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Hormones and Behaviour: A Psychological Approach

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Hormones and Behaviour: A Psychological Approach

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Abstract

Recent advances in non-invasive sampling techniques have led to an increase in the study of hormones and behaviour. Behaviour is complex but can be explained to a large degree by interactions between various psychological and physiological components, such as the interplay between hormonal and psychological systems. This new textbook from Nick Neave offers a detailed introduction to the fascinating science of behavioural endocrinology from a psychological perspective, examining the relationships between hormones and behaviour in both humans and animals. Neave explains the endocrine system and the ways in which hormones can influence brain structure and function, and presents a series of examples to demonstrate how hormones can influence specific behaviours, including sexual determination and differentiation, neurological differentiation, parental behaviours, aggressive behaviours and cognition. This introductory textbook will appeal to second and third year social science undergraduate students in psychology and biomedicine.

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... The expression of gender, and our ability to differentiate the gender of others, is often influenced by various physical traits and characteristics. Research suggests that observers can use sexually dimorphic physical features such as body height, weight, muscularity, body hair, facial morphology, and voice pitch, to accurately differentiate adult men and women (Neave, 2008;Puts, 2010). Gender identification has been demonstrated in infants aged 10 months old (Levy & Haaf, 1994) showing that the cognitive abilities required for categorizing social information, such as gender, are present early in life. ...
... Recent work suggests that sexually dimorphic traits affect body movement in a way that may provide observers with socially relevant, sex-specific information. Sexually dimorphic characteristics develop under the influence of sex steroid hormones, most notably testosterone, and provide the basis for many subsequent observations of sex-specific behaviours in adulthood (Neave, 2008). In perceptual studies of body movement, physical strength appears to be a key sexually dimorphic characteristic affecting social perception. ...
... Men are on average, for example, taller and heavier, have more facial and bodily hair and speak with lower fundamental frequencies than do women. Men and women use these sex-specific morphological characteristics (more feminine structures in women and more masculine structures in men) to discriminate the gender of another person (Neave, 2008;Puts, 2010). ...
Article
Here we show that gender identification of male (but not female) heterosexual, right-handed dancers correlates with physical strength (measured via handgrip strength) after controlling for the effect of body-mass-index on strength. Using optical motion capture technology, we collected the dance movements of men and women for subsequent animations of uniform shape- and texture-standardized virtual characters (avatars). Short video clips (15 s) of these movements were presented to male and female adults and children, who were asked to identify the gender of the avatar. Gender identification performance was significantly higher than chance for both adults and children. Among adults (but not among children) the avatars of male dancers who were physically stronger were perceived as males significantly more often than were the avatars of male dancers who were physically weaker. There was no relationship between strength and gender identification for female dancers. We conclude that physical strength affects gender identification from human dance movements at least for male dancers, and that pre-pubertal children might not be sensitive to strength cues in dance movements.
... Existen caracterizaciones del patrón de asimetría y las malformaciones genéticas (DeLeon y Richtsmeier, 2009;Starbuck et al., 2013), funcionales, como el estudio de las maloclusiones (Sheats et al., 1998;Shah et al., 2009 o aquellos relacionados con factores ambientales como el consumo de alcohol durante la gestación (Klingenberg et al., 2010b), traumatismos faciales (Markey et al., 1980;Rajendra et al., 2009) o por el consumo de medicamentos (Enlow, 1990(Enlow, , 1996Kasperk et al., 1997;Guendelman et al., 2000;Smith et al., 2006;Neave, 2008). Todas los anteriores son posibles escenarios de respuesta al patrón de asimetría fluctuante que una población puede exhibir. ...
... Los vértices del polígono hacen referencia a los landmarks; (c) gráfica del contraste de varianza resultante del CM entre el grupo con tratamiento (círculo rojo) y sin tratamiento hormonal (círculo perímetro azul), las líneas en negro entre cada par de puntos representan la diferencia entre la varianza de ese componente en la matriz de covarianza. hormonas tienen en la configuración del macizo craneofacial (Enlow, 1990(Enlow, , 1996Kasperk et al., 1997;Neave, 2008). Inclusive, se ha especulado que las mujeres perciben cambios en su peso corporal durante la ingesta de tratamientos hormonales (Guendelman et al., 2000). ...
... A nivel fisiológico, hay evidencia de que los receptores para andrógenos y estrógenos se encuentran en las células precursoras de la formación y modificación del tejido óseo (Kasperk et al., 1997), particularmente los andrógenos incrementan la proliferación y diferenciación de osteoblastos. Los estrógenos también incrementan la formación, diferenciación y proliferación osteoblástica (Neave, 2008). Los estrógenos, cuando hay ausencia de andrógenos, provocan un decrecimiento de la formación de osteoclastos (Neave, 2008). ...
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En este trabajo se evalúa la relación entre la asimetría fluctuante facial (AFF) y los tratamientos hormonales, cirugías maxilofaciales, ortodoncia, traumatismos y malformaciones. En el marco del proyecto CANDELA, se tomaron cinco fotografías faciales de 3162 voluntarios entre los 18 y 85 años. Por fotogrametría se colocaron 34 landmarks o puntos en 3D y mediante el método Procrustes ANOVA se obtuvieron valores individuales de asimetría fluctuante facial. Se realizó una prueba de ANOVA de una vía y la prueba de Welch y Levene para conocer las diferencias entre media y varianza de los valores de asimetría facial y las variables respuesta. También, se caracterizó la variación morfológica del componente asimétrico de la forma facial mediante técnicas multivariadas sobre los grupos que resultaran diferentes significativamente. Las mujeres que reportaron haber recibido algún tipo de tratamiento hormonal mostraron mayores valores de asimetría fluctuante facial respecto al grupo sin tratamiento. Esta asociación se mantuvo una vez removido el efecto de la ancestría genética y sin interactuar con el resto de variables incluidas en el análisis. Los cambios morfológicos asociados a este factor se concentran en el mentón, maxilar labio inferior, región perifrontal, región nasal y orejas. Algunos trabajos anteriores dieron cuenta de la posible relación entre la asimetría facial y los niveles de hormonas, pero no hay estudios que sustenten la relación causal o directa entre la asociación aquí planteada. El presente trabajo es una evidencia más de la asociación entre el consumo de hormonas y modificaciones de caracteres faciales en para poblaciones urbanas mestizas latinoamericanas.
... Potential biological mechanisms behind sex differences in neurodevelopmental risk include, but are not limited to, direct sex chromosome effects, sex-specific activation patterns over the course of development of gonadal and nongonadal hormone secretion, and prenatal gonadal hormone exposures (see Becker et al., 2008;Knickmeyer & Baron-Cohen, 2006;and Neave, 2008, for reviews). Research suggests that fetal testosterone exposures in particular may have direct organizational effects on human corpus callosum size and asymmetry that in turn may help shape structural brain development, cognition, and behavior (e.g., Chura et al., 2010). ...
... The second neonatal testosterone surge takes place shortly after birth, peaking around 10-20 weeks. Sometimes referred to as "mini-puberty" (Neave, 2008), the second surge is characterized by a smaller peak, roughly a third of the magnitude of the first surge. By week 30, levels of circulating testosterone have returned to baseline levels for men and remain at levels slightly higher than women until puberty. ...
... Experiments on animals document the organizational effects of prenatal testosterone on the hypothalamus, limbic system, and neocortex as well as its effects on sexually dimorphic behaviors such as aggression, activity level, and spatial navigation (Neave, 2008). Direct manipulation in humans is impossible, and direct measurement of prenatal gonadal hormone exposures would involve risky invasive procedures. ...
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Purpose: Relative lengths of the index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers in humans represent a retrospective biomarker of prenatal hormonal exposures. For this reason, the 2D:4D digit ratio can be used to investigate potential hormonal contributions to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. This study tested potential group differences in 2D:4D digit ratios in a sample of boys with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) and examined the strength of associations between 2D:4D digit ratio and a battery of verbal and nonverbal measures. Method: A group of 29 boys affected by DLD and a group of 76 boys with typical language abilities participated (age range = 5;6-11;0 years). Scanned images were used to measure finger lengths. Language measures included the core language subtests from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition (Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003), a nonword repetition task, a sentence recall task, and the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (Rice & Wexler, 2001). Results: Significant group differences indicated lower 2D:4D digit ratios in the group with DLD. Modest associations were found between 2D:4D digit ratios and some Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition subtests. Conclusions: Prenatal hormone exposures may play a role in the etiology of some language symptoms.
... In many contexts, the two main classes of sex steroids are androgens and estrogens, of which the most important human derivatives are testosterone and estradiol. Other contexts will include progestogens as a third class of sex steroids distinct from androgens and estrogens [4]. Progesterone is the most important and only naturally occurring human progestogen. ...
... Many plant extracts have been tested for their fertility or antifertility effects on human and animal models, e.g. the crude extract of Allium sativum (Garlic) caused a decrease in serum testosterone levels with effects being evoked at a very low [3]. Gossypol herbaceum Linn invoked antifertility effects in rats at 30 mg/Kg body weight with lesser dose causing infertility in humans [4]. There is a high increase in the use of medicinal plants both by females and males of reproductive age for treatment of illnesses especially infertility [2]. ...
Article
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Gonadal hormones are responsible for the control of fertility. The understanding of their regulation is vital in solving reproductive problems such as infertility. The level at which people indiscriminately use medicinal plants due to financial and cultural factors for treating illnesses such as infertility without regards for their possible adverse effects has not been fully explored. This study was therefore conducted to determine the effects of partially purified bioactive compounds in leave extract of Jatropha tanjorensis on the gonadal hormones of male albino rats. The study was carried out using 20 male albino rats in 3 control groups and 2 treatment groups of 4 rats each. 25 mg/Kg body weight of the isolates Phytol and Lupeol were orally administered using intubation cannula for 14 days. The rats were anaesthetized with phenobarbital; blood samples collected and analyzed for hormonal assay at different intervals. No significant changes (p˂0.05) in the body weights or the testis. However, the epididymal sperm count and motility was found significantly different when compared tosustanaon-control rats. The bioactive compounds lupeol and phytol present in Jatrophat anjorensis leaves extract are antifertility agents as seen by the significant changes in the parameters studied and the semen analysis carried out.
... Across a wide range of species, males show particularly high T levels during specific periods in early development, typically during gestation or early after birth (Breedlove & Hampson, 2002;Neave, 2008). Early T exposure produces permanent changes in neural organization (Neave, 2008) and plays an important role in the sexual differentiation of a wide range of behaviors, including sex-typed play behavior. ...
... Across a wide range of species, males show particularly high T levels during specific periods in early development, typically during gestation or early after birth (Breedlove & Hampson, 2002;Neave, 2008). Early T exposure produces permanent changes in neural organization (Neave, 2008) and plays an important role in the sexual differentiation of a wide range of behaviors, including sex-typed play behavior. Effects of early T on juvenile play behavior have been experimentally demonstrated in rats (Pellis, 2002) and rhesus macaques (Goy et al., 1988), with higher T levels leading to more rough-and-tumble play. ...
Article
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Juvenile play shows sex differences in animals and humans. Animal studies and a recent study in humans suggest that testosterone exposure during early development plays a key role. Here we report on the relationship between children’s sex-typed play behavior and digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative negative correlate of prenatal testosterone. 2D:4D and sex-typed play behavior as assessed by parents were negatively correlated in a sample of 83 pre-school boys but not in a sample of 93 girls. This finding lends some support to the ideas that early testosterone has a masculinising effect upon sex-typed play behavior in humans and that 2D:4D is a valuable tool for studying effects of early testosterone on human behavior.
... In early foetal development the sex steroid hormones (principally testosterone [T] and its metabolites) are responsible for neurological and morphological sexual differentiation which provides the basis for subsequent observations of sexually-differentiated behaviours in adulthood (Morris, Jordan, & Breedlove, 2004; Neave, 2008 ). A likely explanation for sex-related differences in morphology relates to sexual selection. ...
... Our data show that sensation seeking, particularly TAS in young men, can be added to the list of hand-grip strength correlates, presumably because both are influenced by the presence of prenatal and/or circulating T (Bhasin et al., 1996; Dabbs & Morris, 1990; Fink, Neave, et al., 2006; Fink, Thanzami, et al., 2006). In addition to the primary role for the androgenic steroids in establishing neurological and morphological differentiation, which then provides the basis for subsequent sex differences in physique and behaviour (Morris et al., 2004 ), there are replicable sex differences in personality that appear to reflect differential sex steroid exposure, and it has been suggested that certain aspects of personality , such as sensation seeking, are at least partly biologically determined (Neave, 2008; Zuckerman, 1991 ). Young men in particular engage in greater sensation seeking (Daly & Wilson, 1985), and some studies have demonstrated correlates of both circulating and prenatal T with certain aspects of sensation seeking (Bogaert & Fisher, 1995; Daitzman & Zuckerman, 1980; Daitzman et al., 1978; Fink, Neave, et al., 2006; Gerra et al., 1999), though not all studies report such associations (Rosenblitt et al., 2001). ...
Article
Sensation seeking denotes the tendency to seek novel, varied, complex, and intense sensations and experiences, and describes the willingness to take risks for the sake of such experiences. Some studies have demonstrated correlates of both circulating and prenatal testosterone with sensation seeking. Hand-grip strength (as a measure of overall muscular strength) is also known to show associations with measures of circulating testosterone, and certain physical and behavioural characteristics, particularly in men. This study examines the possible relationship between hand-grip strength and sensation seeking, assessed via the Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS-V) in 117 males aged 18–30 years. A positive and significant correlation was found between hand-grip strength and SSS-V total score and thrill and adventure seeking (TAS) after controlling for weight, height, and engagement with sporting activities. We discuss our findings with reference to other studies reporting associations between biological and personality characteristics.
... These differences in swimming intensity are expected to be reflected in differences in the use of anaerobic metabolism and therefore differences in blood lactate concentrations. In reptiles, aerobic and anaerobic metabolism is influenced by steroid hormones, which control metabolic processes (Nelson, 2005; Neave, 2008). Glucocorticoid hormones influence physiological processes such as lipolysis, gluconeogenesis, lactate release from muscles (Neave, 2008) and increases in blood glucose concentration (Munck and Koritz, 1962). ...
... In reptiles, aerobic and anaerobic metabolism is influenced by steroid hormones, which control metabolic processes (Nelson, 2005; Neave, 2008). Glucocorticoid hormones influence physiological processes such as lipolysis, gluconeogenesis, lactate release from muscles (Neave, 2008) and increases in blood glucose concentration (Munck and Koritz, 1962). Glucocorticoids are involved in adjusting physiological process in response to environmental cues particularly in animals that undergo seasonal changes as part of their life history, such as migration, breeding and hibernation (McEwen and Wingfield, 2003). ...
Article
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Natal dispersal of sea turtles is an energetically demanding activity that is fuelled primarily by aerobic metabolism. However, during intense exercise reptiles can use anaerobic metabolism to supplement their energy requirements. We assessed anaerobic metabolism in dispersing hatchling loggerhead and flatback turtles by measuring the concentrations of blood lactate during crawling and at different times during the first four hours of their frenzy swim. We also measured concentrations of blood glucose and corticosterone. Blood lactate (12.13 to 2.03 mmol/L), glucose (6.25 to 3.8 mmol/L) and corticosterone (8.13 to 2.01 ng/mL) concentrations decreased significantly over time in both loggerhead and flatback hatchlings and no significant differences were found between the species. These results indicate that anaerobic metabolism makes a significant contribution to the dispersal phase of hatchling sea turtles during the beach crawl and the first few hours of the frenzy swim.
... b RT 21.40, tentatively identified as octadecanal. c RT 31.87, which was identified as a cholesteryl-or cholestenylester kingdom (Neave 2007). Furthermore, steroids are well known to occur in mammalian sebaceous and apocrine glands and appear to affect the chemistry of secretions as well as bacterial communities (Theis et al. 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Scents play an important role in the life of most terrestrial mammals and may transmit valuable information about conspecifics. Olfaction was long considered of low importance in Old World monkeys due to their relative reduction of olfactory structures and low incidence of scent-marking behavior but has been increasingly recognized for mediating social relationships in recent years. Yet, studies investigating the composition of their chemical cues remain scarce. In the present study, we analyzed the potential information content of chemicals present on the skin of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We collected axillary secretions from 60 animals of the semifree-ranging population on Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico, USA) with precleaned cotton swabs from which the secretions were subsequently extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Rhesus macaque axillary odorants varied in their overall similarity and composition. This variation was attributable to differences in sex, group membership, and kinship and further appeared to reflect age and rank in parts of our sample. The compounds most strongly associated with this variation primarily comprised larger molecular weight aldehydes and steroids. Such compounds are considered to be perceivable by the primate olfactory system through close-range interactions or through breakdown into smaller molecules by bacterial fermentation. Overall, our results provide additional evidence that odors of Old World monkeys reflect a wealth of potential information about their carrier, which provides the basis for chemical communication via body odors; however, its use by conspecifics needs to be confirmed in bioassays. Significance statement One prerequisite for olfactory communication is the presence of systematic variation in animal odors that is related to attributes such as age, sex, or kinship. The composition of odors has been examined in numerous mammals but, with the exception of humans, remains poorly understood in Old World monkeys and apes, taxonomic groups in which most species do not show scent-marking behavior. In the present study, we show that the composition of axillary secretions of an Old World monkey, the rhesus macaque, reflects sex, group membership, relatedness, and possibly also age and rank. This variation thus provides a basis for olfactory communication in Old World monkeys. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s00265-018-2479-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... The stability of women's well-being across short window of time has been scarcely investigated. Specifically, an interesting short period of time for monitoring women well-being is constituted by the menstrual cycle that may have important consequences on women's psychological processes and behaviors (Neave, 2008;Durante et al., 2011Durante et al., , 2013Pearson and Schipper, 2013;Iannello et al., 2015aIannello et al., , 2016. Among the psychological aspects that have been linked to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, particular emphasis has been placed on women emotional experience and self-representation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical research on well-being has rapidly increased in recent years. One of the most dominant issue concerns the degree of cross-situational consistency and stability of well-being across time, and this is of particular relevance to women life. The aim of this study was to verify the stability of women well-being in short windows of time, specifically across menstrual cycle phases. A within-subject design with 25 normally cycling women (range: 19–26 years) was carried out. The multidimensional assessment of well-being included the administration of psychological well-being, self-esteem, and emotional self-efficacy beliefs questionnaires during both high and low-fertility phases. The results showed the stability of the level of individual well-being across menstrual cycle phases. Albeit preliminary, results indicated that women representations of their well-being do not change according to menstrual cycle. Rather, an effective organization and integration of the entire self-system appears sustained by the stability of well-being measured through a multi-componential assessment over short periods of time.
... Because testosterone is known to increase cognition capacity (Lacreuse et al., 2012) and muscular performance (Huyghe et al., 2010), we could hypothesize a relationship between this hormone and foraging ability. Indeed, sexual steroid hormones have been found to have diverse effects on perception, attention and visuospatial processes involved during foraging behavior (Neave, 2008). Hence, we could expect that males with higher testosterone levels have the most attractive signals. ...
Article
During the breeding season, males often produce costly and extravagant displays or physical ornaments to attract females. Numerous studies have established that testosterone could directly influence the expression of certain sexual signals. However, few of these studies have focused on the indirect role that testosterone could play in modulating prey detection and visual performance to improve the foraging ability of males and hence their acquisition of nutritional resource. In the present study, we experimentally modified the testosterone levels of European tree frog males (Hyla arborea), staying in the natural range previously measured in the field, and we investigated the effect of testosterone on the foraging ability of individuals. Foraging capacities were measured on males placed in an arena with a virtual cricket moving on a computer screen. Our results demonstrated a significant effect of testosterone on the hunting behavior of H. arborea. We observed that testosterone reduced the orientation latency to virtual prey for supplemented males compared to controls. In addition, testosterone significantly increased the attack promptness of male frogs. Finally, our experiment did not demonstrate any impact of testosterone on male attack success.
... The ovulatory cycle is a monthly occurrence for most women for a substantial part of their life (Bunting and Boivin 2008). The cycle is marked by specific hormonal changes and a growing body of research indicates that the female ovulatory cycle has important consequences on how women think, feel and behave (see Neave 2008). ...
Article
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The present study aims at exploring whether the level of well-being vary as a function of fertility status in different phases of the ovulatory cycle. We investigated the multidimensional well-being, including the cognitive component of subjective well-being related to judgments about one’s life satisfaction, the psychological well-being concerning the full growth and self-realization of the individual, and self-esteem, that is the personal judgment of overall self-worth and is recognized as one indicator of well-being. On the basis of the cycle phase estimation at the moment of the experiment, one hundred and sixteen normally cycling women (M = 23.9 years, SD = 1.3, range: 20–30 years) were divided into “fertile” and “non-fertile” groups and were administered the Psychological Well-Being Scale, the Basic Self-Esteem Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance has been performed to examine whether there were differences between groups according to their ovulatory phase. All dimensions of psychological well-being, self-esteem and satisfaction with life were found to be stable in the different phases of the menstrual cycle. The implications of these results are discussed.
... More generally, men exposed to high levels of prenatal androgens develop low 2D:4D ratio [4,7]. Androgens such as testosterone are also involved in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characters , and thereby in mate choice [8,9]. Because maintaining a high level of testosterone is costly for males (e.g. ...
Article
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There is growing evidence that human second-to-fourth digit ratio (or 2D:4D) is related to facial features involved in attractiveness, mediated by in utero hormonal effects. The present study extends the investigation to other phenotypic, hormone-related determinants of human attractiveness: voice and body odour. Pictures of faces with a neutral expression, recordings of voices pronouncing vowels and axillary odour samples captured on cotton pads worn for 24 h were provided by 49 adult male donors. These stimuli were rated on attractiveness and masculinity scales by two groups of 49 and 35 females, approximately half of these in each sample using hormonal contraception. Multivariate regression analyses showed that males' lower (more masculine) right 2D:4D and lower right-minus-left 2D:4D (Dr-l) were associated with a more attractive (and in some cases more symmetrical), but not more masculine, face. However, 2D:4D and Dr-l did not predict voice and body odour masculinity or attractiveness. The results were interpreted in terms of differential effects of prenatal and circulating testosterone, male facial shape being supposedly more dependent on foetal levels (reflected by 2D:4D ratio), whereas body odour and vocal characteristics could be more dependent on variation in adult circulating testosterone levels.
... Effects produced by hormones on human behavior has been extensively studied over the last years (Neave, 2008). The effect of sex hormones on specific behaviors, such as risk behavior, is a good example. ...
Article
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The present study aims at exploring how both menstrual cycle phase and impulsivity affect risk behavior. Sixty-eight normally cycling women, who were previously assigned to "fertile" and "non-fertile" condition depending on their menstrual cycle phase at time of participation, were asked to complete the Dickman Impulsivity Inventory (DII) and to play a computerized version of the IOWA Gambling Task (IGT). Results indicate a significant interaction between the menstrual cycle phase and the dysfunctional impulsivity level on the total amount of IGT gains, with low dysfunctional impulsivity women during their "fertile" phase winning the largest amount of money. Implications of the results are discussed within the evolutionary theoretical perspective.
... Hormonal activity mainly depends on their chemical composition such as steroids, eicosanoids and hormones composed of amino acid derivatives and pH niche. Hormones communicate within organs as chemical messengers and thereby help to accomplish the physiological processes including metabolism, respiration, reproduction, growth and development (Folkman, 2013;Neave, 2007). These chemical messengers often initiate the expression of target proteins of a metabolic pathway as secondary messenger. ...
... Kod životinjskih vrsta pronađen je sličan obrazac rasporeda receptora za estrogen. Ključne lokacije pronađene su u raznim dijelovima živčanoga sustava (anteriorne i ventromedijalne hipotalamičke jezgre, amigdala) (Neave, 2008), koji sudjeluju u emocionalnoj regulaciji, seksualnom ponašanju i slično. Djelujući na brojne neurotransmiterske sustave, posebno na dopaminergične, acetilkolinergične i serotonergične mehanizme sinaptičkoga prijenosa (Fink, Sumner, Rosie, Grace i Quinn, 1996;Sherwin, 2005), estrogen povećava aktivacijsku razinu organizma. ...
Article
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Previous studies have shown higher jealousy in women's reaction to partner's emotional, compared to sexual infidelity. Differences in jealousy over two infidelity types might change during the menstrual cycle. According to the evolutionary hypothesis, a greater jealousy over partner's emotional infidelity was expected in the preovulatory phase when conception is possible and greater jealousy over sexual infidelity in the menstrual phase. Following this, the aim of the study was to investigate the differences in electrodermal reactions (EDR) and assessments of jealousy over partner's emotional and sexual infidelity during the menstrual and preovulatory phase. A group of 26 female participants with a regular menstrual cycle took part in the study during the 13th and the 2nd day of the menstrual cycle. EDR were registered in the control situation and in situations of imagining two infidelity types. Participants also assessed the intensity of jealousy on a five-point scale. General activation and EDR were higher in the preovulatory phase. No differences in EDR between imagining the partner's sexual and emotional infidelity were obtained. Emotional jealousy was estimated higher during the preovulatory phase, while sexual jealousy was higher during the menstrual phase.
... Sexual behavior in male rats is partially regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) released from the hypothalamus triggers the release of luteinizing hormone (LH), which in turn stimulates the release of testosterone from the testes [16,17]. Male rats reflexively release testosterone when they smell (anticipatory releases) or mate (ejaculatory release) with a novel receptive female; this testosterone release is in addition to normal surges called 'spontaneous release' which occur throughout the day [17][18][19][20][21][22]. ...
Article
Male rat sexual behavior has been intensively studied over the past 100 years, but few studies have examined how sexual behavior changes over the course of several days of interactions. In this experiment, adult male rats in the experimental group (n = 12) were given daily access to estrus females for 30 min per day for 15 consecutive days while control males (n = 11) did not interact with females. Ovariectomized females were induced into estrus with hormonal injections, and males interacted with a different female each day. The amount of sexual activity (mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations) was found to cycle with a period of approximately 4 days in most male rats. Additionally, blood was collected every other day following sexual interactions to assess serum testosterone levels. Testosterone was found to peak on the first day of interaction and then fell back to near the level of control rats that did not interact with females. Following the initial peak, testosterone concentrations fluctuated less in males exposed to females than in controls. Sexual activity was not found to predict testosterone concentration. We conclude that when male rats have daily sexual interactions, sexual behavior tends to show cyclic changes and testosterone is significantly elevated only on the first day of interactions.
... There is some support for the relationship between T and immunocompetence in various animal species (see Klein (2000) for review), but it should be noted that support for this relationship remains inconclusive (Roberts, Buchanan, & Evans, 2004). In human males, sex-typical traits including facial and body features develop during puberty as a function of androgenic steroid action (for review see Neave, 2008 ). A number of studies have provided support for the link between male circulating T levels and phenotypic features including facial masculinity (Penton-Voak & Chen, 2004; Pound, Penton-Voak, & Surridge, 2009), greater body height, and muscle mass (Bhasin, 2003 ). ...
Article
Thornhill and Grammer (1999) have argued that certain facial and bodily features in women serve as ‘honest’ signals of their reproductive quality and that these features comprise a single condition-dependent ornament. Here we test whether the hypothesis that male faces and bodies also comprise such a sexual ornament. Photographs of faces and bodies (front and back views) of 43 males subjects were rated independently by a total of 78 female volunteers in terms of ‘attractiveness’, ‘masculinity’, and ‘dominance’. Ratings of male faces correlated significantly positively with the same ratings of their bodies. Thus, if a face was rated as being attractive, dominant and masculine, then the body was rated in the equivalent manner. Males who possess attractive, masculine, and dominant looking faces also possess attractive, masculine, and dominant looking bodies, probably because of similar patterns of underlying proximate mechanisms that affect their development.
... One anthropometric feature that may be related to masculinity and dominance is physical strength, because of its association with T (e.g., Auyeung et al., 2011;Bhasin et al., 2001). Even after controlling for body height and weight, men-on average-are stronger than women (Miller et al., 1993;Musselman and Brouwer, 2005), and T plays a key role in this robust sex difference, as it has potent effects on the musculoskeletal system (Evans, 2004;Neave, 2008). Fink et al. (2007) hypothesized that women can assess male physical strength from facial features and consider them in their evaluation of mate quality. ...
Article
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Evolutionary psychologists claim that women have adaptive preferences for specific male physical traits. Physical strength may be one of those traits, because recent research suggests that women rate faces of physically strong men as more masculine, dominant, and attractive. Yet, previous research has been limited in its ability to statistically map specific male facial shapes and features to corresponding physical measures (e.g., strength) and ratings (e.g., attractiveness). The association of handgrip strength (together with measures of shoulder width, body height, and body fat) and women's ratings of male faces (concerning dominance, masculinity, and attractiveness) were studied in a sample of 26 Caucasian men (aged 18-32 years). Geometric morphometrics was used to statistically assess the covariation of male facial shape with these measures. Statistical results were visualized with thin-plate spline deformation grids along with image unwarping and image averaging. Handgrip strength together with shoulder width, body fat, dominance, and masculinity loaded positively on the first dimension of covariation with facial shape (explaining 72.6%, P < 0.05). These measures were related to rounder faces with wider eyebrows and a prominent jaw outline while highly attractive and taller men had longer, narrower jaws and wider/fuller lips. Male physical strength was more strongly associated with changes in face shape that relate to perceived masculinity and dominance than to attractiveness. Our study adds to the growing evidence that attractiveness and dominance/masculinity may reflect different aspects of male mate quality.
... Sexual behaviour or libido, protrusion and ejaculation timein breeding bulls are partially regulated and controlled by hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadalaxis. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) released from the hypothalamus triggers the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), which in-turn stimulates to release of androgen, testosterone from the Leydig cells of testes to enhance the spermatogenesis (Neave, 2008;Nyby, 2008). Moreover, alteration in the episodic secretion of GnRH regulate the secretion of the gonadotrophins such as LH as well as FSH in the breeding bull and thus ultimately control the testicular function for production of androgen as well as spermatogenesis (Courot, 1978;Rodriguez and Wise, 1989). ...
... It is evident that hormones are involved in many processes of the body like growth, development, and reproduction (Neave, 2008), leptin is one of them. It is encoded by LEP/ob gene, which is located on the 5 th chromosome in ovine. ...
Article
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Leptin hormone, encoded by LEP gene, has significant importance in regulating various functions like growth, puberty, reproduction and milk production in both animals and humans. The sequence variations have been studied, reported and associated with many growth traits like weaning weight, six month body weight and nine-month body weight etc. in cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep worldwide. LEP gene polymorphism and associations have not been extensively reported in Lohi sheep of Pakistan, so this study aimed to find any variations in gene sequence and possible association with growth rate to explore meat potential of this breed. A total of 18 Lohi animals were selected from the flock. After the DNA extraction from blood samples, a 1486 bp fragment of exon three was amplified and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed single nucleotide polymorphism (T>A at position 483) and a heterozygous condition (T>W at position 483). Generalized linear model was used to minimize the environmental effects. The variation i.e. “W” type heterozygous condition showed a higher average daily weight gain. Sequence analysis of LEP gene confirmed the presence of genetic variability among Lohi animals; this variation might be associated with other economic traits for future breeding programs and marker assisted selection.
... Sebaliknya, mereka yang mengalami depresi mengalami berbagai kesulitan hidup dan sakit penyakit lainnya (Veenhoven, 2008). Kebenaran pernyataan Alkitab tersebut dikonfirmasi oleh temuantemuan di bidang neurosains modern mengenai hormon hormon kebahagiaan dan juga hormonhormon stres yang diproduksi di dalam otak ketika manusia berada dalam kondisi suasana perasaan berbeda tersebut, beserta akibatnya pada kesehatan (Neave, 2008). ...
Chapter
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Alkitab sudah sejak awal berisi kisah-kisah yang mencakup kesehatan mental maupun gangguan mental. Bahasa yang digunakan oleh Alkitab mengenai kesehatan mental pada masa itu, meskipun memiliki istilah yang sama, tentunya berbeda dengan bahasa masyarakat saat ini. Istilah penyakit yang sama, bukan berarti penyakitnya sama dengan yang dimaksud oleh masyarakat saat ini. Kerasukan merupakan terminologi umum yang digunakan dalam Alkitab untuk menunjukkan berbagai macam penyakit baik fisik ataupun mental, atau bahkan keputusan salah yang dibuat oleh seseorang, untuk menunjukkan peranan kuasa/roh jahat pada kehidupan manusia. Teolog perlu mengenal dan memperdalam pengetahuan di bidang kesehatan/gangguan mental sehingga memperkaya sudut pandang dalam menafsir Alkitab maupun dalam praktik pelayanan penggembalaan di jemaat. Yesus dengan model pemulihannya yang holistik bisa menjadi acuan gereja modern dalam melayani jemaatnya. Jemaat yang sehat itu bukan hanya sekadar diri bebas dari penyakit dan penderitaan, namun memiliki kehidupan spiritual, keluarga, dan komunitas yang selaras.
... La agresión es un comportamiento complejo que está influido por factores genéticos, fisiológicos, psicológicos y sociales (Neave, 2008). La variable biológica que más influye en la agresión es el sexo: los niños muestran más comportamientos agresivos que las niñas (Cui, Colasante, Malti, Ribeaud y Eisner, 2016) La agresividad tiene una función reactiva y proactiva. ...
Book
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Libro de capítulos del XI Congreso Internacional y XVI Nacional de Psicología Clínica
... Hormones are chemical messengers produced by glands that are used to communicate between organs and tissues through the circulatory system. The major function of hormones is to regulate physiological and behavioural activities such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, sensory perception, sleep, stress, growth and reproduction (Neave, 2007). Based on their chemical structure hormones are classified into four classes which include (i) Aminoacid derivatives (Thyroxin), (ii)Peptides, polypeptides and proteins (Insulin), (iii) Eicosanoids (Prostaglandins), and (iv) Steroid (Testosterone) (Marieb and Hoehn, 2007). ...
Article
In today's digital age to feed this ever increasing population there is a high demand for more production of food. To meet this task, artificial hormones are being used to increase the production of milk and meat. In this review, we address the controversial issue of adverse effects of hormones being administered in cattle. Oestradiol, Progesterone, Testosterone, Zeranol, Trenbolone and Melengestrol hormones are approved by U.S. food and drug administration (FDA) for commercial use. These have been found to be used to increase the quantity of milk and meat in cattle but their adverse effects being observed on the consumers as they cause cancer and premature puberty in children. Similarly the utilization of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) in cattle is seen to be a burning issue as it causes cancer. Here, we present a deeper insight to above mentioned content
... It helped to uncover the unexplored biological dispositions related to nonpecuniary motivations. Testosterone's influence manifests through a desire for gaining social status, territorial and competitive behavior, a sense of control and achievement, social extraversion, extending relationships, and in some cases, gender assertion [75,104,105]. The findings align with previous studies' results, which found that high testosterone levels are linked with increased neural reactivity to emotional stimuli. ...
Article
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User-generated innovation has contributed to the growth of the democratization of open-innovation models. One of the most common forms of user-generated innovation is evident on social media platforms. The purpose of this study is to investigate nonpecuniary motivations that drive innovation among user innovators on social media platforms. Furthermore, the study examines the underlying sociopsychological and biological dispositions that influence nonpecuniary motivation. The experimental and control group consisted of 204 user innovators on different social media platforms who filled out a self-reporting questionnaire in this exploratory research design. The study assessed endocrinal biomarkers through a proxy measure of 2D:4D ratio associated with behavioral, emotional, and social behavior. It developed a moderated-mediation model evaluating the indirect conditional relationships through a regression-based analysis with bootstrapped estimations. The findings support the moderated-mediation model, indicating that nonpecuniary motivation primarily explains user innovator behavior. Hedonic emotions, characterized by aesthetics, experiential enjoyment, and satisfaction-related feelings, mediate this relationship. A critical finding of the study is that endocrinal testosterone moderates this mediated relationship. This study is the first to apply a biopsychosocial lens to examine motivational drives influencing user-generated innovation using a moderated-mediation model. It contributes to understanding user innovators’ tricky motivational purposes, emphasizing the role of human agency in advancing the open-innovation agenda.
... In many contexts, the two main classes of sex steroids are androgens and estrogens, of which the most important human derivatives are testosterone and estradiol. Other contexts will include progestogens as a third class of sex steroids distinct from androgens and estrogens [1]. Progesterone is the most important and only naturally occurring human progestogen. ...
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Pituitary gonadal hormones are responsible for the control of fertility. Understanding the regulation of these hormones is vital in solving infertility problems. The levels at which humans consume these medicinal plants without regards for their possible adverse effects has not been fully explored. This study was conducted to determine the acute toxicity and effects of methanolic leaves extract of Jatropha tanjorensis on the gonadal hormones of male albino rats. From the study, the LD 50 of methanolic leaves extract in male albino rats was determined to be >6500 mg/kg body weight with no mortality recorded at this dose. The 650 mg/kg body weight of methanolic leaves extract was found to have a significantly (p<0.05) greater reducing effect on the gonadal hormones than sustanon and Amlodipine controls. No significant changes in the body weights or testis were observed. Conversely, the testosterone levels decreased significantly (p˂0.05); similarly, a decrease was observed in FSH and LH (p˂0.05) in treated rats. Epididymal sperm count and motility reduced significantly as compared to sustanon control. These findings reveal that the methanolic leaves extract of Jatropha tanjorensis are nontoxic class of substances at 650 mg/kg and is an antifertility agent.
... Pituitary tumors arise from highly differentiated anterior pituitary cells, and may hypersecrete hormones including GH, prolactin (PRL), ACTH, and rarely FSH, LH or TSH, or may be nonfunctional (1). These hormones act as messenger molecules to distant organs to regulate physiology and/or behavior (2). In patients with acromegaly, a pituitary somatotroph adenoma hypersecretes GH, which drives hepatic overproduction of insulin-like growth factor I and leads to development of metabolic and cardiovascular sequelae (3). ...
Article
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Context Identification and biological actions of pituitary-derived exosomes remain elusive. Objective To validate production of exosomes derived from human and rat pituitary and elucidate their actions. Methods Isolated extracellular vesicles (EVs) were analyzed by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) and expressed exosomal markers detected by Western blot, using non-pituitary fibroblast FR and myoblast H9C2 cells as controls. Exosome inhibitor GW4869 was employed to detect attenuated EV release. Exosomal RNA contents were characterized by RNA-seq. In vitro and in vivo hepatocyte signaling alterations responding to GH1-derived exosomes (GH1-exo) were delineated by mRNA-seq. GH1-exo actions on protein synthesis, cAMP response, cell motility and metastases were assessed. Results NTA, exosomal marker detection, and GW4869 attenuated EV release, confirming the exosomal identity of pituitary EVs. Hydrocortisone increased exosome secretion in GH1 and GH3 cells, suggesting a stress-associated response. Exosomal RNA contents showed profiles distinct for pituitary cells, and rat primary hepatocytes exposed to GH1-exo exhibited transcriptomic alterations distinct from those elicited by GH or PRL. Intravenous GH1-exo injection into rats attenuated hepatic Eif2ak2 and Atf4 mRNA expression, both involved in cAMP responses and amino acid biosynthesis. GH1-exo suppressed protein synthesis and forskolin-induced cAMP levels in hepatocytes. GH1-exo treated HCT116 cells showed dysregulated p53 and MAPK pathways and attenuated motility of malignant HCT116 cells, and decreased tumor metastases in nude mice harboring splenic HCT116 implants. Conclusions Our findings elucidate biological actions of somatotroph-derived exosomes and implicate exosomes as non-hormonal pituitary-derived messengers.
... The chemical orientation of body functions is in control of the endocrine system which regulates the internal secretions to convey its messages. To do so, the hormones are secreted by ductless glands and transported to the specific target cells by using blood as a vessel (Neave 2008). On the other hand, the nervous system controls communication through the body with electrical impulses. ...
Chapter
The subjective experience of emotions which is usually caused by a specific stimulus either real or virtual typically gets accompanied by physiological and behavioral changes in the body. An essential part of the gaming experience is formed by emotional responses, as physiological responses are not affected by subjective tendencies, considering those physiological responses may contribute to the insights of game user research. In this chapter, the origins of psychophysiological responses will be examined on a theoretical basis along with a review of the psychophysiological measurement methods previously employed in the game studies. We will explore their relationship with emotional responses as well as their correspondence with the self-report based evaluations.
... The entire male reproductive system is dependent on hormones which are involved in fertility and sexuality and are usually produced in the testes [25]. The primary hormones involved in the functioning of the male reproductive system are follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone. ...
Article
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Medicinal plants are plants used for medicinal purposes and are commonly used in treating and preventing specific ailments and diseases that are generally considered to be harmful to humans. Gongronema latifolium is a well-known plant that is beneficial in preventing and treating certain diseases and ailment due to their phytochemical constituents. This study evaluates the effect of ethanol leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium on the reproductive system of male Albino rats using standard methods. Twenty-five male rats equally divided into five groups and five female rats were used. Group I and 2…. .II served as the Normal and Positive controls and were orally administered with distilled water and subcutaneously standard drug; testosterone respectively. The other three groups were orally treated with Gongronema latifolium extract at low, middle and high dosage (200,300 and 400ml/kg body weight) respectively. After 7 days of treatment, the female rats were introduced into the male cages in the ratio 1:1 (male: female) to ascertain for the different aphrodisiac parameters. Treatment continued for another 7 days after which the male animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hormonal assay. Results showed that all the aphrodisiac frequencies had a significant increase (p≤0.001) in mounting frequency, intromission frequency and penile erectile frequency when compared with the controls while the mounting latency, intromission latency, ejaculatory latency and penile erectile latency were significantly reduced (p≤0.001) in comparison with the controls in this study. Most of the reproductive hormones were significantly increased (p≤0.001) in the extract treatment group when compared to the controls. Thus, this study suggests that the crude leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium may possess aphrodisiac properties and consequently on the reproductive system.
... 2.6.1 The endocrine system models The endocrine system is the set of glands in the body that produce hormones directly into the circulatory system in order to regulate physiological and behavioral activities (Neave, 2008). Hormones are used to communicate between organs and tissues. ...
Chapter
Mathematical modeling and control theory in physiology is a rather new area of research compared to other control applications such as chemical processes, robotics and aerospace. Yet, several significant developments have been recently emerged. As control theory is in the center of future medicine and to have a better understanding of these complex processes, this chapter presents a comprehensive literature survey of recent developments in mathematical modeling and control of physiological systems. These new investigations and results are of huge importance as they can be used by doctors to establish a diagnosis, to understand the interrelationship among physiological variables and to predict the dynamic behavior of some diseases. Furthermore, the human body contains a natural and autonomous control process that can maintain the human life and, in many cases, certain failures in the body process require external control laws in order to regulate its natural behavior via commercial artificial organs and assistive technologies. In this survey chapter, over 200 references in the open literature are compiled to provide an overall picture of this application area in control theory and reveal its wealth and significance. Challenges and future trends based on the review of this research field are also expanded.
... Thus, they play role in numerous processes of biological recognition, such as attachment of bacteria and viruses to their targets (e.g., hemagglutinins that bind to tissue-specific glycans of glycoproteins and glycolipids on the surface of host cells) or in immune system response (e.g., manose-binding lectin that mediates firstline defense against invading microorganisms) (Maverakis et al., 2015;Soto and Hultgren, 1999). Before-mentioned receptors and hormones, signaling molecules produced by glands that mediate communication between tissues and organs for regulation of physiological and behavioral activities, are highly specific binding proteins (Berg et al., 2002;Neave, 2007). Another paramount protein function inside the cell is as transmembrane ligand transporters which enable transport of ions and small molecules through the membrane hydrophobic core. ...
Chapter
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Proteins are a group of large and complex molecules that serve numerous roles in the body, ranging from structural to regulation functions. As bioactive peptides, they constitute a significant portion of plants and other food sources and are of great interest to human population for their health benefits. They also possess a tremendous industrial potential, particularly upon introduction of engineering techniques that allow enhancement of enzyme properties for more efficient biocatalysis applicable in food, pharmaceutical, medical, and nanobiotechnology industries. Current efforts are being put into optimization of protein and peptides extraction and identification techniques, which could account for their better exploitation. One of the major concerns, however, is reduction of interactions between medications and proteins consumed as part of the regular diet, as well as enhancement of protein-based drugs oral bioavailability. This book chapter discusses all the mentioned points, from historical perspective to the novel contemporary discoveries.
... Hormones are chemical messengers produced by glands that are used to communicate between organs and tissues through the circulatory system. The major function of hormones is to regulate physiological and behavioural activities such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, sensory perception, sleep, stress, growth and reproduction (Neave, 2007). Based on their chemical structure hormones are classified into four classes which include (i) Aminoacid derivatives (Thyroxin), (ii)Peptides, polypeptides and proteins (Insulin), (iii) Eicosanoids (Prostaglandins), and (iv) Steroid (Testosterone) (Marieb and Hoehn, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
In today's digital age to feed this ever increasing population there is a high demand for more production of food. To meet this task, artificial hormones are being used to increase the production of milk and meat. In this review, we address the controversial issue of adverse effects of hormones being administered in cattle. Oestradiol, Progesterone, Testosterone, Zeranol, Trenbolone and Melengestrol hormones are approved by U.S. food and drug administration (FDA) for commercial use. These have been found to be used to increase the quantity of milk and meat in cattle but their adverse effects being observed on the consumers as they cause cancer and premature puberty in children. Similarly the utilization of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) in cattle is seen to be a burning issue as it causes cancer. Here, we present a deeper insight to above mentioned content
... Hormones in very low concentration control and regulate the activity of certain cells and organs in the human body 1 . Numerous diseases, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular, adenoma, hyperplasia, and cancer, are related to hormone imbalance 2-7 . ...
Article
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Hormones within very low levels regulate and control the activity of specific cells and organs of the human body. Hormone imbalance can cause many diseases. Therefore, hormone detection tools have been developed, particularly over the last decade. Peptide hormones have a short half-life, so it is important to detect them within a short time. In this study, we report two types of peptide hormone sensors using human hormone receptor-carrying nanovesicles and graphene field-effect transistors (FETs). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and glucagon (GCG) are peptide hormones present in human blood that act as ligands to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this paper, the parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR) and the glucagon receptor (GCGR) were expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK-293) cells, and were constructed as nanovesicles carrying the respective receptors. They were then immobilized onto graphene-based FETs. The two hormone sensors developed were able to detect each target hormone with high sensitivity (ca. 100 fM of PTH and 1 pM of GCG). Also, the sensors accurately recognized target hormones among different types of peptide hormones. In the development of hormone detection tools, this approach, using human hormone receptor-carrying nanovesicles and graphene FETs, offers the possibility of detecting very low concentrations of hormones in real-time.
... Hormones are secreted by a special group of cells called endocrine glands. They play a pivotal in controlling and regulating the activity of certain cells, and organs in the human body [196][197][198][199][200][201]. Various diseases such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular, adenoma, hyperplasia, and cancer are related to hormone imbalance. ...
... Hormones are secreted by a special group of cells called endocrine glands. They play a pivotal in controlling and regulating the activity of certain cells, and organs in the human body [196][197][198][199][200][201]. Various diseases such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular, adenoma, hyperplasia, and cancer are related to hormone imbalance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Given the huge economic burden caused by chronic and acute diseases on human beings, it is an urgent requirement of a cost-effective diagnosis and monitoring process to treat and cure the disease in their preliminary stage to avoid severe complications. Wearable biosensors have been developed by using numerous materials for non-invasive, wireless, and consistent human health monitoring. Graphene, a 2D nanomaterial, has received considerable attention for the development of wearable biosensors due to its outstanding physical, chemical, and structural properties. Moreover, the extremely flexible, foldable, and biocompatible nature of graphene provide a wide scope for developing wearable biosensor devices. Therefore, graphene and its derivatives could be trending materials to fabricate wearable biosensor devices for remote human health management in the near future. Various biofluids and exhaled breath contain many relevant biomarkers which can be exploited by wearable biosensors non-invasively to identify diseases. In this article, we have discussed various methodologies and strategies for synthesizing and pattering graphene. Furthermore, general sensing mechanism of biosensors, and graphene-based biosensing devices for tear, sweat, interstitial fluid (ISF), saliva, and exhaled breath have also been explored and discussed thoroughly. Finally, current challenges and future prospective of graphene-based wearable biosensors have been evaluated with conclusion. Graphical abstract Graphene is a promising 2D material for the development of wearable sensors. Various biofluids (sweat, tears, saliva and ISF) and exhaled breath contains many relevant biomarkers which facilitate in identify diseases. Biosensor is made up of biological recognition element such as enzyme, antibody, nucleic acid, hormone, organelle, or complete cell and physical (transducer, amplifier), provide fast response without causing organ harm.
... Hormones serve as means to communicating between tissues and organs for behavioral activities and physiological regulation, such as metabolism, respiration, tissue function, digestion, sensory perception, growth and development, mood, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, movement, and reproduction (Neave, 2008). Distant cells are affected by hormones as the hormones bind to specific receptor proteins in the target cells causing a change in function of cell. ...
Article
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The study evaluated the impacts of plastic pollution on the sustainability of seafood value chain. The world aquaculture production in 2016 stood at 80.0 million tons of food fish, gradually declined by 0.3 million tons to 79.7 million tons in 2017, and rose to 81.4 million tons in 2018. Global aquaculture production maintained relatively steady increase from 2011 to 2018. Plastic pollution can afflict oceans, land, and waterways. It is estimated that about 1.1 to 8.8 million metric tons of plastic waste enters the world ocean from coastal communities every year. Living organisms, mostly marine animals, can be injured either by the mechanical effects, such as the entanglement in plastic objects and problems related to the ingestion of plastic wastes, or via exposure to chemicals in plastics that interfere with their body physiology. Also, humans are affected by plastic pollution, by disruption of various hormonal mechanisms, etc. The mainstream plastic wastes accumulations in the environment have adversely affected both terrestrial and aquatic wildlife and wildlife habitat (habitation); with humans utterly affected by the growing rate of plastic pollution. More than 5 trillion pieces and fragments of plastic wastes are distributed in the world oceans worldwide. If the plastic pollution problem is not solved, by 2050, there possibly will be more plastic wastes in the world oceans, rivers, lakes, etc. than fishes and other aquatic organisms; this puts the sustainability of seafood value chain in threat. There are three main pathways by which plastic debris always affect wildlife; entanglement, ingestion, interaction. Entanglement in plastic debris is responsible for the deaths (both reported and unreported) of many aquatic organisms, such as fish, seals, and turtles, as well as birds. These marine animals get caught up in the plastic debris and end up suffocating/drowning. Greenpeace International (2018) stated that in a 2006 report called Plastic Debris in the World's Oceans, it was estimated that over 267 different species of animals have suffered entanglement and plastic debris ingestion. It was estimated that at least 400,000 aquatic mammals perish annually as a result of plastic pollution in oceans. Interaction includes the contact with plastic debris (with exclusion of entanglement) including abrasions, use as substrate, collisions, and obstructions. Many marine animals, especially Whales and Sea turtles, are affected by the pollution caused by plastics through ingestion. Large quantities of plastic wastes have been found in stomachs of beached whales. A pilot whale was found almost dead in June 2018, and later died, in a water canal at Southern Thailand close to the border with Malaysia after it swallowed more than 80 pieces of plastic bags which weighed up to 3Ib. Some species of sea turtle are jelly fish consumers, but regularly mistake plastic bags for their natural prey, jelly fish. This plastic debris may kill the sea turtle by the obstruction of its oesophagus. Deep sea animal species have been found with quantities of plastics in their stomachs. Microplastics ingestions have been indicated to occur for various organisms.
Article
The paper presents an ongoing research project that aims to help individuals with mild psychological disorders, like depression, to reduce the use of medication and escape a possible addiction to drugs by transforming their immediate or broader living space into a sensponsive environment. It is an innovative, multidisciplinary, non-invasive approach through the domains of architecture, computer science, psychology and endocrinology. Initially, the paper presents the connections between space and human behavior, and specifically, the ways in which the spatial qualities of the surrounding environment affect the human senses and consequently the hormonal changes and the production of the corresponding emotions and actions. As a next step, the paper outlines the creation of sensponsive environments that are programmed to sense human discomfort by monitoring changes in facial expression and body movement and respond to them accordingly by transforming their spatial elements in order to make people feel better. The proposed sensponsive spaces are equipped with biomedical monitoring systems, smart materials and sensor-actuator assemblies with programmed re-actions (haptic, olfactory, chromatic and so on) that help people refine their feeling of the surrounding space, guiding its smooth transition to a comfortable--for the body and the mind-place. The paper concludes with the next step of this research initiative, the sensponsive suit, a personalized wearable assembly enhanced with technology to positively affect the psychological health of the wearer.
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Previous reviews of stress, and the stress hormone cortisol, in fish have focussed on physiology, due to interest in impacts on aquaculture production. Here, we discuss cortisol in relation to fish welfare. Cortisol is a readily measured component of the primary (neuroendocrine) stress response and is relevant to fish welfare as it affects physiological and brain functions and modifies behaviour. However, we argue that cortisol has little value if welfare is viewed purely from a functional (or behavioural) perspective-the cortisol response itself is a natural, adaptive response and is not predictive of coping as downstream impacts on function and behaviour are dose-, time- and context-dependent and not predictable. Nevertheless, we argue that welfare should be considered in terms of mental health and feelings, and that stress in relation to welfare should be viewed as psychological, rather than physiological. We contend that cortisol can be used (with caution) as a tractable indicator of how fish perceive (and feel about) their environment, psychological stress and feelings in fish. Cortisol responses are directly triggered by the brain and fish studies do indicate cortisol responses to psychological stressors, i.e., those with no direct physicochemical action. We discuss the practicalities of using cortisol to ask the fish themselves how they feel about husbandry practices and the culture environment. Single time point measurements of cortisol are of little value in assessing the stress level of fish as studies need to account for diurnal and seasonal variations, and environmental and genetic factors. Areas in need of greater clarity for the use of cortisol as an indicator of fish feelings are the separation of (physiological) stress from (psychological) distress, the separation of chronic stress from acclimation, and the interactions between feelings, cortisol, mood and behaviour.
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El ordenamiento territorial participativo (OTP) debe concebirse como un medio que facilite la construcción de conciencia sobre el aprovechamiento y cuidado de la tierra, la necesidad de impulsar la apropiación democrática del territorio y el desarrollo social. Debe además establecer, con la mayor precisión posible, alternativas de cambio en estructuras y procesos que inciden sobre la evolución del conjunto integrado por la sociedad, el territorio y sus ecosistemas. El OTP representa así una compleja metodología que conjuga criterios y procedimientos para planear, desde una aproximación geográfica, transformaciones necesarias y deseables en las expresiones sociales y ambientales. El libro se dirige hacia ámbitos de formación académica que pueden situarse entre etapas intermedias y avanzadas de pregrado hasta nivel de posgrado. Además, puede aportar referentes teóricos y metodológicos en el terreno académico de investigación y ejecución técnica relacionados con acciones dirigidas a promover el OTP a escala local.
Chapter
Metabolism is a chain of chemical reactions that are connected in a sequence of pathways. Thus, the sum of an organism’s chemical reactions is called metabolism. It is a harmonizing act among molecular building reactions and degradation of molecules in the body. Therefore, the chemical reactions of living are planned through metabolic pathways. A specific molecule is transformed into a specific molecule, with a specific enzyme that catalyzes each step of the metabolic pathway. The capacity to perform work (biomass energy) is the study of how organisms manage their energy resources. Energy exists in numerous forms, and cells transform chemical energy into mechanical one; body motion, pumping of substances across membranes, and driving chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed. In cells, critical molecules are either built by connecting small units such as amino acids or nucleotides or degraded into smaller components. Respectively, the reactions responsible for this are referred to as anabolic and catabolic. These reactions consume or yield energy usually in the form of a molecule called adenosine triphosphate. These two progressions compose cell metabolism. Cellular respiration is a catabolic process, the main pathway of catabolism, where it releases energy by degrading complex molecules to smaller composites, such as energy released from glucose breakdown, and is stored in the adenosine triphosphate molecule to release later, the released energy is used in the cell for anabolic pathways. Photosynthesis is an anabolic process done by plants that use energy from sunlight to build complex molecules from smaller composites, sugar, as an example, is formed by the reaction of carbon dioxide gas with water. Thus, all the anabolic processes need additional energy to build different molecules. Some of the glucose produced by the planet is used by the plant itself or is used as a nutrient source by other organisms.
Article
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males; 72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive–impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity–impulsivity, in preschool girls.
Chapter
In Chap. 2 we saw why voice is susceptible to, and how it can respond to, intricate changes in the mechanisms of its production. In this chapter we will look at empirical evidence of this fact. We will take a closer look at what causes these changes—at the various bio-relevant and environmental parameters that have been observed to affect it. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview of this topic, based on prior studies. However, the range of scientific studies in this context is vast. This chapter only represents a small sampling of the key findings and current understanding of the subject.
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Chez les mâles, la testostérone joue un rôle important dans l'expression des signaux sexuels attractifs pour la femelle. Cependant, de nombreuses études mettent en évidence l'effet négatif de la testostérone sur les défenses immunitaires ou la résistance aux parasites. Selon l'hypothèse du handicap immunitaire (ICHH, Folstad et Karter, 1992), ce compromis permettrait d'assurer l'honnêteté du signal sexuel ; les mauvais mâles ne pouvant pas exprimer de signaux sexuels de bonne qualité tout en gérant l'immunosuppression due à la testostérone. Ma thèse a pour objectif de définir le rôle de la testostérone dans l'honnêteté des signaux sexuels dans un contexte de communication multimodale. Elle permet également de comprendre les mécanismes physiologiques par lesquels la testostérone module les signaux sexuels acoustiques et visuels chez les mâles Hyla arborea, un amphibien connu pour utiliser ces deux types de signaux pour attirer les femelles. Nos résultats montrent que les signaux sexuels acoustiques et visuels chez cette espèce sont testostéronedépendants. En revanche, puisque la testostérone n'a pas d'effet immunosuppresseur dans notre étude, elle ne serait pas le médiateur direct de l'honnêteté des signaux chez cette espèce. D'un point de vue physiologique, l'effet de la testostérone sur le chant s'explique par l'amélioration des propriétés contractiles des muscles du tronc responsables du chant lié à une augmentation de l'efficacité mitochondriale. D'autre part, les analyses biochimiques montrent que la couleur du sac vocal varie linéairement avec la quantité de pigments caroténoïdes présents dans le plasma, qui pourrait être testostérone-dépendant. Enfin, cette thèse montre également que la testostérone agit sur le comportement de chasse permettant l'acquisition de ressources énergétiques et de caroténoïdes pour le chant et la couleur des mâles.
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This chapter discusses the role that biology plays in entrepreneurship. It examines how genetics, hormones, physiology, and neuroscience may affect entrepreneurial phenotypes. Entrepreneurship researchers have investigated the influence of genetic factors in entrepreneurship. There are two main approaches that examine the influence of genetics on entrepreneurship: quantitative genetics and molecular genetics. Individual differences in hormones have also been linked to the tendency to engage in entrepreneurship. Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are the most adopted neuroscience techniques in organizational studies. Fueled by recent evidence, the chapter also investigates how biological factors may interact and correlate with environmental factors to influence entrepreneurship. The research on the biological perspective has shown that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an asset that can stimulate entrepreneurial work environments. Finally, the chapter also discusses some future research avenues for entrepreneurship scholars interested in the biological perspective.
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This chapter includes an introduction, classification, and type of hormones, as well as their biological functions. This chapter also gives a brief discussion about the structure, properties, and regulatory action of hormones. Various plant hormones and their functions have been discussed in this chapter.
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Although variation in human dermatoglyphic traits has been studied extensi&&-, , . questions concerning the prenatal origins of this variation remain. The present study examines developmental relationships among epidermal ridges (the fundament*gf-, -;I, dermatoglyphic traits), volar pads and long bones of the hand. Data were derived. -from the hands of '165 human fetuses judged to be typical for age. Fetuses ranged in age from 8.5 weeks fertilization age through term. In addition to measurements of pattern type, epidermal ridge dimension (ridge width, separation and depth) and ridge maturation, measurements of bone dimension, ossification, and volar pad size were obtained. Results of this study indicated that digital pattern type (arch, loop or whorl) is associated with the shape of the volar pad at the time of ridge formation. However, this association is related only to pad width. Pattern type is also associated w!th shape of the bony distal phalanx. These data undacore the importance of understanding the developmental basis of dermatoglyphic variation.
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This review article explores the evidence that testosterone is significantly correlated with certain forms of aggression in a number of animals, although firm evidence is lacking for humans. Studies have revealed that structures within the limbic system are particularly involved in the elicitation of aggression and are sexually dimorphic. Testosterone can exert its effects in one of two ways: either on androgen receptors after conversion to 5-alpha-dihyd rotestosterone or on estrogen receptors after aromatization to estradiol. It can act via genomic mechanisms to induce production of proteins or via non-genomic mechanisms to modulate neural activity. Androgen and estrogen receptors are also found along neurotransmitter pathways. As such, testosterone is able to modulate levels of various neurotransmitters that show evidence of mediating effects on aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent evidence suggests that these neurotransmitters are involved in processes such as olfaction and arousal and suggestions have been put forward explaining how testosterone may modulate these processes. However there is a critical time period early in life, usually within the first few days after birth, during which testosterone exposure is essential to elicit aggression in adulthood. It is thought that testosterone and its metabolites sensitize an androgen-responsive system, while estrogenic metabolites establish the capacity to fight in response to estrogenic stimulation later in life. Despite this, testosterone is only one of a myriad of factors that influence aggression and the effects of previous experience and environmental stimuli have at times been found to correlate more strongly.
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To test the hypotheses that maternal stress during pregnancy may alter the sexual orientation of offspring, 285 women with offspring 19 years of age and older provided retrospective accounts of stressful experiences they had, beginning 12 months prior to pregnancy up to the point of giving birth, and indicated how severe they recalled each event being. When weighted according to severity, stressful experiences helped to predict sexual orientation of male offspring. While most of the variance in sexual orientation remained unexplained, the data suggest that the most critical time in gestation for influencing human sexual orientation of male offspring is during the second trimester, although the first and possibly the third trimesters may be of secondary importance. For female offspring, no significant relationships between maternal stress and sexual orientation were found, although mothers of lesbians did report slightly higher average levels of stress throughout gestation than mothers of female heterosexuals.
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We analyzed sex differences in spatial and recall abilities of college students while also examining the relationship to 2D:4D ratio. The 2D:4D ratio is thought to be an indirect measure of testosterone and estrogen exposure in fetal development. Participants completed a mental rotation (MR) test, free recall tests, and placement recall tests. It was predicted and confirmed that males have lower 2D:4D ratio and higher MR scores. Additionally, females outscored males on picture free recall and picture placement. Higher scoring females on these two measures had higher 2D:4D ratios, that is, more “feminine” looking hands. The results from our study are consistent with the hypothesis that fetal hormones affect 2D:4D ratio while also directly or indirectly influencing visual recall abilities in females. The tendency of sexually dimorphic cognitive skills to correlate with 2D:4D ratio in only one sex may be typical of traits that were evolutionarily adaptive in one sex, but not maladaptive in the opposite sex.
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Compared 12 right-handed adolescent females with a history of idiopathic precocious puberty (IPP) to 12 closely pair-matched normal controls of similar maturational status. All Ss were aged 13–20 yrs. Cognitive abilities were assessed by subtests of the WISC and Primary Mental Abilities Test, and by combination scales derived from these subtests. Brain hemispheric lateralization was measured by 2 dichotic listening tests. Results show that IPP Ss and controls did not differ in verbal abilities or in dichotic consonant–vowel discrimination. IPP was associated with lower spatial ability. It is concluded that pubertal maturation is associated with spatial but not verbal ability. Left-hemisphere functioning does not seem to constitute a mediating mechanism for this association but a slight weakness of right-hemisphere functioning is suggested by poor left-ear performance on the staggered spondaic word test. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Compared 12 right-handed adolescent females with a history of idiopathic precocious puberty (IPP) to 12 closely pair-matched normal controls of similar maturational status. All Ss were aged 13–20 yrs. Cognitive abilities were assessed by subtests of the WISC and Primary Mental Abilities Test, and by combination scales derived from these subtests. Brain hemispheric lateralization was measured by 2 dichotic listening tests. Results show that IPP Ss and controls did not differ in verbal abilities or in dichotic consonant–vowel discrimination. IPP was associated with lower spatial ability. It is concluded that pubertal maturation is associated with spatial but not verbal ability. Left-hemisphere functioning does not seem to constitute a mediating mechanism for this association but a slight weakness of right-hemisphere functioning is suggested by poor left-ear performance on the staggered spondaic word test. (47 ref)
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Dermal ridges on the fingertips are formed early in fetal life and remain unchanged throughout the life span. The researchers examined dermatoglyphic characteristics (total ridge count and directional ridge asymmetry) in homosexual and heterosexual men. There was no difference between the 2 groups of men in total ridge count, but more gay men demonstrated leftward asymmetry than did nongay men. Although this effect was not accounted for by differences in hand preference, an association was observed between leftward dermatoglyphic asymmetry and an increased incidence of adextrality in homosexual men, but not in heterosexual men. These findings are consistent with a biological contribution to sexual orientation and indicate that such an influence may occur early in prenatal life.
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This chapter discusses sexual dimorphism in the preoptic area of an adult rat. The volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in the adult rat is significantly influenced by the prior perinatal hormonal environment. The SDN-POA is involved in the regulation of cyclic gonadotropin release or feminine sexual behavior. Although the volume of the SDN-POA is altered by the perinatal hormonal environment, such treatment is not able to sex reverse the brain completely in terms of nuclear volume. This may be because of the fact that there may be a genomic component to this anatomical sex difference, and/or there may be an influence of the prenatal hormonal environment. Neonatal castration reduces SDN-POA volume of the male when measured in the adult. A physiological excess of neurons destined for the SDN-POA are produced during the prenatal period. In the male, because of testicular hormonal activity, the developing brain is exposed to a stimulatory hormonal environment, and many cells make appropriate connections and survive. In the female, however, this hormonal stimulus is absent both pre- and postnatally. Without hormonal support, the growth of neuronal processes and connections is reduced or delayed, and more neurons die. This produces the observed sex difference in SDN-POA volume.
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We analyzed baseline data from 444 Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects selected for a multicenter clinical trial to determine whether there are gender differences in cognitive measures in AD, and whether concurrent estrogen use in women with AD is associated with superior cognitive function. The 270 women were further classified into those taking concurrent estrogen preparations and those who were not. Cognitive impairment was measured by the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), a standard instrument used in AD clinical trials. ADAS-Cog total scores in women were statistically significantly worse than those in men, after controlling for age and education. Women not using estrogen therapies were older and less educated. After controlling for age and education, ADAS-Cog total scores of women not using estrogen were significantly worse than those of women using estrogen or those of men. Our findings confirm prior reports that AD women are more impaired in specific cognitive domains than men, and that concurrent estrogen use in AD women is associated with higher levels of cognitive function. Prospective studies of the neuroprotective effects of estrogen are warranted.
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Biochemical assessment of endocrine function is critically dependent on the development of accurate analytical procedures having the sensitivity required for determining the picomolar concentrations of steroid hormones in peripheral plasma. High throughput in such assays is also vital if results are to be made available in time to influence clinical decisions. Since immunoassays provide a unique combination of sensitivity and specificity they are well suited to the determination of steroid hormone concentrations.
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Little research has been conducted on the role of various behaviors in contributing to the home advantage in sport competitions. The present study investigated whether player aggression mediated the relationship between game location and performance in professional ice hockey. Based on the subject-defined delineation between aggressive and nonaggressive ice hockey penalties established by Widmeyer and Birch, 13 measures were used on data collected from the official game reports and penalty records of the National Hockey League for the 1987–1988 season. Both macroanalytic and microanalytic research strategies and analyses were employed. Initial analysis revealed that home teams won 58.3% of the decided games. Further analyses showed a significant interaction between game location and performance. Home teams incurred more aggressive penalties in games they won whereas visiting teams incurred more aggressive penalties in games they lost. Implications for the potential role of aggression in contributing to th...
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Background. Follow up of children born to drug-addicted mothers is difficult because of social context. The aim of this study was to determine the precise outcome in a cohort of infants from two neonatal units. Population and methods. Analysis of perinatal and follow up data of 59 infants born to drug-addicted mothers, admitted from 1988 to 1993 in the neonatal units of Colombes and Neuilly. Results. Perinatal data : very poor social context; 100% addiction by opiates and very frequent polyintoxication; 21% HIV + mothers; 54% came later or not at all to prenatal care; 34% prematurity and 46% intrauterine growth retardation; 80% neonatal withdrawal symptoms. Precise follow up data is known for 95% of the infants at the age of 1 to 7 years : 5% died during the first year of life; 51% are living with their family (with or without their mother); 36% are in institutions or foster homes, and 8% are fully adopted; among 41 newborns discharged from neonatal unit to their mother, 34% have been secondarily placed by Child Protection Services. The only severe sequelae were not related to drug direct effect : 5 neurologic or respiratory chronic impairment related to prematurity, and 3 asymptomatic HIV + children; a few moderate behavioral problems appear to be related to social-familial context. Among the 51 mothers, 6 died (5 by overdose) 19 are severely addicted, 10 have stopped addiction but 2 are HIV +, and 16 are lost to follow up. Conclusions. Analysis of this cohort and of the literature suggest a need for changing our perinatal strategies, to ameliorate medico-psycho-social care of these pregnancies, mothers and infants, with or without methadone maintenance programs; these strategies have been proved to prevent perinatal problems (specially prematurity), and to improve mother-infant attachment.
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Androgens have multiple actions on the skeleton throughout life. Androgens promote skeletal growth and accumulation of minerals during puberty and adolescence and stimulate osteoblast but suppress osteoclast function, activity and lifespan through complex mechanisms. Also androgens increase periosteal bone apposition, resulting in larger bone size and thicker cortical bone in men. There is convincing evidence to show that aromatization to estrogens was an important pathway for mediating the action of testosterone on bone physiology. Estrogen is probably the dominant sex steroid regulating bone resorption in men, but both testosterone and estrogen are important in maintaining bone formation.
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In a study of possible links between testosterone and dominance, 119 men and 114 women provided saliva samples for testosterone assay and posed smiling and not smiling for portrait photographs. Expert judges viewing the photographs found smaller smiles among high than low testosterone men, with less zygomatic major (raising the corners of the mouth) and orbicularis oculi (raising the cheeks and crinkling around the corners of the eyes) muscle activity. Naive judges viewing individual photographs gave higher potency ratings to smiling high testosterone men than smiling low testosterone men. Naive judges viewing photographs grouped into high and low testosterone sets gave higher potency and lower goodness ratings to high than to low testosterone men, regardless of whether they were smiling. Among women, judges found only slight relationships between testosterone and facial appearance. The pattern among men of less smiling with higher testosterone levels fits with research linking testosterone to face-to-face dominance.
Article
The present paper reviews studies investigating the possible correlation between testosterone and aggression. First, methodological considerations in testosterone research are outlined. These considerations are used as a basis on which past studies are reviewed How testosterone is related to various personality dimensions is then discussed concluding with how testosterone is related to aggression in non-criminal and criminal samples. The paper concludes with the suggestion that testosterone may have a relationship with sexually dimorphic behaviors, in particular aggression.
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SThis work has been supported in part by a grant from the Committee on Research in Endocrinology of the National Research Council. We are indebted to Professors CR Moore and FC Koch and to Drs. LV Domm and Walter Hoskins for advice concerning the application of hormones ...
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In 13 male patients with a diagnosis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, associated in five cases with verified hyposmia (Kallmann's syndrome), social development and participation were delayed. The patients associated the lack of visible signs of male puberty with their delayed sociosexual maturation. However, the evidence of physical maturation after treatment did not have the ameliorative effect on their social behavior one would have liked to predict. Dating behavior was limited before and after treatment for all the patients, and sexual interest was low even for the three married ones. The experience of falling in love was notably absent in the relationships described. Two characteristic social reaction patterns were social introversion and hostile rejection of agemates. Intellectual functioning and the incidence of personality pathology were not diagnostically noteworthy. None of the patients had any problems with gender identity except for erotic apathy which extended to masturbation. There was an absence of homosexuality. Possibly hypogonadotropic patients have a primary defect of the hypothalamus, manifesting itself as a dysfunction of the behavioral concomitants of puberty as well as a failure of hormonal puberty.
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The effect on adult sexual behavior of high doses of progesterone and testosterone given to neonatal male rats were tested and compared with the effects of administered estrogen, cyproterone, and cyproterone acetate. Results indicated that high doses of all the test substances affect male sexual performance; the direction of change, however, is dependent upon the parameter measured.It is asserted that not only must a critical period be considered in evaluating developmental influences on sexual performance but so too must the steroidal environment in terms of type and dosage. High dosages used in the study are seen as possible experimental models of the abnormal hormonal milieu associated with certain clinical situations.
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This chapter discusses (1) the genetic and environmental determinants of developmental instability, (2) the relationship between developmental instability and mode of selection, and (3) the relationship between developmental instability and fitness. There is currently some controversy over whether only fluctuating asymmetry, or also the two other kinds of asymmetries, reflects developmental instability, although a number of cases clearly suggest that antisymmetry and directional asymmetry may reflect poor developmental conditions. Developmental instability can also be estimated from other measures of deviant phenotypes. Individuals with gross abnormalities, such as a position of the heart in the right side of the body cavity in some humans and four or six rather than five fingers on each hand, are termed “phenodeviants.” Their frequency is actually positively correlated with fluctuating asymmetry, and phenodeviants therefore reflect developmental instability. Directional and disruptive selection experiments generally result in an increase in asymmetry, while stabilizing selection has the opposite effect of reducing asymmetry. Because most of these experiments are performed in ways that avoid inbreeding and as they usually only last relatively few generations before any depletion of additive genetic variance has taken place, this provides the firmest evidence for the relationship between mode of selection and developmental instability.
Article
SYNOPSIS. The ability of different sex hormones to activate social signals can provide important clues to the biochemical mechanisms underlying these signals. A pattern of hormone specificity in which testosterone (T) and estradiol (E), but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), are effective suggests that conversion (aromatization) of T to E in the brain may be involved or required; a pattern in which T and DHT, but not E, are effective suggests that conversion of T to DHT may be involved. The hormone specificity of social signals in diverse species of vertebrates is reviewed. Aromatization seems to be of widespread behavioral significance in mammals andbirds. A role for conversion of T to DHT is suggested for some signals. Aromatization of T mayalso be important for the activation of adult female behavior in mammals and lizards, and for the early organization of behavior in mammals and birds. Patterns of hormone specificity differ both across species for a given social signal, and within a given species when different signals are compared. An attempt is made to integrate these findings by relating patterns of hormone specificity to hormone levels, steroid receptor and enzyme concentrations and distributions, signal function and dimorphism, and phylogenetic status.
Article
A series of experiments demonstrated the influence of multiple environmental and social variables upon circulating testosterone levels in the rhesus monkey. Independent and interaction effects were revealed and a complex model was required to relate the action of these variables to particular measured levels of hormone. The generality of this model is being tested by comparisons with available human data and by extension of the studies to several additional Old World monkeys.Initial experiments included regularly scheduled sampling from 41 adult and eight juvenile rhesus monkey males. The subjects were maintained in stable or manipulated social groups and studied longitudinally with samples obtained before, during and after each experimental manipulation. The following factors were shown to influence levels of circulating testosterone: (1) ontogenetic status, (2) circadian rhythms, (3) relative access to females, (4) season (seasonal mating typical of rhesus), (5) alterations in social rank and (6) “successful” and “unsuccessful” agonistic encounters.Attempts to clarify the relationship between behavior and hormones must account for these (and perhaps other) stimulus variables. Although such a model may be highly complex, it does permit some predictive success and appears compatible with available human data. Further comparative studies will indicate the extent to which this model may be extrapolated to humans.
Article
The handedness of three groups of accomplished musicians (623 instrumentalists, 331 composers, and 584 choir members) was assessed using a standard questionnaire (Oldfield, 1971). While the three groups of musicians did not differ from one another, there was evidence of a modest, but significant, increase in the proportion of left-handers and mixed-handers among the musicians when compared with a normal population. It was found, for example, that 12-2% of the male and 11-8% of the female musicians were lefthanded as defined by the Laterality Quotient (Oldfield, 1971). These figures compared with 8-5% male and 7 3% female left-handers in their respective age-matched control groups. Further evidence of an increased proportion of left-handed musicians was found for the single item, writing hand. This latter finding suggests that the differences in handedness were not simply a consequence of musical training.
Article
The present study assesses, for the first time, the association of hormones during the puerperium with a mother's early responses to her infant. It also evaluates the relation to maternal behaviour of women's pregnancy attitudes to children and caretaking, focusing especially on the relative contributions of hormones and maternal attitudes to variations in maternal behaviour in primiparous new mothers. Thirty primiparous women filled out questionnaires during pregnancy and on days 3 or 4 postpartum. During the puerperium plasma levels of a variety of pitutitary, ovarian, and adrenal hormones were determined and observations of mother-infant interaction were undertaken. Multiple regression analyses indicated that levels of non-instrumental ‘approach’ maternal behaviours were directly associated with levels of cortisol and positive pregnancy maternal attitudes. A framework for understanding these results is discussed.
Article
Women are often assumed to show variations in their intellectual performance through the menstrual cycle. A questionnaire survey of female students taking degrees in the human sciences showed that most attributed some disruption of their academic work to premenstrual symptoms. However, the available research evidence indicates that the process of menstruation has no effect at all on academic performance when measured by quantitative tests or examinations. An investigation was therefore conducted on female students’ approaches to studying during the normal menstrual cycle. There was no evidence of any variations in women's study orientations during the paramenstruum either in comparison with the same individuals’ orientations during the intermenstruum or in comparison with the orientations of male students.
Article
This research explored the relation of endogenous testosterone levels to behavior in brief social encounters. In four studies, 358 college students whose testosterone levels were known entered a room and (1) stood and spoke to a video camera, (2) stood and talked with an experimenter, (3) sat and talked with an interviewer, or (4) sat and talked with a peer. High-testosterone students entered more quickly, focused more directly on their targets, and displayed a more forward and independent manner. Results were similar for men and women. Correlates of testosterone are visible in thin slices of everyday behavior lasting only a few seconds. The effect of this behavior on a social interaction partner remains to be determined.
Article
Three groups of approx. 30 Ss in each group of recruits drawn from the same sample were required to complete a test of spatial ability at three different times of day (morning 9.30; afternoon 13.30 and early evening 17.30). In accordance with predictions the morning group obtained a higher score than either the midday or evening group. Results are discussed in terms of chronobiological theories.
Article
The term “couvade” refers to a variety of rituals performed by men in nonindustrialized societies, around the time of birth of their offspring. Couvade symptoms are shown at similar times by men in industrialized societies, and these symptoms may be physical or psychosomatic. Behavioral change is also seen in a wide variety of male mammals during their mates' pregnancies. These males change from being infanticidal or indifferent toward infants to being paternal. This onset of paternal care, before the arrival of the young, is mediated by social cues that initiate physiological changes. The present study examines the possibility that human males show similar physiological changes and that these are the biological basis of the couvade.
Article
The patterns of perceptual asymmetry on three dichotic listening tasks were evaluated to assess the hypothesis that late‐maturing individuals have more clearly lateralized cerebral functions. A total of 64 right‐handed prepubescent (n = 32) and postpubescent (n = 32) males and females, classified by physical exams as early or later maturers, were given dichotic listening tasks of consonant‐vowel syllables (CVs), simple square‐wave tones (STs), and complex square‐wave tones (CTs). Partial support was obtained for the maturation hypothesis, but in unexpected directions. There were no significant differences between early and late maturers in the magnitude of the dichotic right‐ear advantage (REA) for CVs, in either the prepubescent or postpubescent group. Only the postpubescent group obtained a significant REA, regardless of sex or maturation rate. In contrast, maturation rate was related to dichotic ST and CT tone performance. Late maturers demonstrated a stronger left‐ear advantage (LEA) in the prepubescent group, and early maturers demonstrated a stronger LEA in the postpubescent group, regardless of sex. These results suggest that maturation rate may contribute independently to left‐hemisphere and right‐hemisphere lateralization.
Article
From a sexological point of view regarding creation, in the beginning there was sex, and then sometime afterwards there was sexual orientation. While no one disputes that sex is a biological manifestation, the origins of sexual orientation, whether it is homosexual or heterosexual continue to be debated with some enthusiasm. Whether something so significant in the life of a human, the sex of sexual partner, is truly a matter of free will or choice is questionable. The current debate regarding explanations for differences in sexual orientation is marked by often rancorous disagreements about the extent, if any, of biological factors. In both popular media and in scholarly journals, the issue is pondered: “Is homosexuality (as well as lesbianism) to be understood by natural science, or is diversity in sexual orientation based solely upon social and cultural opportunities, circumstances, and/or outright individual choice?
Article
Salivary testosterone levels were assayed among 240 members of 12 fraternities at two universities. Descriptions of the fraternities were obtained from university officials, fraternity officers, yearbook and chapter house photographs, and researchers' field notes. At the first university, high testosterone fraternities were more rambunctious, and low testosterone fraternities were more academically successful and socially responsible. At the second university, the highest testosterone fraternity was outstanding in the crudeness of its behavior. At both universities, members of lower testosterone fraternities smiled more. Lower testosterone groups were more friendly and pleasant, and higher testosterone groups more wild and unruly. The underlying behavioral dimension may be characterized as well-behaved vs rambunctious. Whether low testosterone groups are considerate to the point of altruism, and high testosterone groups inconsiderate to the point of callousness, depends upon other factors.
Article
Investigated the relationship of physical manifestations of sex hormone influence to cognitive functioning in a longitudinal sample of 106 male and 99 female adolescents. Cognitive and physical data were obtained on all Ss at ages 13, 16, and 18 yrs. Spatial abilities and verbal production measures were taken from the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scales and the Primary Mental Abilities Test. Physical measures were ratings of nude whole-body photographs. Results suggest that, in males, the relatively less masculine (androgynous) physical characteristics were positively related to spatial ability and negatively related to fluent production. Similarly, more masculine physical characteristics were positively related to fluent production and negatively related to spatial ability. Fluent production was unrelated to physical characteristics in females. The less feminine (androgynous) physical characteristics were related to spatial ability. Possibilities for the development of these relationships are discussed. (11/2 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
X-ray movies were used to analyze skeletal movements of 10 hormone-primed female Sprague-Dawley rats during the onset of lordosis. The pattern of movements of the vertebral column and rear legs during lordosis indicates that this behavior is caused mainly by muscles acting to dorsiflex the vertebral column. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
58 male undergraduates were administered 2 spatial tests: the Minnesota Paper Form Board Test (MPFB) and an identical blocks test. Testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels extant during testing were determined from 4 blood samples. Neither T nor DHT showed significant relationships to spatial ability, but the ratio DHT/T was significantly correlated with MPFB scores. Ss whose T and DHT values deviated most from the group means had significantly higher mean spatial test scores. Results suggest that studies should assess DHT as well as T and that data should be examined for possible curvilinear relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The relation of gonadal hormones to cognitive performance was studied in 9 females with ovulatory menstrual cycles, 9 females on oral contraceptives, and 9 males. For the females with the ovulatory menstrual cycles, the highest performance on simple repetitive tasks and the lowest performance on tasks requiring inhibition occurred in the ovulatory phase. Serum estradiol was found to be related to test performance. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)