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What Drives Advertising Success on Facebook? An Advertising-Effectiveness Model Measuring the Effects on Sales Of "Likes" and Other Social-Network Stimuli

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Abstract

Online social networks have challenged the current knowledge of advertising effectiveness. Using 12 months of aggregate-level, daily data from a major German e-commerce retailer, the authors of the current study analyzed four types of advertising stimuli on Facebook—'stream' (news feed) impressions, page views, 'Likes,' and user contributions—to determine their short-term and long-term impact on sales. Access to the data provided an opportunity to integrate a direct-aggregation approach that accounted for time lags between user activity and sales effects. This research builds on an earlier framework for studying how advertising works (Vakratsas and Ambler, 1999), reflecting changes brought on by emerging online channels.

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... on customer purchases (Ankit and Mayur 2013;Schmuck et al. 2018). Earlier several studies have explored this phenomenon from the perspective of green image built through green advertising i.e., making environmental claims to win customers (Brettel et al. 2015;Segev et al. 2016). ...
... The green advertisements on social media are explored in the study since advertisements on social media are less regulated and have easier global reach than traditional media. Social media environment is complicated for its social attributes (Brettel et al. 2015;Sin et al. 2012) and increases the propensity for misleading green advertisements (Luo et al. 2020) and therefore, exploring green advertisements on social media merits its high significance. ...
... Social media platforms are effective as customers can pick their sustainable development lifestyle groups and engage with other users (Minton et al. 2012). However, social media advertising is less regulated than traditional media (Luo et al. 2020) as it creates complicated environment in which consumers assess green advertising (Brettel et al. 2015;Luo et al. 2020). Companies often pretending to claim green but in real they don't practice pro-environmental process refers as "greenwashing" (Nguyen et al. 2019;Guo et al. 2017;Smith and Font 2014;Siano et al. 2017) that nurtures green advertising skepticism (Nguyen et al. 2019;Matthes and Wonneberger 2014). ...
Chapter
The growth of social media usage and its utilization in marketing campaigns has created a new class of community leaders online, called influencers. Influencers appeared on social media as relevant content creators on a certain niche topic such as sports, comedy, make-up etc. The make-up industry has completely adopted the trend of influencers which ended up disrupting the entire industry. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effects that influencer marketing has had on the make-up industry and how it has become essential for marketers with a focus on that industry. This includes a comparison of influencer marketing to other marketing options such as TV and Online Paid Ads, the cost of advertisement, effectiveness and ability to influence consumer behavior, primary data, data obtained from secondary sources as well as personal contact with influencer agencies.
... An important element of pursuing the green products strategy that businesses are adopting is green advertising to promote green products and drawing its positive impact on customer purchases (Ankit and Mayur 2013;Schmuck et al. 2018). Earlier several studies have explored this phenomenon from the perspective of green image built through green advertising i.e., making environmental claims to win customers (Brettel et al. 2015;Segev et al. 2016). ...
... The green advertisements on social media are explored in the study since advertisements on social media are less regulated and have easier global reach than traditional media. Social media environment is complicated for its social attributes (Brettel et al. 2015;Sin et al. 2012) and increases the propensity for misleading green advertisements (Luo et al. 2020) and therefore, exploring green advertisements on social media merits its high significance. ...
... Social media platforms are effective as customers can pick their sustainable development lifestyle groups and engage with other users (Minton et al. 2012). However, social media advertising is less regulated than traditional media (Luo et al. 2020) as it creates complicated environment in which consumers assess green advertising (Brettel et al. 2015;Luo et al. 2020). Companies often pretending to claim green but in real they don't practice pro-environmental process refers as "greenwashing" (Nguyen et al. 2019;Guo et al. 2017;Smith and Font 2014;Siano et al. 2017) that nurtures green advertising skepticism (Nguyen et al. 2019;Matthes and Wonneberger 2014). ...
Chapter
Businesses are increasingly marketing their products on social media platforms in order to better communicate with their customers. Considering stimulus-organism- response (SOR) theory, this study uncovers the impacts of social media (SM) greenwashing on SM green advertising skepticism and on its consequences including green purchase intention. The findings reveal that SM greenwashing affects SM green advertising skepticism. Further, SM green advertising negatively affect SM information utility and positively affect SM negative word-of-mouth. The study also highlights that SM information utility positively affects green purchase intention and negative word-of-mouth negatively affect green purchase intention. The study also reveals that SM green confusion moderates the relation between SM greenwashing and SM green advertising skepticism. The study offers several theoretical and practical contributions.
... Green advertising has increasingly been used to promote green products, and its positive relationship with consumer green purchase intention has well been established in the literature (Ankit & Mayur, 2013;Schmuck, Matthes, & Naderer, 2018). It is suggested that green advertising builds a firm or product's green image by employing environmental claims to appeal to green consumers (Benn, Dunphy, & Griffiths, 2014;Brettel, Reich, Gavilanes, & Flatten, 2015;Segev, Fernandes, & Hong, 2016). ...
... The social attributes of social media create a more complicated environment in which consumers assess green advertising (Brettel et al., 2015;Sin, Nor, & Al-Agaga, 2012). This increases the opportunity to produce exaggerated and misleading green advertisements. ...
... With the rapid growth of the Internet, many enterprises choose to publish green advertisements on social media, including Facebook, microblogs, WeChat, wikis, and multimedia sharing sites, for example, YouTube. Social media is seen as an effective platform for green advertising, as it allows for interpersonal interactions and networking that create an indirect, electronic form of communication that benefits from word-of-mouth (Brettel et al., 2015). ...
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Underpinned by the stimulus–organism–response model, this study explores the underlying mechanism through which green advertising skepticism on social media affects consumer green purchase intention. It also investigates the boundary factors that moderate this indirect relationship. Performing structural equation modeling on data collected from an online survey on Sina Weibo, this study finds that green advertising skepticism on social media negatively affects green purchase intention through the mediation of perceived information utility. Moreover, interdependent self‐construal positively moderates, and independent self‐construal negatively moderates this indirect relationship. These findings suggest that truthful and consumer‐tailored green advertising is crucial to green product marketing.
... Considering that different types of MGC might have various impacts (Brettel et al. 2015;Kumar et al. 2016), this study attempts to discover the mechanisms of how different types of MGC, consumers' engagement with MGC and WOM influence consumers' purchase behavior. As behaviors of consumers' engagement with MGC in the form of retweets, comments, and likes are highly correlated (Chung et al. 2014), we chose retweets as a metric for simplicity. ...
... MGC is similar to persuasive advertising (Goh et al. 2013), which could disseminate brand knowledge (e.g., brand features) and increase brand awareness, thereby promoting consumers' purchase intention (Goh et al. 2013;Xie and Lee 2015;Kumar et al. 2016). However, some scholars worry about the distraction of MGC on consumers' attention and the subsequent negative effects (Brettel et al. 2015). ...
... First, comments and retweets about MGC improve information source credibility and diffuse product-or brand-related information to more potential consumers, which increase the visibility of MGC to consumers who are looking for relevant information to make purchase decisions (Ha et al. 2016). Second, comments and retweets also facilitate discussions among consumers with similar interests and promote their interaction with the brand, which could strengthen brand impression and then lead to enhanced purchase intention (Goh et al. 2013;Rishika et al. 2013;Brettel et al. 2015;Xie and Lee 2015). ...
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Nowadays, consumers spend more time on and pay more attention to information on social media. Thus, firms are constantly concerned if marketer-generated content (MGC), consumers’ engagement with MGC and WOM could promote purchases; and if so, what kinds of MGC could grab the attention of consumers. The present study establishes a framework based on the Hierarchy of Effects model to determine the effects of two types of MGC, retweets and word-of-mouth (WOM), on consumers’ purchase intention. Data about 28 firms from 4 industries were collected, and a three-stage least squares model was employed to estimate the coefficients. Empirical results show that product-related content (PMGC) and social-related content (SMGC) could increase retweets. Retweets of PMGC could boost positive and negative WOM and also facilitate purchase intention. Retweets of SMGC could increase positive WOM and purchase intention. This study identifies the mechanism of how consumers form purchase intention from MGC, and provides new evidence for the classification of MGC.
... Cues such as likes implicitly suggest to an individual that because others have accepted a message as credible or likable, then it is good enough for him or her as well (Chaiken 1987). While an individual using bandwagon cues is probably going to rely on peripheral processing, encountering a metric as explicit as social media likes may imply that others have undergone high levels of elaboration to reach their own conclusions (Brettel et al. 2015). However, we propose that bandwagon cues do not equally influence participants (Fu and Sim 2011). ...
... Study 1 serves two purposes. First, it tests our first hypothesis that bandwagon heuristics will be triggered by a higher number of likes (Brettel et al. 2015), but only for participants experiencing cognitive load who will seek out cues to help with mental processing (Fu and Sim 2011). Participants in the control condition should have ample resources to process the ads should not be influenced by high or low likes, thus no significant differences in purchase intentions should be detected. ...
Article
Social media engagement requires cognitive resources, which subsequently impact the advertisements consumers see while browsing. For the most part, however, advertising practitioners and scholars still study social media ads and messages as if they will receive users’ full attention and cognition. This study has two main contributions. First, we demonstrate that the use of social media induces a measurable degree of cognitive load, presumably because the variety of networking and media components requires users to hold multiple evaluation schemas in working memory. Second, we show that while under cognitive load, participants rely on cues (e.g., number of likes and comments) that trigger heuristics to influence purchase intentions. However, product involvement was found to serve as a boundary condition wherein those under cognitive load did not rely on cues when they had higher involvement with the advertised product. Drawing on the limited capacity model of motivated mediated message processing (LC4MP), this research tests the proposed hypotheses using a pilot study and three experimental studies to provide converging evidence for the influence of social media use on heuristics and subsequent purchase intentions. Analysis of thought elicitation further supports our proposed effect of cognitive load on consumer decision making. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Many works have been published in recent years about the Facebook advertising platform. These works can be categorized into: (1) studies about the Facebook advertising ecosystem in general [24,29,35,37,52], (2) studies about the targeting of political ads on Facebook [21,44,63,64], and (3) studies about the risks brought by online advertising [19,31,65]. ...
... They provided a very detailed statistical summary of the targeted population, targeting options, and the activity of advertisers. Some works conducted studies on the effectiveness of Facebook advertising platform on increasing purchases [29,35] and brand awareness [37,52]. ...
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Facebook and other advertising platforms exploit users data for marketing purposes by allowing advertisers to select specific users and target them (the practice is being called micro-targeting). However, advertisers such as Cambridge Analytica have maliciously used these targeting features to manipulate users in the context of elections. The European Commission plans to restrict or ban some targeting functionalities in the new European Democracy Action Plan act to protect users from such harms. The difficulty is that we do not know the economic impact of these restrictions on regular advertisers. In this paper, to inform the debate, we take a first step by understanding who is advertising on Facebook and how they use the targeting functionalities. For this, we asked 890 U.S. users to install a monitoring tool on their browsers to collect the ads they receive on Facebook and information about how these ads were targeted. By matching advertisers on Facebook with their LinkedIn profiles, we could see that 71% of advertisers are small and medium-sized businesses with 200 employees or less, and they are responsible for 61% of ads and 57% of ad impressions. Regarding micro-targeting, we found that only 32% of small and medium-sized businesses and 30% of large-sized businesses micro-target at least one of their ads. These results should not be interpreted as micro-targeting not being useful as a marketing strategy, but rather that advertisers prefer to outsource the micro-targeting task to ad platforms. Indeed, Facebook is employing optimization algorithms that exploit user data to decide which users should see what ads; which means ad platforms are performing an algorithmic-driven micro-targeting. Hence, when setting restrictions, legislators should take into account both the traditional advertiser-driven micro-targeting as well as algorithmic-driven micro-targeting performed by ad platforms.
... Social media serves as a big source and an effective tool for marketers to communicate with consumers and listen to their feedback, increase brand awareness, influence purchasing decisions of consumers, and enhance their corporate and brand images (Venkatraman, 2017;Gholston et al., 2016;Mir, 2012). In other words, the rapid and steady growth of SNS which provide the feature of enabling the targeting of audiences precisely and opportunities to take the advantages of the networks' potential to engage consumers and to spread messages, caught the attention of both scholars and marketers who seek to create new ways to improve advertisement effectiveness (Zeng et al., 2009;Brettel et al., 2015;Korenkova et al., 2020). Social media advertising gains importance particularly because of its potential for driving business and conducting promotional activities to reach and communicate with targeted consumers (Alalwan et al., 2017). ...
... Previous studies in the literature showed the evidence that consumers' perception and attitudes toward social media advertisement affect their behaviors (i.e. purchase intention) and these perceptions are also positively associated with ad recall and awareness (Boateng and Okoe, 2015;Brettel et al., 2015;Chu et al., 2013). It was also proposed that social media is considered as a source of information that is used by consumers throughout the process of purchasing a new product from information gathering to comparing the alternatives or providing feedback after the purchase (Zhu and Chang, 2016;Alalwan et al., 2017). ...
Article
Digitalization, personalization and globalization shape how companies contact and communicate with their consumers who have different needs and wants. In these highly competitive heterogeneous markets, it becomes crucial to reach consumers in an easy, low-cost and more targeted manner. Social media advertising is one of the effective ways of attracting potential customers, retaining attention of current customers and exploiting them through persuasive content. Despite its plentiful and obvious advantages, the variation among consumers’ responses to social media advertising remains as a major challenge. Hence, this study aims to identify different consumer segments based on the social media advertising features, discover differences in their individual traits, and examine variation among those segments in terms of the factors that predict their purchase intentions. By utilizing cluster analysis, consumers are segmented according to their perceptions regarding social media advertising features: perceived relevance, performance expectancy, hedonic motivation, informativeness, and interactiveness. It is revealed that consumers are grouped under three segments, namely: “susceptible”, “dispassionate”, and “impervious”. It is found that there are statistically significant differences among these segments in terms of being easily persuaded, impulse buying tendency, self-confidence, and social network proneness in which consumers in “susceptible” segment are more easily persuaded, have high level of self-confidence, have more impulse buying tendency, and are more prone to social networks when compared to other groups. It is also discovered that there are differences among these segments in terms of the factors that determine their purchase intentions for the products presented in social media advertising. The purchase intention of consumers in “susceptible” segment for products exhibited in social media advertising, is determined by perceived relevance, ease of being persuaded, self-confidence and social network proneness. On the other hand, the purchase intention of consumers in the “dispassionate” segment is shaped by informativeness, ease of being persuaded, and social network proneness. Finally, the purchase intention of consumers in “impervious” segment is influenced by hedonic motivation, perceived relevance, impulse buying tendency, and ease of being persuaded. Nevertheless, when the whole sample is considered, it is observed that consumers’ purchase intentions for the products and services presented in social media advertising are influenced by the following factors: perceived relevance, performance expectancy, informativeness, impulse buying tendency, ease of being persuaded, and social network proneness. Understanding differences across segments can help companies design, manage and convey their social media advertising campaigns to their target audience in a convincing, timely, effective, and efficient way, which in turn, let them gain competitive advantage in highly volatile and dynamic markets.
... Every social online platform has different impacts on consumers' attitudes. These advertisements have initially started to appear on Facebook and Youtube (Brettel et al., 2015). Afterwards, Facebook and YouTube are used as an advertising tool. ...
... Furthermore, with the help of Facebook, advertisers enhance word of mouth (WOM), which takes place Facebook advertisements as an influential tool of developing brand image diversified good and services (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). However, the feasibility of Facebook for the advertisements are not yet examined even though some developed models have proposed different intuition regarding how the advertisements of social media platforms work (Brettel et al., 2015). For these reasons, advertisers increasingly take advantage of Facebook to understand their branding positions (Allahad 2015; Van et al., 2014;Tran, 2017). ...
Chapter
The advent of Facebook brought a new aspect for advertising since it allows ads to reach more targeted users on the internet. However, although the ads on Facebook have been found influential on consumers' purchase intentions, the possible impacts on brands have been relatively neglected. The purpose of this research is therefore to investigate the impacts of Facebook ads on brand image, brand awareness, and brand equity. With this purpose, a conceptual model was developed based on the advertising value model (AVM). The research model was tested by means of structural equation modelling (SEM) with the help of surveys applied for 194 university students. The results support the proposed model and confirm that Facebook ads play an important role on brand image, brand awareness, and brand equity. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... They calculated that about one out of every 1,700 people were likely to learn the name of a candidate or have increased candidate favorability per ad exposure. However, since Facebook advertising is relatively inexpensive (Curran, Graham, & Temple, 2011), advertisers can utilize the platform to purchase advertisements in large batches and develop long-term ad campaigns (Brettel, Reich, Gavilanes, & Flatten, 2015). ...
... Traditional display advertisements are located to the right of users' central feed and are often mostly ignored by audience members (Barreto, 2013;Wang, Hung, Huang, & Chen, 2018, July). However, Facebook also uses in-feed ads that are inserted into the user's news feed and appear in a similar manner to the other content in the feed (Brettel et al., 2015;Van den Broeck, Poels, & Walrave, 2018). As is the case in many other forms of native advertising, a sponsorship disclosure is the only visual cue provided to consumers that distinguishes a paid Facebook news feed advertisement from an organic post. ...
Article
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In an effort to improve transparency, Facebook changed its disclosures on in-feed native political advertisements in 2018 to include language that identifies who paid for the ad to appear. The present study (N = 120) utilized a between-participants eye-tracking experiment to assess the impact of three different disclosure conditions on Facebook users’ visual attention to the disclosure, recall of the disclosure, and the ability to identify the sponsor of the advertisement. Findings suggest that while users do give visual attention to Facebook’s new political ad disclosure, the disclosure language is not effective at enhancing users’ comprehension of who paid the political advertisements.
... The resource we use is the Facebook Ads Library, which was launched by Facebook in March 2019 6 as a way for the public to "learn more about ads related to politics or issues that have run on Facebook or Instagram". Accessible through Facebook Ads Library API 7 , it provides the title and text of the advertisement, the ID of the Facebook page and funding entity. ...
... Beyond advertising in particular, social media in general has been a popular venue for public health campaigning, spanning efforts in smoking cessation [15], organ donor registration [8], and sexual health promotion [7]. Although it is not clear that increased online engagement results in desired health behaviors, research in commercial sphere shows a relationship between engagement with Facebook and sales [6,26]. To encourage engagement, public health campaigns strive for an engaging experience, as the campaigns with a clear call to action have an opportunity to quantify the impact of the message (such as signing up for future contacts), or encourage the community to propagate the message (in best scenario having it go "viral", i.e. very popular) [18]. ...
... The resource we use is the Facebook Ads Library, which was launched by Facebook in March 2019 6 as a way for the public to "learn more about ads related to politics or issues that have run on Facebook or Instagram". Accessible through Facebook Ads Library API 7 , it provides the title and text of the advertisement, the ID of the Facebook page and funding entity. ...
... Beyond advertising in particular, social media in general has been a popular venue for public health campaigning, spanning efforts in smoking cessation [15], organ donor registration [8], and sexual health promotion [7]. Although it is not clear that increased online engagement results in desired health behaviors, research in commercial sphere shows a relationship between engagement with Facebook and sales [6,26]. To encourage engagement, public health campaigns strive for an engaging experience, as the campaigns with a clear call to action have an opportunity to quantify the impact of the message (such as signing up for future contacts), or encourage the community to propagate the message (in best scenario having it go "viral", i.e. very popular) [18]. ...
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In the age of social media, disasters and epidemics usher not only a devastation and affliction in the physical world, but also prompt a deluge of information, opinions, prognoses and advice to billions of internet users. The coronavirus epidemic of 2019-2020, or COVID-19, is no exception, with the World Health Organization warning of a possible "infodemic" of fake news. In this study, we examine the alternative narratives around the coronavirus outbreak through advertisements promoted on Facebook, the largest social media platform in the US. Using the new Facebook Ads Library, we discover advertisers from public health and non-profit sectors, alongside those from news media, politics, and business, incorporating coronavirus into their messaging and agenda. We find the virus used in political attacks, donation solicitations, business promotion, stock market advice, and animal rights campaigning. Among these, we find several instances of possible misinformation, ranging from bioweapons conspiracy theories to unverifiable claims by politicians. As we make the dataset available to the community, we hope the advertising domain will become an important part of quality control for public health communication and public discourse in general.
... Especially, by gaining "Likes" for the advertisement on Facebook which means a customer's click on "Like" it can affect strong long-term sales. Moreover, customer visit to a Facebook brand page has strong effect on company short-term sales (Brettel et al., 2015). ...
... It can be used to decide whether marketing activities such as advertisement or promotion are success or not. But Brettel, Reich, Gavilanes, & Flatten (2015) stated that most importantly in the long run there is a considerable effect on sales of a company from Facebook advertisements. Especially, by gaining "Likes" for the advertisement on Facebook which means a customer's click on "Like" it can affect strong long-term sales. ...
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With the development of new technologies competition within industries are rising and marketers are finding new ways to persuade customers to spend money on their brands. As social network sites have become increasingly important in customers' lives, this new trend has made business to realize that if they wish to reach their prospects and customers, their online presence in social network sites is a foundation of their overall marketing strategy. Brand pages on social network sites have become the key platform where customers interact with brands and therefore, the key objective of this study is to examine how the customer engagement with Facebook brand pages effect on online sales of a business. Further, the study investigates what is the mediation effect of brand awareness on the relationship between customer engagement and online sales. Study proposed a research model that examines in what manner the three levels of customer engagement (consumption, contribution and creation) can contribute to the online sales of a brand and how the brand awareness mediate this relationship, empirically testing the model using 195 respondents. Structural equation modeling technique was used for the data analysis and the results confirmed that consumption level engagement has a direct effect on online sales, consumption and creation levels have direct effect on brand awareness and no mediation effect was found in the study.
... Usually, consumers opt to act after intense cognitive and emotional processing by purchasing, repurchasing, or advocating for a product or brand (Brettel et al., 2015). To understand the internal processes consumers are going through due to a stimulus (e.g., social media images' value), scholars applied the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) (Petty, 1986). ...
Article
Tourism organizations use social media to promote their destinations and attract new customers. However, there is a challenge in how tourism organizations can choose or create social media images to successfully attract consumers' attention, induce their engagement with the destination, and motivate their eWOM behavior. This study aims to identify and test the direct and indirect factors related to social media images of tourism destinations that could predict eWOM. Using the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-OR) as an umbrella framework, we integrated Ducoffe's model and the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), to study the role of social media destination images' features (entertainment, informativeness, irritation, credibility, personalization, and incentives) on consumer's perceived value and eWOM through consumer engagement and involvement. Using a survey research method, we collected data from 307 individuals and tested the proposed structural model using the PLS-SEM-based transmittal mediation approach. The findings supported the proposed relationships providing valuable theoretical and practical implications.
... As we know that various factors, like per capita incom, memory of peoples, etc. affect the purchasing of any product and thus this model can also be studied using other approaches, like stochastic differential equations [26] , fractional order differential equations [4] , etc. ...
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Marketers and entrepreneurs need to keep up with the fast-paced changes that are happening in the business environment, or they might face the risk of becoming obsolete in the rapidly changing business environment. It is long gone the days when a conventional business model used to help grow fast and get success. With the emergence of social media, the role of consumer-to-consumer communication about the new products and the firms that produce them has been highly magnified in the marketplace. Social media advertisements are promising tools that affect the adoption of a new product. In this paper, a non-linear mathematical model is introduced for this study. To perceive the impact of social media advertisements on the adoption of a new product, we have considered three dynamic variables; namely, (i) non-adopting population, (ii) adopting population, and (iii) social media advertisements. The stability theory of differential equations has been used to study the model analytically. The computer generated figures are drawn in support of derived analytical results for a particular set of parameter values. •We have proposed and analyzed an nonlinear mathematical model to study the impact of social media advertisements on adoption of new product. •We have considered three dynamical variables; namely, non-adopting population, adopting population, and social media advertisements. •The stability theory of differential equations has been used to study the model analytically.
... In this effort of reconciliation, we account for two outcomesthat is, observers' purchase intentions and observers' engagement with the post (reflected in likes and shares). It is important to introduce this second outcome given its managerial value and association with profitability (Brettel et al. 2015). ...
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This research investigates whether companies’ use of humor is an effective strategy to address complainers’ incivility on social media. Using three main experiments, the authors examine observers’ evaluation of companies’ humorous responses on social media in relation to the degree of incivility of the complaints. The authors find, first, that observers develop greater purchase intentions toward companies that use humor to respond to uncivil complaints. Drawing on benign violation theory, they explain that observers are less committed to uncivil complainers, which makes the use of humor more benign and thus more amusing. Second, they compare the effectiveness of humor with an accommodative recovery (e.g., apologies). When the complaint is civil, an accommodative recovery is a more effective strategy than affiliative humor. However, when the complaint is uncivil, affiliative humor is more interesting than an accommodative recovery because of greater engagement with the post (i.e., likes and shares) and similar purchase intentions. Theoretical and managerial implications of these results are then discussed.
... This study is in line with these other existing studies (Marzouki et al., 2021;Pillai and Ghosh, 2022;Newman and Rezaeiahari, 2018;Blankenship et al., 2018) view user engagement as the behavioral actions that are expressed in response to viewing social media content. Scholars highlight behavioral engagement with social media content as an important public relations element as it measures the degree of success of communication (Newman and Rezaeiahari, 2018;Brettel et al., 2015). When organizations effectively engage audiences on social media, they are better placed to build a good image for themselves, rather than using social media for one-way communication (Peacemaker et al., 2016). ...
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The value experience perceived by users and the extent of interactivity on social media show how engaging audiences are. Few studies have looked at what drives this value experience in organizational communication. This study explores the functional use of communications by interest group organizations (IGOs) and discerns their effect on user engagement with and without multimedia inclusion on Twitter. A bi-term topic modeling technique is used to analyze posts from 121 organizations, and a generalized linear regression model to assess the link between the content functions and user engagement. The results show that the information and communication content functions include event updates and people recognition. Further, report, event, period, and people communication functions drive a higher engagement with multimedia inclusion, while unite, sign, and glean communication functions are more likely to increase engagement without multimedia elements. This study bridges the gap in the service literature as it pertains to non-profit organizations (i.e., interest group organizations) by exploring organizational communication using communications content functions of Twitter posts. This study is the only one to investigate content functions beyond the categorizations of message functions and the relationship between content functions and user engagement.
... The growing interest in social network to build a potential segmentation and infer personality traits from users' behaviour remains of constant relevance (Kosinski et al. 2013). Among the most suitable data for analysing users' activities, "Likes" represent a quantitative alternative to any other ways to express a reaction to a content (Brettel et al. 2015). ...
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In the big data context, it is very frequent to manage the analysis of missing values. This is especially relevant in the field of statistical analysis, where this represents a thorny issue. This study proposes a strategy for data enrichment in presence of sparse matrices. The research objective consists in the evaluation of a possible distinction of behaviour among observations in sparse matrices with missing data. After selecting among the multiple imputation methods, an innovative technique will be presented to impute missing observations as a negative position or a neutral opinion. This method has been applied to a dataset measuring the interaction between users and social network pages for some Italian newspapers.
... Managerially, this study has implications for social media platforms and online travel advertisers. Concerning social media platforms, their business model is to create a virtual place of exchange that is mainly monetized via advertising revenues [89]. With this in mind, platforms are looking at ways to increase the time users spend on the platform, which includes considering what content to show. ...
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Tremendous efforts will be required in the coming decades to limit the harmful effects of climate change. This includes travel behavior, which not only has a significant impact on climate but also affects the perceived justice and trust necessary to manage the transition to net zero successfully. Technologies such as social media can promote behavioral change; unfortunately, also for the negative. Drawing on social comparison theory, social identity theory, and the theory of planned behavior, this study uses a PLS-SEM model to investigate if and under which circumstances exposure to travel-related content posted by professional influencers affects their followers’ travel intentions. It extends previous studies by explicitly focusing on influencers that use Instagram to make a living and considers the effect of pro-environmental attitudes. On the one hand, it shows that influencers are not only responsible for their travel behavior. Their content stimulates their audiences’ wanderlust through benign envy. On the other hand, the study suggests that reinforcing pro-environmental attitudes can help mitigate the negative climate effects of imitating influencer travel behavior.
... Moreover, a large social media following may trigger the bandwagon heuristic (Sundar, 2008) wherein greater credibility is given to that which is perceived to be popular. With branded social content, higher likes on posts lead to increased credibility and positive attitudes (Seo et al., 2019) as well as increased sales (Brettel, Reich, Gavilanes, & Flatten, 2015). ...
Article
Digital marketing campaigns increasingly utilize social media influencers. Research in influencer marketing has investigated popularity metrics but found conflicting results on how the number of followers and likes on posts might influence consumers' behaviors. The present research investigates green living orientation of influencers as a moderating characteristic that leads to differential interpretation of popularity metrics in the context of green advertising messages. Specifically, lower popularity metrics seem to benefit green influencers or “greenfluencers.” An increased perception of trust in greenfluencers with lower popularity results in enhanced attitudes toward a sponsored product and increased purchase intentions. Additionally, consumers are willing to donate higher amounts to a related charity after exposure to a promotional post by a green influencer with low following. We present the results of three lab studies and discuss theoretical and practical implications.
... Social Networking Apps (SNAs), such as WhatsApp and Facebook, are the most popular online apps used by children and adolescents (Alexa Internet Inc., 2011;Knight & Weedon, 2014;Lenhart et al., 2010;Miller, 2008;Stevens et al., 2016). The fabric of our social interactions has recently extended to integrate SNAs, which are now widely used as a medium for communication and networking (Boyd, 2014;Brettel et al., 2015;Valkenburg & Peter, 2009;Zilka, 2014Zilka, , 2016Zilka, , 2018a. SNAs allow people to connect with others and engage in interactions (Ellison et al., 2007;Sheldon, 2008). ...
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In this mixed-method study, we sought to examine attitudes, expression of emotions, and the use of emoji in social networking by children, adolescents, and young adults. A total of 551 participants from Israel completed questionnaires, and 110 participants were also interviewed. The findings indicate that the participants love the social networking applications (SNAs). The reasons they mentioned are availability, accessibility, convenience, efficiency, speed, reliability, and the ability to express emotions by adding emoji. Many have stated that it is easier for them to express feelings in SNAs, that they do not feel embarrassed, and are handling the reactions of others better than in face-to-face situations. They think that they have extensive and productive communication, and attach great importance to the content and messages they receive and send. Some participants did not like the difficulty in maintaining privacy and the exposure to unwanted content.
... Furthermore, in the past, the effectiveness of the investments on traditional advertising was unknown, since one bought a space without knowing if it had received attention and from how many people. Conversely, Data-driven digital advertising digital advertising is data-centric and performance-based, that is, it manages to acquire data that allow to measure in a concrete way the effectiveness of the campaign, and optimize it over time (Brettel et al., 2015;Ghose and Todri, 2015;Mardegan et al., 2016). Online clickstream, messaging, word-of-mouth (WOM), transaction and location data have greatly reduced the variable cost of data collection resulting in unprecedented volumes of data called "the oil" of the digital economy by Wedel and Kannan (2016). ...
Purpose The research aims to investigate how individuals can be persuaded to make purchases through repeated and personalized messages. Specifically, the study proposes a framework of the potential benefits and risks of the online behavioral and data-driven digital advertising (OBA), which can help researchers and practitioners to better understand shopping behavior in the online retailing setting. In addition, the research focuses on the role of privacy concerns in affecting avoidance or adoption of OBA. Design/methodology/approach The authors apply a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach with partial least square (PLS) regression method to test the research hypotheses through data coming from a structured questionnaire. Findings OBA is a controversial type of advertising that activates opposing reactions on consumers' perspective. Specifically, acceptance of the OBA is positively related to relevance, usefulness and credibility of the personalized advertisements, while the intention to avoid personalized ads is strictly related to the privacy concerns. Consequently, OBA acceptance and avoidance affected the click intention on the ad and the behavioral intention that are decisive for the success of data-driven digital advertising. Originality/value Prior research came up with complex theoretical frameworks that explain antecedents of OBA focusing only on ethical issues in marketing, on the effectiveness of a single OBA campaign or on how to create a successful advertising campaign. However, no study focuses on the intended or actual behavior of shoppers. Specifically, filling the gap in the existing literature, our research applies an SEM approach to identify both benefits and risks and the antecedents of the actual behavior of individuals in terms of actual purchases promoted by OBA.
... Community then linked with the quantity of discussions about the company and its products. Also, the effects on sales of "likes" and other social network stimuli [27] and the relative impact of user-and marketer-generated content. [28] Especially for micro-blogging, the metrics are the number of tweets about brands, re-tweets, followers, replies, and the valence of tweets. ...
... The evidence suggested that engagement with social media BFPs leads to brand awareness, word of mouth [32] and positive tangible outcomes such as purchase expenditure [33] and purchase intention [32]. Furthermore, Brettel et al. [34] demonstrated that Facebook page visits are a short-term indicator of sales and that Facebook likes are a strong long-term sales driver because of their high carryover effect. ...
Article
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This study aims to establish actionable guidelines and provide strategic insights as a means of increasing the social media effectiveness of consumer brands. Post-related factors in addition to the contextual and temporal factors influencing consumer engagement (i.e., reposting, commenting on or liking posts), as an indicator of social media effectiveness, are considered in detail in the research model. Moreover, the model considers differences between industries as well as social media platforms. A total of 1130 posts made by four brands, two each from the durable goods and fast-moving consumer goods sectors, were collected from Facebook and Twitter in Turkey. Through predictive analysis, four different machine learning algorithms were utilized to develop easy-to-apply plans of action and strategies. The findings highlight the significant impact of videos, images, post frequency and interactivity on engagement. Furthermore, social media platforms and the brands themselves were found to be instrumental in influencing engagement levels, indicating that more than one formula is needed for effective social media management. The range and depth of the post-related factors (e.g., image type, video length, kind of interactivity) considered go far beyond those found in the significant majority of similar studies. Moreover, the unique setting and the novel data analysis algorithms applied set this study apart from similar ones.
... Ads and commercial posts on Facebook may affect consumers' behavior to like, to comment, or to share the posts to other users . Facebook realizes personalized advertising (van den Broeck et al., 2020) and collects detailed person-related data in an amount, which is dependent on the users' willingness to provide information in their profiles and, additionally, on the users' digital traces, which comprise their posts (texts, images, or videos), their "friends," the looked posts, the frequency of looking these posts, and their reactions on posts (likes, shares, and comments) (Brettel et al., 2015). Using these data, Facebook creates a profile for every user. ...
Article
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Facebook and many other social media companies act on information markets with various player groups, which are differentiated by the kind of payment, one group paying with money (normally, advertisers) and the other group paying with their personal data or their attention (i.e., Facebook’s users being simultaneously the advertisers’ potential customers). In order to minimize users’ problems with (rather annoying) ads on digital services, some providers offer user settings for the optimization of advertising. We analyzed the information behavior of Facebook users concerning ad settings with the help of an online survey (N = 1,021). Only about 40% of participating Facebook users know about personalization of settings of their advertising preferences. More than 20% of the users who work with Facebook’s advertising optimization are satisfied since the changes, but 35% are unsatisfied, and another 32% have a generally negative attitude towards online advertising. To describe customers’ disregard or ignorance of settings we introduce the term “settings blindness.” Especially the users’ gender and their educational background influence the information behavior concerning advertisement settings. The results have practical implications for Facebook users (namely, setting their own preferences for ads and thus seeing only personally customized ads), for Facebook and other social media companies (producing less annoying ads leading to a better customer loyalty and maybe more trust in the service), and for advertisers on social media (improving the correct addressing of the target groups).
... Las redes sociales permiten la manipulación de la información de sus usuarios a fin de incrementar la colaboración, creación de herramientas de estudio y análisis por parte de emprendedores, investigadores Brettel et al. (2015) en su trabajo "¿Qué impulsa el éxito publicitario en Facebook?" analizaron diferentes tipos de interacciones (likes, impresiones, etc.) con el volúmen de ventas, considerando la página oficial de Facebook de una de las principales empresas alemanas dedicadas a la venta al por menor. ...
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After the arrival of social networks and the interconnection that it caused among its users, the generation of businesses within these platforms was inevitable, the main one of them selling advertising, in Ecuador the sale of advertising through social networks amounts to a amount exceeding thirty million dollars only for companies in the commerce sector, therefore, this paper analyzes the efficiency of advertising spending through the condition of Dorfman-Steiner for eighty-eight companies in the commerce sector during 2018, generating indicators of Management for digital marketing (KPI's) using Machine Learning techniques for the processing of data from the social network twitter and relating them to the financial results of these companies during the same period, through a multiple linear regression. In the analysis performed, a significant effect was found by the indicators towards the Dorfman-Steiner condition for companies with a small number of tweets, the greatest effects found were given through the interaction between the indicators concluding that, to reduce the level Advertising spending should be aimed at the propagation and popularity of the content that is published, taking into account the quality of the content that is disclosed.
... In this context, companies look for best practices on how to achieve more effective online advertising strategies and use social media as a major advertising medium (Muñoz-Leiva, Hernández-Méndez, and Gómez-Carmona, 2019). Despite a growing body of research examining social media advertising (Balakrishnan andManickavasagam, 2016, Belanche, Flavián, andPérez-Rueda, 2017;Tran, 2017;Reich, Gavilanes, and Flatten, 2015;Dao, Le, Cheng, and Chen, 2015;Jung, et al., 2016), it is still a challenge to determine what makes social media advertising efficient (Knoll, 2016). ...
Article
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Social media advertising effectiveness is a fundamental issue that remains poorly examined in academic research. The aim of this research is to investigate differences regarding user reactions to advertisements on Facebook. An online survey of Facebook users was conducted to test the hypotheses. Originality, liking, credibility, and irritation have significant effects on consumers' attitude toward advertising, which in turn positively influences their purchase intention and recommendation of the brand. Moreover, Advertisements driving visitors to the brand's Facebook page are less irritating, more original, credible, and liked than those driving them to the brand's website. Managers could be guided by our results in deciding which features to place at brand posts to enhance their effectiveness. Other managerial and theoretical implications of the findings are identified and future research directions are suggested.
... More than a few studies confirmed the positive effect of Facebook on marketing performance. Specifically, the positive effect has been documented on brand image and brand equity (Greve, 2014;Dehghani & Tumer, 2015), purchase intentions (Duffett, 2015) and ecommerce sales (Brettel et al., 2015). These results can be achieved in two general ways. ...
Article
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With a growing interest in social media, social networks have been discussed largely in brand management and marketing communications literature. Specifically, Facebook, as the leading brand in social networks, is increasingly popular both for users and companies. However, it is not entirely clear what differences occur among Facebook users regarding their attitudes toward brand profiles. The goal of the research is to identify which demographic factors are related to the functional and hedonistic attitude towards the brand fan page and the overall social value of the page on Facebook. A quantitative survey was conducted on a representative sample of 454 users. The concepts of functional, hedonic and social value were measured using Likert-type questions (four for each of these concepts). Using cluster analysis, homogeneous groups were identified in the data set, resulting in two main segments for the functional and hedonic concept and three for social value. Subsequently, these groups were compared with selected demographic characteristics using Chi-square statistics. Implications for Central European audience: Results of the analysis showed that there is no evidence that gender or age relates to any attitudinal measures towards brand pages on Facebook. The paper ends with a conclusion about the usability of the results for further research and business practice.
... The economic model of social networks rests on the delicate balance between disseminating personal data to optimize advertising targeting and the need for users to retain control over how these data are used. In the light of controversies over personal data dissemination, social networks must not only encourage their users to update their advertising preferences but also find ways for users to control their interactions with brands to sustain trust in the network and preempt complete advertisement blocking (Brettel et al., 2015). ...
... Sociograph (2016) was used to data mine the Facebook posts of international airlines (Emirates, Qatar Airways, Singapore Airlines, KLM, RyanAir, and Eurowings) to identify online complaints. We relied on the complaints that were observed by a large audience (Brettel, Reich, Gavilanes, & Flatten 2015) and reviewed the selected companies' most liked posts during a six-month period in 2016. Based on this review, a fictional complaint and company responses in low and high CHV were created (see Appendix A), reflecting communication characteristics as described by Kelleher (2009) andvan Noort et al. (2015). ...
Article
When dissatisfied customers voice their complaints on companies' social media pages, many other consumers can observe such interactions. Yet, only limited research has investigated how complaint handling is perceived by this online audience. Since the final outcome of the complaint is rarely visible publicly, the message characteristics (e.g., length and style) of company replies can represent signaling cues for observers of how the complaint is handled. The results of two experimental studies show that the use of conversational human voice (CHV) leads to more positive observer perceptions of complaint handling as opposed to when a corporate voice is employed. We found that interactional justice fully mediates this process and that satisfaction with complaint handling positively impacts corporate image and indirectly observers' WOM intentions. Surprisingly, high CHV can negatively affect procedural justice, but these effects are mainly offset through interactional justice, as the observers focus on the fairness in the communication exchange. Interestingly, our findings show that, in the case of low CHV, other cues such as the length of the company's reply significantly change perceived justice dimensions; however, the length of reply does not lead to such changes when high CHV is employed. Our studies bring novel findings that contribute to justice and signaling theories in the context of complaints management in social media. Managerial implications are discussed.
... Since different subreddits contain unique cultural norms and rules of pragmatic behaviors, participating within one subreddit allows participants to understand their own subreddit community and ways users interact with one another. This study used the number of points and responses each comment received to investigate whether learners' attempts at participation became more successful within the community, similar to analysis of Facebook "likes" in social media marketing (Brettel, Reich, Gavilanes, & Flatten, 2015;Stieglitz & Dang-Xuan, 2013), as a way of measuring how relevant other users found the learners' contributions. The results revealed evidence of U-shaped curves throughout the process of their participation (see Figure 1). ...
Article
This study presents an innovative approach to developing interlanguage pragmatics (ILP) by training students to engage in online participatory cultures and analyzing their participation through the lens of communities of practice. Participants were university-level English language learners studying in the United States who were trained on the basic layout and practices of a social news and discussion site (Reddit), then assigned weekly postings within forums based on their individual interests. Social media engagement metrics (upvotes and responses) were used to measure and observe the quantity and quality of online interaction, and post-task questionnaires and follow-up interviews investigated learner perceptions about the language and cyberpragmatics in the online communities they encountered. Quantitative results show that participants struggled to achieve high levels of interaction with other users, but qualitative results indicate a wide range of potential benefits for ILP exploration and development. The findings and implications of this study contribute towards best practices in developing strategies for ILP in online spaces and cyberpragmatic awareness among language learners, enabling them to reach higher levels of participation in online communities.
... In order to overcome this problem, the way and the medium used to communicate is crucial in changing the perception of sustainable fashion [3]. As communicating sustainable fashion is challenging [7], the most prominent tool to use for digital advertisement is the social network sites (SNS) [8][9]. ...
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: Fashion industry is the second most polluted industry in the world that has caused social and environmental issues. Pointing to the fact, sustainable fashion has been designed to reduce pollution and to improve working conditions in the industry. Concurrently, many consumers have claimed that they are concerned about the impact of major fashion brands on the planet. However, beyond the concerned, the market share produced on this fashion concepts are still lagging. In reaching potential consumers, advertisement via social network sites (SNS) appears to be the most effective medium to reach them. Due to this reason, this study designed the most persuasive ways of promoting sustainable fashion advertising. By engaging the Persuasion Knowledge Model (PKM), this conceptual paper demonstrates the relationships between parasocial relationship, sources credibility, and sustainable fashion consumption. This study proposes three hypotheses based on the growth of sustainable fashion within the Malaysian context. As this study will involves with quantitative analysis, the researchers will employ the PLS software for data analyses in future. Although the sustainable fashion scene in Malaysia is still slow, its growth is promising. The findings can be leveraged to gain deeper understanding on how to create effective digital advertising with the implementation of persuasive knowledge, parasocial relationships, and sources credibility. Accordingly, the study outcomes contribute to various practical implications that may be beneficial for marketing, policy making, and non-governmental action aimed at stimulating sustainable fashion consumption from a dyadic perspective.
... Recent research conducted by Lee, Hosanagar, & Nair (2018) has analysed the nature of 106316 Facebook messages and has concluded that purely informative ads have a lower conversion rate than content-sensible ads that adapt to personailty related attributes, like humour. Brettel, Reich, Gavilanes, & Flatten (2015) have analyzed, using the approach of Vakratsas & Ambler (1999) four types of advertising incentives on Facebook, looking at likes, impressions, page views and user contributions to determine the short and long-term impact on the sales of a major German ecommerce retailer. They have discovered that, despite their low short-term conversion, likes have a tendency to be the strongest sales drivers in the long run. ...
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The digital transformation allowed for new business models to emerge. As e-commerce seems to be the future of retail, an increased number of entrepreneurs are trying to better leverage advertising in a way that leads to a sustainable business model on medium to long-term. Retail enterprises are spending huge amounts of money on search engine and social media paid advertising in order to make their products visible and thus, become more profitable. However, the academic literature suggests contradictory findings on the effectiveness of paid advertising. While it seems that for already established companies like e-Bay, shutting off paid campaigns doesn’t proportionally decrease the website’s traffic, for other large companies with more competitors the findings show the opposite, meaning that most of the traffic goes down when paid-campaigns are shut off. The aim of our paper is to assess the impact of paid campaigns on the long-term revenues of small and medium enterprises activating in e-commerce. Is investing in paid advertising at the beginning enough to build a business model that can sustain itself or does less advertising translate directly in less sales? We conduct a study for a number of Romanian e-commerce businesses in order to determine the effectiveness of paid advertising and its impact on the long-term revenue stream. Our findings contribute to the existing research through valuable data on small and medium size enterprises and can help business managers make more informed decisions when it comes to their paid advertising budget and strategy.
... Recent research conducted by Lee, Hosanagar, & Nair (2018) has analysed the nature of 106316 Facebook messages and has concluded that purely informative ads have a lower conversion rate than contentsensible ads that adapt to personailty related attributes, like humour. Brettel, Reich, Gavilanes, & Flatten (2015) have analyzed, using the approach of Vakratsas & Ambler (1999) four types of advertising incentives on Facebook, looking at likes, impressions, page views and user contributions to determine the short and long-term impact on the sales of a major German e-commerce retailer. They have discovered that, despite their low shortterm conversion, likes have a tendency to be the strongest sales drivers in the long run. ...
Preprint
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The digital transformation allowed for new business models to emerge. As e-commerce seems to be the future of retail, an increased number of entrepreneurs are trying to better leverage advertising in a way that leads to a sustainable business model on medium to long-term. Retail enterprises are spending huge amounts of money on search engine and social media paid advertising in order to make their products visible and thus, become more profitable. However, the academic literature suggests contradictory findings on the effectiveness of paid advertising. While it seems that for already established companies like e-Bay, shutting off paid campaigns doesn't proportionally decrease the website's traffic, for other large companies with more competitors the findings show the opposite, meaning that most of the traffic goes down when paid-campaigns are shut off. The aim of our paper is to assess the impact of paid campaigns on the long-term revenues of small and medium enterprises activating in e-commerce. Is investing in paid advertising at the beginning enough to build a business model that can sustain itself or does less advertising translate directly in less sales? We conduct a study for a number of Romanian e-commerce businesses in order to determine the effectiveness of paid advertising and its impact on the long-term revenue stream. Our findings contribute to the existing research through valuable data on small and medium size enterprises and can help business managers make more informed decisions when it comes to their paid advertising budget and strategy.
... The economic model of social networks rests on the delicate balance between disseminating personal data to optimize advertising targeting and the need for users to retain control over how these data are used. In the light of controversies over personal data dissemination, social networks must not only encourage their users to update their advertising preferences but also find ways for users to control their interactions with brands to sustain trust in the network and preempt complete advertisement blocking (Brettel et al., 2015). ...
... It is estimated that by 2019, the content marketing industry will have a volume of about $ 300 billion and thus will have more than doubled its volume within only 5 years (2014: about $ 145 billion) [63]. User interaction with this content (i.e., content engagement) is a key indicator of its popularity and is used to assess the success of social media activities (e.g., [8]). Moreover, content engagement is a precondition for the positive impact of social media content on company success (e.g., "likes" of a company's Facebook post may have a positive effect on sales performance [21], or branding [22]). ...
Article
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We present a review of N = 45 studies, which deals with the effect of characteristics of social media content (e.g., topic or length) on behavioral engagement. In addition, we reviewed the possibility of a mediating effect of emotional responses in this context (e.g., arousing content has been shown to increase engagement behavior). We find a diverse body of research, particularly for the varying content characteristics that affect engagement, yet without any conclusive results. We therefore also highlight potential confounding effects causing such diverging results for the relationship between content characteristics and content engagement. We find no study that evaluates the mediating effect of emotional responses in the content—engagement relationship and therefore call for further investigations. In addition, future research should apply an extended communication model adapted for the social media context to guarantee rigorous research.
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Özet yada Abstract kısmını bu alana yapıştırabilirsiniz en fazla 1500 karakter kullanılabilir. EBu çalışmada Türkiye’de faaliyet gösteren 20 bankanın reklam faaliyetlerinin finansal performanslarına olan etkisi incelenmiştir. Çalışma kapsamında 2002 dördüncü çeyrekten 2018 dördüncü çeyreğe kadar 65 gözlemden oluşan panel veri seti kullanılmıştır. Reklamın bankalar üzerindeki etkisinin incelenmesi sürecinde Driscoll Kraay sabit etkiler dirençli tahmincisi sabit etkiler panel regresyon modeli tercih edilmiştir, açıklayıcılığın arttırılabilmesi adına reklam değişkeni hem reklam harcamaları hem de reklam yoğunluğu olarak iki ayrı rasyo değişken şeklinde analizlere dahil edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular ışığında reklamın mevcut döneme negatif etki ettiği ve on dönem boyunca (iki buçuk yıl) negatif etki etmeye devam ettiği tespit edilmiştir.ğer makale diliniz Türkçe ise ilk olarak Öz sonrasında sonrasında Abstract gelmelidir.
Article
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Bu çalışmada Türkiye’de faaliyet gösteren 20 bankanın reklam faaliyetlerinin finansal performanslarına olan etkisi incelenmiştir. Çalışma kapsamında 2002 dördüncü çeyrekten 2018 dördüncü çeyreğe kadar 65 gözlemden oluşan panel veri seti kullanılmıştır. Reklamın bankalar üzerindeki etkisinin incelenmesi sürecinde Driscoll Kraay sabit etkiler dirençli tahmincisi sabit etkiler panel regresyon modeli tercih edilmiştir, açıklayıcılığın arttırılabilmesi adına reklam değişkeni hem reklam harcamaları hem de reklam yoğunluğu olarak iki ayrı rasyo değişken şeklinde analizlere dahil edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular ışığında reklamın mevcut döneme negatif etki ettiği ve on dönem boyunca (iki buçuk yıl) negatif etki etmeye devam ettiği tespit edilmiştir.
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Facebook and other advertising platforms exploit users' data for marketing purposes by allowing advertisers to select specific users and target them with well-crafted messages (the practice is being called micro-targeting). However, advertisers such as Cambridge Analytica have maliciously used these targeting features to manipulate users in the context of elections. The European Commission plans to restrict or even ban some targeting functionalities in the new European Democracy Action Plan act to protect users from such harms. The difficulty in finding appropriate restrictions is that we do not know the economic impact of these restrictions on regular advertisers. In this paper, to inform the debate, we take a first step by understanding who is advertising on Facebook and how they use the targeting functionalities of ad platforms. For this, we asked 890 U.S. users to install a monitoring tool on their browsers to collect the ads they receive on Facebook and information about how these ads were targeted. By matching advertisers on Facebook with their LinkedIn profiles, we could see that 71% of advertisers are small and medium-sized businesses with 200 employees or less, and they are responsible for 61% of ads and 57% of ad impressions. Regarding micro-targeting, we found that only 32% of small and medium-sized businesses and 30% of large-sized businesses in our dataset micro-target at least one of their ads. These results should not be interpreted as micro-targeting not being useful as a marketing strategy, but rather that advertisers prefer to outsource the micro-targeting task to ad platforms. Indeed, to deliver ads, Facebook is employing optimization algorithms that exploit user data to decide which users should see what ads; which basically means ad platforms are performing an algorithmic-driven micro-targeting. Hence, when setting restrictions on micro-targeting, legislators should take into account both the traditional advertiser-driven micro-targeting as well as algorithmic-driven micro-targeting performed by ad platforms.
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Brand pages on social networking sites represent excellent vehicles for customer relationship management. These pages enable companies to interact with their customers and to foster their engagement. This study examines the relationship between, and moderating impact of, customer engagement behaviour and a COVID-19-related context as well as content types. The content of 1,946 company-generated Facebook brand posts of 16 media and technology companies was analysed. A hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The results show that a COVID-19-related context and the content type are associated with customer engagement behaviour. These factors both partly interact and directly correlate with customer engagement behaviour. This study contributes to the literature by establishing (crisis-related) social media guidelines for media and technology companies.
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The prosperity of the platform economy has facilitated online sales. This study investigates the influential factors of online sales across the online-to-offline (O2O) on-demand and traditional business-to-consumer (B2C) platforms. Our empirical evidence is based on data with a large sample size on two of the largest e-commerce platforms in China: an O2O on-demand platform and a traditional B2C platform. We find that the influencing mechanism and magnitude of the various factors are different between the O2O and B2C platforms. In detail, product rating and market share positively affect online sales, and the relative magnitude of market share impact is higher for the B2C platform than for the O2O platform. Clickstream positively affects online sales. Both the short- and long-term magnitude of impact are higher for the O2O platform than for the B2C platform. The long-term impact of clickstream in the O2O platform is higher than that in the short term. In addition, a price increase negatively affects online sales, especially for the O2O platforms. Our findings offer insights for various platforms to implement appropriate marketing strategies and post effective information to attract consumers and increase online sales.
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Purpose This study aims to compare and contrast the effectiveness of single- and dual-product repetition strategies in the brand placement context. The study also aims to explore the number of repetitions needed for achieving maximum impact on brand memory (i.e. recall and recognition) and brand attitudes. Design/methodology/approach The proposed hypotheses and research questions were tested using a quasi-experimental approach. Participants watched a block of eight videos containing four different levels comprising one, three, five and seven repetitions of products belonging to the same umbrella brand. Subsequently, participants completed a questionnaire designed to measure brand memory and brand attitudes. Findings Results indicate that dual-product brand placements could elicit higher levels of brand recall than that of single-product brand placements at moderate and high levels of repetition (i.e. five and seven). Moreover, at a high level of repetition (i.e. seven repetitions), the brand attitudes of consumers exposed to dual-product brand placements are significantly higher when product categories are dissimilar. Originality/value Consumers are increasingly exposed to multiple products of the same umbrella brands when watching various video content. However, prior research has not examined the effects of brand placement repetition in the umbrella branding context. This study is the first attempt at combining research streams on umbrella branding and brand placements and comparing the effects of repetitive exposure to single- and dual-product brand placements on consumers’ memory and brand attitudes.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to analyse young voter engagement in modern Western democracies. Why young voters? Young voters are disengaged from the political process. In order to complete the analysis, the author adapts an engagement model from social media marketing. The adapted model consists of three parts: consumption, contribution, and (co) creation of brand related materials. The author hypothesises that each aspect of the model is related to the other and that all three aspects of the model are positively related to loyalty to the political party brand. The aim of this conceptual adaptation is to investigate a new way to re-engage young voters with the political party brand, thereby strengthening one pillar of modern democracy.
Chapter
This chapter demonstrates how to assess the performance of organic and sponsored activities on Facebook using the data available in Facebook Ads Manager, Facebook Page Insights, and Google Analytics. The main aim of the proposed ROI calculation model is to connect common social media marketing objectives with the analytical information available. The main emphasis is put on the technical aspect of ad performance assessment. The authors explain how the Facebook attribution system and post-impression algorithm work, describe the relation between advertising goals and metrics displayed as achieved campaign results, and demonstrate how to derive ROI indexes from different Facebook conversions. The chapter also includes a practical example how to calculate current and future value of ongoing ads.
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This is one of the first textbooks to explore the phenomenon of Influencer Marketing and how it fits within marketing communications to build brands and their communities. Influencers – those who can impact a brand’s marketing and advertising strategies as well as build brand communities – are making extensive use of the new digital and traditional communications platforms. Influencers offer brands the ability to deliver the “right” communication and marketing messages to a specific target audience. Across four core sections, this book brings together the key theory and practical implications of this new marketing tool: how it works as part of communications campaigns, including how to select the right influencers and measure their success, the dark side of influencer marketing, and the legal and ethical framework. With contributions from authors across the globe, each chapter is also accompanied by an in- depth case study – from the Kardashians to Joe Wicks – that demonstrates how the theory translates to practice. Influencer Marketing is important reading for advanced, postgraduate and executive education students of Marketing, Digital Marketing, Marketing Communications, Brand Management and Public Relations. With its accessible style and practical content, it is also highly valuable for Marketing Communications, Branding and PR specialists.
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Drawing on the mixed methods of qualitative research and agent‐based simulation, this study examines: (a) how end‐users use digital platforms to become customer–entrepreneurs undertaking commercial activities on platforms; and (b) how platform providers can convert this customer entrepreneurship into a revenue stream. Considering that end‐users have traditionally been defined as passive and uncharged actors in platform business models, an in‐depth understanding of their commercial activities and the viable revenue model to monetize this emerging customer practice is warranted. Our qualitative study reveals that customer–entrepreneurs make substantial use of platform offerings to advertise their products; communicate with end‐consumers; and accept payments. These commercial activities are largely exercised for free on platforms, even though they could otherwise serve as a source of revenue. On this point, our simulation results identify two pricing models achieving the generation of nearly identical revenues over time. First, platform providers may charge both advertising and transaction fees, which maximize the survival of professional customer–entrepreneurs. Second, platform businesses may levy advertising fees only, which maximizes the survival of informal customer–entrepreneurs operating on a micro‐scale and part‐time basis. This study offers theoretical, methodological, and managerial implications for platform studies.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to analyse young voter engagement in modern Western democracies. Why young voters? Young voters are disengaged from the political process. In order to complete the analysis, the author adapts an engagement model from social media marketing. The adapted model consists of three parts: consumption, contribution, and (co) creation of brand related materials. The author hypothesises that each aspect of the model is related to the other and that all three aspects of the model are positively related to loyalty to the political party brand. The aim of this conceptual adaptation is to investigate a new way to re-engage young voters with the political party brand, thereby strengthening one pillar of modern democracy.
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