Conference Paper

Local cost of seawater RO desalination based on solar PV and wind energy: Economics, global demand and the impact of full load hours

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Abstract

Global water demand is increasing whilst the renewable water resource is diminishing. This has resulted in an increase in demand for seawater desalination, with reverse osmosis (RO) accounting for 65% of the 80.9 million m3/day of desalted water produced globally in 2013. A prevailing concern is high energy demand and availability of fossil fuel resources, resulting in the drive for renewable energy powered desalination systems. In the near future, the increasing desalination demand can be met through SWRO plants powered by hybrid PV-Wind-Battery and Power-to-Gas (PtG) power plants at a cost level competitive with current fossil fuel powered SWRO plants.Hybrid systems allow for higher full load hours and optimal utilization of the installed desalination capacity. In this paper, we provide a global estimate of the water production cost for the 2030 desalination demand with renewable electricity generation costs for 2030. The levelized cost of water (LCOW), which includes water production, electricity, water transportation and water storage costs, ranges from 0.59 €/m3 – 2.81 €/m3 for the 2030 desalination demand. The global system required to meet the 2030 global water demand is found to cost about 9790 billion € of initial investments. It is possible to overcome the water supply limitations in a sustainable and financially competitive way.

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... Water desalination plant specifications can be found in Table 6. More details on RE-powered SWRO desalination plants are provided by Caldera et al. (2015). ...
... Tab. 6: Water desalination and storage plants' specification (Caldera et al., 2015) Unit Oxygen as a byproduct of electrolysis, has a very important role in the technology used in the GtL process, particularly in the syngas production. The downstream GtL plant needs about 25% of generated oxygen in the PtG plant. ...
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... Water desalination plant specifications can be seen in Table VI. More details on RE-powered SWRO desalination plants are provided by Caldera et al. [29]. ...
... Water desalination plant specification[29]. ...
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... It is assumed that water stress greater than 50% shall be covered by see water desalination. Transportation costs are also taken into account; calculations are described in Caldera et al. [29]. ...
... Industrial gas demand values (gas demand excluding electricity generation and residential sectors) and water demand for China, Russia, Japan and South Korea are presented in the Appendix (Table XI), gas demand values are based on the National Bureau of Statistics of China [30], the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia [31] and IEA data [32]. Desalination demand numbers are based on water stress and water consumption projection [28,29]. ...
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... It is assumed that water stress greater than 50% shall be covered by seawater desalination. Transportation costs are also taken into account; calculations are described in Caldera et al. (2015). Industrial gas consumption is based on consumption and distribution data from central statistical database of the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia (2015), BP gas consumption data (BP, 2014) and IEA gas consumption projections to the year 2030 (IEA, 2014;IEA, 2013).The synthetic load data are based on public available hourly load data on a national level, e.g. for Japan but also European countries, and takes into account local data such as gross domestic product, population, temperature and power plant structure. ...
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... Water desalination plant specifications can be seen in Table VI. More details on RE-powered SWRO desalination plants are provided by Caldera et al. [29]. ...
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Fuel-parity, i.e. the intersection of fossil fuel prices with PV generation cost, represents a major milestone for further photovoltaic (PV) diffusion besides grid-parity. A fuel-parity model is presented, which is based on levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) coupled with the experience curve approach. Preconditions for a successful hybridization of PV and fossil fuel power plants are discussed. The global fossil fuel power plant capacity is analysed for the economic hybridization market potential on a georeferenced localized basis for all fossil fuel power plants. LCOE of fossil fuel power plants are converging with those of PV in sunny regions, but in contrast to PV are mainly driven by fuel cost. As a consequence of cost trends this analysis estimates an enormous worldwide market potential for PV power plants by the end of this decade in the order of at least 900 GWp installed capacity without any electricity grid constraints leading to a fast diffusion of hybrid PV-Fossil power plants. The complementary power feed-in of PV and wind power plants might result in hybrid PV-Wind-Fossil power plants in regions of good solar and wind resources. In the mid- to long-term the remaining fossil fuels might be substituted by renewable power methane by using the existing downstream natural gas infrastructure. In conclusion, PV is on the pathway to become a highly competitive energy technology.
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This study demonstrates – based on a dynamical simulation of a global, decentralized 100% renewable electricity supply scenario – that a global climate-neutral electricity supply based on the volatile energy sources photovoltaics (PV), wind energy (onshore) and concentrated solar power (CSP) is feasible at decent cost. A central ingredient of this study is a sophisticated model for the hourly electric load demand in >160 countries. To guarantee matching of load demand in each hour, the volatile primary energy sources are complemented by three electricity storage options: batteries, high-temperature thermal energy storage coupled with steam turbine, and renewable power methane (generated via the Power to Gas process) which is reconverted to electricity in gas turbines. The study determines – on a global grid with 1°x1° resolution – the required power plant and storage capacities as well as the hourly dispatch for a 100% renewable electricity supply under the constraint of minimized total system cost (LCOE). Aggregating the results on a national level results in an levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) range of 80-200 EUR/MWh (on a projected cost basis for the year 2020) in this very decentralized approach. As a global average, 142 EUR/MWh are found. Due to the restricted number of technologies considered here, this represents an upper limit for the electricity cost in a fully renewable electricity supply.
Article
Desalination capacity has rapidly increased in the last decade because of the increase in water demand and a significant reduction in desalination cost as a result of significant technological advances, especially in the reverse osmosis process. The cost of desalinated seawater has fallen below US$0.50/m3 for a large scale seawater reverse osmosis plant at a specific location and conditions while in other locations the cost is 50% higher (US$1.00/m3) for a similar facility. In addition to capital and operating costs, other parameters such as local incentives or subsidies may also contribute to the large difference in desalted water cost between regions and facilities. Plant suppliers and consultants have their own cost calculation methodologies, but they are confidential and provide water costs with different accuracies. The few existing costing methodologies and software packages such as WTCost© and DEEP provide an estimated cost with different accuracies and their applications are limited to specific conditions. Most of the available cost estimation tools are of the black box type, which provide few details concerning the parameters and methodologies applied for local conditions. Many desalination plants built recently have greater desalinated water delivery costs caused by special circumstances, such as plant remediation or upgrades, local variation in energy costs, and site-specific issues in raw materials costs (e.g., tariffs and transportation). Therefore, the availability of a more transparent and unique methodology for estimating the cost will help in selecting an appropriate desalination technology suitable for specific locations with consideration of all the parameters influencing the cost. A techno-economic evaluation and review of the costing aspects and the main parameters influencing the total water cost produced by different desalination technologies are herein presented in detail. Some recent developments, such as the increase of unit capacity, improvements in process design and materials, and the use of hybrid systems have contributed to cost reduction as well as reduction in energy consumption. The development of new and emerging low-energy desalination technologies, such as adsorption desalination, will have an impact on cost variation estimation in the future.
Article
An arid climate with limited water resources and a growing tourism industry lead to water shortages in many coastal zones. Due to increasing demand, alternatives have to be found, e.g. desalination and long-distance water piping (equal to or further than 30 km), ecological sanitation, wastewater reuse or water demand management. This paper presents a cost comparison for two options to supply water of drinking water quality: Option 1 — Desalination with the reverse osmosis technology, or Option 2 — Long-distance water piping from the Nile, for the case of the tourist city of Sharm El Sheikh (Sharm) at the Red Sea in South Sinai, Egypt. Available water resources and current as well as future water demand figures for Sharm are presented. 91% of the current water demand stems from tourism; water is supplied mainly by privately owned RO desalination plants (86%). To analyze costs for Option 1, we compiled RO desalination plant costs (capital and O&M) for 14 RO plants in Egypt and 7 elsewhere for comparison. Unit production cost (US$/m3) of water from small RO desalination plants in Egypt is in most cases lower than international trends for similar small capacity plants (250 to 5,000 m3/d), but unit O&M costs are higher. For Option 2, we present cost data for four long-distance piping projects in Egypt which pump groundwater or treated Nile water to cities in South Sinai including Sharm. We found that unit capital costs for those pipelines which are longer than 140 km, are in fact above the cost of a possible RO desalination plant at any flow capacity. For unit production cost, desalination costs are lower than long-distance piping starting from pipelines with 300 km length or more and capacity ≥2000 m3/d. Empirical basic cost equations are produced to calculate unit capital cost (US$/m3/d) and unit production cost (US$/m3) for both options in dependence of capacity for Option 1, and capacity and pipe length for Option 2. This paper is part of a more comprehensive research project to develop a decision support system for integrated water resources management in tourism-dominated arid coastal regions.
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Breyer, Ch, Tsupari, E, Tikka, V, Vainikka, P, 2015, Power-to-Gas as an Emerging Profitable Business through Creating Integrated Value Chain, 9 th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference (IRES-2015), Düsseldorf, March 9-11
Desalination techniques – A review of the preprint to be published in the proceedings of the 31 st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference
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Burn, S, Hoang, M, Zarzo, D, Olewniak, F, Campos, E, 2015, Desalination techniques – A review of the preprint to be published in the proceedings of the 31 st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, September 14 -18, 2015, Hamburg, Germany opportunities for desalination in agriculture, Desalination, 364, 2-16
MENA Regional Water Outlook Part 2 Desalination using renewable energy Final report
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Aqueduct Water Stress Projections: Decadal projections of water supply and demand using CMIP5 GCMs
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Luck, M, Landis, M, Gassert, F, 2015, Aqueduct Water Stress Projections: Decadal projections of water supply and demand using CMIP5 GCMs, Washington DC, World Resources Institute, viewed September 9, 2015, http://www.wri.org/sites/default/files/aqueduct-waterstress-projections-technical-note.pdf
World Ocean Atlas 2013, NCEI, viewed on 15 th
National Center for Environmental Information, 2013, World Ocean Atlas 2013, NCEI, viewed on 15 th June 2015, https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/woa13/woa13data.html
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Role of Desalination in Addressing Water Scarcity, ESCWA, viewed 15 th
Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia, 2009, Role of Desalination in Addressing Water Scarcity, ESCWA, viewed 15 th June 2015, http://www.escwa.un.org/information/publications/edit/up load/sdpd-09-4.pdf
Aqueduct Global Maps 2.0., Working Paper
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Gassert, F, Luck, M, Landis, M, Reig, P, Shiao, T, 2013, Aqueduct Global Maps 2.0., Working Paper. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, viewed February 2015, http://wri.org/publication/aqueduct-global-maps-20
Vital Water Graphics -An Overview of the State of the World's Fresh and Marine Waters
United Nations Environment Programme, 2008, Vital Water Graphics -An Overview of the State of the World's Fresh and Marine Waters, 2nd ed., UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya
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D. Mentis, G. Karalis, A. Zervos, M. Howells, C. Taliotis, M. Bazilian, H. Rogner, Desalination using renewable energy sources on the arid islands of the South Aegean Sea, Energy 94 (2016) 262-272.
Greenpeace International, Energy [r]evolution -a sustainable world energy outlook
Greenpeace International, Energy [r]evolution -a sustainable world energy outlook 2015, Amsterdam, A Report Commonly Published with GWEC and SPE, 2015.
Aqueduct Water Stress Projections: Decadal Projections of Water Supply and Demand Using CMIP5 GCMs, World Resources Institute
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M. Luck, M. Landis, F. Gassert, Aqueduct Water Stress Projections: Decadal Projections of Water Supply and Demand Using CMIP5 GCMs, World Resources Institute, Washington DC, 2015 ([accessed: September 9, 2015], http://www.wri.org/ sites/default/files/aqueduct-water-stress-projections-technical-note.pdf).
Bioenergy and renewable power methane in integrated 100% renewable energy systemsPhD thesis Faculty of
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M. Sterner, Bioenergy and renewable power methane in integrated 100% renewable energy systemsPhD thesis Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Kassel, 2009.
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Breyer, Ch., Bogdanov, D., Komoto, K., Ehara, T., Song, J., Enebish, N., 2015, North-East Asian Super Grid: Renewable Energy Mix and Economics, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 54, 08KJ01
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Lienhard, J, H, V, Jameel, A, L, 2015, Foreword for Special Issue: Energy and Desalination, Desalination, 366, 1