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The Phenomenology of Perception

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Abstract

First published in 1945, Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s monumental Phénoménologie de la perception signalled the arrival of a major new philosophical and intellectual voice in post-war Europe. Breaking with the prevailing picture of existentialism and phenomenology at the time, it has become one of the landmark works of twentieth-century thought. This new translation, the first for over fifty years, makes this classic work of philosophy available to a new generation of readers.

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... As the person with diabetes gets in the habit of using a blood glucose metre, the device becomes "a bodily auxiliary" (Merleau-Ponty, 1945/2002, and "an instrument" (Merleau-Ponty, 1945/2002 to help the person perceive their body. When the person becomes able to understand the fluctuation of their blood sugar levels through the use of that instrument, they become able to identify when various blood sugar levels occur. ...
... As the person with diabetes gets in the habit of using a blood glucose metre, the device becomes "a bodily auxiliary" (Merleau-Ponty, 1945/2002, and "an instrument" (Merleau-Ponty, 1945/2002 to help the person perceive their body. When the person becomes able to understand the fluctuation of their blood sugar levels through the use of that instrument, they become able to identify when various blood sugar levels occur. ...
... As the person with diabetes gets in the habit of using a blood glucose metre, the device becomes "a bodily auxiliary" (Merleau-Ponty, 1945/2002, and "an instrument" (Merleau-Ponty, 1945/2002 to help the person perceive their body. When the person becomes able to understand the fluctuation of their blood sugar levels through the use of that instrument, they become able to identify when various blood sugar levels occur. ...
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Aim We aimed to survey the findings of phenomenological studies built up in the field of diabetes care in Sweden. Design This is a meta-synthesis of phenomenological studies on experiences related to diabetes in Sweden focusing on learning to live with diabetes. Method We proceeded by reference to the seven phases of Noblit & Hare. Results We examined papers from seven phenomenological studies on learning to live with diabetes in Sweden. From the papers, which describe the experience of living with diabetes, three overarching themes were selected—perception and awareness of the body; integration and responsibility; and presence of others who provide support. From those describing the expert’s experience, an overarching theme emerged—encouraging reflection in persons with diabetes. We interpreted each of these themes in phenomenological terms and compared them with theories in Japan. Persons with diabetes take responsibility for coping with a range of things brought on by the illness and learn to live with diabetes. Experts support these persons so they can see their world objectively and critically scrutinize it. By building a model of diabetes care in Japan that references Scandinavian human science, it will be possible to find new approaches that support learning at the existential level.
... Sheets-Johnstone situates the recursive formation and adaptation of kinetic melodies in opposition to Merleau-Ponty's 'habit body' (Merleau-Ponty, 2002), which she argues implies the development of fixed internalised understandings of movement, replayed similarly in each new context. This is a conceptually similar viewpoint to traditional models of craft enskillment based on repeated habits rather than continual adaptation to entangled contexts. ...
... This seemingly proposes a troubling of the boundaries of human and non-human common to New Materialist philosophical stances (for more detail, see Chapter 3) and Karen Barad's treatise on touch as a means of experiencing and interrogating otherness (Barad, 2012), rather than the ontological prioritisation of the human found in phenomenology. However, the authors later discuss the inhabiting of a non-human as a way to relationally construct the perceiving subject through existing as both subject and object, after Merleau-Ponty (2002). In this sense, the subject and object remain defined even when brought into relation. ...
... A specific sensory experience is impossible to create without rendering these things present in the phenomena of touch during garment prototyping, so should any be prioritised? Merleau-Ponty (2002) further considers that consciousness is extended into the world, assuming that to be conscious confers ontological significance. I argue that things without consciousness are equally critical to a perceived, felt experience. ...
Thesis
At a time of rapid digital transition in garment design industries and education, this thesis ethnographically documents garment designers’ use of touch and its role in meaning-making and understanding during garment prototyping. A novel diffractive ethnographic attention is utilised to attune to differing aspects of touch and felt experience, revealing the significance of the felt, kinaesthetic awareness of the moving body to garment prototyping. Further demonstrating that designers relate felt histories of material entanglement with their moving bodies to their contemporary experience. Development of felt histories is thus identified as a key means of designers’ enskillment, alongside moments of overlooked and informal skills sharing. A socio-material perspective informed by New Materialism is adopted to foreground the critical role of designers’ entanglement with non-human things in structuring their felt experience and deriving meaning from it. Significantly, this thesis demonstrates that sensations are perceived beyond the conventionally defined body in and through entangled tools and materials and that sensations are socio-materially mutable and can be altered by peers directing designers to touch and feel in particular ways. This problematises current haptic technologies, which simulate touch at physical and virtual boundaries. The ethnographic data is supplemented by two workshop studies facilitating garment designers to engage with prototypical digital touch technologies, enabling speculation on future digital touch tools more relevant to garment prototyping. The thesis analytically discusses differing theoretical stances on non-human agency in design and making and their implications for digital touch tools. It concludes by proposing a theoretical Framework of Garment Designers’ Felt Enskillment and making recommendations for the design of digital touch interfaces for garment prototyping. The findings of the thesis contribute to the fields of HCI, design and education, deepening academic understandings of designers’ sensory experience and the impact of digital processes, potentially informing future technology development.
... This is an interesting point may be useful for self-perceptual or hypothesis testing clarification but is not what we are looking for in phenomenological research. Merleau-Ponty (1962) points out the usefulness of the phenomenological attitude in that it allows us to be a perpetual beginner, to break with the world in order to grasp the world, to see at its centre, the lived-through life, existence. I know that I cannot wipe clean my mind of all my experience, but I can adopt a different attitude towards that which I want to examine as Ricoeur (1985, p26) states the phenomenological attitude and the reduction "does not suppress anything at all; it is confined to the redirecting of our gaze, without losing sight of what is bracketed." ...
... A memory only comes into existence or recalled when subjectivity is imposed into the abundance of experience. The source of the memory can always be traced back to the present (Merleau-Ponty, 1962) and that is because we carry our past with us always. ...
... The body has depth and density, we feel things in the body, even that which feels superficial is felt within (Casey, 2000). The body is a prerequisite for any experience of my own, it cannot be removed and always provides us with perspective, even in memory (Merleau-Ponty, 1962), my past is embodied and is always available to me. I could not have my "surprised by a dear" memory without the centrality of my body running and suddenly stopping. ...
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This article is about the phenomenological orientation to the phenomenological interview. It identifies the necessary orientation for a researcher including including being-with, typification, empathy, temporality and remembering.
... This is critiqued by researchers who have identified that less noisy senses like smell and touch are known for driving perceptions and behaviours in a phenomena known as affective ventriloquism (Sheldon & Arens, 1932;Spence & Gallace, 2011). Architectural theorists, Merleu-Ponty and Pallasmaa, also address the power of multi-sensory experiences in architecture, and state that they are lifeenhancing and mediate our reconciliation with the world (Montagu, 1971;Merleau-Ponty, 2002;Pallasmaa, 2012Pallasmaa, , p. 50, 2014. Furthermore, they critique architecture's uni-modal creative exploration which prioritises sight, and disregards holistic experiences and the effects of crossmodal correspondences (Williams, 1980, p. 5;Porteous, 1990, p. 201). ...
... Additionally, disequilibrium disrupts and repairs us mentally, as surfacing from immersion in other matters ensures "my body remembers who I am and where I am placed in the world" (Greenberg, 1947;Pallasmaa, 2014, p. 34). Other theories state that touch and tactile sensibility is able to engage and unite us with the world, creating a sense of being "here" (Merleau-Ponty, 2002;Pallasmaa, 2012Pallasmaa, , p. 48, 2014Ratcliffe, 2013, p. 1;R. Smith, 2014, p. 3) . ...
Thesis
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Mycelium bio-composites’ temporality, and material-meaning, provide architecture a novel solution for both resource and well-being crises. New materialist, growing design practices offer an opportunity to realise mycelium bio-composites’ full holistic potential by acknowledging the evocation of meaning by materials’ senso-aesthetics and their ability to generate positive perceptions and favour. This research employs a growing design framework in its endeavour to understand the role of perception, disgust, and other barriers to the uptake of mycelium bio-composites in architecture. Adaptive digital and analogue design methods were utilised to engage this biological organism’s agency and the uncertainties that co-creating with it entails. A tinkering process helped to understand the behaviours and ideal growth conditions of mycelium and produced a materials library of mycelium bio-composites; its reception defined the trajectory of this thesis. Disgust was identified as a potential barrier to mycelium bio-composites in an industry tethered to industrial standardisation and an expectation for permanence. Existing mycelium bio-composite, and innovation diffusion, research is limited by their collective cognitive focus on production and technical performance. This research acknowledges the influence of emotions on decision-making, through its investigation into how multi-sensory, meaningful materials experiences affect consumer perceptions and decision-making. It conducts a material experience study using survey and video observation methods to understand early adopters’ subjective experiences of mycelium bio-composites. The study confirmed disgust and mycelium bio-composites’ temporality as potential barriers to industry uptake. The key finding, however, was the reported influence of touching mycelium bio-composites on decision-making, as well as its psychophysiological benefits: to calm; and to stimulate. An opportunity to present these results to industry representatives at the NZIA Design Awards was hindered by covid restrictions that necessitated a virtual presentation. The inability to share the physicality of the material, and its emotive influence, confirmed the limitations of a fundamentally occularcentric industry, whose material representation is predominantly audio-visual and focused on mechanical functions. To optimise the holistic benefits of this material, further research is required to confirm and quantify this information for high-level architectural adoption. More broadly, however, it invites the architectural industry to adopt a new materialist paradigm that values and engages materials’ agency and multi-sensory, psychophysiological impacts.
... This view of an evolving selfhood is encapsulated in famous dictum, "Existence precedes essence" (Sartre, 1943(Sartre, /1956) which stresses that a person must first live and only later see what he has created, and discover how essentially that has created him. Merleau-Ponty (1945 highlights the interrelatedness of human beings to the world around them, as practically all human experience is intrinsically through the medium of the body. As I touch I am touched. ...
... Stern later elaborates on the intersubjective quality of the mother-baby bond, describing a new mother as "falling in love" (Stern, 2005, p.5) with her baby. This resonates with Merleau-Ponty's (1945 discussion of intersubjectivity and his emphasis on the body as a core condition of human experience. (2015) argues that what the medical model terms Post-Partum Depression is actually a manifestation of the practically inevitable existential crisis of motherhood. ...
... Merleau-Ponty (1945/2002 provides further resources for considering these everyday expressions of understanding, particularly around the role of the body in revealing the outside world to consciousness. While such work on embodied understanding would be valuable for a fuller articulation of the mechanics of craft learning, however, it is in the work of Heidegger that the primacy of circumspective understanding is most clearly apparent. ...
... Merleau-Ponty (1945/2002 provides further resources for considering these everyday expressions of understanding, particularly around the role of the body in revealing the outside world to consciousness. While such work on embodied understanding would be valuable for a fuller articulation of the mechanics of craft learning, however, it is in the work of Heidegger that the primacy of circumspective understanding is most clearly apparent. ...
Article
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This paper extends well-established arguments for the liberal potential of vocational education by advocating for the necessity of craft learning in a liberal education curriculum. The case for the necessity of craft learning in liberal education is established in two parts, the first looking toward Aristotle and the second toward Heidegger. First, ideas from Aristotle are employed to articulate a vision of liberal education as that which supports the performance of our characteristic human activity. The paper then splits with Aristotle to suggest that such activity is not defined by rational contemplation, but rather by the circumspective engagement with materials through which our being-in-the-world becomes apparent to us. If, as Heidegger suggests, these practical engagements demonstrate our most fundamental mode of encountering the world and one another, then any liberal education focused on the fulfillment of our potential for understanding must include some craft learning by necessity.
... Therefore, an understanding of the phenomenon, according to Heidegger, is made possible through access to the "lifeworld" of the person-in-context (Larkin et al., 2006). According to Merleau-Ponty (1962), the structures of personal experiences spread and made sense across time and space reveal the understanding of the phenomena and could be communicated through appropriate expressions. In this sense, the accounts of learner-participants reveal that the phenomena of learning Critical Food Studies course online through TAPA is informed by a sense of active involvement and increased awareness of the politics associated with food in their lived contexts and identities. ...
Article
The disengaging experiences reported in the online mode of learning have resulted in considerable deliberations highlighting the need for pedagogical innovations. Therefore, it is crucial to rethink these ideas and develop pedagogical approaches that accommodate a dynamic understanding of learning spaces and meet the demands of the teaching–learning environment of the contemporary period. This study discusses the various steps through which the task-based autoethnographic pedagogical approach (TAPA) was implemented in an undergraduate-level Critical Food Studies course and proposes it as an effective approach to administering certain courses by enabling active learning in the online mode. The study captures learners’ perceptions of meaningful online learning experiences by using an interpretative phenomenological approach, mapping the aspects that contribute to a sense of rekindled interest and involvement in the course. Some of the dominant patterns that emerge from this phenomenological study are (1) appreciation towards praxis-based online learning, (2) recognition of lived space as a ripe site for inquiry and learning, (3) a heightened sense of engagement with lived contexts, and identity discourses, (4) learners’ negotiations with TAPA, and (5) learner as an active agent and curator of knowledge. Thus, while situating TAPA as an effective pedagogical approach for online learning and Critical Food Studies curriculum, it is also posited as an approach that initiates negotiation with the epistemic hierarchies within academia.
... A similar statement, in a literary style, is in [27]. ...
Chapter
Consciousness will be introduced axiomatically, inspired by classical Buddhist insight meditation and psychology, computer science, and cognitive neuroscience, as belonging to agents that observe and act, in the form of a stream of configurations that is compound, discrete, and probabilistic-computable. Within the axiomatic context the notions of self, concentration, mindfulness, and various forms of suffering can be defined. As an application of this setup, it will be shown how a combined development of concentration and mindfulness can attenuate and eventually eradicate some major forms of suffering. The main message of this paper is that advanced mindfulness consists of knowledge of the state an agent finds itself in and can be used to defuse mental/behavioral scenarios. From the computer science point of view it is trivial that being in the position to access and modify state is powerful and enables a greater flexibility. This paper is an attempt to bridge the gap between computer science and cognitive psychology. The other explanatory gap of the hard problem (How do physics and consciousness relate?) is not discussed in this paper, but is quite possibly an extension of it.
... Embodiment was described by Dourish (2001) as an approach to understand human-artefact interaction by considering its contextual, situated, corporeal and social nature. In philosophy, Merleau-Ponty (1962) referred to the concept of embodiment to the human being as a "lived body" situated in and influenced by the physical world. These perspectives contrast with the traditional view of human cognition, which claims that thinking is abstract information processing (Newell and Simon, 1976). ...
Thesis
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This dissertation focuses on better achieving co-design of Full-Body interactive learning experiences with children and experts (teachers, museum curators, pedagogues, etc.). Hence, on the one hand, it has studies how to better design Full-Body Interaction for children in public spaces and, on the other, how to achieve a better involvement of co-designers during the design process to have their voice and vision in the final experiences. The study focuses specifically on learning experiences for public space. These non-formal learning contexts (such as museums, cultural heritage sites and theatres) are characterized by the relation of people’s behaviour in shared experiences and their interactions with socio-cultural contents that are meaningful for society. Previous research has pointed towards the benefits of the specific properties of Full-Body Interaction for shared experience in public spaces. However, methods to design with and for the body in this research area are still unexplored. To address this challenge, this thesis presents the design and analysis of three Full-Body interactive experiences. The main goal is to research techniques that promote children’s embodied awareness and focus on their expertise in movement, playfulness and socialization. This thesis proposes a set of Embodied Design Thinking qualities to understand the benefits and limitations of design techniques for Full-Body Interaction with children. On the other hand, the findings of this research lead to the definition of a preliminary Full-Body Interaction co-design method (FUBImethod). This method entails a set of clearly defined steps to help interaction designers in guiding intergenerational teams with children to understand and foster the role of the body in a Full-Body Interaction experience. This method summarizes the main outcomes of this research and represents a guideline for design and evaluation strategies in this research context.
... New perspectives on and concepts relating to the body are primarily drawn from phenomenology (Merleau-Ponty, 1996), which is a philosophical inquiry that refers to 'lived experience', although through changing approaches and definitions it has been declared to be more a way of thinking than a method. This relates to the concept of "re-learning to look at the world" by developing methods to explore interactive interfaces that place the body at the center of the process (Wilde, Vallgårda & Tomico, 2017, p. 5159). ...
Thesis
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The human body has been considered to be an active element and is a common starting point of fashion design processes. However, during these processes, understanding of the body and how it is used to design is often confined by the body’s standard spatial and structural characteristics. The research presented in this thesis aimed to examine body alternatives in fashion design processes in order to explore and open up for alternative body expressions for developing silhouettes for clothing. Alternative aesthetic approaches and understandings of the body as a design tool were researched through experimental explorations, reflections, dialogue, and discussions. These created an embodied dialogue between thought and execution which was further developed and informed by the EDI (Embodied Design Ideation) framework for analysing and refining understandings of the interactions between the body, materials, and movement. These explorations and their outcomes bridge the theory of research for the art and research for art and design. The explorations were based on the varied ways in which the body is perceived during body-material interactions, and were explored through movement, human-technology interfaces, and an exploratory workshop conducted at the Swedish School of Textiles. These explorations expanded our understanding of the body’s aesthetics in relation to material interactions and embodied experiences. The explorations questioned our preconceived conceptions of the body and facilitated a process of re-learning these through fashion design. The results of the explorations were alternative methods and tools that use the body as a central variable in fashion design. The research culminated in the development of conceptions of the body in design processes that increase the design possibilities by introducing new concepts, tools, and methods. The body alternatives developed provide an openness in terms of design thinking and introduce conceptions of the body that can facilitate or improve design practice. The results have implications for design methods and contribute to methods in general and fashion design education programmes in terms of how they facilitate design processes.
... Meaning-making [131] refers to "the process of how people construe, understand, or make sense of life events, relationships, and the self." She quotes French philosopher Merleau-Ponty [186] "we are embodied subjects and experience the world through our bodies and our senses", thus our experiences and judgements are always a part of our "being-inthe-world." Vande Moere [269], in his paper "Beyond the tyranny of the pixel", also stresses the limitations of visualising through on-screen modalities, and argues physicalisations afford properties unachievable at the desktop such as data that can be "touched, explored, carried, or even possessed." ...
Thesis
Increasingly, data scientists are starting to explore novel interaction and presentation modalities, such as Virtual Reality and Large Displays to explore and interact with data. Trends in human- computer interaction show more involvement with the tracking of the hands and body within immersive systems, making interaction and navigation more embodied and dependent on the user’s movement. Researchers are investigating how more embodied systems could benefit data scientists over their desktop counterparts, such as whether they lead to more engaging comprehensive and memorable forms of consuming data. This dissertation investigates how data scientists and explorers may navigate graph visualisations beyond-the-desktop and how they can be designed within new emerging modalities.
... We encounter embodied others not through disembodied communication but by seeing, hearing, and touching them. Intentions and feelings are conveyed not just through words but through nonverbal means, such as through gestures, facial expressions, posture, vitality, and bodily style (Merleau-Ponty, 2012;Stern, 2010). It is as embodied subjects that we find ourselves in a shared world together, able to attend to, engage and interact with the environment around us, 6 Discussions of how technology might alter or replace offline sociality presuppose that people both have access to digital technology and are suitably 'digitally literate' (Ramsetty & Adams, 2020;Tejedor et al., 2020). ...
Article
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During the Covid-19 pandemic we increasingly turned to technology to stay in touch with our family, friends, and colleagues. Even as lockdowns and restrictions ease many are encouraging us to embrace the replacement of face-to-face encounters with technologically mediated ones. Yet, as philosophers of technology have highlighted, technology can transform the situations we find ourselves in. Drawing insights from the phenomenology of sociality, we consider how digitally-enabled forms of communication and sociality impact our experience of one another. In particular, we draw attention to the way in which our embodied experience of one another is altered when we meet in digital spaces, taking as our focus the themes of perceptual access, intercorporeality, shared space, transitional spaces, and self-presentation. In view of the way in which technological mediation alters various dimensions of our social encounters, we argue that digital encounters constitute their own forms of sociality requiring their own phenomenological analysis. We conclude our paper by raising some broader concerns about the very framework of thinking about digitally and non-digitally mediated social encounters simply in terms of replacement.
... Therefore, various intervention programs grounded on specific theoretical frameworks (e.g., cognitive-behavioral theory and behavioral learning theory) have been developed and implemented. Rooted in the body-mind relationship [5][6][7][8], a growing number of body-oriented interventions have been developed in order to improve social-emotional competence. However, compared to other approaches [9,10], research on body-oriented interventions is scarce. ...
Article
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There has been a recent increase in body-oriented interventions implemented in educational contexts. Body-oriented interventions are grounded on the body–mind relationship, involving body and movement awareness and expression. In this systematic review of the literature on body-oriented interventions implemented in preschool contexts, we review the scope and quality of the quantitative evidence of each type of body-oriented intervention regarding social-emotional competence. Seven databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. Seven core body-oriented intervention programs were found (e.g., play, relaxation, and psychomotricity). Play programs were the most studied and appear to be the most effective to improve social-emotional competence. Nevertheless, the level of scientific evidence was compromised by the lack of studies with high methodological quality.
... The poetic meditation seeks to focus attention on the senses, as the first step on a path to noticing the unnoticed. This meditation can help ethnographers to prepare for data-collection practices in which the body is used as a 'sensorium', an instrument of research that is used to gather holistic data from multiple environmental sources, that include, but are not limited to the visual and textual (Merleau-Ponty, 1992;Pink, 2015). ...
Article
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How does one use one’s body in qualitative research? Poetic meditation is a technique that offers to enhance researchers’ sensory capacities and embodied practices in research. By using mindfulness practice as a means to relax and focus on sensations, scholars can prepare to embody data collection so as to encounter multiple environmental features including, but not limited to the visual and textual. So too is poetic meditation intended as a tool to help researchers to encounter mysterious moments and to refigure their surroundings in ways that explicitly reframe sensemaking and representation. This companion essay to recorded poetic meditations encourages researchers to embrace mystery as a pathway to knowledge-making, and to build confidence to creatively step outside of common linguistic and theoretical modes.
... Keeping the first research question in mind, we revisited the data chunks-quotes and statements-to obtain a description of the alternative schooling activity. We followed this procedure according to Merleau-Ponty et al.'s [67] phenomenological description. Given the subsequent research questions, we continued the data analysis following Williams and Moser's [68] coding method, which employs the processes that bring up the core themes and the essence of meanings of experiences embedded in data. ...
Article
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Given the shutdown of the schools worldwide thanks to COVID-19 pandemic hit early in 2020, there had been, for a while, a mounting global concern over continuing education and averting children’s learning loss. Paying heed to that concern, many nations across the world transitioned to online education as a wholesale alternative approach to emergency schooling. However, online schooling was no single panacea specially for those developing countries which are hardly able to meet the success conditions of online teaching and learning. This phenomenological case study describes a novel pandemic-time rural schooling activity as an alternative to the wholesale online education commonly adopted globally during the pandemic. We have theoretically based the study on the Activity Theories postulated by Vygotsky and Cole and extended by Engeström. We collected qualitative data by semistructured interviews and by gathering school documents. Following Williams and Moser’s coding method and Miles et al.’s two-cycle coding process, we analyzed the collected data. The novel schooling activity that this study found is “clustered (sub-)schools” made up of the split-ups of the regular school. The findings in detail are discussed and recommendations are made.
... Conversely, users appreciated the task of finding suitable positions for smaller sized models, that matched their described location in the story. In this way, users were guided to generate meaning from each object, relating back to ideas in Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of perception (Merleau-Ponty and Landes, 2012). Generating meaning can also be found in creating different opportunities for pretend play that has been linked to the choice of story, theming, framing, and opportunities for role-play (Deterding, 2016). ...
Article
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Immersive story experiences like immersive theater productions and escape rooms have grown in popularity in recent years, offering the audience a more active role in the events portrayed. However, many of these activities were forced to close at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, arising from restrictions placed on group activities and travel. This created an opportunity for a story experience that users could take part in around their local neighborhoods. Five mobile applications (apps) were developed toward this goal, aiming to make effective use of available local map data, alongside virtual content overlaid on users' surroundings through Augmented Reality (AR), to offer additional story features not present in the real environment. The first two apps investigated the feasibility of such an approach, including the remote field testing of the apps, where participants used their own devices across a variety of locations. Two follow-up apps further aimed to offer an improved user experience, also adopting a more standardized testing procedure, to better ensure each app was completed in an intended manner by those participating remotely. Participants rated their experience through immersion and engagement questionnaire factors that tested for their appropriateness to rate such experiences, in addition to providing their feedback. A final app applied the same AR story implementation to a curated site-specific study, once pandemic restrictions had eased. This combination of remote studies and subsequent curated study offered a reverse methodology to much previous research in this field, but was found to offer advantages in corroborating the results of the remote studies, and also in offering new insights to further improve such an AR story app, that is designed to be used at an outdoor location of the user's choosing. Such an app offers benefits to those who may prefer the opportunity to take part in such an activity solo or close to home, as well as for storytellers to develop an outside story for use at a variety of locations, making it available to a larger audience, without the challenges and costs in migrating it to different locations.
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My aim is to forge a feel for the importance of building critical understandings of common forms of engagement with disability and in this way work against the careless-care that seems to surround the ways disability-experience is managed in education. First, I discuss what this interpretive dse approach entails. Second, I narrate being in the University classroom with my dyslexic ways and counterpose this to “access statements” on course outlines which are now a common occurrence in the Canadian context. I then conduct an interpretive analysis of the meaning of disability as it appears through my personal story and these bureaucratic statements of inclusion. Despite these differing instances of inclusion, I show how both maintain the status quo of university work-life. Through a politics of wonder, this paper aims to invigorate life affirming relations where disability might figure as something other than a pharmakon for the status quo.
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The mirror is a very widespread tool in human life. It works as an optical device that recreates the image of an object placed in front of it. The relation of the human being with the mirror is very important: we find a pervasive-ness and diffusion of mirrors in everyday life, but also in stories and legends, in folklore and mythology. At a certain step of his development, the child is able to recognise himself in the reflected image of a mirror. We observe a strong cultural intra-subjective and inter-subjective recursivity in the construction of the mirroring experience as a model of truth and lie, identity and otherness, knowledge and ignorance. Starting from the debate between two semioticians-Umberto Eco and Juri Lotman-on the semiotic value of the mirror, the authors develop the topic of reflexivity as a psychic process by examining it in the light of various psychoanalytic contributions. Reflexivity and the psychodynamic relationship with one's own reflected image are developed by centralising the importance of an ongoing and deeply dialogic process between identity and otherness, continuity and transformation.
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Science, aesthetics, the body, and the concerns they attach to, such as gender, ‘race’, class, age and consumer culture, are key objects of sociological investigation. These discourses have been reignited in recent years by changes in the availability, accessibility and affordability of medicalised cosmetic procedures. The most popular of these procedures are non‐surgical ‘tweakments’ to the shape and/or appearance of the face, usually through use of ‘injectables’ such as Botox and dermal fillers. This shift in focus from surgical procedures to minimally invasive injections has led more practitioners to join the market of potential providers and a wider variety of consumers to seek them out. This has been accompanied by panic about the risks to bodies and aesthetic standards if stewardship of beauty should fall into the wrong hands. We trace the history of medicalised cosmetic practices and academic discourses on the body, particularly how cosmetic practices are understood to produce the body as gendered and racialised. We then suggest future approaches for exploring the sociological significance of new cosmetic practices. We encourage researchers to explore how imaginaries of (un)desirable bodies shape debates about appropriate use of non‐surgical cosmetic procedures, alongside investigation of the situated intersections of identity that are inscribed on bodies.
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Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating mental health condition that presently affects ~2% of the general population. Individuals with BDD experience distressing preoccupations regarding one or more perceived defects in their physical appearance. These preoccupations and perceived distortions can have a profound impact on key areas of social functioning and psychological health. Individuals’ BDD origins have not been explored in significant depth and have been, often unhelpfully, conflated with social media usage and exposure to idealistic imagery of the body. Such generalisations fail to acknowledge the complexity of BDD development and onset, highlighting the importance of moving towards an understanding of people’s implicit theories regarding their own experience. It is therefore essential to gain insight into how individuals make sense of the experiences which they believe led to the development and onset of BDD. The aim of this exploratory study was to elicit and phenomenologically analyse the accounts of individuals with lived experience of BDD in order to examine their beliefs about its origins and understand how they navigate the world with a distorted sense of self. Participants provided written and verbal accounts regarding both their BDD onset and experiences of living with the disorder. Both components of the study were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Four main themes were generated from the data: Exposure to bullying and external critique of appearance ; Experiencing rejection, shame, and a sense of not being enough ; Developing an awareness of the solidification of concerns , and Learning about and reflecting upon triggers . Participants attributed their BDD onset to adverse experiences such as childhood bullying, receiving appearance-focused criticism, rejection and being subjected to emotional and physical abuse. The findings from this study highlight the complexity of BDD development and onset in individuals, and the need for appropriate care and treatment for those affected by BDD.
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This chapter introduces the concept of “older workerhood” as the transitional space in which individuals experience the gradual and iterative move towards becoming an older worker. It locates this transition as one characterized by situated embodied experiences that operate within the context of the “older worker” being a site of inequality and discrimination. To illustrate how older workerhood manifests in a workplace setting, the chapter turns to illustrative examples from a study of growing up and older in the UK financial services sector. It documents the intensification of “body work” by employees and subsequent negotiation of their bodies within a competitive workplace context as features of older workerhood, and how “successful” transitional experiences are governed by organizational norms that are often gendered. The chapter closes by reflecting on the potential value of exploring older workerhood as a transitional space, pointing to its potential to explore the fecundity of ageing experiences at work more generally.
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The relationships between the listener, physical world, and virtual environment (VE) should not only inspire the design of natural multimodal interfaces but should be discovered to make sense of the mediating action of VR technologies. This chapter aims to transform an archipelago of studies related to sonic interactions in virtual environments (SIVE) into a research field equipped with a first theoretical framework with an inclusive vision of the challenges to come: the egocentric perspective of the auditory digital twin. In a VE with immersive audio technologies implemented, the role of VR simulations must be enacted by a participatory exploration of sense-making in a network of human and non-human agents, called actors. The guardian of such locus of agency is the auditory digital twin that fosters intra-actions between humans and technology, dynamically and fluidly redefining all those configurations that are crucial for an immersive and coherent experience. The idea of entanglement theory is here mainly declined in an egocentric spatial perspective related to emerging knowledge of the listener’s perceptual capabilities. This is an actively transformative relation with the digital twin potentials to create movement, transparency, and provocative activities in VEs. The chapter contains an original theoretical perspective complemented by several bibliographical references and links to the other book chapters that have contributed significantly to the proposal presented here.
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In my project, I have performed contemporary works and reflected upon my artistic practice in order to make the processes and insights accessible to a wider audience. This is presented in a written reflection, with the website exposition www.makingsense.no showing a shortened presentation of my artistic research project, with video and sound examples, as well as the three final artistic presentations realized in November 2017. The intention is for these three parts to complement each other, but also to be experienced separately. My project arose from lived musical experiences and from the feeling that I was working on something important in performing, for both musicians and audiences. I have throughout the project aimed at developing my musical performance and tacit knowledge, broaden and contextualize my artistic research and performances in an international context, and to contribute to new knowledge about interpretation, embodiment and presence from a performer’s perspective. My initial research question and research aims have been guides and sources of motivation throughout my project and have helped me define the parameters of my research. I have built my reflections on and around concepts related to these aims as tools for understanding and artistic development. This project develops strategies for performing contemporary music, strategies that are inspired by rhetoric performance practices, the creation of presence in performing, and how to use such practices to become a freer interpreter of contemporary music. The artistic research project is by nature a multi-faceted endeavour and has led to the creation of both several music performances, a written reflection, this project website and a CD. The project created an intriguing laboratory setting in which my contemporary music performance could be continually thought and reworked. The title Making Sense refers to my intention to create an embodied feeling of sense through my performances both for performer and listener, without a logocentric meaning ((Deleuze, G.(1990). (C. V. Boundas, Trans.) The logic of sense. London: Athlone Press.)). Initial research question: How can I perform contemporary classical music to communicate more directly with the listener, by working with presence as a performer, and using prosody (the melody and rhythm of the language) as an inspiration for performance? My main research aims have been: to explore different methods for reaching an intensified presence in performing. to describe the process of learning and performing a musical work – both physically and mentally thus using and documenting a reflective practitioner approach to musical experience. to create new understandings about practice with particular attention to contemporary music. I see presence in performance as a special quality, which I discuss further in my written reflection, which you can download here as a pdf: makingSense Writing gives an explicit verbal account of the implicit knowledge and understanding embodied in artistic practices and products, while at the same time art may escape or go beyond what can be expressed by words and resist (academic) conventions of accountability. In my work this part of the reflection is answered through my performances, but I find that writing is actually also an important part of my development as an artist, since thoughts become clearer in the process of explaining and describing. My writing communicates my reflections on working with artistic development. Language has become a key to communicate the thoughts and processes of a performative inquiry, as conceptualized by Lynn Fels, Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Education at Simon Fraser University in Canada. My reflections have been developed from a performer’s perspective; I have worked with both embodied knowing with my instrument and cognitively with interpretation and the performer’s development. Most music research has previously been written from the listener’s perspective: that of the musicologist, the critic-analyst and the audience. According to philosopher Lydia Goehr, research from the performer’s perspective, “inside-knowing”, rather than knowledge, remains undertheorized ((Goehr, L. (1998). The quest for voice: on music, politics, and the limits of philosophy : the 1997 Ernest Bloch lectures. Oxford: Oxford University Press)). Since the 1990s however there has been increasing attention of performative aspects and performance of music, from both musicologists and artistic researchers ((Abbate, C. (2004). Music-Drastic or Gnostic? Critical Inquiry, 30(3), 505-536. doi:10.1086/421160))((Gabrielsson, A. (1999). Studying Emotional Expression in Music Performance. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 47-53)) ((Le Guin, E. (2006). Boccherini’s Body : An Essay in Carnal Musicology. Berkeley, California: University of California Press)) ((Vincent, M. (2011). Moving to Become Better: The Embodied Performance of Musical Groove. Journal for Artistic Research(1).doi:10.22501/jar.11612)). The Society of Artistic Research, SAR, founded in 2010, has created the Research Catalogue, a database for archiving artistic research, and Journal of Artistic Research, where one can find increasing numbers of performative inquiries. A recent example is the project called “The Reflective Musician” at the Norwegian Academy of Music, led by Darla Crispin and Håkon Austbø. Their project aimed to “transcend the conformity in musical performance.” Austbø claimed that introspection may be on the rise, stating that “Thanks, in part, to developments within Performance Studies and Artistic Research, more musicians are beginning to look under the surface of their activity, searching for the deeper forces at play in the works they perform” (Austbø & Crispin, 2016). Austbø and Crispin also calls for the criteria of a personal and unique performance to be valued higher than the performer’s knowledge of a given composer’s intentions, the adherence to a particular style, musical structure, historic rules, correct notes — and any other dimension that amounts to following the dominant tradition. “The Reflective Musician” sheds light on this particular dilemma in music from several eras, and on suggestions as to possible solutions. In my project, I studied these questions through one performer, myself, and give a reflective account of the lived experience of developing as a performer while broadening my knowledge through artistic research. My study accounts for the specific ways in which meaning is created as interaction between performer, embodiment, and audience, and opens up space for a more subjective type of reflection than traditional scientific research allows for. With this in mind, I could say that I have attempted to explore the world of musical performance rather than explain it. This artistic research project has been inspired by music- as-speech. I aim to develop a more internally controlled playing, and to use affects as a sort of artistic “raw” material for expression, in other words, to develop “the psychophysical musician”((Zarrilli, P. B. (2009). Psychophysical acting : an intercultural approach after Stanislavski. London: Routledge.)). When I talk about affects I see them as autonomous intensities in the body, independent of our conscious self and happening before our feelings ((Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1987). A thousand plateaus : capitalism and schizophrenia. Minneapolis, Minn: University of Minnesota Press.)). I think of the embodied affects in the music as being not the actual notes on the score nor the personal feelings of the performer, but rather a use of the raw material in ourselves in the interpretation of the music. Jane O’Dea describes it as: ”[…] not their own personal emotions, but the expressive content enshrined in the score” (O’Dea, 2000, p. 57). As the performer I am not trying to add my feelings to the expressions of the music, but use these embodied affects as a resource in the performance. I outline, explain and show a means by which this can be realized. In order to do this, I open the space before and after the musical performance through reflection on the complex process of preparing a work for concert: from practice, rehearsals, and musical analysis of the works, to what happens during the performance. I hope to awaken an interest in both performer and listener of contemporary art music with respect to the musician’s role and the psychophysical inner work of the musical performer. Finally, as a part of the final artistic presentation is the CD-recording Khipukamayuk with three works by Lene Grenager, (Øra Fonogram, 2016) displaying selected works by the same composer with whom I have worked during this project. The project concluded with three concerts in November 2017 presenting Nils Henrik Asheim’s Cellostories, Tryllesangen by Lene Grenager, To F by Maja Solveig Kjelstrup Ratkje, Many Thousands Gone, commissioned work for cello and voice by Ellen Lindquist, one movement from Concertino piccolo per violoncello et voce by Eirik Hegdal and Karin Rehnqvist’s In Orbit as well as Ulvedrømmer, by Lene Grenager and myself. I can utilize my reflections to move beyond and to acquire a deeper insight into the questions of interpretation, tacit knowledge and presence in performance. My intention is also to deepen my process of reflection through writing, and to explore how what I found on the way, might be fruitful for the project.
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