Book

Translation solutions for many languages. Histories of a flawed dream

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Abstract

Many “translation solutions” (often called “procedures,” “techniques,” or “strategies”) have been proposed over the past 50 years or so in French, Chinese, Russian, Ukrainian, English, Spanish, German, Japanese, Italian, Czech, and Slovak. This book analyzes, criticizes and compares them, proposing a new list of solutions that can be used in training translators to work between many languages. The book also traces out an entirely new history of contemporary translation studies, showing for example how the Russian tradition was adapted in China, how the impact of transformational linguistics was resisted, and how scholarship has developed an intercultural metalanguage over and above the concerns of specific national languages. The book reveals the intensely political nature of translation theory, even in its most apparently technical aspects. The lists were used to advance the agendas of not just linguistic nationalisms but also state regimes – this is a history in which Hitler, Stalin, and Mao all played roles, Communist propaganda and imperialist evangelism were both legitimized, Ukrainian advances in translation theory were forcefully silenced in the 1930s, the Cold War both stimulated the application of transformational grammar and blocked news of Russian translation theory, French translation theory was conscripted into the agenda of Japanese exceptionalism, and much else. Table Of Contents Introduction 1. Charles Bally and the Missing Equivalents 2. Vinay and Darbelnet Hit the Road 3. A Tradition in Russian and Environs 4. A Loh Road to China 5. Spontaneous Combustion in Central Europe? 6. Cold War Dalliance with Transformational Grammar 7. Forays into Romance 8. Meanwhile Back in German 9. Disciplinary Corrections 10. Going Japanese 11. The Proof of the Pudding is in the Classroom 12. A Typology of Translation Solutions for Many Languages Postscript: The Flaw in the Dream References - See more at:
... Pedersen´s taxonomy (2011) involves source-language-oriented and target-language-oriented ones. These can be juxtaposed with Pym's (2016) taxonomy, which he calls a typology of translation solutions for many languages. He (ibid) assumes them to be behavioral, problem-based, potentially conscious, intersubjective and starting from the most general and basic translation solution: to change something. ...
... However, the tradition of translating bears witness to numerous typologies of translation strategies. The latest contribution is the taxonomy of translation solutions proposed by Pym (2016). One may ask why we still need another classification, whether or how Pym's approach is different from those before him. ...
... Pace Newmark (1988), Tomaszkiewicz (1993), Valdeon (2008), and Pedersen (2011), CSIs occur in so many communicative situations that it may as well be impossible to find a matching translation strategy from those discussed. The latest contribution to the typologies of translation strategies is the taxonomy of translation solutions proposed by Pym (2016). He intentionally moves from the concept of strategy to the concept of solution. ...
... However, in order to make it easier for the English reader, the translator provides a short list of characters' names pronunciation at the outset of the novel. According to Pym (2016) such a translation solution stands for Text Tailoring taking the form of the addition of content. Some Slovak names have been transferred into English with an adaptation at a phonetic level, e.g. ...
... With respect to Copying Words, a noteworthy tendency in the corpus is using what I call (with reference to Pym 2016 andNewmark 1988) 'translation solution couplets'. This means that not only one translation solution is used for CBIs, but it may be complemented by another translation solution, forming a couplet. ...
... Also often called "procedures", "techniques" or lately "solutions" byPym (2016).On the distinction between them, seeGibová (2012: 27-29). ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper homes in on the analysis of culture-bound items in the English translation of the Slovak novel Rivers of Babylon (1991) which contains unique lexis symptomatic of the (post)-communist linguistic scene. By its focus on the transplantation of the Slovak culturally-marked lexis into English, the study is sensitively responsive to Cronin’s appeal (2006) that in order to stand out in the globalized world it is necessary to start to pay heed to the local. The paper draws on the premise that when dealing with cultural asymmetries between languages cultural transplantation is inevitable, which supports the interpretation of translation as an essentially cultural practice (see Hermans, 2007). Ongoing research has shown that intercultural competence and awareness, arising from experience of cultures, are far more complex phenomena than they may seem to the translator. So far, less attention has been paid to the Central European context with focus on the Slovak culture transfer. The paper aims to investigate the character of the translation techniques used for the transfer of Slovak culture-bound items based on Pym’s cutting-edge model of translation solutions (2016). The study also attempts to research the extent to which the local colour of the Slovak start text has been preserved in the English literary translation. Based on the corpus analysis, it may be argued that the translator tends to the reduction of the cultural expressiveness by domestication of culture-bound items in the target culture. The research findings are part of cultural translation and are instrumental in shedding fresh light on how Slovak culture may be reported to English culture. © 2017, Slovenska Vzdelavacia Obstaravacia. All rights reserved.
... Pedersen´s taxonomy (2011) involves source-language-oriented and target-language-oriented ones. These can be juxtaposed with Pym's (2016) taxonomy, which he calls a typology of translation solutions for many languages. He (ibid) assumes them to be behavioral, problem-based, potentially conscious, intersubjective and starting from the most general and basic translation solution: to change something. ...
... However, the tradition of translating bears witness to numerous typologies of translation strategies. The latest contribution is the taxonomy of translation solutions proposed by Pym (2016). One may ask why we still need another classification, whether or how Pym's approach is different from those before him. ...
... Pace Newmark (1988), Tomaszkiewicz (1993), Valdeon (2008), and Pedersen (2011), CSIs occur in so many communicative situations that it may as well be impossible to find a matching translation strategy from those discussed. The latest contribution to the typologies of translation strategies is the taxonomy of translation solutions proposed by Pym (2016). He intentionally moves from the concept of strategy to the concept of solution. ...
... Pedersen´s taxonomy (2011) involves source-language-oriented and target-language-oriented ones. These can be juxtaposed with Pym's (2016) taxonomy, which he calls a typology of translation solutions for many languages. He (ibid) assumes them to be behavioral, problem-based, potentially conscious, intersubjective and starting from the most general and basic translation solution: to change something. ...
... However, the tradition of translating bears witness to numerous typologies of translation strategies. The latest contribution is the taxonomy of translation solutions proposed by Pym (2016). One may ask why we still need another classification, whether or how Pym's approach is different from those before him. ...
... Pace Newmark (1988), Tomaszkiewicz (1993), Valdeon (2008), and Pedersen (2011), CSIs occur in so many communicative situations that it may as well be impossible to find a matching translation strategy from those discussed. The latest contribution to the typologies of translation strategies is the taxonomy of translation solutions proposed by Pym (2016). He intentionally moves from the concept of strategy to the concept of solution. ...
... Pedersen´s taxonomy (2011) involves source-language-oriented and target-language-oriented ones. These can be juxtaposed with Pym's (2016) taxonomy, which he calls a typology of translation solutions for many languages. He (ibid) assumes them to be behavioral, problem-based, potentially conscious, intersubjective and starting from the most general and basic translation solution: to change something. ...
... However, the tradition of translating bears witness to numerous typologies of translation strategies. The latest contribution is the taxonomy of translation solutions proposed by Pym (2016). One may ask why we still need another classification, whether or how Pym's approach is different from those before him. ...
... Pace Newmark (1988), Tomaszkiewicz (1993), Valdeon (2008), and Pedersen (2011), CSIs occur in so many communicative situations that it may as well be impossible to find a matching translation strategy from those discussed. The latest contribution to the typologies of translation strategies is the taxonomy of translation solutions proposed by Pym (2016). He intentionally moves from the concept of strategy to the concept of solution. ...
... Pedersen´s taxonomy (2011) involves source-language-oriented and target-language-oriented ones. These can be juxtaposed with Pym's (2016) taxonomy, which he calls a typology of translation solutions for many languages. He (ibid) assumes them to be behavioral, problem-based, potentially conscious, intersubjective and starting from the most general and basic translation solution: to change something. ...
... However, the tradition of translating bears witness to numerous typologies of translation strategies. The latest contribution is the taxonomy of translation solutions proposed by Pym (2016). One may ask why we still need another classification, whether or how Pym's approach is different from those before him. ...
... Pace Newmark (1988), Tomaszkiewicz (1993), Valdeon (2008), and Pedersen (2011), CSIs occur in so many communicative situations that it may as well be impossible to find a matching translation strategy from those discussed. The latest contribution to the typologies of translation strategies is the taxonomy of translation solutions proposed by Pym (2016). He intentionally moves from the concept of strategy to the concept of solution. ...
... Pedersen´s taxonomy (2011) involves source-language-oriented and target-language-oriented ones. These can be juxtaposed with Pym's (2016) taxonomy, which he calls a typology of translation solutions for many languages. He (ibid) assumes them to be behavioral, problem-based, potentially conscious, intersubjective and starting from the most general and basic translation solution: to change something. ...
... However, the tradition of translating bears witness to numerous typologies of translation strategies. The latest contribution is the taxonomy of translation solutions proposed by Pym (2016). One may ask why we still need another classification, whether or how Pym's approach is different from those before him. ...
... Pace Newmark (1988), Tomaszkiewicz (1993), Valdeon (2008), and Pedersen (2011), CSIs occur in so many communicative situations that it may as well be impossible to find a matching translation strategy from those discussed. The latest contribution to the typologies of translation strategies is the taxonomy of translation solutions proposed by Pym (2016). He intentionally moves from the concept of strategy to the concept of solution. ...
... Pedersen´s taxonomy (2011) involves source-language-oriented and target-language-oriented ones. These can be juxtaposed with Pym's (2016) taxonomy, which he calls a typology of translation solutions for many languages. He (ibid) assumes them to be behavioral, problem-based, potentially conscious, intersubjective and starting from the most general and basic translation solution: to change something. ...
... However, the tradition of translating bears witness to numerous typologies of translation strategies. The latest contribution is the taxonomy of translation solutions proposed by Pym (2016). One may ask why we still need another classification, whether or how Pym's approach is different from those before him. ...
... Pace Newmark (1988), Tomaszkiewicz (1993), Valdeon (2008), and Pedersen (2011), CSIs occur in so many communicative situations that it may as well be impossible to find a matching translation strategy from those discussed. The latest contribution to the typologies of translation strategies is the taxonomy of translation solutions proposed by Pym (2016). He intentionally moves from the concept of strategy to the concept of solution. ...
... Ukazuje se však, že jeho zjištění v oblasti negativních rysů překladatelovy práce jsou nejen inovativní z hlediska vývoje deskriptivní translatologie, ale spolu s jeho typologií překladatelových pracovních postupů mají svůj význam také v didaktice překladu. Právě široce pojatý koncept překladových řešení, mezi něž řadí Levého postupy i tendence Anthony Pym (2016), může sehrát klíčovou roli ve snaze znovu sblížit translatologii a didaktiku cizích jazyků, sesterské disciplíny, které se dlouhá desetiletí -ke škodě obou -vyvíjely bez vzájemné interakce. Z dalších Levého myšlenek, jež mohou i po více než půlstoletí najít pozoruhodné využití nejen v přípravě budoucích překladatelů, ale i ve výuce překladu v rámci pedagogiky cizích jazyků, se zaměříme na Levým zevrubně rozpracované fáze překladatelského procesu se zvláštním zřetelem k filologickému porozumění jako základu kvalitní překladatelské práce. ...
... Domníváme se, že důraz na správné filologické pochopení a využívání celé šíře informačních zdrojů jsou neodmyslitelnou součástí jazykových dovedností obecně. Na další z možných opor překladatelské práce ve výuce cizích jazyků pak poukázal A. Pym (2016). Z mnoha stávajících klasifikací překladatelských postupů vytváří vlastní typologii, jež by mohla komukoli, kdo má potřebu se zabývat převodem mezi dvěma jazyky, pomoci uvědomit si širokou škálu možností tvůrčí práce. ...
... The terminology of strategies and their taxonomies has varied hugely: some approaches are more textually oriented (e. g. shift analysis), others more cognitive. (For a recent proposal, which also offers a comprehensive critical survey of the history of the concept, see Pym 2016.) More pragmatically, we are seeing an increasing number of research projects involving cooperation between specialists in different sub-fields or disciplines, projects that involve dialogue as well as conceptual and methodological borrowings and lendings. ...
Article
Full-text available
Translation Studies has branched out into a heterogeneous interdiscipline during the past few decades. This development is not only the result of the emergence of different kinds of translation practices, research questions and new technologies, but also of different epistemo­logical and ontological assumptions about the object of study. Four major areas are outlined: linguistic, cultural, cognitive and sociological. Connections between them are briefly dis­cussed, but the main tendency has been one of fragmentation. Perhaps this does not matter?
... Similarly clear should be the extent to which the course designer was also drawing on his own recent research, as might be seen in the work on 'status' (which followed Pym et al. 2012), the interest in 'literacy' as a criterion for quality in the reception of translations (an aspect that no student has ever asked about), as well as ongoing experimentation with indeterminism and risk. There was also some unabashed testing of research in progress, as in the 2014 seminar on 'translation solutions' (which tested work published in Pym 2016). So we are clearly not suggesting that a course designer should work exclusively to supply students' needs. ...
Article
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Working from the premise that Translation Studies concerns the production of knowledge rather than the elaboration of theories, we invited students beginning BA and MA courses in Translation Studies in Monterey and Vienna to formulate questions that they would like to see answered. Categorization and analysis of 662 questions shows that 1) by far the most questions concern financial and business aspects of the translation professions, 2) there is a widespread pessimistic discourse about the social status and future of these professions, 3) new technologies are predominantly seen as a rival rather than a set of aids, although this fear is less pronounced in the US context than in the European institution, 4) there is a persistent concern with the ways translation theory can help practice, with the widespread assumption in the US groups that it cannot, 5) there is genuine interest in the cognitive processes of translators and interpreters, and 6) the distribution of topics varies significantly between institutions and sometimes between different years at the same institution. When taking account of such questions, course designers should be aware of the areas where professional advice does better than any academic discipline, where hands-on experimentation is the most valuable form of learning, and where a few theoretical terms and concepts can be used to focus exchanges rather than being presumed to constitute a body of knowledge in themselves.
... There are also studies (e.g. Ordudari 2007, Shamsaeefard et al. 2013, Ramli 2014, Pym 2016) that have discussed the solution to translating CBIs with reference to strategies, procedures, techniques and methods. While some studies focus on the theory (Baker 2011) a few (Hickey 1998, Kehal 2010, Samardali et al. 2013) investigate the pragmatic aspects and cultural problems in translation. ...
... Many of the operations I mention will be familiar and have been discussed elsewhere, sometimes at great length. However in the past they have either been considered in isolation (Ballard 2001;Vermes 2003) or else in conjunction with operations based on textual meaning (Pym 2016). Here my aim is not to discuss each of the operations in detail but rather to assemble them in one place, in order to point to what they have in common and demonstrate that translators make very frequent use of them to deal with a broad range of translation problems. ...
Article
Translation is typically thought of as conveying the meaning of a text written in another language. However translators frequently engage in operations that do not start from textual meaning but from phonetic form, typographic form or some other formal feature of a text. In this article, I look at several such operations, and how they are used in handling proper names, numerical expressions, text in a third language, so-called untranslatable words, passages of uncertain meaning, and poetry, as well as their use in translation studies and linguistics journals, and in pronunciation guides for tourists and for choirs singing in languages unknown to their members. I also briefly consider operations that are based on the form of non-linguistic text elements.
... Of course, there have been more than binarisms in Translation Studies -the whole town should not be painted with the one brush. In my own work on this history (Pym 2016b), I have gone back and looked at an alternative tradition: I have been interested in scholars who attempted to write a short catalogue or typology of the various solutions that translators come up with. The best-known example is probably Vinay andDarbelnet (1958/1972), who describe seven basic types. ...
Article
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Recent interest in the role of translation in language teaching calls for dialogue between the disciplines of Translation Studies and Language Education. In framing this dialogue, translation scholars would do well to avoid assuming superiority or special knowledge; they would instead do well to reflect on the history of their own discipline, particularly the opposition to language departments that can be found in some countries in the 1980s and 1990s. In politically turning away from language learning, translation scholars left the education field open for unopposed implantation of immersion and communicative teaching methods that ideologically shunned translation. Further, in framing their major internal debates in terms of binary categories, usually involving a good translation method opposed to a bad one, translation scholars themselves all but abandoned the non-binary pedagogical models that once included many types of translation solutions. Those non-binary models should now be investigated anew in order to rebrand translation for the language-education community. In so doing, however, translation scholars may need to break the unspoken pact that they have developed with the translation professions. They should instead adopt a view where everyone can translate, not just professionals, and everyone can be trained to translate better.
... McAlester [3] pro Finsko; Pavlović [6] pro Chorvatsko; Svoboda [10] pro Českou republiku; Schmitt [8] pro Německo; Pym [7] pro Čínu). V posledních letech proto translatologové zkoumají překlad do nemateřského jazyka v celé jeho složitosti. ...
Conference Paper
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Cílem příspěvku je představit dílčí výsledky výzkumu překladu do nemateřského jazyka. V rámci experimentu mělo 20 studentů překladatelství a 20 profesionálů přeložit texty dvou různých žánrů nejprve z cizího jazyka do češtiny a následně obsahem a náročností srovnatelné texty z češtiny jako mateřského jazyka do angličtiny či francouzštiny jako cizího jazyka. Překlad do nemateřského jazyka byl v translatologii dlouho opomíjen, přestože představuje běžnou praxi ve většině zemí světa. Odpůrci tohoto směru překládání tvrdí, že překlady do cizího jazyka jsou nutně méně kvalitní, neboť vykazují vedle gramatických chyb také neuzuální kolokace či jiné jevy nekompatibilní se stylistickými konvencemi cílového jazyka. V příspěvku se proto soustředíme na kvantitativní i kvalitativní analýzu nedostatků na rovině gramatiky a stylu, jež byly zjištěny v překladech studentů a profesionálních překladatelů z češtiny do angličtiny. Získané poznatky mohou jako typologie tendencí českých uživatelů angličtiny najít uplatnění nejen v přípravě dalších generací překladatelů, ale také ve výuce cizích jazyků.
... A whole tradition of translation theory has followed suit, in many languages (Pym 2016). ...
Article
If the intercultural were ever neatly opposed to the national as a frame for translational action and thought, then it would seem to be losing. Nationalist frames have gained new-found energy in various forms: translation is seen a weapon because nation-states support and manipulate it (Sapiro), the ethical aim of translation is to advance one’s national interests and priorities (Ren and Gao), and each country’s “translation capacity” can be quantified and ranked on a league table of competing nations (BFSU). Translators thus become foot-soldiers in battles to gain prestige on the world stage. Such manifestations of nationalism appear to run counter to the causes of intercultural positions and the ethics of cooperative communication between unequal parties. The need for translation nevertheless now lies more urgently in the culturally and linguistically diverse communities within and across national borders, where successful social inclusion is inseparable from the use of translation not as a weapon, but as a means of cooperation. 논문초록: 번역행위 및 사고의 프레임으로서의 상호문화주의가 민족주의와 대척점에 있는 개념이라면, 지금 상호문화주의는 민족주의에 기세가 밀리고 있는 것으로 보일 것이다. 민족주의 프레임은 다양한 형태로 새로운 동력을 얻고 있으며, 번역은 그 무기로 인식된다. 민족국가에서 번역을 지원하고 조작(Sapiro)하고 있고, 국가의 이익과 우선순위를 증진하는 것이 번역의 윤리적 목적(Ren and Gao)이며, 서로 경쟁하는 국가들의 리그 순위표 상에서 각국의 ‘번역능력(translation capacity)’을 계량화·순위화(BFSU)할 수 있기 때문이다. 이에 따라 번역사는 세계 무대에서 명성을 얻기 위한 전투에서 보병 역할을 하게 되었다. 이러한 민족주의의 발현은 상호문화주의적 입장의 대의, 그리고 불평등한 세력 사이의 협력적 소통의 윤리에 배치되는 것으로 보인다. 그럼에도 불구하고, 오늘날 각국의 국경 안팎에 자리한 문화적·언어적으로 다양한 공동체에서 번역의 필요성은 더욱 시급해지고 있다. 이들 공동체에서 사회적 포용의 성공 여부는 번역의 활용과 불가분의 관계를 가지며, 이때 번역은 무기가 아닌 협력의 수단으로 기능한다.
... So I was tracing the history of limited-term typologies, a particular idea for a histoire des idées or concept for Begriffsgeschichte. All of this in Pym (2016). ...
Conference Paper
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The initial mission is to discover how similar typologies of translation solutions were produced in Montreal and Beijing at the same time and were published in the same year, in 1958. The links lead through Ukraine in the late 1920s.
... They have been justly accused of being devoid of cognitive grounding, unable to tell students which solutions to use, badly organized, and restricted to specific language pairs (see, for example, Koller, 1979, p. 235;Delisle, 1988, p. 72-73;Séguinot, 1991;Muñoz Martín, 2000). At the same time, the traditional categories have remained remarkably stable across different theorists and different languages, without any obvious progress in terms of conceptual elegance or data-based testing (see Muñoz Martín, 2000;Pym, forthcoming). This suggests that they retain some pedagogical value, over and above the theoretical and empirical shortcomings. ...
Article
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Typologies of translation solutions have been used in translator training since at least the 1950s. Despite numerous criticisms, some of the oldest versions are still held to have pedagogical value as the toolboxes of the trade. Here we report on class activities in which two classical typologies - Vinay and Darbelnet and Loh - were learned, applied, and critically evaluated by four classes of final-year Masters students translating into a variety of European and Asian languages. It is found that students working with European languages prefer Vinay and Darbelnet, while students working with Chinese prefer Loh. The students' evaluations of the solution types nevertheless reveal surprising lacunas in both, and evince the need for some careful redefinitions. The pedagogical value of the solution types thus lies not in their capacity to describe actual translation processes, since there is a strong linguistic relativity involved, but in the way that their imperfect metalanguages allow students to reflect critically not only on their own practice but also on the difficulties of theorization.
... The term is defined by A.Pym (2016). ...
Article
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In the 21st century, even local tourist spots are globally accessible and need to be communicated in a globally shared language, a lingua franca (Ben-Rafael & Ben Rafael 2015). The language of most obvious choice among speakers from different linguacultural backgrounds is English. When translating notices in national parks into English, translators should predominantly consider the function of the TT (target text), the target audience (not exclusively L1 speakers of English but, the speakers of a variety of languacultures communicating in English as lingua franca (ELF) and opt for translation solutions that would account for visitors representing a diversity of languacultures. The present paper aims at finding out what modifications in translation of visitors’ rules may be necessary if the target readership is to be considered, and at explicating the translation process through applying a transdisciplinary perspective of ELF studies, linguistic landscape (LL) studies, cross-field studies on conceptualization, translanguaging and translation studies. The study shows that these modifications affect the significance and hierarchy of the four principles operating in LL (presentation-of-self, power-relations, good reasons and collective-identity) and are projected into specific LL-tailored translation solutions (shifts in modality, lexis, style and discourse markers). The modifications are achievable in ELF, which, as a form and function, a de-regionalized and de-culturalized artifact of global village, is capable of catering for a variety of languacultures with their specific societal conventions, practices, and the whole explicit and implicit axio-sphere.
... Upon performing a qualitative analysis of the two novels under examination, several translation strategies were observed. The range of the identified strategies is based on Pym's (2016) typology of translation solutions, in combination with the two opposing strategies by Newmark (1988), Nida (1969), andVenuti (1997 (Pym, 2016, p. 220). ...
Article
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This paper addresses the translator’s role from an ideological standpoint and seeks to show that the actions of translators are not completely arbitrary and may be influenced by a wide array of factors and especially ideologies. The basic assumption is that translators can detach texts neither from the ideologies of the source nor the target culture. This study results from qualitative research, namely a critical conceptual analysis of the selected theories of translation studies (Baker, 2006; Lefevere, 1992; Venuti, 1995). The conceptual reflection implies that translations serve as an infinite source of culture and history, serving the target but not the source culture. The critical discourse analysis of English translations of two selected novels that contain the ideologies of socialist and post-socialist era, and the Nazi ideology, suggests that the tendencies in translation strategies vary depending on diffusion of the languages, and awareness of the target culture and history.
... Cultural translation theories encourage us to think of translation as a special case of cross-cultural communication. Pym (2016) thinks that we should abandon the term 'translation' altogether and simply replace it with 'mediation' / 'translanguaging' / 'localization' in technological context. ...
... Afterwards, they can adopt various approaches to translation affected by a variety of factors including their creativity and ability to use the target language, the possibilities of the target language, the target audience, the author's style, and the text as a whole. Starting with Vinay and Darbelnet's seminal work Stylistique comparée du français et de l'anglais (1958), Translation Studies literature presents a wide range of typologies of translation techniques, strategies, procedures, solutions, etc., with different names, but with more or less the same solution types (see, for example, Newmark, 1988;Levý, 2011;Pym, 2016). For the purpose of this study, using Baker's (2017) typology of translation strategies was more practical as it specifically focuses on the translation of idioms and fixed expressions. ...
Article
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Translating into a non-mother tongue (L2 translation) has received increasing attention from translation scholars over the past two decades in response to the growing proportion of this direction in translation markets in most parts of the world. One of the aspects of L2 translation that remains a relatively uncharted territory is the role of native speakers. Although they are normally involved in relatively few translations from a language of limited diffusion into a major language directly as translators, native speakers need not be entirely absent from L2 translation as it has been suggested that they can assume diverse roles in the process and that cooperation with native speakers brings obvious benefits to L2 translators. The present study aims at providing a more complex picture of the native speaker's role(s) in L2 translation, drawing on the results of a recent project on the qualitative and sociological aspects of L2 translation. By focusing on the questionnaires that the 40 subjects , professionals and advanced translator trainees, submitted before participating in a translation experiment, the study intends to shed more light on the views, preferences and habits of Czech translators regarding their cooperation with native speakers, discussing the possibilities as well as limitations of native-speaker participation in L2 translation.
Article
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This article explores a translation procedure known as calque or loan translation, a type of text that emerged in comparative linguistics and stylistics at the end of the nineteenth century. First, it shows that the original term calque was in fact connected to the fine arts. It then goes on to analyze the imaginaries which are inherent to a loan translation. The main objective is to highlight the material relationship that developed between original texts and loan translations. By examining the acceptability and unacceptability of different loan words in the target language, Chateaubriand’s discourse on the calque à la vitre, and the etymology of the word calque, our intent is to study the similarities between original texts and their translations.
Preprint
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A six-category typology is presented with examples for translations between French and English. The principles underlying the typology are explained, as are some of the ways it can be used in class.
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For Gadamer, translation operates as an illustrative “extreme case” of interpretation, of interest to the extent that it can push the logics of less-extreme interpretative practices. Yet the main thing Gadamer consistently says about what is extreme in translation seems to be that it is a strangely intellectual process, bereft of lived experience. One can nevertheless trace threads of lived experience within translation knowledge, both through what translators say and from what translation process research reveals. Further, the nature of that experience, in exceeding its interpretations, can justify an empirical attitude to its study. Hence hermeneutics could do worse than incorporate empirical attitudes into its work on translation, rather than endlessly repeat inherited insights.
Book
This book defines "translationality" by weaving a number of sub- and interdisciplinary interests through the medical humanities: medicine in literature, the translational history of medical literature, a medical (neuroscience) approach to literary translation and translational hermeneutics, and a humanities (phenomenological/performative) approach to translational medicine. It consists of three long essays: the first on the traditional medicine-in-literature side of the medical humanities, with a close look at a recent novel built around the Capgras delusion and other neurological misidentification disorders; the second beginning with the traditional history-of-medicine side of the medical humanities, but segueing into literary history, translation history, and translation theory; the third on the social neuroscience of translational hermeneutics. The conclusion links the discussion up with a humanistic (performative/phenomenological) take on translational medicine.
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This paper presents a study on translator students’ perceptions on post-editing. Students from two different Master’s level courses were asked to post-edit machine translated texts and reflect on the differences between light and full post-editing, on the differences between translating and post-editing, on the role of error analysis and the use of the instructions given, as well as consider their own aptitudes in post-editor. The results show that their attitudes were mainly positive, but they felt that the task was challenging: leaving grammatical errors and “raw translations” in the text were considered difficult. The majority of students also thought that making a full post-editing was easier than making a light post-editing. This was also reflected in their productions, as many students returned a light edit that corresponded to a full one. Keywords: machine translation, post-editing, students’ reflections, translator, training
Article
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The translation of culture-bound expressions can be a challenge even for professional translators. This paper, therefore, explores the possibility of predicting the level of cultural competence needed in order to avoid translation errors by correlating cultural translation competence to vocabulary size. The results of our survey of Arabic professional translators show that vocabulary size was lower than expected, but vocabulary size can be an indicator of acceptable translation of culture-bound expressions, which we refer to as culture-bound items (CBIs). However, vocabulary size cannot always be used as an indicator of high quality translation. Overall, our results highlight the need for further cultural training for translators.
Article
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The translation of culture-bound expressions such as idioms, proverbs and similes can be a challenge even for professional translators who are expected to have an excellent command of the languages they work with, at least theoretically. Challenges arise when either the image or the meaning of the source language expression does not exist in the target language. For instance, the Arabic simile ‫جحا‬ ‫كمسمار‬ translates literally as "like Juha's nail" (image). However, a more suitable translation into English would in fact be along the lines of "no more than a vacuous excuse" (meaning). Therefore, in this paper, the author aims to establish, by conducting a survey of Arab professionals, the extent to which these expressions pose a challenge when translating between English and Arabic. In this survey, translators are also asked to translate selected culture-bound expressions and comment on them. The initial results will show that the translation of culture-bound expressions can indeed cause significant challenges for professional translators and that these challenges can be grouped into five categories on the basis of image and meaning. Suggestions regarding procedures will be made to overcome these cultural challenges by category. Overall, the results will suggest that there is a pressing need to increase the cultural component in translator training programmes.
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Au fil de nos diverses expériences universitaires et professionnelles, nous avons remarqué les différences fondamentales qui distinguent la traduction anglais-français de la traduction japonais-français. Au-delà du cas particulier de ces deux combinaisons linguistiques, nous nous sommes mis à nous interroger sur l’influence qu’exerce la distance entre les langues et les cultures sur la traduction de manière générale. Lorsque nous discutons de cette question avec professeurs et collègues, les réactions sont généralement aux antipodes : si certains affirment qu’il va de soi que la distance linguistique et culturelle joue un rôle en traduction, d’autres nient la pertinence même de la question.
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This paper draws from comparative rhetoric and contrastive stylistics and, by resorting to corpus linguistics methodologies, looks into possible quantitative descriptions of rhetorical deviations that are present in source texts within different language pairs and genres, in an attempt to map patterns of deviation, actual or expected, in translated texts, as a possible method to circumvent the epistemological limitations of one-to-one (language-to-language or text-to-text) comparisons. An experiment on the rhetorical use of metonymies and enthymemes within persuasive discourse in English and Spanish is discussed. Guidelines are proposed for the development of potentially comprehensive methodologies.
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Para entender por qué la traducción automática neuronal ha abierto de nuevo la discusión sobre el futuro da la profesión del traductor, es necesario conocer qué mejoras aporta respecto a sistemas de traducción anteriores, qué nuevas habilidades requiere para su integración en el ámbito de trabajo, y cómo su desarrollo ha rebajado a la categoría de mito algunas de las afirmaciones que tradicionalmente se han defendido respecto a la traducción automática.
Article
This article critically examines the oft-cited historical narrative of Translation Studies that situates its birth in the post-war West. This narrative is referred to as the mythistory of Translation Studies, as its validity derives more from its circulation than from a knowledge of other traditions. The narrative in its various iterations is first analysed as an imperial myth, positing a unitary point of origin, following a developmental trajectory, and presenting its local history as world history. The article then demonstrates the ways in which this Western mythistory contributes to the consolidation of a neocolonial geo-politics of the field, as reflected in the leading Anglophone anthologies, which present Western theory as universal while erasing or delegitimizing knowledge from the global South. The Western mythistory of the field is then provincialised by comparing it to the systematic and sustained interest in translation that arose in the Soviet Union in the nineteen twenties and thirties. This critical treatment of the mythistory is meant to open a space for heterogeneity in the field and to ensure that attempts to enlarge the field are not merely expansions.
Preprint
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A six-category typology is presented with examples for translations between Catalan and English. The principles underlying the typology are explained, as are some of the ways it can be used in class.
Chapter
This chapter illustrates the preparatory phase of the translation task, where the translator pre-reads the source text to identify translation problems in light of the specific conditions in which the translation activity takes place. Based on the two main parameters of ‘intertextuality’ and ‘intended use of the translation’, the translator chooses a macro-strategy for the whole text that will guide him/her in all the choices at the lower levels of the text in order to achieve a pragmatically successful translation. It then describes the second phase of production, consisting in the reformulation of the source text into the target language, where the translator selects the strategies to solve the problems identified in the first phase. The strategies descending from the general macro-strategy are first distinguished into the two main translation methods of ‘literal translation’ and ‘paraphrase’ and then, with a top-down procedure, are further distinguished between textual, syntactic and lexical strategies.
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Immersion ideologies long tried to banish L1 from additional-language teaching, and translation with it. Translation is now returning to the language classroom, however, bolstered by new ideas of what it can be and just a few empirical studies of what learning outcomes it can contribute to. This chapter looks back on the history of translation in additional-language teaching, with particular attention to the social contexts involved, the dominant ideologies of language learning, and the various types of translation used. The basic claim is that the exclusion of translation relied on the assumption of a monolingual community, and that this assumption necessarily relegated translation to a post-hoc checking activity. On the other hand, when the community is assumed to be multilingual, translation assumes a more central role as a set of socially useful skills and its conceptualization broadens into a range of dynamic communicative activities. This second frame is then further reinforced by the availability of online translation technologies, widely used but rarely taught. A second aspect of this history is the way in which ideologies have operated in the absence of controlled empirical research. A few new empirical results nevertheless indicate that communicative translation activities correlate with some improved learning outcomes. They might provide an occasion to improve on the past.
Article
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The nominative and communicative units are being dealt with in wordcentric and textocentric approaches. The dimensional criteria are backgrounded by linguistic attributes of referents. Investigated words and texts are extracted from the English and Ukrainian discourses. The dominant ontognoseological principle is being verified by the verbal statistic experiments. The nature of translation referents backgrounds the choice of applied methods. The verbal and mathematic statistics visualize the results of our linguistic experiment. The prospective are described vistas.
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This study investigates translation procedures employed for culture-specific items (CSIs) in Japanese tourism texts. Quantitative corpus-based methods were used to examine a unidirectional parallel corpus of texts gathered from websites promoting tourism to regional destinations. The aim of the analysis was to determine whether, and if so how, translation procedures for CSIs are conditioned by CSI category, and the impact exerted at the macro level on the image of Japan as a tourist destination. The analysis reveals that CSI category is a conditioning factor modulating the choice of translation procedure. Drawing on Lawrence Venuti’s (1995/2008) conceptual framework of domestication and foreignisation, the findings suggest a predominant tendency towards domestication in the translation of CSIs in Japanese tourism literature, airbrushing the strangeness of the source text. A key contribution is the incorporation of quantitative methods to analyse the translation of CSIs in tourism texts, notably in culturally remote source and target language communities.
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Despite being common practice in most of the world, translating from the translator’s mother tongue (inverse translation) remains a relatively uncharted territory. In an attempt to contribute to an increased awareness of inverse translation, the present paper aims to discuss the difficulties involved in this activity. Drawing on questionnaires administered to translator trainees and professional translators, the paper first explores the respondents’ views on the difficulty of this direction. Since inverse translation was considered the more difficult of the two directions by most of the respondents, an analysis was conducted of their English translations of a promotional text written in Czech. The analysis covers five segments reported as difficult to translate by most of the respondents; their solutions are commented on and contrasted with those proposed by the two native speakers of English who assessed the translations, seeking to identify the most frequent challenges specific to inverse translation from Czech into English.
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This study explores the different uses of the word little, its equivalents in Spanish and its teaching to young Spanish learners. First, it aims at analyzing the lexico-grammatical behavior of little in a corpus of children’s short stories, where its prevailing use, preceding countable nouns, has been found to be much more frequent than in other domains and registers. A contrastive study follows, which examines how little has been translated in an English-Spanish parallel corpus; the results show that diminutives constitute an important equivalent. Finally, some didactic implications are proposed, with the application of corpus-based findings to the teaching of English to young Spanish learners from an approach that combines lexical syllabi and story-based methodologies.
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