Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have wide variety of
applications and provide limitless future potentials. Nodes in
WSNs are prone to be failure due to energy depletion, hardware
failure, communication link errors, malicious attack, and so on.
Therefore, fault tolerance is one of the critical issues in WSNs.
Directed diffusion is a classic data-centric routing protocol in
Wireless Sensor Networks ... [Show full abstract] (WSNs). However, the communication
cost and energy balance over the whole WSNs have not been paid
enough attention. Hybrid PUSH-PULL data Diffusion (LOHD) is
a data dissemination algorithm for data-centric sensor networks.
LOHD works well in a wide range of networks and source/sink
settings. It adaptively selects an ultra-node through a wellcontrolled
flooding and the ultra-node maintains the gradients
from sources to sinks. In this paper we intend to improve energy
consumption and data delivery ratio. In former we use the hybrid
Push-Pull and in the latter we use the fault tolerant mechanisms.
The most commonly used technique for fault recovery is
replication or redundancy of components that are prone to be
failure. In this paper we improve the LOHD with considering
energy parameter in order to extend the lifetime of the sensor
network, and we introduce fault tolerant method in order to
increase the reliability and data delivery ratio. Simulation results
show that our proposed protocols are outperforms directed
diffusion in energy efficiency, energy balance over WSNs, and