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Abstract

Objective: Hyperlipidemia is a known complication of diabetes mellitus and predisposes to coronary heart disease. The lowering of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol should reduce the incidence of coronary disease. The aim of the present study was to examine the antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) leaves in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, diabetic and diabetic rats treated with the extract of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Diabetic rats received the watercress extract daily in drinking water for 4 weeks since the day after diabetes confirmation. The levels of serum glucose and lipids were spectrophotometrically measured in all groups at weeks 0 (before diabetes induction), 2 and 4. Results: There was a significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDLcholesterol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, accompanied by a decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. The treatment of diabetic rats with hydroalcoholic extract of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) leaves over a 4-week period significantly reduced serum glucose, total cholesterol and LDLcholesterol in comparison with diabetic untreated rats. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that a 4-week treatment with watercress extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. This implies that the consumption of watercress leaves can be helpful in reducing the complications of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia associated with diabetes. © 2015, Association of Physiologists and Pharmacologists of India. All Rights Reserved.

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... Extracts of WC Phenolics (quercetin and kaempferol glycosides) [13] caffeoylmalic acid [14] Hydroxycinnamic acids (chlorogenic and caffeic acids) [9] Isorhamnetin and rutin [12] Isothiocyanates (MSO and PEITC) [15] Carotenoids (lutein and ß-carotene) [16] 0047lucosinolates [17] Oil of WC flowers limonene, p-cymene-8-ol, α-terpinolene, and caryophyllene oxide [5] Stems of WC Caryophyllene oxide, α -terpinolene, p-cymene-8-ol, and limonene [5] Oil of WC leaves Myristicin, α-terpinolene, and limonene [5] Root of WC Sinapic acid, coumaric acid, and its derivatives, quercetin derivatives, and caftaric acid [18] Leaves of WC Caftaric acid, coumaric acid, and its derivatives and quercetin derivatives [18] in four weeks, using a hydroalcoholic extract of WC leaves (200 mg/kg) in treating diabetic rats could remarkably lower levels of TC and LDL-C in comparison to diabetic rats which left untreated but it had no effect on TG and HDL-C levels [31]. Another study observed that the ingestion of raw food (the mixture of 1 portion of WC and 1 portion of black rice bran) for four weeks outstandingly lowered TC and TG levels and heightened HDL level but supplementation did not have a significant effect on LDL levels in the experimental animals with diabetes mellitus (DM) [22]. ...
... ey observed that after one-week treatment with 800 and 1000 mg/kg of the methanolic extract of WC and two months of treatment with 100 mg/kg of the ethyl extract blood glucose level remarkably decreased in comparison to untreated rats which were diabetic [32]. In line with these results, another study showed that the treatment of diabetic rats with hydroalcoholic extract of WC (200 mg/kg) leaves over four weeks outstandingly mitigated serum glucose in comparison to diabetic untreated rats [31]. Syamsinah and Anggraini demonstrated that a raw food (the mixture of 1 portion of WC and 1 portion of black rice bran) for 4 weeks was able to lower the blood sugar content of the DM experimental animals [22]. ...
... e reduction of TG after the administration of WC might be attributed to decreased TG absorption and higher excretion of TG via feces [40]. e decrease in the level of TC after receiving WC may be due to increased excretion of bile acids, lower absorption of TC from the intestine, binding of WC with bile acids in the intestine [41], reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis [42], and increasing receptors of LDL [31]. Furthermore, other studies suggested that the reduction of TC after treatment with WC may be related to valued polyphenolic combinations such as total phenolics and flavonoids in this extract [29,43]. ...
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Watercress (WC) is an aquatic vegetable that belongs to the Brassicaceae family, and it often grows near water. In traditional medicine, WC is a known remedy for hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, arthritis, bronchitis, diuresis, odontalgia, and scurvy. It also acts as an antiestrogenic and can be used as a nutritional supplement. It has been reported that these therapeutic effects are due to primary metabolites such as isothiocyanates, glucosinolates, polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids, and proanthocyanidins), vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, E, and C), terpenes (including carotenoids), and bioelements which exist in this plant. Many pharmacological studies confirm the antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antipsoriatic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, renoprotective, hepatoprotective, and antigenotoxicity effects of WC. The consumption of WC extract can be useful in reducing the complications of hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, the extract of WC could markedly augment the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. Interestingly, consumption of food rich in polyphenols such as WC extract can help reduce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cancer susceptibility. Several studies also showed that WC extract significantly reduced liver injury as a result of cholestatic hepatic injury, gamma radiation, arsenic, and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. In this review, the researchers focus on the phytochemical and biochemical characterizations of WC and its therapeutic effects in the treatment of human diseases.
... On the other hand, the aqueous and methanolic extracts of aerial parts of N. officinale did not affect blood glucose levels after a one-week treatment. The conflicting results could be due to the type of the extract and duration of the treatment [234]. ...
... In another study, the hydroalcoholic extract of watercress leaves significantly reduced serum glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL (low density lipoprotein) [234]. ...
... A feasible mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect is the stimulation of Langerhans islets, the development of peripheral sensitivity to remnant insulin, and the antioxidant houses of watercress. [234]. ...
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Diabetes is a global health problem, and the number of diabetic patients is in continuous rise. Conventional antidiabetic therapies are associated with high costs and limited efficiency. The use of traditional medicine and plant extracts to treat diabetes is gaining high popularity in many countries. Countries in the Middle East region have a long history of using herbal medicine to treat different diseases, including diabetes. In this review, we compiled and summarized all the in vivo and in vitro studies conducted for plants with potential antidiabetic activity in the Middle East region. Plants of the Asteraceae and Lamiaceae families are the most investigated. It is hoped that this review will contribute scientifically to evidence the ethnobotanical use of medicinal plants as antidiabetic agents. Work has to be done to define tagetes, mechanism of action and the compound responsible for activity. In addition, safety and pharmacokinetic parameters should be investigated.
... Fak. Derg., 46(1): 114-128, 2022 116 kullanılmaktır [3]. İran'ın güneydoğu bölgesi halkı tarafından halk hekimliğinde kullanılan N. ...
... Diyet veya ilaç tedavisi yoluyla serum lipid düzeylerinin düşürülmesi, vasküler hastalık riskinde ve ilgili komplikasyonlarda azalma ile ilişkili olmaktadır. Son zamanlarda, serum kolesterol ve trigliserit düzeylerini azaltabilen veya düzenleyebilen bitkisel ilaçlara olan ilgi artmaktadır [3]. ...
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Z Amaç: Antidiyabetik potansiyeli olan, kilo kontrolünü sağlamaya yönelik ve antioksidan etkili yeni doğal kaynakların keşfi fitoterapi uygulamalarında önemli hedeflerden biridir. Bu çalışmada, Nasturtium officinale bitkisinin toprak üstü kısımlarının %80'lik etanol ekstresinin antioksidan, antidiyabetik, antihiperlipidemik ve antiobezite aktiviteleri değerlendirilmiştir. Ekstrenin fenolik içeriği ile ilgili kalitatif ve kantitatif analizler spektroskopik ve kromatografik yöntemler kullanılarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Ekstrenin antioksidan etkisini belirlemek için DPPH ve ABTS radikal süpürme aktivitesi, metal bağlama, total antioksidan kapasitesi ve indirgeyici gücü incelenmiştir. Ekstrenin antidiyabetik etki potansiyelini değerlendirmek için; α-glukozidaz ve α-amilaz enzimleri, antiobezite etki potansiyeli için pankreatik lipaz enzimi ve lipid metabolizmasındaki etki potansiyeli için pankreatik kolesterol esteraz enzimi kullanılmıştır. Ekstrenin total fenol ve flavonoit içerik analizleri için UV spektroskopisi kullanılırken fenolik bileşiklerinin kalitatif ve kantitatif analizleri için ise Ters Faz-YPSK tekniğinden faydalanılmıştır. Sonuç ve Tartışma: Nasturtium officinale etanol ekstresi DPPH radikal süpürücü aktivite yönteminde 2 mg/ml konsantrasyonunda %81.80±1.14 oranında inhibisyona neden olurken, ekstrenin demir indirgeme gücü 0.896 ± 0.02 olarak belirlenmiştir. Antidiyabetik etki açısından, ekstre en yüksek etkinliği 2 mg/ml konsantrasyonda α-amilaz enzimini %39.11 ± 2.98 oranında inhibe ederek göstermiştir. Ekstrenin (%42.18 ± 5.22) pankreatik lipaz enzimi üzerinde orlistat'a (%65.13 ± 1.24) yakın oranda bir inhibisyon oluşturduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ters Faz-YPSK analizi sonucunda klorojenik asit, kafeik asit ve elajik asidin hem kalitatif hem kantitatif analizi yapılmıştır. Ekstrenin en fazla klorojenik asit (0.079 ± 0.000% g/100 g ekstre) içerdiği tespit edilmiştir. Bulgular, bitkinin obezite kontrolü için doğal ürün geliştirme çalışmalarına kaynak teşkil edebileceğini ve daha ileriki in vitro ve in vivo çalışmalarla bu etkinin değerlendirilebileceğine işaret ederken, ekstrenin standardizasyonunda klorojenik asitin kullanılabileceği öngörülmüştür.
... Because of its high protein, iron, folic acid, carotenes, ascorbic acid, calcium, iodine, and sulfur content, watercress is normally used as a nutritional supplement in the form of a fresh/steamed vegetable and has wide medicinal applications in Iran [30]. Moreover, it is plentiful in gluconasturtiin (5.32 g/100 g of defatted seeds of watercress), [31] which has anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties [32] and showed great potentials for treating diabetes [33]. Moreover, this aquatic plant has shown great efficiencies for removing nutrient pollution from streams, owing to its high enzymatic activity, especially in leaves of the plant [34]. ...
... Its leaf extract has revealed anti-oxidative activities resulted from the constituent isorhamnetin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, caffeic acid, and gluconasturtiin that are believed to have inhibitory effects on cellular lipid peroxidation [44,45]. Relying on its phytochemicals, the watercress leaf extract has granted to have hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects on diabetic rats [33]. ...
Article
The leaf extract of a medicinally important plant, watercress (Nasturtium officinale), was obtained through an ultrasound-facilitated method and utilized for the preparation of ZnO nanoparticles via a joint ultrasound-microwave assisted procedure. The characteristics of the extract enriched nanoparticles (Ext/ZnO) were determined by SEM, TEM, XRD, EDX, BET, FTIR, TGA, and UV-Vis DRS analyses and compared to that of ZnO prepared in the absence of the extract (ZnO). The presence of carbon and carbonaceous bonds, changes in the morphology, size, band gap energy, and weight-decay percentage were a number of differences between ZnO and Ext/ZnO that confirmed the link of extract over nanoparticles. Ext/ZnO, watercress leaf extract, ZnO, and insulin therapies were administrated to treat alloxan-diabetic Wister rats and their healing effectiveness results were compared to one another. The serum levels of the main diabetic indices such as insulin, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile (total triglyceride, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were estimated for healthy, diabetic, and the rats rehabilitated with the studied therapeutic agents. The watercress extract-enriched ZnO nanoparticles offered the best performance and suppressed the diabetic status of rats. Moreover, both ZnO samples satisfactory inhibited the activities of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. Based on the results, the application of Nasturtium officinale leaf extract can strongly empower ZnO nanoparticles towards superior antidiabetic and enhanced antibacterial activities.
... The watercress has been widely used since ancient times for its benefits and medicinal properties, blood purifying, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, and antiscorbutic (Zargari, Ghorbanihaghjo andBabaei 2015, Hadjzadeh et al. 2015). It also facilitates the expulsion of acid residues from the metabolism and stimulates the production of erythrocytes (red blood cells), helping to prevent anemia, as well as skin regeneration, cell growth, intervenes in the metabolism of proteins, DNA and RNA and reduces the risk of occurrence of deficiencies in the fetus, decreases cardiovascular disease (Hadjzadeh et al. 2015, Zargari, Ghorbanihaghjo and Babaei 2015, Casanova et al. 2013). It has the peculiarity of favoring the elimination of bronchial mucus, making it more fluid due to glucosinolates (Wagner, Terschluesen and Rimbach 2013). ...
Chapter
Watercress (Nasturtium officinale L.) is a perennial plant that belongs to the family of the Brassicaceae and is cultivated for its leaves, which are principally used as salad greens or garnishes. It is used for culinary purposes by people almost all around the world. It has a strong flavor and is rich in vitamins, mainly vitamin C, but also A, B1, B2, and E. It also has minerals, gluconasturtiin, and phenolic compounds, and others phytochemicals. Watercress can inhibit tumorogenesis by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens. Watercress is one of the most important herbal medicines used for the treatment of some diseases like type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, bronchitis, diuresis, and others.
... Hyperglycemia in diabetes results in overproduction of ROS, which in turn leads to structural damages to the liver, kidney, and pancreas (Ozkaya et al., 2011). In recent years, there has been a great interest in using medicinal plants that modulate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, improve oxidative stress and prevent diabetes-associated complications (Sharma et al., 2015;Rajaei et al., 2015;Rajaei et al., 2013;Hadjzadeh et al., 2015). ...
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Objective: Rheum turkestanicum (R. turkestanicum) rhizomes have been used in Iranain traditional medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities of R. turkestanicum rhizome extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats received the decoction extract of R. turkestanicum rhizomes at the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg daily by gavage for 3 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were measured in all groups before diabetes induction and at the end of week 3. Oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver by measurement of malondialdehyde levels and total thiol concentration at the end of the experiment. Results: A significant increase in serum glucose and triglyceride levels was observed in diabetic rats, which was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and decreased total thiol concentration in the liver after 3 weeks. Treatment of diabetic rats with R. turkestanicum rhizome extract at the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg over a 3-week period did not change serum glucose, hepatic malondialdehyde and total thiol levels in diabetic rats. However, treatment with R. turkestanicum extract significantly decreased serum triglyceride levels in a dose-dependent manner at the end of the experiment. Conclusion: R. turkestanicum rhizome extract possess anti-hypertriglyceridemic, but not hypoglycemic or hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats. Therefore, R. turkestanicum rhizome should be consumed with more caution by diabetic patients.
... It is quite rich in C and A vitamins. In Azerbaijan climate conditions there is a warm and dry Temperament [18]. 1) Against the cracks and allergies of the skin: Beating the Watercress, mixing with the honey and rubbing it on the skin. ...
... The watercress leaves are commonly used as a food product and also an anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, urinary tract infections and cardiovascular diseases (Amiri, 2012;Boligon et al., 2013;Shahani et al., 2016). Many of these actions have already been scientifically proven (Hadjzadeh et al., 2015;Zeb, 2015;Shahani et al., 2016). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Inflammatory skin diseases treatments currently used cause adverse effects. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) is used popularly as an anti-inflammatory. However, until now, no study proved its effectiveness as a topical treatment to inflammatory skin diseases. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of N. officinale crude extract leaves (NoE) on an irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) model croton oil-induced in mice was investigated. Materials and methods: ICD models were induced by a single (1mg/ear; acute) or repeated (0.4mg/ear; chronic; 9 days total) croton oil application. NoE and dexamethasone solutions' (diluted in acetone; 20µL/ear) or NoE gel, dexamethasone gel and base gel (15mg/ear) were topically applied immediately after croton oil application. The NoE topical anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated for inflammatory parameters (ear edema, inflammatory cells infiltration, and inflammatory cytokines levels). NoE topical anti-inflammatory mechanism (NF-κB pathway and effect glucocorticoid-like) were assessed by western blot and ear edema analyses, respectively. UHPLC-MS/MS chromatography, gels accelerated stability and preliminary study of adverse effects was also performed. Results: UHPLC-MS/MS of the NoE revealed the presence of coumaric acid, rutin, and ferrulic. NoE gels stability study showed no relevant changes at low temperatures. NoE, dexamethasone, NoE gel and dexamethasone gel inhibited the ear edema croton oil-induced by 82±6% (1mg/ear), 99±1% (0.1mg/ear), 81±8% (3%) and 70±6% (0.5%) for the acute model, and 49±7% (1mg/ear), 80±4% (0.1mg/ear), 41±8% (3%) and 46±14% (0.5%) for the chronic model, respectively. The same treatments also reduced the inflammatory cells infiltration by 62±3% (1mg/ear), 97±2% (0.1mg/ear), 60±3% (3%) and 66±6% (0.5%) for the acute model, respectively, and 25±8% (1mg/ear) to NoE and 83±13% to dexamethasone to the chronic model. NoE and NoE gel reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines levels (acute ICD model) by 62±5% and 71±3% (MIP-2) and 32±3% and 44±4% (IL-1β), while dexamethasone solution's and gel reduced by 79±7% and 44±4% to MIP-2 and 98±2% and 83±9% to IL-1β, respectively. NoE' and dexamethasone' solutions inhibited the reduction of IkB-α protein expression induced by croton oil by 100% and 80±14%, respectively. Besides, the mifepristone (glucocorticoid receptor antagonist) pre-treatment prevented the topical anti-edematogenic effect of NoE' and dexamethasone' solutions by 61±5% to NoE and 78±16% to dexamethasone. The repeated topical application of NoE did not cause adverse effects. Conclusion: Our results suggest the N.officinale use in the cutaneous inflammatory process treatment and demonstrate the NoE potential to develop a promising topical anti-inflammatory agent to treat inflammatory disorders.
... Mousa et al. [47] reported that hydroalcoholic extract of watercress demonstrated significant decrease in serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels on repeated oral administration in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The study claimed that treatment with watercress extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks significantly declined the levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol compared to diabetic animals. ...
Article
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Nasturtium officinale (family: Brassicaceae) that is commonly known as watercress is a fast-growing aquatic or semi-aquatic perennial plant native to Europe, Central Asia. It is a highly significant food supplement, extensively consumed with salad, juices, or other dishes as an ingredient, flavor, or garnish. The leaves are traditionally used as stomachic, depurative, diuretic, expectorant, hypoglycemic, odontalgic, and stimulant. Meanwhile, it has been used to treat jaundice, asthma, bronchitis, scurvy, tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, and calculi. N. officinale is rich in glucosinolates, carotenoids, polyphenols, as well as Vitamin C, Vitamin A, and α-tocopherol. It is the main source of iron, calcium, iodine, and folic acid.
... The immune system is a complex set of physiological mechanisms whose general aim is to defend the organism against nonself bodies, such as pathogens (bacteria, viruses, and parasites) and cancer cells. [27] In this systematic review, in the only study dealing with fish, enhancing immune system activity was demonstrated after 21 days with 1% of watercress extract/kg. [15] Since watercress is rich in Vitamin C, the concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte of fish increased and could improve hematological parameters. ...
Article
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Nasturtium officinale (Watercress) is a perennial dicotyledonous herbaceous plant and a member of the Brassicaceae family. The leaves of this plant are used as a home remedy as expectorant and hypoglycemic. They can also be used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, as well as many other chronic diseases. This finding supports the idea of watercress being a health promoter. In addition, this study intends to provide recommendations for future research. This systematic review was performed by Science Direct, MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Scopus from July 2017 to August 2018. A total of 14 preclinical studies with watercress were selected by the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 were with rats and mice and 1 fish. The search terms used were "bioactive compounds, " "Nasturtium, " "preclinical study, " and "systematic review. " For the quality of the individual studies, we adopted the risk of bias. The results of the selected articles with Nasturtium in animals showed positive effects on the improvement of the immune system, hypoglycemic hypercholesterolemia, and anti-inflammatory activity, sex hormones synthesis, the preventive effect on the renal stone formation, and others. Since Nasturtium is widely used for therapeutic and nontherapeutic purposes that trigger its significant value, a new approach is necessary. Different combinations and the numerous medicinal properties of its extract juice and leaves, whether administrated orally or topically, demand further studies about other useful and unknown properties of this multipurpose plant. Finally, it is suggested by our reviewers that more studies with animals to be applied to human health, should be investigated of bioactive compounds from watercress.
... Watercress is commonly consumed in fresh form in salads, soups in some region of Iran and turkey [9]. Also, the aerial parts of this plant are in Iranian traditional medicine used as a depurative, liver and urinary disorders [10][11][12], diuretic, expectorant and hypoglycemic agents [13][14][15], Antiviral [16], anti-inflammatory [17], antioxidative [18], diuretic [19], expectorant [20], antidiabetic [10], hepatoprotective [8,21], antihyperlipidemic, and anticancer properties [22] of WC have also been reported. This plant contains high levels of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and flavonol compounds. ...
Article
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Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is used in the management of autoimmune conditions and malignant illnesses. However, its therapeutic use is limited because of its severe side effects, especially hepatotoxicity attributed to oxidative stress. Nasturtium officinale R. Br (watercress or WC) has pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammation, and antioxidant activities. Therefore, the present study was design to assess effects of WC or its active ingredient, quercetin (QE), against CPA-induced hepatotoxicity. For this study, 49 male Wistar rats (200–250 g) were randomly selected and categorized into seven equal groups. The animals were pre- and post-treated with both hydroalcoholic extract of WC (500 mg/kg) and quercetin (75 mg/kg) for 10 consecutive days, and intraperitoneal administration of CPA (200 mg/kg) was performed on only day 10, one hour before the last dose of WC or quercetin. On day 11, all the animals were sacrificed, and their blood and liver were gathered for evaluation of the liver enzyme, hepatic oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes activity, and hematoxylin and eosin staining. CPA significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PCO) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and liver biomarkers. Otherwise, hepatic catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiol content (tSH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were considerably lower than the control group. Results showed that WC has the ability to reduce the changes (MDA, PCO, FRAP, CAT, ALT and AST) and QE (MDA, PCO, AST) induced by CPA (p < 0.05). Histopathological finding confirmed the indicated results. These findings propose that WC and QE have protective effect against the CPA-induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress. Graphic abstract
... Such model assessments can reveal the effects of plant-derived secondary metabolites on specific tissue functions in a genetic population. It cannot be ignored that a very high number of plant extracts in controlled laboratory studies seem to exert beneficial effects on inflammatory and metabolic diseases by largely unknown mechanisms [89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96]. ...
Article
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Humans can ingest gram amounts of plant secondary metabolites daily through diet. Many of these phytochemicals are bioactive beyond our current understanding because they act through weak negative biological feedback mechanisms, undetectable in vitro. Homeostatic-type assessments shed light on the evolutionary implications of the human diet from plants, giving rise to the metabolic plant feedback hypothesis. The hypothesis states that ancient diets rich in carbohydrates coincide with bulk dietary phytochemicals that act as nonspecific inhibitors of metabolic and inflammatory processes. Consequently, food-derived phytochemicals are likely to be equally effective as herbal medicines for these indications. In addition to the ubiquitous flavonoids, terpenoids, and fatty acids in the diet, the likely impact of chronic chlorophyll ingestion on human health is discussed, and data on its modulation of blood glucose levels are presented. A major deduction of this hypothesis is that starchy diets lacking plant secondary metabolites are associated with multimorbidity (lifestyle diseases) including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. It is proposed that the intake of leafy vegetables, spices, and herbal remedies rich in phytochemicals matches the transition and genetic adaptation to early agriculture, playing a compensatory role in the mismatch of old genes and new diets. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
... There was a significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, accompanied by a decrease in HDL. The hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Nasturtium officinale significantly reduced serum glucose, total cholesterol and LDL in comparison with untreated diabetic rats (62) . ...
Article
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The chemical analysis of Nasturtium officinale showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids/steroids, protein, essential and volatile oils, glycosides, tannins, folic acid, vitamins and elements. The previous pharmacological studies revealed that Nasturtium officinale possessed hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, hepato and reno protective, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, dermatological, antigenotoxic, anti-urolithiatic and antigenotoxic effects. The current review highlighted the chemical ingredients and pharmacological effects of Nasturtium officinale.
... In this regard, it has been reported that EENO dramatically reduced the TG and LDL and raised HDL in high-fat diet rats [34]. In addition, it has been reported that treatment with EENO at a dose of 200 mg/kg showed a significant hypolipidemic effect in diabetic rats [44]. ...
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Background: Increased oxidative stress play an important role in the risk of cardiovascular disease, mortality, and mortality patients undergoing dialysis. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) contains numerous phytochemical compounds that act as an antioxidant by preventing oxidative damage to biomolecules. Therefore, this research aimed to explore the effect of the ethanolic extract of Nasturtium officinale (EENO) on antioxidant and biochemical markers of hemodialysis patients. Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 46 hemodialysis patients were randomly recruited to consume either 500 mg/day EENO (n = 23) or placebo capsule (n = 23) for 4 weeks, at Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Yasuj, Iran, in 2019. Biomarkers of oxidative stress including glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total sulfhydryl protein (T-SH) and biochemical parameters such as BUN, Hb, WBC, PLT, Ca, Ph, K, ALB, TChol, TG, LDL, and HDL were evaluated on days 0 and 28. Results: The serum levels of MDA and BUN significantly decreased after taking EENO supplementation (P < 0.001); however, SOD activity increased during the same period (P < 0.001). The serum levels of TAC remained constant in the intervention group, while it significantly declined in the placebo group (P < 0.09). The extract also prevented elevation in the serum levels of LDL and TG compared to the placebo group, although it was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The data indicated that the consumption of EENO improved some of the antioxidant parameters and minimizes the change in TG and LDL in hemodialysis patients. Therefore, due to the role of these factors in mortality and morbidity of dialysis patients, EENO can improve the condition of dialysis patients. However, more studies with longer intervention times and different doses of EENO are recommended.
... A study reported the volatile oil constituents of watercress and their antioxidant activity [11]. Ethanol extract and hydroalcoholic extracts of watercress exhibited a protective effect on nephrons and antidiabetic effects, respectively [12,13]. The cold expressed WCO, when mixed with coconut oil and fed orally, promoted the growth and improved the immunity in young rabbits [14]. ...
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... Previous studies showed that WC reduces the risk of colon, lung, lymphatic, and prostate cancers [21,22]. In addition, in vivo and in vitro studies have reported that WC has antidiabetic [23,24], anti-inflammatory [25], antioxidant [26][27][28], nephroprotective [29], and hepatoprotective effects [30,31]. erefore, based on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of WC, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of WC on the inflammatory cytokines and protein carbonyl contents in chronic hemodialysis patients. ...
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Introduction: Chronic kidney disorder is a main public health concern. Inflammatory processes and oxidative stress are common in end-stage renal disease patients. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of watercress (WC) on the inflammatory cytokines and protein carbonyl (PCO) contents in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods: This was a double-blind randomized clinical trial performed on 46 hemodialysis patients. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: intervention group (500 mg hydroalcoholic extract of WC every day for 4 weeks) and control group (500 mg of white flour every night for 4 weeks). The blood samples were taken to determine the levels of vitamin E, PCO, and inflammatory cytokines at baseline and the end of treatment. Results: Forty-five patients completed the study (22 patients in the intervention group and 23 patients in the control group). There was a significant reduction in the PCO level (20.33 ± 4.40 vs. 15.06 ± 6.41, P=0.001) in the intervention group; also, this change was statistically significant relative to the control group. Furthermore, there were significant reductions in hs-CRP (8953.30 ± 5588.06 vs. 7249.86 ± 5091.62, P=0.007) and IL-6 (60.10 (55.99, 73.10) vs. 55.21 (53.39, 60.48), P=0.050) in the intervention group, but these changes were not significant in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: We conclude that the hydroalcoholic extract of WC reduced the PCO content in hemodialysis patients via inhibition of protein oxidation. Although WC administration had caused a significant reduction in IL-6 and CRP levels, these differences were not statistically significant relative to the control group. Further research is needed to identify the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of WC in hemodialysis patients.
... Cholesterol is the essential precursor for all steroidal hormones. Hadjzadeh et al. [47] demonstrated that hydro alcoholic extract of Nasturtium demonstrated a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol and lowdensity lipoprotein. Nasturtium flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and glycosides were responsible for hypo cholesterolemia and hypolipidemic activities. ...
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This study examines the effects of cholestyramine (2 g/day) on the plasma clearance and tissue uptake of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) in rabbits. 1,2-Cyclohexanedione modification of human LDL abolishes its recognition by high affinity cell membrane receptors in vitro and delays its plasma clearance in comparison to native LDL. Consequently, the difference between the fractional rates of catabolism of simultaneously injected native and cyclohexanedione-treated LDL is an index of in vivo receptor-mediated clearance of the lipoprotein. When human 125I-LDL and 131I-cyclohexanedione-treated LDL were injected into rabbits, 44% of the lipoprotein was cleared from the plasma by the receptor mechanism. Various tissues were removed from the animals at the end of the turnover study and their relative uptakes of 125I native and 131I-cyclohexanedione-treated LDL were measured. All exhibited receptor activity to some extent, incorporating more native than cyclohexanedione-modified LDL. The greatest receptor activity per g of tissue was found in lymph nodes, spleen, and liver and, in terms of whole organ uptake, the liver played a major role in LDL catabolism. Treatment of the rabbits with cholestyramine lowered the circulating LDL cholesterol level by promoting its clearance (120%, p < 0.001) via the receptor pathway. This was associated with a virtual doubling of receptor-mediated incorporation of the lipoprotein into the liver. These results suggest that the drain which cholestyramine induces in the hepatic cholesterol pool promotes LDL receptor activity in this organ and thereby lowers the level of circulating LDL.
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Based on 20 years of surveillance of the Framingham cohort relating subsequent cardiovascular events to prior evidence of diabetes, a twofold to threefold increased risk of clinical atherosclerotic disease was reported. The relative impact was greatest for intermittent claudication (IC) and congestive heart failure (CHF) and least for coronary heart disease (CHD), which was, nevertheless, on an absolute scale the chief sequela. The relative impact was substantially greater for women than for men. For each of the cardiovascular diseases (CVD), morbidity and mortality were higher for diabetic women than for nondiabetic men. After adjustment for other associated risk factors, the relative impact of diabetes on CHD, IC, or stroke incidence was the same for women as for men; for CVD death and CHF, it was greater for women. Cardiovascular mortality was actually about as great for diabetic women as for diabetic men.
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The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaf of Nasturtium of officinale R. Br. (watercress). Extracts were evaluated for total antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate method, total reducing power by potassium ferricyanide reduction method, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, superoxide anion radical scavenging activities in vitro and lipid peroxidation in vivo. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standards such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol. The ethanolic extract was found as the most active in total antioxidant activity, reducing power, DPPH radicals and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activities. Administration of the ethanol extract to rats decreased lipid peroxidation in liver, brain and kidney. These results lead to the conclusion that N. officinale extracts show relevant antioxidant activity by means of reducing cellular lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant activity, reducing power, free radiacal and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the aqueous and ethanolic extract of N. officinale were determined as pyrocatechol.
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Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the antihyperglycemic and protective potential of crocin, a pharmacologically active constituent of Crocus sativus L., in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were administered crocin intraperitoneally at doses of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg of body weight for 6 weeks. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and total thiol (SH) groups were measured in the liver and kidney at the end of 6 weeks. Under our experimental conditions, crocin at a dose of 60 mg/kg was found to significantly reduce the blood glucose level in diabetic animals. In addition, there was a significant increase in TBARS levels and decreased total thiol concentrations in the liver and kidney of diabetic animals. Crocin, at doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg, appears to exert an antioxidative activity demonstrated by a lowering of lipid peroxidation levels in these organs. In conclusion, our findings suggest that crocin has the hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetes and it may be useful in the management of diabetic patients.
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The influence of dietary fiber on lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis in animals and on lipid metabolism in man is reviewed. Pectin, guar gum, and lignin lower serum and liver cholesterol in cholesterol-fed rats. Agar increases liver cholesterol in rats. Bran has no effect on serum lipid levels in rats or monkeys. Vegetarians have long been known to exhibit cholesterol levels lower than those of comparable populations who subsist on a mixed diet. Pectin and guar gum lower cholesterol levels in man whereas cellulose and bran have no effect. Rabbits fed a semipurified diet containing saturated fat become atherosclerotic, but addition of the same fat to laboratory ration has no effect; it has been shown that the residue in laboratory ration is the cause of the difference. Semipurified diets containing cellulose are more atherogenic than those containing wheat straw or alfalfa. The semipurified diets also cause aortic sudanophilia or atherosclerosis in baboons and vervet monkeys. One possible mechanism of hypolipemic action of fiber involves the binding of bile acids, which would result in reduced absorption of cholesterol, resulting in lower levels of serum cholesterol.
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The impact of cardiovascular disease was compared in non-diabetics and diabetics in the Framingham cohort. In the first 20 years of the study about 6% of the women and 8% of the men were diagnosed as diabetics. The incidence of cardiovascular disease among diabetic men was twice that among non-diabetic men. Among diabetic women the incidence of cardiovascular disease was three times that among non-diabetic women. Judging from a comparison of standardized coefficients for the regression of incidence of cardiovascular disease on specified risk factors, there is no indication that the relationship of risk factors to the subsequent development of cardiovascular disease is different for diabetics and non-diabetics. This study suggests that the role of diabetes as a cardiovascular risk factor does not derive from an altered ability to contend with known risk factors.
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These studies were designed to test the hypolipidemic activity of green tea epicatechins (GTE) isolated from jasmine green tea. In Experiment 1, three groups of hamsters were given a semisynthetic diet containing 200 g lard/kg and 1 g cholesterol/kg for 4 wk. The control group received distilled water, and the other two groups received either 15 g/L green tea water extract (GTWE) or 5.0 g/L GTE solution. Both the GTWE and GTE groups had lower concentrations of serum total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG) than the controls (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, four groups of hamsters received tap water as the drinking fluid, but they were given the same high fat and cholesterol diet supplemented with 0 (control), 1.1, 3.4 or 5.7 g GTE/kg diet. The hypolipidemic effect of jasmine GTE was dose dependent. In Experiment 3, the time-course of changes in serum TC and TG was monitored in hamsters given the high fat diet supplemented with 5.7 g GTE/kg in comparison with that of controls. The hypolipidemic effects of dietary GTE were evident after feeding for 2 wk. Dietary supplementation of GTE did not affect liver fatty acid synthase. However, GTE-supplemented hamsters had higher fecal excretions of total fatty acids, neutral sterols and acidic sterols compared with the control group. In Experiment 4, hamsters were fed nonpurified diet; the control group drank distilled water, and the GTE group drank distilled water containing 5.0 g GTE/L. No differences in activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase and intestinal acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase were observed. This study suggests that the hypolipidemic activity of GTE is not due to inhibition of synthesis of cholesterol or fatty acid but is most likely mediated by its influence on absorption of dietary fat and cholesterol.
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The herbal mixtures, Essiac and Flor-Essence, are sold as nutritional supplements and used by patients to treat chronic conditions, particularly cancer. Evidence of anticancer activity for the herbal teas is limited to anecdotal reports recorded for some 40 years in Canada. Individual case reports suggest that the tea improves quality of life, alleviates pain, and in some cases, impacts cancer progression among cancer patients. Experimental studies with individual herbs have shown evidence of biological activity including antioxidant, antioestrogenic, immunostimulant, antitumour, and antiocholeretic actions. However, research that demonstrates these positive effects in the experimental setting has not been translated to the clinical arena. Currently, no clinical studies of Essiac or Flor-essence are published, but a clinical study is being planned at the British Columbia Cancer Agency by the University of Texas-Center for Alternative Medicine (UT-CAM) and Tzu-Chi Institute for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
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The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of an ethanolic extract of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. leaves (Oxalidaceae, Common name: Bilimbi) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The optimal hypoglycemic dose (125 mg kg(-1)) was determined by performing the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both normal and STZ-diabetic rats. To investigate the effect of repeated administration of an ethanolic extract of Averrhoa bilimbi (ABe) leaves, diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (distilled water), ABe (125 mg kg(-1)) or metformin (500 mg kg(-1)) twice a day for 2 weeks. Like metformin, ABe significantly lowered blood glucose by 50% and blood triglyceride by 130% when compared with the vehicle. ABe also significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 60% compared with the vehicle. ABe thus significantly increased the anti-atherogenic index and HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio. However, like metformin, ABe did not affect total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but significantly reduced the kidney lipid peroxidation level. These data show that ABe has hypoglycemic, hypotriglyceridemic, anti-lipid peroxidative and anti-atherogenic properties in STZ-diabetic rats.
Article
Momordica charantia (karela) is commonly used as an antidiabetic and antihyperglycemic agent in Asian, Oriental and Latin American countries. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of long term feeding (10 weeks) of M. charantia fruit extract on blood plasma and tissue lipid profiles in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Type 1 diabetic rats. The results show that there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in plasma non-esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids in STZ-induced diabetic rats, accompanied by a decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. A moderate increase in plasma (LPO) product, malonedialdehyde (MDA), and about two-fold increase in kidney LPO was also observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The treatment of diabetic rats with M. charantia fruit extract over a 10-week period returned these levels close to normal. In addition, karela juice also exhibited an inhibitory effect on membrane LPO under in vitro conditions. These results suggest that M. charantia fruit extract exhibits hypolipidemic as well as hypoglycemic effects in the STZ-induced diabetic rat.
Article
Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats induced hyperlipidemia. Hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was significantly inhibited in rats fed E. officinalis flavonoids. But increase of this enzyme was observed in rats administered M. indica flavonoids. LCAT showed elevated levels in rats fed flavonoids from E. officinalis and M. indica. The degradation and elimination of cholesterol was highly enhanced in both the groups. In E. officinalis, the mechanism of hypolipidemic action is by the concerted action of inhibition of synthesis and enhancement of degradation. In the other group (M. indica) inhibition of cholesterogenesis was not encountered but highly significant degradation of cholesterol was noted, which may be the pivotal factor for hypolipidemic activity in this case. Though the mechanisms differ in the two cases, the net effect is to lower lipid levels.
Article
Alloxan and streptozotocin are widely used to induce experimental diabetes in animals. The mechanism of their action in B cells of the pancreas has been intensively investigated and now is quite well understood. The cytotoxic action of both these diabetogenic agents is mediated by reactive oxygen species, however, the source of their generation is different in the case of alloxan and streptozotocin. Alloxan and the product of its reduction, dialuric acid, establish a redox cycle with the formation of superoxide radicals. These radicals undergo dismutation to hydrogen peroxide. Thereafter highly reactive hydroxyl radicals are formed by the Fenton reaction. The action of reactive oxygen species with a simultaneous massive increase in cytosolic calcium concentration causes rapid destruction of B cells. Streptozotocin enters the B cell via a glucose transporter (GLUT2) and causes alkylation of DNA. DNA damage induces activation of poly ADP-ribosylation, a process that is more important for the diabetogenicity of streptozotocin than DNA damage itself. Poly ADP-ribosylation leads to depletion of cellular NAD+ and ATP. Enhanced ATP dephosphorylation after streptozotocin treatment supplies a substrate for xanthine oxidase resulting in the formation of superoxide radicals. Consequently, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are also generated. Furthermore, streptozotocin liberates toxic amounts of nitric oxide that inhibits aconitase activity and participates in DNA damage. As a result of the streptozotocin action, B cells undergo the destruction by necrosis.
Article
The hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract obtained from seeds of E. jambolana was investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Hypoglycaemic activity was assessed by reduction in fasting blood glucose (FBG) at 90min and also fall in peak blood glucose during glucose tolerance test (GTT) in sub-diabetic and mild diabetic (MD) rabbits, but in severe diabetic (SD) rabbits by reduction in FBG at 90min. Ethanolic extract (100mg/kg body weight) when given orally to sub-diabetic (AR) for 1 day, MD for 7 days and SD for 15 days showed significant fall in FBG at 90min (12% AR, 18.9% MD and 29% SD) and also produced 16.9% fall in peak blood glucose in AR and 21% in MD rabbits during GTT. When administered daily for 15 days to MD and SD rabbits, significant fall in FBG (41.3% MD, 31.6% SD) and glycosylated haemoglobin (GHb) levels (23.3% MD, 26.6% SD) were observed, while serum insulin level showed significant increase (32.8% MD, 26.9% SD). Liver and muscle glycogen content also increased. The ethanolic extract of seeds also exhibited significant hypolipidemic effect as evident from fall in total serum cholesterol (TC)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels and decreased activity of HMG-CoA reductase. The histopathological studies of liver, pancreas and aorta in alcoholic extract treated diabetic groups revealed almost normal appearance.
Article
The effect of diabetes mellitus on lipid metabolism is well established. The association of hyperglycaemia with an alteration of lipid parameters presents a major risk for cardiovascular complications in diabetes. Many secondary plant metabolites have been reported to possess lipid-lowering properties. The present study was designed to examine the potential anti-hyperlipidaemic efficacy of the ethanolic extract from Aloe vera leaf gel in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. 2. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg bodyweight per day to STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 21 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, hepatic transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), plasma and tissue (liver and kidney) cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids and a significant improvement in plasma insulin. 3. In addition, the decreased plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increased plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein-and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in diabetic rats were restored to near normal levels following treatment with the extract. 4. The fatty acid composition of the liver and kidney was analysed by gas chromatography. The altered fatty acid composition in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats was restored following treatment with the extract. 5. Thus, the results of the present study provide a scientific rationale for the use of Aloe vera as an antidiabetic agent.
Article
Cruciferous vegetable (CV) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several cancers in epidemiologic studies. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of watercress (a CV) supplementation on biomarkers related to cancer risk in healthy adults. A single-blind, randomized, crossover study was conducted in 30 men and 30 women (30 smokers and 30 nonsmokers) with a mean age of 33 y (range: 19-55 y). The subjects were fed 85 g raw watercress daily for 8 wk in addition to their habitual diet. The effect of supplementation was measured on a range of endpoints, including DNA damage in lymphocytes (with the comet assay), activity of detoxifying enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) in erythrocytes, plasma antioxidants (retinol, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, lutein, and beta-carotene), plasma total antioxidant status with the use of the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay, and plasma lipid profile. Watercress supplementation (active compared with control phase) was associated with reductions in basal DNA damage (by 17%; P = 0.03), in basal plus oxidative purine DNA damage (by 23.9%; P = 0.002), and in basal DNA damage in response to ex vivo hydrogen peroxide challenge (by 9.4%; P = 0.07). Beneficial changes seen after watercress intervention were greater and more significant in smokers than in nonsmokers. Plasma lutein and beta-carotene increased significantly by 100% and 33% (P < 0.001), respectively, after watercress supplementation. The results support the theory that consumption of watercress can be linked to a reduced risk of cancer via decreased damage to DNA and possible modulation of antioxidant status by increasing carotenoid concentrations.
Article
Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (Brassicaceae) is used as a home remedy in Iran as a cardioprotective agent without any scientific background. In this investigation an attempt was made to study the effect of Nasturtium officinale hydroalcoholic extract (NOE) on serum lipid profile which is closely associated with many cardiovascular diseases. Accordingly, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were among the parameters investigated. We also evaluated the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels as a measure of hepatic cell damages. Intragastric administration of NOE (500 mg/kg body weight per day) to groups of hypercholesterolaemic rats for 10 days lowered their serum TC, TG and LDL-C by 34.2, 30.1, and 52.9%, respectively, while raised the serum HDL-C level by 27.0% after 10 days of treatments. Treatment with NOE reduced serum ALT and AST levels compared to high-fat diet groups. Based on these data, it is concluded that the NOE has definite cardioprotective potential and these results constitute a valid scientific basis for consuming Nasturtium officinale for medicinal application.
American Diabetes Association: Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus
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