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« Gism el-Arba. Campagne 1997-1998 »

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... However, bones of livestock (cattle, caprines) in settlement locations from nearby sites (e.g. el-Barga, Wadi el-Arab) during the third millennium indicate that animal husbandry played an important role during this period (Chaix 2006;Gratien 1999;Gratien et al. 2002;Honegger 2012). The appearance of domestic cattle has been claimed to go as far back as 7500 bc (Honegger 2006). ...
... This importance is symbolically manifested in more than 700 clay zoomorphic figurines (mainly bovine and some caprines). These figurines are mostly made of unfired fine clay and found in settlement debris (Gratien 1999;Gratien et al. 2002). Those that represent cattle have incised marks on their shoulders and legs. ...
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... However, bones of livestock (cattle, caprines) in settlement locations from nearby sites (e.g. el-Barga, Wadi el-Arab) during the third millennium indicate that animal husbandry played an important role during this period (Chaix 2006;Gratien 1999;Gratien et al. 2002;Honegger 2012). The appearance of domestic cattle has been claimed to go as far back as 7500 bc (Honegger 2006). ...
... This importance is symbolically manifested in more than 700 clay zoomorphic figurines (mainly bovine and some caprines). These figurines are mostly made of unfired fine clay and found in settlement debris (Gratien 1999;Gratien et al. 2002). Those that represent cattle have incised marks on their shoulders and legs. ...
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This article sets out to address questions concerning local religious traditions in ancient Nubia. Data concerning Egyptian gods in the Sudan are introduced, then the existence of unattested local pre-Meroitic gods is reconstructed using mainly external literary sources and an analysis of divine names. A review of other archaeological evidence from an iconographic point of view is also attempted, concluding with the presentation of Meroitic gods and their relation with earlier traditions. This study proposes that Egyptian religious beliefs were well integrated in both official and popular cults in Nubia. The Egyptian and the Sudanese cultures were constantly in contact in the border area and this nexus eased the transmission of traditions and iconographical elements in a bidirectional way. The Meroitic gods are directly reminiscent of the reconstructed indigenous Kushite pantheon in many aspects, and this fact attests to an attempt by the Meroitic rulers to recover their Nubian cultural identity.
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