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Low-volume Repeated Maximal Power Training Improves Repeated Sprint Ability and Horizontal Jumping Performance in Elite Young Basketball Players

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Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a low-volume repeated power ability (RPA) training program on repeated-sprint and change of direction (COD) ability and functional jumping performance. Methods: Twenty-two male elite young basketball players (age:16.2 ± 1.2 years; height:190.0 ± 10.0 cm; body mass:82.9 ± 10.1 kg) were randomly assigned either to a repeated power (RPA;n=11) or a control group (CON;n=11). RPA training, performed in the leg press exercise, adding twice a week a 6-week training program consisting of 1-2 blocks of 5 sets x 5 repetitions with 20 s of passive recovery between-sets and 3-min between-blocks with the load that maximized power output. Before and after training, performance was assessed by repeated sprint ability (RSA) test, a repeated COD ability test, a hop for distance and a drop jump followed by a double hop with right and left leg tests. Results: Within-group and between-group differences showed substantial improvements on slowest (RSAs) and mean time (RSAm) on RSA, best, slowest and mean time on repeated COD ability, and unilateral right and left hop in RPA group in comparison to CON. While best time on RSA showed no improvement in any group, there was a large relationship (r=0.68, CI90%:0.43;0.84) between the relative decrement in RSAm and RSAs suggesting a better sprint maintenance in the RPA training. The relative improvement in best and mean repeated COD ability were very largely correlated (r=0.89, CI90%:0.77;0.94). Conclusions: Six-weeks of low-volume (4-14 min/week) RPA training improved several physical fitness tests in basketball players.
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... With training time at a premium, the search for training methods able to concurrently target different physical fitness factors is necessary. In this regard, high-intensity muscle power training performed with incomplete recovery periods between sets (e.g., repeated power ability [RPA]) (27) has been recently proposed as an effective training method to simultaneously improve both isolated HIA (e.g., vertical and horizontal jumps, linear sprinting, and COD) and fatigue resistance during HIA (e.g., repeated sprints and COD) (18,34). For example, a combination of repeated power ability training in the squat exercise with superimposed vibrations and repeated-sprint exercises were substantially more effective in several HIA markers than the performance of repeated-sprint exercises alone by rugby players (34). ...
... For example, a combination of repeated power ability training in the squat exercise with superimposed vibrations and repeated-sprint exercises were substantially more effective in several HIA markers than the performance of repeated-sprint exercises alone by rugby players (34). Furthermore, a strength training intervention developed through the leg-press exercise achieved beneficial effects for repeated-sprint ability and repeated-COD ability in basketball players (18). Both studies used similar strategies to increase the training load through a volume increment maintaining the recovery time between-sets. ...
... Unilateral Horizontal Jumps. Horizontal jump (HJ) performance (i.e., distance) was assessed as described elsewhere (18). Each test (right and left) was performed 3 times with 30 seconds of recovery between jumps, and 2-minutes between legs. ...
Article
To examine the effects of a strength training program with random recovery times between sets in consideration of several physical parameters, high-intensity actions (HIA), and spatial exploration index during a simulated basketball game. Twenty male basketball players (age: 19.45 ± 4.36 years) were assigned randomly, either to strength training group (n = 10), or a control group (n = 10). The strength training included: parallel back squat and bench press exercises, twice a week for the duration of 10 weeks, with two blocks of 5 sets × 5 repetitions interspersed with variable passive recovery (range = 15-35 sec.) between sets, and constant passive recovery (3-min) between blocks with the load that maximized propulsive power output. The pre-and post-test assessments included jumping (bilateral and unilateral), change-of-direction, straight sprinting, and a 5-on-5 full-court situation. The external training load was assessed using the local positioning system, and the internal load was recorded with the use of individual heart rate monitors. A significant interaction effect (group x time) was observed on countermovement jump (CMJ), unilateral right hops, high-intensity accelerations and decelerations, and peak accelerations and decelerations in the 5-on-5 full-court situation. Relative improvements observed and recorded in the training group on unilateral right hops, accelerations, and decelerations were correlated. Similar results were observed on 0-25m sprints, high-intensity decelerations, peak accelerations, and decelerations. Strength training paired with random recovery times enhanced physical and game-related aspects in the observed basketball players.
... En la literatura relacionada con jugadores jóvenes de baloncesto, se ha informado de la existencia de una transferencia de los efectos de los entrenamientos de fuerza tradicionales y pliométricos tanto en la velocidad y en la agilidad (Gonzalo-Skok et., 2016;Asadi et al., 2017) como en el esprint con COD . Sin embargo, en estos estudios se aplicó uno de los dos métodos para comprobar la evolución en los jugadores. ...
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La velocidad es uno de los indicadores clave para el desarrollo atlético del jugador de baloncesto. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar los efectos que tiene en la velocidad un entrenamiento de fuerza (EF) y otro pliométrico (EP) desarrollados durante ocho semanas en jugadores jóvenes de baloncesto. Para ello, 48 jugadores (16,42 ± 1,13 años) se distribuyeron en tres grupos: EF (n = 16), EP (n = 16) y grupo control (GC) (n = 16). Se evaluó la velocidad lineal en 10 y 20 m, así como la velocidad con cambios de dirección con el test Pro-agility shuttle. Tanto el grupo EF como el EP mejoraron significativamente todas las variables de rendimiento (p < 0,05). EF fue el que obtuvo la mejora más relevante en el tiempo parcial de 10 m (8,92 %; ES = 0,65), mientras que el grupo de EP mejoró en mayor medida en el test Pro-agility shuttle (7,58 %; ES = 0,57). Los hallazgos de este estudio sugieren que en ocho semanas a) tanto el entrenamiento de fuerza como el pliométrico pueden mejorar el rendimiento de la velocidad en jugadores jóvenes de baloncesto, y b) un entrenamiento de fuerza puede incidir más en la velocidad lineal y un entrenamiento pliométrico en la velocidad con cambios de dirección. Speed is a key indicator for overall athletic development. The aim of this research was to compare the effects of strength (ST) and plyometric training (PT) for 8 weeks on sprinting speed in youth basketball players. 48 players (16.42 ± 1.13 years) were divided into three groups: ST (n = 16), PT (n = 16) and control group (CG) (n = 16). 10 and 20 m linear sprint, as well as the sprint with change of direction were measured by the Pro-agility shuttle test. Both the strength and plyometric groups significantly improved all performance variables (p < 0.05). The most relevant result in ST was in 10 m split time (8.92 %; ES = 0.65), whereas the PT was in Pro-agility shuttle test (7.58 %; ES = 0.57). The findings of this study suggest that, in eight weeks a) both strength and plyometric training can improve sprinting performance, and b) strength training might well influence on linear speed and plyometric training on speed with change of direction.
... Previous studies in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction with contralateral limb graft harvest showed similar results. Gonzalo-Skok et al 19 analyzed basketball players who were randomly assigned to perform unilateral or bilateral training over the course of 6 weeks. The authors found that both programs improved physical fitness tests. ...
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Background Lower limb muscle strength symmetry has been suggested as an essential criterion for the safe return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Limited evidence is available regarding the most effective intervention to achieve symmetry after reconstruction with contralateral bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) graft. Purpose To verify whether unilateral isotonic resistance exercise is more effective than bilateral exercise for obtaining postoperative functional and muscular strength symmetry between the donor limb and reconstructed limb for patients who received BPTB graft. Study Design Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods A total of 88 patients were randomly divided into a control group (n = 44) and an intervention group (n = 44). All participants performed an 8-week exercise program starting at the beginning of the fourth postoperative month and were evaluated before and after the program. The control group performed bilateral exercises, and the intervention group performed unilateral exercises for the donor limb only (the limb with the greatest disability). The primary outcome was muscle strength (peak torque and hamstrings to quadriceps [H:Q] ratio), and the secondary outcomes were range of motion (ROM; goniometry), KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference in anteroposterior knee laxity, and objective (single-leg hop test) and subjective (Lysholm score) functionality. Results Both groups improved significantly from before to after the exercise program. The improvements were significantly greater in the intervention group regarding peak torque, H:Q ratio, flexion ROM, single-leg hop test, and Lysholm score in the donor limb ( P < .001 for all), and the improvements were significantly greater in the control group regarding peak torque and single-leg hop test in the reconstructed limb ( P < .001 for both). Comparison between the groups showed significantly increased symmetry regarding peak torque, H:Q ratio, and single-leg hop test in the intervention group compared with the control group ( P < .001), with large effect sizes (>0.80) except for the H:Q ratio. Conclusion Although postoperative, bilateral, isotonic resistance exercise provided better strength gains to the reconstructed limb, unilateral exercise was more effective in obtaining functional and muscle strength between-limb symmetry in patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with contralateral BPTB graft. Registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (number RBR-22rnjh).
... Regarding horizontal jumping, previous training studies have reported small to moderate effects (ES = from 0.38 to 0.65). The previously observed gains in horizontal jumping performance are slightly greater than those obtained by the VUL group, and slightly smaller in comparison with those of VUH (ES = from 0.50 to 0.80) [1,28]. It may be possible that these between-study differences are due to the number of exercises addressing one force vector or the training volume carried out. ...
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This study analyzed the effects of two different training programs on functional performance and inter-limb asymmetries in basketball players. Twenty-four elite youth basketball players were randomly assigned to a training program including variable unilateral horizontal movements (VUH, n = 12) or unilateral lateral movements (VUL, n = 12). Eccentric-overload training (EOT) was performed twice a week for a six-week period. Functional performance assessment included a countermovement jump test, unilateral multidirectional jumping tests (i.e., lateral, horizontal, and vertical), a rebound jump test, a limb symmetry index, a 25 m linear sprint test, and several change of direction (COD) tests. Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in almost all functional tests in both groups (ES = 0.35–0.89). Furthermore, almost all jumping asymmetries were improved in both groups (ES = 0.38–0.69) except for vertical jumping asymmetry in VUL (ES = −0.04). Between-group analyses showed a substantial and possibly better performance in vertical jumping asymmetry and 5 m in VUH compared to that of VUL, respectively. In contrast, lateral jumping with left (ES = 1.22) and right leg (ES = 0.49) were substantially greater in VUL than in VUH. Specific force-vector training programs induced substantial improvements in both functional performance tests and inter-limb asymmetries, although greater improvements of lateral and horizontal variables may depend on the specific force vector targeted.
... Surprisingly, 2 studies did not calculate or report the raw broad jump scores (46,77), limiting our understanding of the effects on the raw jump data. For the remaining studies, either no significant or small improvements in the raw broad jump scores were found in the control groups (43,71,72). Thus, it appears that training interventions likely have greater effects on the raw jump scores, which create the asymmetry value compared with the control group. ...
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Inter-limb asymmetries have been recently investigated in athletic populations. However, the effects of training interventions on inter-limb asymmetries have been scarcely examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of training interventions on changes in inter-limb asymmetries from pre-to post-training. Furthermore, to examine the effects of training programs on intervention groups compared to control groups. A database search was completed (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus). Eight studies were then included in the meta-analysis. Results showed small reductions in inter-limb asymmetries in single leg broad jump (SLBJ) and change of direction (COD) speed from pre-to post-training interventions, whereas moderate effects were found in single leg countermovement jump (SLCMJ) and single leg (SL) lateral jump. When comparing the training interventions to the control groups, results showed small effects in favour of the training groups for reducing inter-limb asymmetries in SLBJ and large effects in SLCMJ, and COD speed. Thus, training interventions can evoke small to moderate reductions in inter-limb asymmetries from pre-to post-training programs. Strength training performed unilaterally or bilaterally may elicit these reductions. Furthermore, training interventions showed larger effects compared to the control groups in reducing inter-limb asymmetries. However, further research is needed.
... metric tape measure, the jump-length measurement was determined from the take-offline to the nearest point of landing contact (i.e., back of the heels)24 . The highest vertical and horizontal jump results were used for statistical analysis. ...
... 12 14 42 43 Furthermore, these intensities fail to replicate the high physical demands required of a person during return to sport testing and of an athlete performing their sport. [43][44][45][46][47] This factor may contribute to the results of the included studies reflecting research that demonstrates ACLR patients often fail to achieve return to sport criteria. 3 9 15 28-32 34 37 Welling et al's 36 study was the only study to report a greater than 90% LSI of both hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups among the participants. ...
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Objective: To identify, critique and synthesise the research findings that evaluate the use of resistance training (RT) programmes on return to sport outcome measures for people following ACL repair (ACLR). Design and data sources: This systematic review included a comprehensive search of electronic databases (EBSCO health databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus), Scopus and Pedro) performed in June 2020 and was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. Studies were appraised using the Downs and Black checklist. Eligibility criteria: Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, longitudinal cohort studies and case series were considered for inclusion where an adequate description of the RT intervention was provided as a part of the study's ACLR rehabilitation protocol. Articles that did not include outcome measures related to return to sport criteria were excluded. Results: Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria and were subjected to appraisal and data extraction. Study quality ranged from poor to excellent. RT intensity varied considerably among studies (between 5% and >80% of one repetition maximum). Only one identified study specifically investigated the effect of a low-intensity versus high-intensity RT protocol. The majority of studies reported participant outcomes that would not meet commonly used return to sport criteria. Conclusion: There appears to be considerable variation in the intensity of RT prescribed in research for people following ACLR. Furthermore, in most of the identified studies, RT protocols promoted muscle endurance and hypertrophy without progressing to strength or power-based RT. The findings of this review provide insight into potential factors limiting returning to sport and contributing to reinjury for people following ACLR.
... Players were instructed to place their toes on a marked line, then bend their knees to~120˚as quickly as possible and rapidly jump as far forward as possible, remaining stationary after landing on both feet. A metric tape was used to measure the jump distance (m) from the starting line to the heel of the closest foot [14]. The highest CMJ and longest HJ were used for subsequent analysis. ...
Article
This study aimed to: 1) compare physical fitness attributes and the external demands encountered during simulated matches in youth basketball players between age categories (under 14 years [U14], under 16 years [U16], and under 18 years [U18]), and 2) examine the relationships between physical fitness attributes and external demands during simulated matches in each age category. Thirty young basketball players categorized according to age (U14, n = 10; U16, n = 10; and U18, n = 10) completed a fitness test battery consisting of linear sprint, change-of-direction speed, repeated-change-of-direction speed, and jump assessments, and simulated matches monitored using local positioning system technology one week later. One‐way analyses of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post hoc tests, as well as Cohen’s effect sizes were used to compare physical fitness attributes and external match demands between age categories. Pearson's correlations and linear regression analyses were performed to quantify the relationships and shared variance between physical fitness attributes and external match demands in each age category. U14 players possessed lower (p <0.05, large-very large effects) physical fitness across all tests and performed less (p <0.05, large-very large effects) high-speed running (18.1-24.0 km·h-1) during simulated matches than U16 and U18 players. Physical fitness attributes were significantly associated with external variables during simulated matches in each category, particularly in U14 players. These findings suggest coaches should implement training strategies targeting specific fitness attributes according to age in youth basketball players.
... For SBJ and LAT jumps, participants started from a standing position, swinging their arms and bending their knees to provide maximal forward frontal and lateral drive, respectively. CMJ trials were performed on a platform with infrared rays (Optojump Next; Microgate ® , Bolzano, Italy), while SBJ and LAT jumps were measured through a metric tape, with the jump-length determined from the take-off line to the nearest point of landing contact (i.e., back of the heels) [27]. The best of the performances of each test (i.e., the highest height for CMJ and the longest distance for SBJ and LAT) was selected for the subsequent statistical analysis. ...
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Although asymmetries in lower limbs have been linked with players’ performance in male soccer players, literature that has been published addressing female soccer is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was twofold: (i) describe the asymmetries of women soccer players during jumping, change-of-direction and range-of-motion tests; and (ii) test possible relationships between asymmetries and injury risk in female soccer players. Sixteen female players (15.5 ± 1.5 years) performed a battery of fitness tests (i.e., jump ability, change-of-direction ability and passive range-of-motion) and muscle mass analysis via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, through which the specific asymmetry index and the related injury risk were calculated. Significant (p < 0.05) lower asymmetries in the change-of-direction test were observed in comparison to those observed in jumping and range-of-motion tests; significant (p < 0.05) lower asymmetries in muscle mass were also reported compared to those found in the change-of-direction and countermovement jump tests. Additionally, increased injury risk for countermovement jump and hip flexion with extended knee range-of-motion (relating to asymmetry values) and for ankle flexion with flexed knee range-of-motion in both legs (relating to reference range-of-motion values), as well as in-creased individual injury risk values, were observed across all tests. These findings suggest the necessity to implement individual approaches for asymmetry and injury risk analyses.
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This study was performed aimed at comparing multidirectional bilateral and unilateral jump performance and passive range of motion (ROM) of lower limbs between soccer and basketball young players and evaluating associations between inter-limb ROM asymmetry and bilateral jump performance. A total of 67 young male athletes participated in this study, who were classified as soccer (n = 40; 15.55 ± 1.5 y; 1.76 ± 0.12 m; 58.15 ± 10.82 kg; 19.84 ± 2.98 kg·m ² ) and basketball (n = 27; 15.7 ± 1.66 y; 1.76 ± 0.12 m; 62.33 ± 16.57 kg; 19.84 ± 2.98 kg·m ² ) players. Participants were asked to perform bilateral and unilateral multidirectional jumps, and passive ROM of hip (flexion, extension and abduction), knee (flexion) and ankle (dorsiflexion) joints was also assessed. Significant between-group differences were observed for hip extension with flexed knee ROM in dominant (soccer: 142.43 ± 7.74°; basketball: 148.63 ± 8.10°) and non-dominant (soccer: 144.38 ± 8.36°; basketball: 148.63 ± 6.45°) legs; hip flexion with flexed knee ROM in dominant (soccer: 13.26 ± 4.71°; basketball: 9.96 ± 3.42°) and non-dominant (soccer: 12.86 ± 4.55°; basketball: 9.70 ± 3.62°) legs; and for the ratio of hip abduction (soccer: 1.02 ± 0.08; basketball: 0.97 ± 0.11). However, no significant between-group differences were observed for bilateral and unilateral jump capacity, or for inter-limb asymmetries (dominant vs. non-dominant leg). Finally, no associations were observed between ROM ratio (dominant vs. non-dominant leg) and bilateral jump performance. These findings lead to the suggestion that differences on passive ROM values in young male athletes may be sport-specific. Additionally, there seems to be need for the implementation of training strategies specifically aimed at improving bilateral or unilateral jump ability, or at diminishing inter limb passive ROM differences in order to improve multidirectional jump performance for neither soccer nor basketball youth male players.
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