are shining
green on the upper side with a dull leathery on
the dorsal side. The flowers of Rudraksha are
white with bristling petals. The macroscopical
study of the leaf and seed shows following
observations as tabulated in table 1.
Table 1
Macroscopical Examination of leaf and seed of Elaeocarpus ganitrus
6,7
Microscopical examination
8
of transverse section of leaf shows the presence of cuticle, epidermis,
collenchymas, palisade and vascular bundles as shown in fig 2a. Vascular bundle shows collateral
type closed vascular bundle. Transverse section of seed
9
reveals the presence of a hard endocarp
encompassed by lignified isodiametric sclereids, seeds with membranous seed coat, which enfolded
a dense cellular endosperm incorporating of calcium oxalate druses as depicted in fig 2b.
Figure 2a: Transverse section of leaf of Figure 2b: Transverse section of seed of
Elaeocarpus ganitrus
8
Elaeocarpus ganitrus
9
Cultivation
The Rudraksha trees are very tall and endure
small white colored sweet smelling flowers on
blooming in the rainy season. These flowers turn
into black berry like fruits, which on ripening yield
brownish red colored seeds. The tree is annual
i.e. grows throughout the year. Rudraksha is
germinating in subtropical climate area with
temperature ranges of 25-30 degree centigrade.
These trees start giving fruit after 7 years. Fruits
appear in June and grow up by August-October.
The bead formation and the type of bead formed
depends on the environment and location of
rudraksha tree, e.g. The Himalayan beads looks
larger, heavier and more powerful due to the
environment they grow in.
Types of Rudraksha
Rudraksha beads are catalogued depending on
the number of “mukhis” – the clefts and furrows –
they have on the surface. The scriptures state of
1 to 38 mukhis, but Rudrakshas of 1 to 14
mukhis are usually bring to light. One mukhi
rudraksha is not widely distributed. Five faceted
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 498
or Punchmukhi rudraksha bead is most
commonly found. The higher mukhis or faces are
very rare. Each bead imposes a different
influence associated with the number of mukhis
it has as listed in table 2.
Table 2
Benefits of Rudraksha associated with no. of mukhis
Rudraksha
Therapeutic p
otentials and other Benefits
1 mukhi Medicament for diseases like mental anxiety, heart problems, eye problems, TB,
paralysis, bone pain, etc. Enlightens the super-consciousness and provides improved
concentration.
2 mukhi Implausible treatment of ailments like chronic asthma, renal failure, impotency, stress,
anxiety, depression, eye problems, negative thinking, mental chaos, lack of
concentration, hysteria, intestinal disorder etc. Blesses the wearer with ‘UNITY’.
3 mukhi Sure shot remedy for the diseases like depression, schizophrenia, blood pressure,
jaundice, mental disability, fever or weakness, directive of the menstrual cycle/
menstrual stress, mood swings, etc.
4 mukhi Provides medication for diseases like blood circulation, asthma, memory lapse, cough
respiratory strip problems, and brain linked illness, etc. The wearer bestows power of
creativity, enhances memory power and intelligence.
5 mukhi For treating medical conditions like blood pressure, diabetes, piles, stress, displeasure,
mental disability, as well as neurotic, heart and maladjustment problems etc.
6 mukhi Counter measure for the ailments like gynecological problems, epilepsy etc. Defends
from emotional trauma of wordy sorrows and imparts wisdom, learning and knowledge.
7 mukhi Extraordinarily works for treating diseases like asthma, impotency, pharyngitis,
respiratory confusion, foot related diseases, pains and aches etc. Beneficial for
peoples who are suffering from finance and mental set-up.
8 mukhi Provides cures for medical conditions like stomach ache, skin diseases, stress, anxiety
etc. Get rid of all obstacles and affords success in all undertakings.
9 mukhi Works as a mystical therapeutic agent for treating strange diseases. Wearer is
harbored with lot of energy, powers, dynamism and fearlessness.
10 mukhi Alleviates discomforts like mental insecurity, hormonal inequality in the body, whooping
cough etc. It does a job like a shield on one’s body and kicks evils away.
11 mukhi Provides relief from body pain, backache and recovers from chronic alcoholism and
liver diseases. Blesses wearer with wisdom, right judgement, fearlessness and
success.
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 499
12 mukhi Medically it is more valuable for ameliorating discomforts of bone diseases,
osteoporosis, rickets, mental disability, anxiety etc. Wearer gains the strength of sun to
rule and to move continuously with brilliant radiance. Boosts self image and motivation.
13 mukhi Used for treating muscle dystrophies. It gives honor and fulfills all the earthly desires.
14 mukhi It provokes the sixth sense organ by which the wearer foresees the forthcoming
happenings.
15 mukhi Skin diseases, recurring miscarriage, still birth etc can be cured.
16 mukhi Taken as a curative agent for the diseases like leprosy, cor-pulmonale, tuberculosis,
lung diseases etc.
17 mukhi Excellent for handling conditions like memory lapse, body functional disorders etc.
18 mukhi Prevent ailments like loss of power, mental inharmonization etc.
19 mukhi Exterminate the disorders of blood, spinal cord etc.
20 mukhi Taken as nullifier for problem of eyesight and snake bites.
21 mukhi Possesses built-in medical healing and it eradicates every form of diseases.
Trijuti Trijuti Rudraksha is supreme for keeping internal as well as external body disorders at
bark.
Gauri shankar Works for the medication of problems related to sex and behaviour.
Rudraksha and hindu mythology
Rudraksha is a valuable and magical bead of
Hindu Tradition & Meditation. Rudraksha beads
signify the “eyes” of lord Shiva, so they are
speculated to be very felicitous and sacred. All
legends pertaining to the origin of Rudraksha
describe them as tears shed by Lord Shiva.
According to "Shiva Purana", Lord Shiva once
went into deep meditation for the health and
prosperity of all living being. When he awaken,
he opened his eyes and tear drops fell on the
Earth. These tear drops carved out the form of
seeds that later on emerges as the Rudraksha
tree. “Rudraksha Daan (Donation) Is The Best
Donation Among All”
10
.
Physicochemical parameters
The physicochemical analysis of coarsely
powdered dried fruits of rudraksha exposed
the moisture content (loss on drying), total ash,
acid insoluble ash, water-soluble extractives, pet
ether soluble extractives, chloroform soluble
extractives, ethanol soluble extractives are as
shown in fig.3
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 500
Figure 3
Physiochemical parameters of Elaeocarpus ganitrus
Total ash is approximately 1.36 times greater
than the acid insoluble ash illustrates the
existence of adequate acid soluble inorganic
matter in E. ganitrus. Out of all the solvents
analysed, ethanol comprises a maximum
extractable value of 2.4%, whereas chloroform
comprises a minimum value of 0.5%.
Biochemical / phytochemical constituents of
Elaeocarpus ganitrus roxb.
Rudraksha beads are constructed of carbon,
hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and some trace
elements in collective form. C-H-N analyzer and
gas chromatography designates the percentage
composition of these gaseous elements as
50.031% carbon, 0.95% nitrogen, 17.897%
hydrogen and 30.53% oxygen. Phytochemical
screening
11-15
manifested positive test for
phytosterols, fats, alkaloids, flavonoids,
carbohydrates, proteins and tannins. Aqueous
extract of leaves contains glycosides also.
Ethanolic extract of leaves contains gallic acid,
ellagic acid & quercetin
16
. E. ganitrus Roxb.
(Syn. E. sphaericus Gaertn) leaves comprises of
several isomeric alkaloids of molecular formula,
C
16
H
21
NO
217
. Rudraksha contains indolizidine
type of Alkaloids. Two of the alkaloids are alike (-
)-isoelaeocarpiline and (+)-elaeocarpiline eariler
isolated from E. dolichostylis. The other alkaloids
are Elaeocarpidine, (+)-Elaeocarpine, (+)-
Isoelaeocarpin, (+)-Epiisoelaeocarpiline, (+)
Epiialloelaeocarpiline, (-) – Alloelaeocarpiline, (+)
Pseudoepiisoelaeocarpiline, Rudrakine
18
and
fatty acids includes palmitic acid and linolenic
acid
19
. The chemical structures of
phytochemicals are depicted in fig.4 (a-m).
(a) (b) (c)
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 501
(d) (e) (f)
(g) (h)
(i) (j)
(k)
(l) (m)
Figure 4
(a-h): Alkaloids
(a) Elaeocarpidine, (b) (+)–Elaeocarpine, (c) (+)–Isoelaeocarpine,(d) (+)-Epielaeocarpiline, (e) (-)-
Alloelaeocarpiline, (f) (+)-Pseudoepiisoelaeocarpiline, (g) (+)-Epialloelaeocarpiline and (h)
Rudrakin
17,18
; (i,j) Tannins(Leaf)- (i) Gallic acid (j) Ellagic acid
19
; (k)Flavanoids-Quercetin
19
;
(l,m) Fatty acids(Seeds)- (l) Palmitic acid (m) Linoleic acid
20
.
The different types of phytochemicals that have been extracted and investigated from coarsely
powdered dried fruits of E. ganitrus with various solvents are tabulated in Table 3.
Table 3
Phytochemicals from fruits of E. ganitrus
9
Extract
Phytoc
hemicals
Petroleum ether extract (PE) Phytosterol, fats and fixed oil
Chloroform extract (CE) Phytosterol
Ethanol extract (EE) Alkaloids, flavanoids, carbohydrates, proteins and tannins
Water extract (WE) Protein, tannins and carbohydrates
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 502
Traditional uses /ayurvedic properties of
rudraksha
Different parts (beads, bark and leaves) of
rudraksha are used for the treatment of diverse
ailments as well as may be worn either on arm,
wrist or other parts of the body.
As blood purifier and general tonic:Rudraksha
can be taken as a medicament for blood
purification and powers the body substance.
Regular consumption as a quath in conjunction
with honey purifies blood and works as general
tonic.
Curing breathing problems or cough: A quath
made by mixing beads of rudraksha, bark of
adusa and harad, in equal amount can be
consumed with honey. The concoction of ten-
faced rudraksha with milk mitigates recurrent
cough.
For getting good sleep: Rudraksha shall be
keep under pillow and preparation of its bead in
the milk shall be applied on the eye lid for getting
better sleep.
Rectifier of chicken pox or small pox: Equal
proportion of black pepper and Elaeocarpus
ganitrus should crushed together and taken with
stale water alleviate the problem of small pox.
Burn Pox or Marks alleviator: The five-faced
rudraksha is the foremost remedy for burn or pox
marks on face. It can be used as a panacea for
skin diseases, ringworms, sores, pimples and
boil also.
Epilepsy management: Pulverized bark of
rudraksha tree and pulp of fruit or the bead can
be used.
For curing Piles: Rudraksha bead in
combination with triphala churna and guggul or
with root of kaneer is beneficial for treating piles.
Counter measure for jaundice, liver related
problems or stomach ache: Rudraksha,
chitrak, harad, devdaru, giloy, daruhaldi,
dharangi and punarnava shall be taken in equal
proportion and regular consumption of it as a
quath is an important medicine.
Nullifying poisonous effects caused by bites
of insects: Panchamukhi rudraksha can be
grinded with lemon juice on a stone and the
application of this paste on the affected spot will
subside pain.
For improving memory power: Milk boiled with
four or six faced rudraksha seed is excellent
remedy for mental disorders. This also assists in
enhancing memory.
Sexual power improvement: A recipe of
rudraksha applied over the forehead improves
sexual power.
For Blood Pressure: Five mukhi rudraksha
keeps blood pressure normal.
For High Blood Pressure: Rudraksha is a best
medication for curing H. B. P. (high blood
pressure).
Sure shot remedy for conceiving baby: One
rudraksa and one karsa (10 gm) of Sarpa'kshi
(Ophiorrhizamungos) can be cooked together
and pestled in the milk of one colored cow.
Consumption of it during the menstrual period
will bestow even a sterile woman conceive -
Damara Tantra.
Alleviator of heaviness, tongue cracks and
tastelessness: Gargling with rudraksha
decoction is beneficial in heaviness, tongue
cracks and tastelessness.
Curing all brain disease: All brain disorders
can be recovered with four faced rudraksha
remedy.
Neutrilizer of brain fever: Consumption of
overnight kept water of rudraksha in earthen pot
on an empty stomach can get rid of brain fever.
For Hysteria and Coma: Elaeocarpus ganitrus
is also a good assistance for panic conditions of
hysteria and coma in woman.
For Frequent fever: Rudraksha is also good for
children’s who suffers from frequent fever.
Imparts calmness to mind: It cools down the
body temperature and brings calm to mind.
Controlling anxiety: A person grieves from
anxiety should keep big size panchmukhi
rudraksha with themselves and during
nervousness; they should hold them tightly in
their right palm for ten minutes. It will assist them
to get back their confidence
21
.
To Ward off evil spirits and omens: The
rudraksha fruits were employed to defend from
evil spirits in traditional Indian medicinal
system
22
. These diversified traditional uses are
presented in figure 5.
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 503
Figure 5
Traditional uses of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudraksha)
Medicinal and scientific value of Elaeocarpus
ganitrus roxb. (Rudrakasha)
Rudraksha beads have been used for thousands
of years as an amazing aid to gain power and for
living healthy life. It has been observed that
Rudraksha beads possess electromagnetic
properties and by virtue of these properties they
empowers and controlles proper functioning of
all body parts. Inductance, resistance,
dielectrical as well as permanent magnetic
properties and dynamic polarity are extensively
catalogued in to electrical properties of
rudraksha. Due to electromagnetic and inductive
properties of rudraksha beads, they send out
equivalent signals, differing for different mukhis
to brain, activates certain brain chemicals and
neurotransmitters thereby imposes positive
impact on blood circulation, nervous system and
various other organ systems. Scientifically the
Rudraksha beads are dielectrical as they store
electrical energy and owing to this property they
play an important role in regulating palpitations
of heart, hyperactivity, streamlining heart beat,
lack of concentration etc. Rudraksha seeds are
dynamically polar and also possess both
paramagnetic and diamagnetic properties which
facilitate beneficial healing capacity to them.
Rudraksha beads confer anti ageing properties
depend on their electromagnetism
22
. Rudraksha
pulp is used in managing head related diseases,
epilepsy, and mental sickness
23
. Furthermore it
is noted to have myriad pharmacological
activities that involve anti-inflammatory
24
,
analgesic
25
, hypoglycemic
23
, antidepressant
26
,
antiasthmatic
26
, sedative
25
,
antihypertensive
27,28,29
smooth muscle relaxant
30
,
hydrocholeretic
30
, antiulcerogenic
31
and
anticonvulsant
32
. Besides, Rudraksha extracts
possess potential antimicrobial activity
33,34
and
can be used even for the alleviation of chronic
diseases like cancer. Different mukhi dusts of
rudraksha are given for different disorders as
listed in table 4.
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 504
Table 4
Treatment of different diseases by different mukhi (face) dust of rudraksha
Disorders
Rudraksha
Eye sight, heart, diaphragm, spine, blood, veins, thymus
1&12 mukhi
Stomach involving gastric processes, non blood fluid system
2 mukhi
Brain, thyroid glands, sensory organs, hands, arms, lungs disorders
4 mukhi
Red blood cells, adrenal glands, blood pressure disorders
3 mukhi
Neurohypophysis related to growth and thighs
5 mukhi
Depression, mental/ emotional tension, spleen, skeletal system and
adenohypophysis
7 &14 mukhi
Body pain, skin problem
9 mukhi
Nervous system disorders 11 mukhi
Sleeping problems
9 mukhi
Experimental and clinical studies
All over the world scientific research is getting
momentum to evaluate the pharmacological
activities, side effects and medicinal uses of E.
ganitrus against different diseases. On the basis
of various in vitro, experimental and clinical
researches, the following pharmacological
activities or medicinal properties of E. ganitrus
have been reported.
Antimicrobial
In vitro antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract
of E. ganitrus leaves was tested against clinical
isolates of bacteria and fungi. The extract
exhibited extensive antimicrobial action as it
showed growth inhibition for Bacillus cereus,
Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium sp,
Candida albicans and C. tropicalis. Agar well
diffusion method
34
is used for determining
antibacterial activity of the crude extracts.
Aqueous extract of E. ganitrus leaves was
screened for antibacterial activity against three
gram positive (B. cereus S.aureus, and M.
luteus) and three gram negative bacteria (P.
aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae),
isolated from the clinical samples. The extract
exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against
all the bacterial cultures, except M. luteus.
Antifungal activity of the crude extracts was
examined through the agar well diffusion
method
35
. Antifungal activity of the extract was
evaluated against three molds (Penicillium sp, A.
niger and A. flavus) and two yeast (C. albicans
and C. tropicalis), isolated from clinical samples.
Extract exhibited antifungal activity against all
the fungal cultures except A. niger. Antimicrobial
activity of E. ganitrus leaves extract was
compared with the antimicrobial activity of
standard drugs for evaluating relative percentage
inhibition. The aqueous extract of E. ganitrus
leaves exhibited maximum relative percentage
inhibition against B. cereus (124.16 %) and
Penicillium sp. (88.26%) for bacteria and fungi
respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration
values of the extract varied from 125-2000
µg/ml; however minimum value was reported
against B. cereus and A. flavus (125 µg/ml). The
results indicate the potential use of E. ganitrus
leaves for the development of antimicrobial
compounds
36
.
Earlier, experiments were performed with
various extracts (Petroleum ether, benzene,
chloroform, acetone and ethanol) of dried E.
sphaericus fruit. The extracts have been recited
to exhibit a broad spectrum of antimicrobial
action against a variety of gram positive and
gram negative bacteria
33
. E. ganitrus is a less
explored source of immensely useful
antimicrobial constituents and it is worth for
prospective experimental investigation. Further,
the active principle can be isolated and the
mechanism of antimicrobial activity can be
studied using advance scientific techniques.
Antifungal activity
Petroleum ether (PE), Chloroform (CE), Ethanol
(EE) and Water (WE) extracts of E. ganitrus
dried fruits were examined for in vitro antifungal
activity by using the disk-diffusion assay
37
and
broth dilution test
38,39
. Turbidimetry method was
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 505
used for determining inhibitory concentration in
terms of MIC (mg/ml) for different fungal strains
of Asperagillus niger, Candidum geotrichum,
Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis.
Ketoconazole was taken as the positive control.
The CE showed maximum inhibitory potential
(MIC 1.5 mg/ml) on C. albicans. The maximum
inhibiton (MIC 3.0 mg/ml) was observed for CE
and EE against A. niger. No sign of inhibition
was illustrated on C. glabrata and G. candidum
by various extracts even at higher concentration.
CE and EE were identified to be potential
antifungals. Phytochemical investigations of
extracts which confirms the presence of
alkaloids, flavonoids, phytosterols,
carbohydrates, proteins, tannins, fats and fixed
oils may be responsible for activity
9
.
Antidiabetic activity
The chitosan based extract as well as aqueous
extract of E. ganitrus have been studied for
antidiabetic activity in rats. It was observed that
chitosan based E. ganitrus leaf extract
stimulated hypoglycaemic action on normal rats.
By virtue of antioxidant potential of taken extract
they can relieve the stress induced through
hyperglycaemia
40
. Due to chitosan, insulin
secretion of pancreatic cells could be stimulated,
overgrowth of cells and isolated pancreatic islet
cells improved, disorders of glucose tolerance
decreased and disposed
41
. The % decrease in
blood glucose in case of the chitosan based
aqueous extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg was as
good as with that of standard antidiabetic drug
glimeperide 20 mg/kg. More reduction in blood
glucose was observed with in diabetic rats when
compared to normal rats administered with the
same dose. The study illustrates marked
antidiabetic activity of E. ganitrus in diabetic rats.
The chitosan based extract enhanced the
antidiabetic potential of E. ganitrus evidently
manifests synergy
42
.
One more study indicates the
hypoglycemic activity of Elaeocarpus ganitrus
(EGA) aqueous seed extract. The activity was
investigated by administrating single dose at
three ordered dose levels viz. 250, 500 and 1000
mg/kg of body weight in normoglycemic rats.
Streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg, i.p.)induced
diabetic rats were also administered with the
same dose levels for investigating
antihyperglycemic activity of the extract.
Metformin (500 mg/kg) was administered as the
reference drug. EGA demonstrated a marked
hypoglycemic effect at 2 h in normoglycemic
rats. The EGA administration markedly reduced
the blood glucose level and modulated lipid
profile in a dose-dependent fashion in STZ-
induced diabetic rats during the 30 days of
treatment period. Therefore it designates that
EGA seeds possess significant antidiabetic
activity
43
. STZ stimulates diabetes by a rapid
depletion of pancreatic beta-cells and thereby,
depletes insulin secretion and stimulates
hyperglycemia
44
. Metformin develops
hypoglycemia by an extra pancreatic
mechanism
45
. Elevated levels of serum
triglycerides and cholesterol in STZ-diabetic rats
reinforce findings by
46
. EGA treatment
recommends its presumptive role in attenuation
of impacts on lipid profile in diabetes. Alkaloids,
viz. rudrakine, (-) elaeocarpine and (-) iso-
elaeocarpine, flavonoids and glycosides may be
attributed for hypoglycemic effect of E. ganitrus
31
.
Antihypertensive activity
The effects of Rudraksha (Elaeocarpus ganitrus
Roxb.) in experimentally induced acute
hypertension by adrenaline and nicotine have
been investigated. Study was done in 6
anaesthetised cats having similar body weight
and age. 90 % Ethanol extracts (E.g-90) of E.
ganitrus is extracted and water soluble portion
was given intravenously to cats to study its effect
on normal blood pressure as well as
hypertension induced by hypertensive agents.
Blood pressure was measured by using
Pressure transducer and Polyrite (INCO).
Adrenaline and nicotine, when administered
through I/V route induces significant increase of
BP in normal control animals. Adrenaline failed
to induce any hypertension in animals pretreated
with E.g-90. But nicotine induces statistically
significant hypertension in E.g-90 pretreated
animals. Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. reduces
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 506
adrenaline induced hypertension and also
normal blood pressure; but it is not effective in
nicotine induced hypertension. Experimental
results showed hypotensive effect of
Elaeocarpus ganitrus on experimental
hypertension as well as in normal blood
pressure
47
.
Aqueous extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus
Roxb. seeds has been assessed for its
antihypertensive activity in renal artery occluded
hypertensive rats. Male Wistar rats (180-200 g)
were pretreated with aqueous extract of E.
ganitrus for 6 weeks. Hypertension was
persuaded in rats by clamping the renal artery
with renal bulldog clamp for 4 h. Ischemia of the
kidneys accounts elevation of blood pressure by
activation of the renin-angiotensin system.
Considerable decrease was observed in
elevated blood pressure of the rats when treated
by the aqueous extract of E. ganitrus at the dose
levels of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.v. Captopril,
angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I)
at the dose of 1 mg/kg, i.v. demonstrated
significant reduction in the elevated blood
pressure. The action on rennin-angiotensin
system may be attributed for antihypertensive
activity of aqueous extract of E.ganitrus. The
phytochemical evaluation of aqueous extract of
E. ganitrus showed the presence of glycosides,
alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids
48
.
Antioxidant activity
In vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of
Elaeocarpus ganitrus leaves was evaluated for
their total antioxidant capacity, metal chelating,
reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging and
ABTS+ (2, 2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-
sulphonate) radical scavenging activities.
Maximum iron chelating activity (76.70%) was
observed at 500 µg/ml extract concentration
followed by the scavenging of the ABTS+ radical
(55.77%) at the same concentration. However,
the extract demonstrated only moderate hydroxyl
radical scavenging activity (13.43%). Total
antioxidant capacity was detected to be 24.18
mg ascorbic acid equivalents at 500 µg/ml
extract concentration. Recent studies have
shown that various flavonoids and related
polyphenols confer substantially to the total
antioxidant activity of many plants
49
. Total
phenolic content in E. ganitrus was detected to
be 56.79±1.6 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry
material. Total flavonoids in E. ganitrus were
detected to be 18.58± 0.3 mg rutin equivalents/g
of dry material. These findings recommend 85%
of the antioxidant capacity of E. ganitrus is by
virtue of phenolics and flavonoid components.
Moreover, enzymatic and other non-enzymatic
antioxidants may be contributed to antioxidant
potential
40
.
Anxiolytic activity
Anxiolytic effect of Elaeocarpus ganitrus was
evaluated in mice. The experimental study was
conducted with the extract of Elaeocarpus
ganitrus in comparison with Diazepam using
open field test and passive avoidance apparatus.
Different dose of EG produce anxiolytic effect as
elucidated by marked increase in number of
square crossing and rearing as well as time
spent in central square by animals and it was
also seen that there was significant decrease in
step down latency as well as significant increase
in step down error and time spent in shock zone
by animals
50
. It shows Elaeocarpus ganitrus has
central nervous system effect and indicative of
anxiolytic effect
30
.
Elaeocarpus sphaericus fruits methanolic
extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg increased the
percentage of time-spent and the percentage of
arm entries in the open arms of the elevated
plus-maze (EPM) and decreased the percentage
of time-spent in the closed arms of EPM.
Furthermore, it extended the ketamine-induced
latency to sleep buthad, no detectable effects on
total sleeping time induced by ketamine. Also,
the locomotor activity was deliberately affected in
contrast to diazepam. The actions of methanolic
extract of Elaeocarpus sphaericus fruits on
spontaneous locomotor activity were determined
automatically by breaking of infrared beams
51
.
The effect of the studied extract on ketamine-
induced sleeping time was determined as
interpreted by Mimura et al.
52
. The behavior
observed in the elevated plus-maze confirmed
the anxiolytic activity of diazepam
53
. The
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 507
decrease repugnance to the open arms is a
consequence of an anxiolytic effect depicted by
an increased number of open arm entries and
time spent in the EPM. The decreased time
spent on the central platform is one more
indication of a reduced ‘decision making’
behavior. Both parameters are acknowledged as
sound indicators of anxiety and fearfulness
54
.
Likewise, phytochemical screening of methanolic
extract showed the presence of flavonoids,
triterpenoids and saponins and the same could
explain its anxiolytic activity. This study
authenticates the conventional use of the plant in
management of anxiety
55
.
Different extractives, petroleum ether
(PE), ethanol (EE), chloroform (CE), and water
(WE) of Elaeocarpus ganitrus and Centaurea
behen were prepared and evaluated for
antianxiety effect by using elevated plus maize
model in mice. The observations were compared
with standard drug, diazepam. The chloroform
and ethanol extractives of E. ganitrus at 200 and
400 mg/kg concentration and ethanol extractive
of C. behen at 200 mg/kg concentration
appreciably increased the time spent and
percentage of the open arm entries in the
elevated plus maize model and hence exhibited
antianxiety activity, which was comparable to
diazepam. Chemically the extracts of both the
plants exposed phytosterols, alkaloids,
flavonoids, fats, carbohydrates, proteins and
tannins. The anxiolytic effects of the ethanol
extractive of C. behen and chloroform and
ethanol extractives of E. ganitrus may be related
to their alkaloidal and flavonoid content
56
.
Antidepressant Effect
Pharmacological examinations with the water
soluble portion of 90% ethanol extract of the
Elaeocarpus ganitrus fruits showed the existence
of an important central nervous system
depressant effect, characterized by typical
behavioral actions, potentiating of hexobarbitone
hypnosis and morphine analgesia,
anticonvulsant and anti-amphetamine effects.
The pharmacological outline of action of the
extract substantiates the use of the plant fruits in
the management of mental diseases, epilepsy,
hypertension, asthma and liver diseases in the
traditional Indian systems of medicines.
Benzene, Chloroform and Acetone extracts
decreased swim stress immobility in mice
representative of some degree of antidepressant
activity
26
.
Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory activity
Ethanolic extract of the fruits of Elaeocarpus
ganitrus shows analgesic activity
30
at a dose of
100mg/kg i/p
57
. Analgesic and Anti-
inflammatory potentials of different extracts
(petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and
aqueous) of Elaeocarpus sphaericus leaves
have been evaluated by using tail flick tests in
mice and carrageenan-induced paw oedema
(inflammation) in rats respectively. The methanol
and aqueous extract of Elaeocarpus sphaericus
leaves at all doses (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) showed
significant percentage inhibition of oedema at
3rd hr of treatment when compared with control
group but maximum percentage inhibition of
oedema at dose 200 mg/kg (i.e. 46.21% and
41.66%) for both extracts. Analgesic activity was
also confers by significant increase in tail flick
response with the methanol and aqueous extract
of E. sphaericus leaves at 100 mg/kg
concentration. Methanolic and aqueous extract
of E. sphaericus leaves at dose 200 mg/kg
showed inhibitory effect on carrageenan induced
inflammation. It may be due to inhibition of the
enzyme cyclooxygenase leading to inhibition of
prostaglandin synthesis
58
. Prostaglandins (PGs)
participate in the development of the second
phase of inflammatory reaction which is
measured at 3
rd
hr
59
.
Petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform,
acetone, and ethanol extracts of Elaeocarpus
sphaericus fruits at a dose of 200 mg/kg was
studied in rat paw oedema using different
inflammogens. The petroleum ether, ethanol
extracts are effective against carrageenan,
bradykinin and PGE. The chloroform extract
showed effect against histamine. Ethanol (EE)
extract also inhibit histamine. Chloroform extract,
was mainly effective in 5-HT induced
inflammation
24
. Sequential petroleum ether (PE),
benzene (BE), chloroform (CE), acetone (AE)
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 508
and ethanol (EE) extracts (50-200 or 200 mg/kg,
ip, or 200 mg/kg, po) of dried Elaeocarpus
sphaericus fruits, pretreatment time 30-45 min,
showed considerable anti-inflammatory action
against both acute and sub-acute models,
analgesic, barbiturate-hypnosis potentiation and
antiulcerogenic activities in rats. Phytochemically
screening of the extracts showed the positive
test for glycosides, steroids, alkaloids and
flavonoids and same may confers these
medicinal potentials to plant
31
.
Stimualtion of Immune Mediators
In vitro effects of Elaeocarpus ganitrus seeds
with alkaloidal fraction (EGAF) have been
investigated on murine cells for discharge of
immune mediators and cell proliferation. The
EGAF was experienced at concentrations
ranging between 6.5-832 µg/ml. The discharge
of mediators, nitric oxide, superoxide (NBT
reduction), lysosomal and myeloperoxidase
analysed from peritoneal exudates cells (PEC).
The fraction was also investigated for cell
proliferation in sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay on
murine PEC, splenocytes and bone marrow
cells. The fraction showed significant stimulation
of NBT reduction, NO release and
myeloperoxidase activity of PEC cells.
Significant proliferation was noted in SRB assay
with PEC and bone marrow cells.
Phytohaemagglutinin, positive control, showed
stimulation of discharge of all the experienced
mediators and proliferation of immune cells.
Hence the EGAF showed in vitro stimulation of
immune mediators from PEC and proliferation of
immune cells
60
.
Antiasthmatic
The petroleum ether (PE), benzene (BE),
chloroform (CE), acetone (AE) and ethanol (EE)
extracts of Elaeocarpus sphaericus fruits were
found to encompass mast-cell stabilizing activity,
substantiating the worth of Elaeocarpus
sphaericus in bronchial asthma
31
. In another
study the petroleum ether (PE), benzene (BE),
chloroform (CE), acetone (AE) and ethanol (EE)
extracts protected guinea-pigs in opposition to
bronchospasm induced by histamine and
acetylcholine aerosols
31
.
Antiulcerogenic
Different extracts (petroleum ether, benzene,
chloroform, acetone, and ethanol) of dried
Elaeocarpus sphaericus fruit also shows
antiulcerogenic activities in rats
31
.
Other activities
Ethanolic extract of fruits show signs of sedative,
hypnotic, tranquillizing, antiepileptic,
anticonvulsive and antihypertensive properties
30
.
CONCLUSION
The widespread investigation of literature
exposed that Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. is an
imperative basis of various pharmacologically
and medicinally significant chemicals, such as
indispensable triterpenes, tannins like geraniin
and 3, 4, 5-trimethoxy geraniin, indolizilidine
alkaloids grandisines, rudrakine and flavnoids
quercitin. Different bioactive extracts prepared
from Elaeocarpus ganitrus roxb. have shown
numerous healthpromoting effects in vitro and in
vivo, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory,
analgesic, antifungal, antimicrobial, antidiabetic,
antioxidative, antihypertensive, antianxiety,
antiasthmatic and antidepressant activities.
Elaeocarpus ganitrus has been used lucratively
in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries;
investigations are called for to be attempted
towards more clinical trials to support its
therapeutic use. Eventually, it is also important to
distinguish that Elaeocarpus ganitrus may be
effective not only in isolation, but may in fact
have a potentiating effect when given in
combination with other herbs or drugs.
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 509
REFERENCES
1. Asolkar L.V., Kakkar K.K., Chakre O.J., Ed.
Second supplement to glossary of Indian
medicinal plant with active principles, Vol 1,
New Delhi: Publication and Information
Directorate, CSIR: 177, (1992)
2. Ramadurai L., The Rudraksha tree,
Conservation of Ecological Heritage and
Sacred Sites of India, 2007- 2008; 6: 2
3. Pandey G., Ed. Krishna Das Ayurvedic
series 48, Vol 3, Varanasi: Chowkhamba
Krishanadas Academy, Dravyaguna
Vijnana (Materia Medica- vegetable drugs):
261–262, (2004)
4. www.rudrakshanepal.com
5. Koul M.K., Bond with the beads. Spectrum,
India: The Tribune, 2001
6. Mukherjee P.K., Ed. Quality control herbal
drugs- An approach to evaluation of
botanicals. Vol 1, Business Horizons, New
Delhi : 137-141, (2002)
7. Evans W.C., Ed. Trease and Evans
Pharmacognosy. Vol 15, Saunders:
Elsevier: 519-521, (2009)
8. Sameja K., Rao P.S., Rao S.K., Jivani N.P.,
Pharmacognostical standardization of
Elaeocarpus ganitrus leaf. Family:
Elaeocarpaceae. Int. J Pharmacognosy
and Phytochemical Res, 4(3): 97-98, (2012)
9. Singh B., Chopra A., Ishar M.P.S., Sharma
A., Raj T., Pharmacognostic and antifungal
investigations of Elaeocarpus ganitrus
(Rudrakasha). Indian J Pharma Sci, 72(2):
261–265, (2010)
10. www.rudrakshayurveda .com
11. Evans W.C., Ed. Trease and Evans
Pharmacognosy: Alkaloids. Vol 14, Noida:
Gopsons Papers Limited: 340, (1996).
12. Evans W.C., Ed. Trease and Evans
Pharmacognosy: Carbohydrates. Vol 14,
Noida: Gopsons Papers Limited: 191,
(1996)
13. Evans W.C., Ed. Trease and Evans
Pharmacognosy: Phenols and phenolic
glycosides. Vol 14, Noida: Gopsons Papers
Limited: 218, (1996)
14. Farnsworth N.R., Biological and
phytochemical screening of plants. J Pharm
Sci, 55: 225–286, (1966)
15. Khandelwal K.R., Ed. Practical
Pharmacognosy: Preliminary
Phytochemical Screening. Vol 12. Pune:
Niralli Parkashan: 149–56, (2004)
16. Chand L., Dasgupta S., Chattopadhyay
S.K., Ray A.B., Chemical investigation of
some Elaeocarpus species. Planta Medica,
32(2): 197-199, (1977)
17. Johns S.R., Lamberton J.A., Sioumis A.A.,
Willing R.I., The alkaloids of Elaeocarpus
sphaericus. Australian J chemistry,
24(8):1679-1694, (1970)
18. Ray A.B., Dutta S.C., Dasgupta S.R., A
new alkaloid from Elaeocarpus ganitrus.
Phytochemistry, 18: 700–701, (1979)
19. Rastogi R.P., Mehrotra B.N., Ed.
Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants.
Vol 1, Publication and Information
Directorate, CDRI, Lucknow, New Delhi:
261-262, (1991)
20. Swami G., Nagpal N., Rahar S., Singh P.,
Singla S., Porwal A., Kapoor R.,
Elaeocarpus sphaericus: Medical and
scientific facts. Scholars research library,
297-306, (2010)
21. Acharya R.S., Ed. Barely: Sanskrit Institute,
Vol 1, Shiv Purana: 170, (1976)
22. http.//rudraksha.mht, retrieved on 2009-10-
05
23. Satyavati G.V., Raina M.K., Sharma M.,
New Delhi: Indian Council of Medical
Research; Medicinal Plants of India: 370–
371, (1976)
24. Singh R.K., Pandey B.L., Anti-inflammatory
activity of Elaeocarpus sphaericus fruit
extract in rats. J Med Arom Plant Sci,
21:1030–1032, (1999)
25. Katavic P.L., Venables D.A., Rali T., Carroll
A.R., Indolizidine alkaloids with delta-opioid
receptor binding affinity from the leaves of
Elaeocarpus fuscoides. J Nat Prod, 69:
1295–1299, (2007)
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 510
26. Singh R.K., Bhattacharya S.K., Acharya
S.B., Studies on extracts of Elaeocarpus
sphaericus fruits on in vitro rat mast cells.
Phytomed, 7: 205–207, (2000)
27. Sarkar P.K., Sengupta S.S., Studies with
ethylacetate extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus
seeds on mammalian heart-intact and
isolated preparations. Indian J Pharm,
4:129–137, (1972)
28. Sarkar P.K., Sengupta S.S., Bhattacharya
S.S., Effect of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb.
seeds on blood pressure. Indian J Pharma,
4: 128–135, (1972)
29. Sarkar P.K., Sengupta S.S., Bhattacharya
S.S., Further observations with
Elaeocarpus ganitrus on normal and
hypodynamic hearts. Indian J Pharm, 5:
252–258, (1973)
30. Bhattacharya S.K., Debnath P.K., Pandey
V.B., Sanyal A.K., Pharmacological
investigation on Elaeocarpus ganitrus.
Planta Medica, 28: 174-177, (1975)
31. Singh R.K., Acharya S.B., Bhattacharya
S.K., Pharmacological activity of
Elaeocarpus sphaericus. Phytother Res,
14: 36–39, (2000)
32. Dasgupta A., Agarwal S.S., Basu D.K.,
Anticonvulsant activity of the mixed fatty
acids of Elaeocarpus ganitrus roxb.
(Rudraksha). Indian J Physiol Pharmacol,
28: 245–246, (1984)
33. Singh R.K., Nath G., Antimicrobial activity
of Elaeocarpus sphaericus. Phytother Res,
13: 448–450, (1999)
34. Kumar G., Karthik L., Rao K.V.B.,
Phytochemical composition and in vitro
antimicrobial activity of Bauhinia racemosa
Lamk (Caesalpiniaceae). Int J
Pharmaceutical Sci and Res, 1(11): 51-58,
(2010)
35. Kumar G., Karthik L., Rao K.V.B., In vitro
anti-candida activity of Calotropis gigantea
against clinical isolates of Candida. J
Pharmacy Res, 3(3): 539-542, (2010)
36. Rao K.V.B., Kumar G., Karthik L.,
Antimicrobial activity of Elaeocarpus
ganitrus Roxb (Elaeocarpaceae): An in vitro
study. Elixir Bio. Tech, 40: 5384-5387,
(2011)
37. Patel R.P., Trivedi B.M., The in vitro
antibacterial activity of some medicinal oils.
Ind J Med Res, 50: 211–222, (1962)
38. Collier H.O.J., Potter M.D., Antifungal
activities of bisisoquinolinium and
bisquinolinium salts. Br J Pharmacol, 10:
343–349, (1955)
39. Newton S.M., Lau C., Gurcha S., Besra
G.S., Wright C.W., The evaluation of forty
three plant species for in vitro
antimycobacterial activities; isolation of
active constituents from Psoralea coryfolia
and Sanguinaria canadenes. J
Ethnopharmacol, 79: 57–67, (2002)
40. Bharati kumar V.M., Satish kumar T.,
Shanmugam S., Palvannan T., Evaluation
of antioxidant properties of Elaeocarpus
ganitrus leaves. Iranian J Pharmaceutical
Res, 7(3): 211-215, (2008)
41. Bing L., Shun Liu W., Qin Han B., Yun Sun
Y., Antidiabetic effect of chitosan
oligosaccharide on pancreatic islet cells in
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. World
Journal of Gastroenterol, 13(5): 725-731,
(2007)
42. Rao K.S., Rao O.U., Aminabee S.K., Rao
C.H.R., Rao A.L., Hypoglycemic and
antidiabetic potential of Chitosan aqueous
extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus. Int J Res.
Pharmacy and Chem, 2(2): 428-441, (2012)
43. Hule A.K., Shah A.S., Gambhire M.N.,
Juvekar A.R., An evaluation of the
antidiabetic effects of Elaeocarpus ganitrus
in experimental animals. Indian J
Pharmacol, 43(1): 56-59, (2011)
44. Mohamed A.K., Bierhaus A., Sciekofer S.,
Trischler H., Zeigler H., Nawroth P.P., The
role of oxidative stress and NF (B)
activation in late diabetic complications.
Biofactors, 10: 175-179, (1999)
45. Porchezhian E., Ansari S.H., Shreedharan
N.K., Antihyperglycemic activity of
Euphrasia officinale leaves. Fitoterapia, 71:
522-526, (2000)
46. Chattopadhyay R.R., Bandyopadhyay M.,
Effects of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on
Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014 Jan; 5(1): (P) 495 - 511
This article can be downloaded from www.ijpbs.net
P - 511
serum lipid profile changes in normal and
streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Afr J
Biomed Res, 8:101-104, (2005)
47. Sarma J.K., Bhuyan G.C., Koley J., Maity
L.N., Naikwadi V.B., An experimental
evaluation of the effect of Rudrakasha
(Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb.) in adrenaline
and nicotine induced hypertension. Ancient
Science of Life, 23(4): 1-10, (2004)
48. Sakat S.S., Wankhede S.S., Juvekar A.R.,
Mali V.R., Bodhankar S.L., Antihypertensive
effect of aqueous extract of Elaeocarpus
ganitrus Roxb. seeds in renal artery
occluded hypertensive rats. International
Journal of PharmTech Res, 1(3): 779-782,
(2009)
49. Luo X.D., Basile M.J., Kennelly E.J.,
Polyphenolic antioxidants from the fruits of
Chrysophyllum cainito L. (star apple). J
Agric Food Chem, 50: 1379-1382, (2002)
50. Rauniyar G.P., Sharma M., Evaluation of
anxiolytic effect of Elaeocarpus ganitrus in
mice. Health Renaissance, 10(2): 108-112,
(2012)
51. Rabbani M., Wright E.J., Little H.J.,
Tolerance to competitive NMDA
antagonists, but no cross tolerance with
barbiturates. Pharmacol Biochem Behav,
50: 9-15, (1995)
52. Mimura M., Namiki A., Kishi R., Ikeda T.,
Miyake H., Antagonistic effect of
physostigmine on ketamine-induced
anesthesia. Psychopharmacology (Berl),
102(3): 399-403, (1990)
53. Soderpalm B., Hjorth S., Engel J.A., Effects
of 5HT1A receptor agonists and L-5-HTP in
Montgomery’s conflict test. Pharmacol
Biochem Behav, 32: 259-265, (1989)
54. Ramos A., Berton O., Mormede P.,
Chaouloff F. A multiple-test study of
anxiety-related behaviors in six inbred rat
strains. Behav Brain Res, 85:57-69, (1997)
55. Shah G., Shri R., Mann A., Rahar S.,
Panchal V., Anxiolytic effects of
Elaeocarpus sphaericus fruits on the
elevated plus-maze model of anxiety in
mice. Int J Pharmtech Res, 2(3): 1781-
1786, (2010)
56. Singh B., Sharma A., Ishar M.P.S.,
Antianxiety Investigations of Centaurea
behen Linn. and Elaeocarpus ganitrus
Roxb. J Pharmacy Res, 5(3): 1483-1486,
(2012)
57. Almeida R.N., Navarro D.S., Barbosa-Filho
J.M., Plants with central analgesic activity.
Phytomedicine, 8: 310-322, (2004)
58. Nain J., Garg K., Dhahiya S., Analgesic and
Anti-inflammatory activity of Elaeocarpus
sphaericus leaf extract. Int J Pharm Pharm
Sci, 4(1): 379-381, (2012)
59. Di R., Willoughby D.A., Screens for anti-
inflammatory drugs. J Pharm Pharmacol,
23: 297-298, (1971)
60. Hule A.K., Juvekar A.R., Effect of alkaloidal
fraction of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb.
seeds on murine in vitro immune
parameters. J Pharmacy Res, 2: 1261-
1265, (2009)
... Rudraksha bead or Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Roxb.) is a reverent plant based therapeutic agent with spiritual and holistic importance in traditional system of medicine since time immemorial (Joshi and Jain, 2014;Naresh et al., 2003). Being a member of the Elaeocarpaceae family, around 360 species of Elaeocarpus have been reported worldwide, out of which 25 species are found in India (Gangetic plains and Himalayan regions) (Joshi and Jain, 2014) . ...
... Rudraksha bead or Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Roxb.) is a reverent plant based therapeutic agent with spiritual and holistic importance in traditional system of medicine since time immemorial (Joshi and Jain, 2014;Naresh et al., 2003). Being a member of the Elaeocarpaceae family, around 360 species of Elaeocarpus have been reported worldwide, out of which 25 species are found in India (Gangetic plains and Himalayan regions) (Joshi and Jain, 2014) . Further, 21 types of Rudraksha bead are available that are categorized based upon the presence of the number of natural grooves (thin vertical lines) or Mukhi's present on its surface (Hardainiyan et al., 2015). . ...
Full-text available
Article
Rudraksha bead or Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Roxb.) is a reverent plant based therapeutic agent with spiritual and holistic importance in traditional system of medicine since time immemorial. While multifarious pharmacological properties of Rudraksha beads have been reported against a range of chronic disorders, evidences about its compositional characteristics are highly superficial. The present study aims to quantify the biochemical, phytochemicals, functional groups, and elemental characteristics of three, four, and five Mukhi Rudraksha (3MR, 4MR, and 5MR) beads. Biochemical analysis encompasses quantification of total carbohydrates, total proteins, and crude fat content. Phytochemical analysis was performed to quantify alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, tannins, and terpenoids. Identification of functional groups was carried out through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer and UV spectrophotometer. Elemental analysis was performed using CHNSO analyzer. One Way ANOVA with Posthoc Multiple Tukeys test was used for statistical analysis. Significant differences were obtained in all the biochemical, phytochemicals, functional groups, and elemental components among 3MR, 4MR, and 5MR. Future studies are warranted to identify the active biomarkers in different Mukhi Rudraksha that will add new therapeutic candidates in the ever-growing number.
... Antimicrobial activity was investigated from E ganitrus leaves aqueous extract versus clinically isolated bacteria and fungi by using agar well diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar and Sabouraud Dextrose agar and the outcome shown the potential of E.ganitrus leaves for the antimicrobial compounds development [4]. An attempt was made to compile the several features of E ganitrus regarding botanical, phytochemical, ethno-medicinal and pharmacological [5]. Olden mythological, medicinal and spiritual aspects of Rudraksha on the base of modern days science was explained in the review [6]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Roxb.) known as Rudraksh belonging to the family of Elaeocarpaceae. The present investigation deals with the effects of plant growth regulators on callus initiation of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (E. ganitrus). For the present study leaves, stem cuttings were collected from the tree as explants source and cultured on different media such as MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium, Anderson medium and WPM (Woody Plant Medium). Plant growth regulators (PGRs) were taken at different concentrations either alone or in combination along with the addition of different antioxidants like Ascorbic acid, Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Citric acid in the medium. Initiation of callus was observed on several concentrations of PGRs. In the present study 2,4-D with concentration of 2mgL-1 was found best for callus initiation and multiplication. Leaf as explant source and MS medium were observed to be the best for callus initiation.
... In Ayurveda, wearing the bead of rudraksha has a positive effect on health and nerves (Pandey et al., 2014). It has its popularity due to its utilization for treatment of various diseases since ancient times (Joshi and Jain, 2014;Hakiman and Maziah, 2014). For instance, the leaves help in treating fever, diabetes, heart problems, headaches, mental disorders, fever, chickenpox as well as other ailments. ...
Full-text available
Article
Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Rudraksha) and Ficus religiosa (Peepal) are the two different indigenous and religious plants found in Nepal. These plants are rich in antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was done to determine the antioxidants, anti-microbial properties, as well as to analyze the various phytochemicals found in the methanolic extracts of leaves of the sampled plants. The Antioxidants levels were determined by the DPPH Scavenging Assay. The methanolic extracts of the plants showed antioxidant properties i.e., 98.01 and 122.3 µg/ml for Rudraksha and Peepal, respectively. Likewise, the Antibiotic Susceptibility test was performed by Well-Diffusion assay in Mueller Hinton agar (MHA) plates. The zone of inhibition against the Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus) bacterial isolates were observed, supporting the antimicrobial activity of the plant. Additionally, various qualitative tests were performed for determining the presence/absence of the phytochemicals. Both Peepal and Rudraksha extracts gave positive tests for Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Cyclic glycosides, volatile oils, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, anthraquinone, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, and reducing sugars, and phenols. Likewise, Saponins were found to be positive only in Peepal extracts with negative result for Phlabotannins and proteins. Thus, this research will help for utilizing the two religiously important plants i.e. Rudraksha and Peepal, for further researches in the medical field and preparation of various ayurvedic medicines.
... In Ayurveda, wearing the bead of rudraksha has a positive effect on health and nerves (Pandey et al., 2014). It has its popularity due to its utilization for treatment of various diseases since ancient times (Joshi and Jain, 2014;Hakiman and Maziah, 2014). For instance, the leaves help in treating fever, diabetes, heart problems, headaches, mental disorders, fever, chickenpox as well as other ailments. ...
Full-text available
Article
Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Rudraksha) and Ficus religiosa (Peepal) are the two different indigenous and religious plants found in Nepal. These plants are rich in antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was done to determine the antioxidants, anti-microbial properties, as well as to analyze the various phytochemicals found in the methanolic extracts of leaves of the sampled plants. The Antioxidants levels were determined by the DPPH Scavenging Assay. The methanolic extracts of the plants showed antioxidant properties i.e., 98.01 and 122.3 µg/ml for Rudraksha and Peepal, respectively. Likewise, the Antibiotic Susceptibility test was performed by Well-Diffusion assay in Mueller Hinton agar (MHA) plates. The zone of inhibition against the Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus) bacterial isolates were observed, supporting the antimicrobial activity of the plant. Additionally, various qualitative tests were performed for determining the presence/absence of the phytochemicals. Both Peepal and Rudraksha extracts gave positive tests for Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Cyclic glycosides, volatile oils, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, anthraquinone, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, and reducing sugars, and phenols. Likewise, Saponins were found to be positive only in Peepal extracts with negative result for Phlabotannins and proteins. Thus, this research will help for utilizing the two religiously important plants i.e. Rudraksha and Peepal, for further researches in the medical field and preparation of various ayurvedic medicines.
... Rudraksha seeds are also known as Rudraksh and these are the dried seeds of a tree that only grows in a few places. Rudraksha (Elaeocarpus ganitrus) plant is a 50-200-foot-tall huge gigantic plant 12, 13 . Depending on the area and the type of weather, this tree can reach a height of 14.60 meters to 29.20 meters. ...
Full-text available
Article
Electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) are indefinable regions of energy that are often referred to as Radiation and are linked to the use of electricity as well as various natural and man-made phenomena. Due to continuous exposure to Unexplained and negative EMF, people experienced stress, anxiety, Hypoxia, and even long-term exposure result in Cancer to patients. On the other hand, Rudraksha seeds are globally known as electromagnetic seeds due to their positive electromagnetic healing effect. This research was conducted to find the consequence of the Negative EMF effect on human pulse rate and Oxygen carrying capacity in blood and the use of Rudraksha to study cut off harmful effect of negative EMF by this Electromagnetic property. This topic constitutes a new domain with the largely unstudied potential of Rudraksha seeds shielding effect on Unexplained Negative Electromagnetic Radiation. Keywords: EMF, Rudraksha, electromagnetic seeds, human pulse rate, Oxygen carrying capacity, Negative Electromagnetic Radiation.
Article
Studies on flower visitors and potential pollinating insects of Elaeocarpus angustifolius Bl., the Rudraksha plant from India have been carried out for the first time. A total of 19 species belonging to order Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Hemiptera were recorded as visitors of the flowers or pollinating insects. These include 4 species of bees, 2 species of ants, 02 species of moths, 10 species of butterflies and 1 species of bug. Species of honey bees mainly Apis cerana indica and Apis florae and butterfly species like Rapala nissa nissa and Rapala varuna were assumed as the putative pollinating insects of Rudraksha plant under cultivation, while other insects were considered as flower visitors.
Article
The paper reports abnormalities in fruits of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. ex G.Don observed in the planted trees.
Article
The Rudraksha beads are traditionally used as prayer beads in Hinduism (especially Shaivism) throughout India. Apart from the religious importance, medicinal, bio-magnetic and electrical properties of the Rudraksha beads have also been reported. This commodity is in high demand from the devotees across the world. Therefore, this is in trade throughout the country and abroad. The recent trends in import and export of Rudraksha beads in India have been described in the present article, considering scant publications on this aspect.
Article
Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. ex G. Don (Syn. E. angustifolius Bl., E. sphaericus (Gaertn.) K. Schum.) occurs naturally in various parts of India and elsewhere in the world. The plant has poor regeneration in the wild and has been reported as a threatened species in the north-eastern region of India. This plant, known as Rudraksha in India, has been considered very sacred and pious for devotees in Hinduism. As, only limited studies have been carried out on morphometrics of the endocarp, seed and embryo of this species, therefore, the required studies on these aspects including detection of seed presence within the endocarp through X-Ray imaging were carried out and reported in the present article. Findings of the study will be helpful in correct identification of this important species and also in making comparison in case of infrageneric classification and grouping of various Elaeocarpus species within Ganitrus Group (Group V, sub group A).
Full-text available
Article
The present study was carried out in an attempt to study the pharmacognostical characteristics of the leaves of Elaeocarpus ganitrus, Family: Elaeocarpaceae, commonly called as "Rudraksh". Rudraksh beads have been used since ancient times as an adornment to ward off evil spirits and omens.
Full-text available
Article
Effects of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on serum lipid profile changes in normal and streptozotocin - induced diabetic rats have been studied with a view to elucidate its possible effect on cardiovascular disease induced by hyperglycemia. It was observed that A. indica leaf extract significantly reduced the total cholesterol, LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and total lipids of serum in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats but HDL-cholesterol levels remained unchanged when compared with streptozotocin- induced diabetic control animals. African Journal of Biomedical Research Vol. 8(2) 2005: 101-104
Article
The Methanolic extract of Elaeocarpus sphaericus fruits at the dose of 200 mg/kg increased the percentage of time-spent and the percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and decreased the percentage of time-spent in the closed arms of EPM. Moreover, it prolonged the ketamine-induced latency to sleep but had no significant effects on total sleeping time induced by ketamine. Also, the locomotor activity was affected but not to the same extent as observed for diazepam. The anxiolytic effects of methanol extract Elaeocarpus sphaericus fruits may be related to their content of flavonoids. This study validates the traditional use of the plant in management of anxiety.
Article
In this study, we evaluated petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extract of Elaeocarpus sphaericus leaves for analgesic and anti-inflammatory potentials using carrageenan-induced paw oedema (inflammation) in rats and tail flick tests in mice. The methanol and aqueous extract of Elaeocarpus sphaericus leaves at all doses (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) showed significant (p<0.05) percentage inhibition of oedema at 3rd hr of treatment when compared with control group but maximum percentage inhibition of oedema at dose 200mg/kg (ie. 46.21% and 41.66%) for both extracts. While the standard drug Diclofenac sodium (5mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of oedema at 3rd hr of treatment is 49.40%. For analgesic activity it is also concluded that the methanol and aqueous extract of Elaeocarpus sphaericus leaves at dose 100 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.05) increase in tail flick response. Therefore, it can be inferred that the inhibitory effect of methanolic and aqueous extract at dose 200 mg/kg of Elaeocarpus sphaericus leaves on carrageenan induced inflammation may be due to inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase leading to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis.
Article
From the leaves of Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn.) K. Schum., seven isomeric alkaloids of molecular formula, C16H21NO2, have been isolated. Two of the alkaloids are identical with (-)-isoelaeocarpiline and (+)- elaeocarpiline previously isolated from E. dolichostylis. Complete structures and absolute configurations have now been determined for the two previously known alkaloids (1) and (6), and for the five new- alkaloids (4), (8), (10), (11), and (12), and a study has been made of the products obtained by sodium borohydride reduction of some of the isomeric alkaloids. The previously known Elaeocarpus alkaloids, elaeocarpidine, (±)-elaeo-carpine, and (±)-isoelaeocarpine have also been isolated from E. sphaericus.
Article
Ethanolic extract of leaves of Elaeocarpus ganitrus was analyzed for their total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, metal chelating, ABTS + (2, 2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) radical scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The extract at 500 μg/ml showed maximum Iron chelating activity (76.70%) followed by the scavenging of the ABTS + radical (55.77%) at the same concentration. However, the extract showed only moderate hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (13.43%). Total antioxidant capacity was found to be 24.18 mg ascorbic acid equivalents at 500 µg/ml extract concentration. There was a positive correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, R 2 = 0.8547, whereas the correlation between the total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity was determined to be R 2 =0.8413. The results suggest that phenolics and flavonoids in the leaves provide substantial antioxidant activity.