Conference Paper

Energy Balanced Interference Aware Energy Efficient Depth Base Routing Protocol for UWSNs

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... For this purpose, the sound wave is the possible solution because of their appropriate properties in the underwater communication [5]. More and more researchers are constrained to focus on AWSNs because of its significant and unique aquatic environmental characteristics [6]. ...
... As compared to the radio frequency (RF) communication, underwater acoustic channel introduce with the varying and high delay due to the speed of sound in water. The most challenging issue associated with acoustic wave, that it's speed is several order lower than speed of light [6]. The deployed nodes are capable to sense the data and forward it over the network from the bottom source node to the data collecting center located on ocean surface. ...
... This decreases the number of transmissions and the interference in the network. The energy grade falls due to relay of data from the higher depth nodes to die quickly because of unbalanced energy in low depth nodes [1] [7]. If the sink present in the transmission range, the node can send the data [2]. ...
... The packet drops if the node is not in transmission range or far away from that. If the nodes find two neighbors it calculates the shortest path and forwards the data packets [7]. ...
Conference Paper
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) is one of the emerging technologies. Nowadays, it is more useful to monitor the watery bodies and underwater environment. Energy is one of the main issues in Underwater Wireless Sensor Nodes. Depends on the energy of each node in the network, the transmission rate varies. The nodes in the underwater networks had limited energy so it had to monitor the nodes effectively. In this work, the E-GEDAR protocol is used to analyze the data transmission rates and energy consumption as well as the efficiently. Simulation results show the significant improvement in the above parameters when compared with GEDAR protocol.
... This selects forwarder node with high residual energy, least depth and less number of neighbors in its transmission range. Hammad et al. [18] present energy efficient interference aware EEDBR to increase the network lifetime by dividing energy into chunks, when energy of a node becomes lower than its threshold value. The sensor node informs its neighbors through hello packet to start transmission directly with base station instead of multi-hoping. ...
... The value of parameter a is set to 0.95. L F i !sink is determined by Eq. (18) and it represents the maximum EELj sucess ðF i Þ of the forwarder node. ...
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In this paper, depth and reliability aware delay 1 sensitive (DRADS), interference aware DRADS (iDRADS) and 2 cooperative iDRADS (Co-iDRADS) routing protocols are pro-3 posed for maximizing network good-put while minimizing end-4 to-end delay. We have introduced a new metric called depth 5 threshold to minimize the number of hops between source and 6 destination while ensuring successful packet delivery. Our inter-7 ference aware and cooperative routing based algorithms select 8 the best relay node at each hop. Extensive simulation results 9 validate that the proposed routing techniques perform better 10 than the selected existing ones in terms of good-put and energy 11 cost of the network. Index Terms—Underwater wireless sensor 12 networks, Depth, Cooperation, Reliability, Energy efficiency 13
... The ocean has time-varying link properties and severe noise [5], which make the underwater networks more challenging to have an optimal data transmission. Water has absorbing properties for radio waves so U-WSNs use acoustic signals [6], which provide optimal performance [7,8]. ...
Article
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Underwater deployed sensors nodes are energy-constrained. Therefore, energy efficiency becomes crucial in underwater wireless sensor networks (U-WSNs). The adverse channel corrupts the packets and challenges their reliability. To handle these challenges, two routing schemes are introduced in this paper. They are effective energy and reliable delivery (EERD) and cooperative effective energy and reliable delivery (CoEERD). In EERD, the packets follow single-path routing and the best forwarder node is selected using a weight function such that packets are transferred via the reliable paths with low energy usage. Packet transfer via a single route in EERD has, however, compromised reliability as the undersea links bear harshness and unpredictability. Therefore, the CoEERD scheme adds cooperative routing to EERD, in which a relay node is introduced between a source-destination pair. The destination requests the relay when the packets it gets from the source are corrupted beyond a threshold value. Selection of weight function is unique and considers many factors to ensure low energy usage with reliability while considering nodes for data transfer. This also helps in selecting a single relay node rather than many relays in the conventional cooperative routing model. Based on simulation results, the EERD and CoEERD protocols have improved performance in energy usage, reliable packet transfer and delay.
... The limited power is supplied to underwater networks and it requires much effort to change or recharge the battery [10]. Therefore, plenty of energy efficient protocols without cooperation are proposed to minimize the energy usage, but the PDR is reduced [11]. ...
Article
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Mitigation of channel unfavorable circumstances during data routing in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has utmost significance. It guarantees saving packet corruption along unfavorable channels so that vital data is not lost or become meaningless. This paper proposes two routing protocols for UWSNs: localization free energy efficient routing (LFEER) and its improved version, localization free energy efficient cooperative routing (Co-LFEER). The LFEER makes decision of choosing a relay based on its maximum residual energy, number of hops and the bit error rate of the link over which packets are transmitted. These metrics are chosen to save packets from corruption to the maximum limit and maintain stable paths (where nodes do not die soon). Since a single link is used in the LFEER for packets forwarding, the link may become worse with changing circumstances of the channel. To deal with this issue, cooperative routing is added to the LFFER to construct the Co-LFEER protocol, in which some copies of packets are received by destination to decide about packets quality. Converse to some prevalent protocols, both LFEER and Co-LFEER are independent of knowing the sensor nodes’ positions, which increases computational complexity and wasteful utilization of resources. Based on extensive simulations, the proposed schemes are better than Co-DBR in reducing energy utilization and advancing packets to the desired destination.
... So, it may not actively counteract the effect of the death of a sensing node. The work in [20] proposes energy balanced interference-aware EEDBR (EB-IAEEDBR) that balances energy consumption in IEEEDBR protocol. Initially, all nodes are assigned equal amount of energy level called energy grade. ...
Article
Interference-aware routing protocol design for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) is one of the key strategies in reducing packet loss in the highly hostile underwater environment. The reduced interference causes efficient utilization of the limited battery power of the sensor nodes that, in consequence, prolongs the entire network lifetime. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient interference-aware routing (EEIAR) protocol for UWSNs. A sender node selects the best relay node in its neighborhood with the lowest depth and the least number of neighbors. Combination of the two routing metrics ensures that data packets are forwarded along the least interference paths to reach the final destination. The proposed work is unique in that it does not require the full dimensional localization information of sensor nodes and the network total depth is segmented to identify source, relay and neighbor nodes. Simulation results reveal better performance of the scheme than the counterparts DBR and EEDBR techniques in terms of energy efficiency, packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay.
Chapter
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have gained importance as well as diverted attention of many researchers, domain experts to a great extent in recent past. The devices used for UWSN deployment are resource-constrained like storage issue, low processing speed, as well are vulnerable to a wide class of security threats and malicious attacks, which affect reliable communication. For reliable data delivery, a system should include packet delivery ratio, battery life, delays incurred, and energy consumption, etc. Numerous reliability models for underwater networks have been designed to incorporate the parameters and performance metrics in optimized manner. The chapter deals with focusing on such models and their efficiency in terms of battery life, packet loss, error handling mechanism, and network delays. Further, it is also explained how and why the error-controlled schemes should be designed and implemented in order to incorporate reliable data delivery in limited resources-constraints of UWSN along with the consideration of efficiency and performance concerns.
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Underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN) features many unique characteristics, including slow propagation speed, high end-to-end delay, low available bandwidth, variable link quality, and energy constraint. All these problems pose a big challenge to devise a transmission efficient, energy-saving, and low delay routing protocol for UWSNs. In this paper we devise a relative distance based forwarding (RDBF) routing protocol, which aims to provide transmission efficient, energy-saving, and low delay routing. We utilize a fitness factor to measure and judge the degree of appropriateness for a node to forward the packets. Under the limitations of the fitness factor, RDBF can confine the scope of the candidate forwarders and find the beneficial relays to forward packets. In this way, only a small fraction of nodes are involved in forwarding process, which can distinctly reduce the energy consumption. Moreover, using only the selected beneficial nodes as forwarders can both enhance the transmission efficiency and reduce the end-to-end delay. This is because the distances of these nodes to the sink are the shortest and the hop counts of routing paths consisted by these nodes are minimum. We use the ns-2 based simulator to conduct our experiment; the results show that RDBF performs better in terms of packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, and energy efficiency.
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The unique characteristics of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) attracted the research community to explore different aspects of these networks. Routing is one of the most important and challenging function in UWSNs, for efficient data communication and longevity of sensor node's battery timing. Sensor nodes have energy constraint because replacing the batteries of sensor nodes is an expensive and tough task in harsh aqueous environment. Also interference is a major performance influencing factor. Providing solutions for interference-free communication are also essential. In this paper, we propose three energy-efficient and interference-aware routing protocols named as Inverse Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (IEEDBR), Interference-Aware Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (IA-EEDBR) and Interference-Aware Inverse Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (IA-IEEDBR). Unlike EEDBR, IEEDBR protocol uses depth and minimum residual energy information for selecting data for-warder. While IA-EEDBR takes minimum number of neighbors for forwarder selection. IA-IEEDBR considers depth, minimum residual energy along with minimum number of neighbors for selection of forwarder. Our proposed schemes are validated through simulation and the results demonstrate better performance in terms of improved network lifetime, maximized throughput and reduced path loss.
Chapter
Recently, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have attracted much research attention from both academia and industry, in order to explore the vast underwater environment. However, designing network protocols is challenging in UWSNs since UWSNs have peculiar characteristics of large propagation delay, high error rate, low bandwidth and limited energy. In UWSNs, improving the energy efficiency is one of the most important issues since the replacement of the batteries of such nodes is very expensive due to harsh underwater environment. Hence, in this paper, we propose an energy efficient routing protocol, named EEDBR (Energy-Efficient Depth Based Routing protocol) for UWSNs. Our proposed protocol utilizes the depth of the sensor nodes for forwarding the data packets. Furthermore, the residual energy of the sensor nodes is also taken into account in order to improve the network life-time. Based on the comprehensive simulation using NS2, we observe that our proposed routing protocol contributes to the performance improvements in terms of the network lifetime, energy consumption and end-to-end delay. KeywordsUnderwater wireless sensor networks–routing–network life-time–residual energy
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Simulation is important in the study of underwater networking because of the difficulty and expense of performing experiments. Underwater acoustic propagation is influenced by a wide variety of environmental factors, rendering analytic models complex, inaccurate, or both. Therefore, simulations based on models are of uncertain utility. In contrast, this simulator uses measured impulse response, CTD, noise, and transmission loss data in an effort to more realistically simulate the channel. The application layer generates data packets whose modulated waveforms are “mixed” with the channel's properties and sent to a receiver implemented fully in software, where the simulated bit error rate (BER) is measured. For a shallow time-invariant test channel, this process results in a simulated BER that is, on average, within 3.34% of the true BER.
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Providing scalable and ecient routing services in underwater sensor net- works (UWSNs) is very challenging due to the unique characteristics of UWSNs. Firstly, UWSNs often employ acoustic channels for communications because radio signals do not work well in water. Compared with radio-frequency channels, acous- tic channels feature much lower bandwidths and several orders of magnitudes longer propagation delays. Secondly, UWSNs usually have very dynamic topology as sen- sors move passively with water currents. Some routing protocols have been proposed to address the challenging problem in UWSNs. However, most of them assume that the full-dimensional location information of all sensor nodes in a network is known in prior through a localization process, which is yet another challenging issue to be solved in UWSNs. In this paper, we propose a depth-based routing (DBR) protocol. DBR does not require full-dimensional location information of sensor nodes. Instead, it needs only local depth information, which can be easily obtained with an inex- pensive depth sensor that can be equipped in every underwater sensor node. A key advantage of our protocol is that it can handle network dynamics eciently with- out the assistance of a localization service. Moreover, our routing protocol can take advantage of a multiple-sink underwater sensor network architecture without intro- ducing extra cost. We conduct extensive simulations. The results show that DBR can achieve very high packet delivery ratios (at least 95%) for dense networks with only small communication cost.