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India produces approximately 132.4 million tons of milk annually. Around 50% milk produced is converted to traditional Indian dairy products. Khoa, a heat desiccated indigenous Indian dairy product is the main base for the production sweet meat products. About 7% of milk produced n India is converted to khoa. Khoa is known by various names in India like khoya, kava and mawa. Sweets prepared from khoa are basically gulabjamun, kalajamun, kalakand, burfi etc. The estimated market size of khoa based sweets is 520 billion INR. Nearly, 36% of khoa is produced in Uttar Pradesh state in India. There are various traditional methods for khoa production and most of it is produced in an unorganized manner. However in recent years commercialization has led to development of innovative techniques for mechanized production of khoa such as Inclined Srapped Surface Heat Exchanger (ISSHE) and Thin Film Scrapped Surface Heat Exchanger (TSSHE). Various alternative methods are roller drying, membrane technology and reverse osmosis.
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ISSN: 0975-8585
September - October 2015 RJPBCS 6(5) Page No. 39
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical
Sciences
Khoa: A Heat Desiccated Indigenous Indian Dairy Product.
Prasad Rasane*, Beenu Tanwar, and Anirban Dey.
Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India 144411.
ABSTRACT
India produces approximately 132.4 million tons of milk annually. Around 50% milk produced is
converted to traditional Indian dairy products. Khoa, a heat desiccated indigenous Indian dairy product is the
main base for the production sweet meat products. About 7% of milk produced n India is converted to khoa.
Khoa is known by various names in India like khoya, kava and mawa. Sweets prepared from khoa are basically
gulabjamun, kalajamun, kalakand, burfi etc. The estimated market size of khoa based sweets is 520 billion INR.
Nearly, 36% of khoa is produced in Uttar Pradesh state in India. There are various traditional methods for khoa
production and most of it is produced in an unorganized manner. However in recent years commercialization
has led to development of innovative techniques for mechanized production of khoa such as Inclined Srapped
Surface Heat Exchanger (ISSHE) and Thin Film Scrapped Surface Heat Exchanger (TSSHE). Various alternative
methods are roller drying, membrane technology and reverse osmosis.
Keywords: Indian sweets, Traditional dairy products, Heat desiccated product, Khoa, Mechanization
*Corresponding author
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September - October 2015 RJPBCS 6(5) Page No. 40
INTRODUCTION
In India, about 50% of the total milk produced (132.4 million tons in 2013) is converted into various
traditional milk products (Rao & Raju, 2003; Bhasin, 2010; NDDB, 2014). These products account for 95% of all
the milk products consumed and it is worth noting that the organized dairy industry handles only about 15-
16% of the total milk produced in the country. Rest of the milk is used by small scale sweet meat shops
(Halwaies) in unorganized manner.
Traditional Indian dairy products can be classified into six categories based on the principle of
manufacture (Srinivasan and Anantakrishnan, 1964; De, 1980; Pal & Raju, 2007):
Heat desiccated products
Heat and acid coagulated products
Fermented products
Products made with addition of cereals
Clarified butter fat (ghee)
Frozen products
The production of traditional milk products presents unique opportunity to the organised dairy sector
in India as they have a huge mass appeal and the market for these products far exceeds that of western style
dairy products. The consumption of traditional dairy products is growing at an annual growth rate of more
than 20%, but for the western dairy products the growth rates are relatively much lower (5-10%) (Patil, 2009).
While the western dairy products (with the exception of malted milk and milk chocolates) add about 50% value
to milk, the traditional Indian dairy products add about 200% value to milk (Aneja, 2007). Further, the raw
material costs of certain Indian traditional dairy products viz. shrikhand, rasogolla, gulabjamun, khoa-based
sweets (peda, burfi, kalakand), sandesh and paneer is 29, 33, 34, 35 and 65% of the selling price, respectively.
For the western dairy products, comparative costs are relatively higher varying from 70-80% (Patil, 2009).
Significant headway has already been made in the industrial production of some traditional sweets
such as gulabjamun, peda and burfi. This development is no less than a revolution in the production and
marketing of all time popular traditional milk products that were hitherto the exclusive preserve of traditional
halwais (sweetmeat makers) on a much smaller scale. The market size of ethnic milk products (Table 1) in India
alone is estimated at more than 1000 billion INR with an annual growth estimated at 50 billion INR (Aggarwal,
2007). The present paper reviews the heat desiccated indigenous products of India.
Table1: Market size of traditional dairy products
Type of products
End products
Estimated market
size (Rs. in billion)
Chhana- based sweets
Rasogolla, sandesh, pantooa, rasomalai,
cham-cham, chhana murki, rajbhog, chhana
podo, etc.
520
Khoa-based sweets
Kulfi, rabri, basundi, burfi, peda, gulabjamun,
kalakand, khurchan, dharwad peda, kunda,
etc.
Paneer (Indian cottage cheese)
20
Fat-rich products
Ghee and makkhan
310
Fermented dairy products
Dahi, misti dahi, lassi, chhach/mattha,
shrikhand, etc.
180
Source: Gupta (2007)
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Heat desiccated Indigenous Indian Dairy Products:
Heat desiccation is the most ancient technology used to process the milk and milk products.
Scriptures from the early Buddhist and the Jain period have documented sweets made from heat-desiccated
milk such as sihakesara and morandeka. These have been used as desserts at the end of meals. Lord Buddha
allowed his followers to take sweets as a portable ration for journeys on routes where it was difficult to get
foodstuffs. In the Maurya Period (268-233 BC), sweets were prepared from concentrated milk and honey or
jaggery. The post Gupta period (750-1200 AD) literature also describes varieties of milk sweets (Aneja et al.,
2002)
Heat desiccated milk products have thus been traditionally produced in Indian sub -continent since
ancient times. Khoa, one of the most important heat desiccated product, is used as the base material for a
large variety of sweet delicacies.
Cutting across different regions of the Indian sub-continent, a number of heat desiccated milk
confections are popular. These products are based on khoa/mawa, which is used as base material for sweets
such as gulabjamun, kalajamun, burfi, kalakand, milk cake, peda, rabri, khurchan, basundi, pantua, kunda and
lalmohan. Confections like bal mithai, phirni, Kunthalgiri pedha, malaipoori, lal peda, Dharwad peda and
thirattupal are region-specific locally available sweets in different parts of India which are preferred by people
for their characteristic taste and texture. A major market for Indian milk-based sweets is developing overseas.
The Indian diaspora presents an exciting avenue for globalization of sweetmeats (Rao & Raju, 2003;
Patil, 2011). In North America alone, this market is estimated at US $ 500 million (Aneja, 2007).
About 600,000 metric tons of khoa is produced annually in Indian sub-continent, utilizing 7% of total
milk production just in India. Traditional method of khoa production has been scaled up by different semi-
continuous and continuous machines which are used in places where the quantity of milk is sufficiently large
for khoa making. Alternative techniques have also been used for khoa production to assist the developed
mechanized processes. Process of production and formulations for several heat desiccated traditional milk
products have been upgraded and optimized by mechanization of traditional processes. Pal (2000) reviewed
the technological advances in the manufacture of heat desiccated traditional Indian milk products. These
products are rich in nutrition and also provide vital calories. Gross composition of some of the major heat
desiccated dairy products is presented in Table 2.
Table2: Gross composition (%) of some heat desiccated traditional milk products
.
Khoa:
Khoa, the principal heat desiccated dairy product, is used as a base material for a huge variety of
sweet delicacies (Fig. 1). It is also called as khoya, kava or mawa. Its exact origin is not known but it has been
prepared for centuries in Indian sub-continent as the base material for milk-based confections by milk traders
and halwais. According to the Food Safety and Standards (Food Products Standards and Food Additives)
Regulations (2011) of India, khoa by whatever variety of names it is sold, means the product obtained from
cow or buffalo or goat or sheep milk or milk solids or a combination thereof by rapid drying. The milk fat
Product
Milk source
Fat
Protein
Lactose
Sucrose
Ash
Reference
Khoa
Cow
22.2
18.8
24.9
-
3.7
Srinivasan & Anantkrishnan (1964)
Buffalo
24.2
18.3
22.0
-
3.5
Srinivasan & Anantkrishnan (1964)
Rabri
Buffalo
15.5
9.5
11.3
12.0
2.0
Gayen & Pal (1991 a)
Khurchan
Buffalo
23.6
15.4
14.9
15.2
3
Gupta & Rao (1972)
Basundi
Cow
10.6
7.8
10.8
15.9
1.4
Patel & Upadhyay (2003b)
Buffalo
11.4
10.1
11.1
12.5
1.8
Patel & Upadhyay (2003a)
Peda
Buffalo
19.3
15.3
15.2
33.3
2.5
Aneja, Mathur, Chandan & Banerjee (2002)
Milk cake
Buffalo
21.3
11.4
7.7
40.5
2.3
Patil (2002)
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content shall not be less than 30 percent on dry weight basis of finished product. It may contain citric acid not
more than 0.1 percent by weight. It shall be free from added starch, added sugar and added colouring matter.
Khoa has a uniform whitish colour with just a tinge of brown, a slightly oily or granular texture, and a
rich nutty flavour which is associated with a mildly cooked and sweet taste due to the high concentration of
lactose. About 600,000 metric tons of khoa is produced annually in India which utilize 7% of total milk
production (Aneja, 1997). Nearly 36% of India’s total khoa production takes place in Uttar Pradesh. The
traditional trade usually pays for milk on the basis of the yield of khoa (with 28% moisture). The quality of khoa
produced from buffalo milk is superior to khoa produced from cow milk because khoa from cow milk results in
moist surface, salty taste with sticky and sandy texture which is not considered suitable for the preparation of
sweetmeats. Also, buffalo milk results in higher yield of khoa. Cow milk usually yields 17-19% of khoa by
weight. The yield from buffalo milk is reported to be 21-23% by weight (De, 1980). Buffalo milk fat is more
easily emulsified due to the presence of larger proportion of butyric acid containing triglycerides and release of
more free fat compared to cow milk which may be responsible for smooth and mellow texture of khoa
(Sindhu, 1996).
Fig1: An illustration showing a variety of heat desiccated (khoa-based) sweets of Indian sub-continent
Types of khoa:
Khoa is classified by the Bureau of Indian Standards into three major types depending upon the
specific end uses i.e. pindi, danedar and dhap (IS 4883, 1980). Milk of high acidity produces a granular khoa
known as danedar type. Pindi khoa is characterized as a circular ball of a hemispherical pat with smooth and
homogenous body and texture and free from burnt particles as well as any browning defects. It is most
suitable for making peda. Danedar khoa is characterized by its granular texture and uneven body. The size of
grains depends upon the amount of coagulant added and the quality of milk used. This type of khoa is used as
a base for the preparation of kalakand, cakes and pastries where granulation is valued to a great extent. Dhap
khoa is characterized by loose and sticky body and smooth texture. It contains less than 60 percent by mass
total solids and higher moisture content than pindi and danedar types. Dhap khoa is preferred for the
preparation of gulabjamun as it forms uniform balls with desired rheological qualities after frying and soaking
in sugar syrup. Table 3 represents the various types of khoa and their preferred end uses.
Table3: Types of khoa and their preferred end uses
Type of khoa
TS (%)
Fat (%)
End uses
Dhap
56-63
20-23
Gulabjamun, pantua
Pindi
67-69
21-26
Burfi, peda
Danedar
60-65
20-25
Kalakand, milk cake
Source: Aneja et al. (2002)
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Table4: Defects in khoa, their causes and prevention
Defects
Causes
Prevention
Flavour
Smoky
Smoky fire used for boiling and dehydration of milk.
Using non-smoky fire for boiling
and dehydration of milk.
Sour/ Acid
Excessively high acidity in milk.
Using fresh sweet milk.
Rancid
Fat hydrolysis due to lipase action in khoa during
storage (at temperature and above).
Early disposal/marketing of khoa.
Stale
Excessively long period of storage of khoa at low
temperature (5-10°C).
Early disposal/marketing of khoa.
Body & Texture
Hard body
Excessively low fat content of milk used.
Using milk of optimum fat content.
Excessively low moisture content of khoa due to
faulty production technique.
Optimum moisture content of
khoa by adopting correct
production technique.
Adulteration of milk with starch.
Using unadulterated milk.
Coarse texture
Excessively high acidity in milk used.
Using fresh sweet milk.
Excessively low fat content of milk used.
Using milk of optimum fat content.
Excessively high temperature of dehydration,
especially in the last stages.
Optimum temperature of
dehydration, especially in the last
stages.
Excessively low speed when stirring milk/pan
contents.
Optimum speed when stirring
milk/pan contents.
Gritty texture
Presence of sand-like particles due to incorrect
stirring of milk.
Correct stirring of milk.
Presence of large crystals of lactose due to incorrect
method of manufacture.
Correct method of manufacture.
Colour & Appearance
Dry surface
Excessively low fat content of milk used.
Using milk of optimum fat content.
Visible dirt/
foreign matter
Incorrect or no straining of milk used.
Correct straining of milk.
Heating-pan and/or stirrer not cleaned.
Heating-pan and/or stirrer well
cleaned.
Dirty/windy surroundings during manufacture and/or
handling of khoa.
Clean surroundings during
manufacture and/or handling of
khoa.
Transport of unpacked khoa.
Transport of properly packed khoa.
Browning
and/or
presence of
burnt particles
Excessively high heating temperature, especially in
the last stages.
Optimum heating temperature,
especially in the last stages.
Excessively low speed when stirring-cum-scraping pan
contents.
Optimum speed when stirring-
cum-scraping pan contents.
Mouldy surface
Excessively high moisture content of khoa in the
storage.
Optimum moisture content of
khoa in storage.
Excessively high humidity of storage room.
Optimum humidity of storage
room.
Fat and/or
water leakage
Air-leaky packaging of khoa.
Airtight packaging of khoa.
Incorrect method of manufacture of khoa.
Correct method of manufacture of
khoa.
Source: Aneja et al. (2002)
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Khoa manufacturing has been the easiest way of preserving rurally-produced milk in the flush season.
In many places, khoa manufactured in winter season is cold-stored for use in the summer season. Such type of
khoa acquires a green colour due to mould growth on the surface. It is therefore known as hariyali (green)
khoa. This khoa is preferred for the preparation of gulabjamun as it gives a grainy texture to the product. This
type of khoa, on removal from the cold store is immediately mixed with flour and made into gulabjamun.
Hariyali khoa, if left at room temperature for long, starts giving off-flavour and breaks down physically. In view
of this, it is converted into end product immediately. Common defects in khoa, along with their causes and
prevention, are given in Table 4.
Standardization of milk for khoa making:
Buffalo milk is preferred for khoa making because it yields a whiter product with a soft, loose body
and a smooth granular texture which makes it suitable for the preparation of high-grade khoa sweets. The fat
level is maintained to 4% and 5% for cow and buffalo milk, respectively. Lower levels of fat result in
undesirable hard body and coarse texture (De, 1980). Beniwal et al. (2010) standardized the buffalo milk for
the production of khoa through a semi-automatic machine. Based on physico-chemical parameters and
sensory evaluation, fat/SNF ratio of 0.611 in milk was found to be the most suitable for preparation of khoa.
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) standards for the three khoa varieties are given in Table 5.
Table5: BIS* standards for three khoa varieties
Khoa type
Total solids,
minimum
(%)
Fat in dry matter,
minimum
(%)
Ash in dry matter,
maximum
(%)
Titratable acidity,
( % lactic acid in
mass), maximum
Dhap
55
37
6
0.6
Pindi
65
37
6
0.8
Danedar
60
37
6
0.9
Source: Aneja et al. (2002)
*BIS: Bureau of Indian Standards
Technological innovations in khoa making:
The prehistoric process of khoa making in mild steel shallow open pans on open flame of fire with
vigorous mixing using a wooden or steel ladle has been scaled up by different semi-continuous and continuous
machines which are used in places where the quantity of milk is sufficiently large for khoa making. The first
model of continuous khoa making machine of 50 litres per hour capacity was developed by Banerjee et al.
(1968). The process involved a steam jacketed cylinder fitted with rotary scrappers followed by final
concentration in an open cascading steam jacketed pan with mechanical scrapping agitators. Subsequently,
the process was standardized with several modifications suggested by De & Singh (1970).
The equipment for the production of khoa under rural conditions was developed by Sawhney &
Kumar (1986) providing a semi-jacketed, shallow open pan and using a swinging hanger type scraper for
stirring during the desiccation process. The 2/3rd of pan is filled with water placed over the furnace. Steam
generated inside the jacket, is regulated by a safety valve to control the pressure and temp erature. Steam
pressure inside the jacket varies from 0 to 4 kg/cm2. On the basis of principle of scrapped surface heat
exchanger, More (1987) designed a semi-mechanized batch type process for khoa manufacturing which
consisted of jacketed drum with vapour exhaust and scrapper assembly. Christie & Shah (1988, 1990 & 1992)
have extensively worked on mechanization of khoa using steam jacketed cylinder with several modifications.
An Inclined Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger (ISSHE) was developed for continuous khoa-making by
National Dairy Development Board, Anand, India (Punjrath et al. 1990). The plant comprises of a balance tank,
a positive displacement pump and an ISSHE. Milk concentrate of about 42-45% total solids, is used as feed. The
inclination of ISSHE permits the formation of a pool of vigorously boiling milk important to the formation of
khoa. Khoa prepared by ISSHE is similar to the conventional product from sensory point of view and also
maintains compositional and rheological uniformity during continuous operation. A thin film scrapped surface
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heat exchanger (TSSHE) was also developed by Dodeja et al. (1992) at National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI),
Karnal, India for the continuous manufacture of khoa. TSSHE unit consisted of two mild steel SSHE arranged in
cascade fashion. The milk is concentrated to 40-45% total solids in first SSHE and finally to khoa in second
SSHE. Unlike in ISSHE, the feed for this unit is buffalo milk and thus rendering it suitable for small and large
organised manufacturers and entrepreneurs. Bhadania et al. (2005) studied the energy requirements of SSHE
during manufacture of khoa and concluded that three-stage SSHE could be successfully used for the
continuous manufacture of khoa. The steam requirement for the manufacture of khoa varies between 1.28 -
1.62 kg per kg of water evaporated under various operating conditions of the SSHE. The quality of khoa
prepared from different mechanized systems is given in Table 6.
Table6: Quality of khoa prepared from different mechanized systems
Characteristics
ISSHE
Conical Vat
Contherm-convap
Roller process
Total Solids (%)
65.6
63.1
63.8
70.9
Fat (%)
21.9
21.2
21.5
27.7
Free fat (% of total fat)
35.0
43.5
58.4
51.1
Acidity (%)
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
Colour (Lovibond
tintometer readings)
1.61y
1.68y + 0.3R
2.03y + 0.5R
1.5y
Hardness (mN)
47.5
58.1
52.01
89.7
Cohesiveness
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
Adhesiveness (mN)
0.3
0.7
0.8
0.5
Springiness (mN)
4.8
7.3
8.0
6.2
Gumminess (mN)
29.3
26.0
22.6
36.4
Chewiness (mm.mN)
116.4
191.2
181.1
223.9
Source: Rajorhia et al. (1991)
Alternative techniques for khoa making:
Alternative techniques have also been used for khoa production to assist in the development of
mechanized processes. Singh & Rajorhia (1989) studied the possibility of adopting a roller dryer for khoa
production. The process was found to be highly energy-intensive and khoa obtained by this method was flaky,
dry and completely lacked the desired consistency. Dehydration is a common method used for extended
preservation of foods. Khoa powder, a desiccated product, potentially offers an economically attractive, long
life product that can supplement the traditional, perishable khoa. Pal & Londhe (2006) extensively reviewed
the application of membrane technology for the production of traditional dairy products. The use of pre-
concentrated milk has been suggested in several previously reviewed mechanized processes for the khoa
production. Pre-concentration of cow milk, 2 fold (Pal & Cheryan, 1987) and buffalo milk 1.5 fold (Kumar & Pal,
1994) using reverse osmosis technique followed by heat desiccation in a steam jacketed open pan has been
successfully demonstrated.
Microbiology of khoa:
Khoa is a favourable medium for the growth of microbes on account of its nutritive value and
moisture content. The unsatisfactory practices generally followed in its production, handling and storage in
unorganized sector results in poor shelf life (Sharma et al. 1972). Although during manufacture of khoa, milk is
subjected to drastic heat treatment, the aerobic spore formers are known to survive such heat treatment and
may outnumber other types of micro-organisms, thereby suggesting that the survivors might multiply during
subsequent storage. The possibility of contaminants gaining entry into these products during subsequent
handling also cannot be ruled out (Rudreshappa & De, 1971). Table 7 shows the typical microflora of market
khoa.
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Table8: Typical microflora of market khoa
Group
Genera
Yeasts
Saccharomyces, Candida, Rhodotorula, Aspergillus, Geotricum, Mucor, Syncephalostrum,
Fusarium, Rhizopus, Cladosporium
Bacteria
Streptococci, Micrococci, Bacillus
Pathogenic
bacteria
Staphylococci
Rajarajan et al. (2006) studied the effect of antifungal agents on keeping quality of khoa. They treated
the samples with natamycin (0.5%) and potassium sorbate (0.3%). It showed lower yeast and moulds counts
during storage at 30oC and also at 5oC. Chavan & Kulkarni (2006) made efforts to improve the microbiological
quality of khoa by solar radiation and microwave heating. The application of microwave heating was observed
to be quite superior in reducing the total bacterial count, yeast and mould count (YMC) and spore count. It also
showed very slow rate of increase during storage for a week. Use of solar radiation through convex lens
showed promising results in reducing microbial counts and particularly more effectively on YMC.
A study was conducted to analyze bacterial contaminants /pathogens in khoa samples sold in
Chambal region of Madhya Pradesh in India. A total of 50 samples of khoa were brought from different
localities of Chambal region at random. Bacterial colony counts were also performed on these samples.
Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species were the predominant isolates. The viable counts obtained ranged
from 1.3x104 to 2.1x106 cfu/g. Contamination of khoa by pathogenic bacteria could be an important factor of
gastrointestinal infections including food poisoning and food borne illness Adequate consumer protection can
be achieved by assessment of the microbiological data of the product (Bhatnagar et al. 2007). Heat processing
of milk having 3.5-6.5% fat at either 63oC or 73oC, eliminated all Escherichia coli. Under similar processing
conditions, Staphylococcus aureus was recovered, but only when heated in milk at 63oC containing 6.5% fat.
Potassium sorbate (3000 ppm) appeared more effective in inhibiting the growth of selected yeast and molds in
khoa at 7oC, compared to ascorbic acid (3000 ppm). Reducing the water activity (aw) of khoa from 0.97 to 0.93
did not appear to enhance the preservative effect. The reduction of E.coli or Staphylococcus aureus in khoa
during prolonged storage at 67oC, was less than one log cycle, regardless of aw or preservative type. Survival
of Staphylococcus aureus in khoa appeared to be enhanced with a decrease in aw (Sohal et al. 1993).
A study was conducted to identify the incidence of different microorganisms in air and khoa samples
collected from different sections of a khoa plant. Penicillium citrinum was found to be predominantly present
in both air (24%) and khoa samples (27%). The other molds encountered were Geotricum candidum, Mucor
racemosus, Aspergillus niger, Syncephalastrum oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Cladosporium cladosporioides,
Absidia corymbifera and Pacilomyces variotti (Rajarajan et al. 2007).
CONCLUSION
Khoa is a basic material used to manufacture various s sweet meat products. However, the quality of
khoa manufactured in India varies considerably due to highly unorganized production and variable raw
material quality. Mechanization of khoa production has brought some relief to this problem to some extent.
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Milk and milk products are used to develop the traditional foods, which are popular and have been consumed in India since ancient times due to their social, economic, religious, medicinal, and cultural significance. The potential of these products has received attention by dairy technologists in recent years for the characterization of quality attributes, standardization of manufacturing techniques, enhancement of shelf-life, and development of continuous commercial manufacturing methods, which have resulted in international acceptance and export. Buffalo milk is preferably used for making most of the traditional dairy products in India and Pakistan except for the manufacture ofChhana; for which cow milk is preferred owing to its production figures as well as compositional profile and buffering capacity, offering exceptional quality fermented and concentrated products. Khoa forms an important base for preparation of indigenous milk sweets such asBurfi, Peda, andGulabjamun throughout India.Paneer is an important heat and acid coagulated indigenous dairy product.
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Standardization of compositional attributes of Basundi, a sweetened and heat-concentrated traditional dairy product was carried out. The parameters studied were: level of total solids (TS) concentration - 2×, 2.5× and 3× of milk TS including sugar, fat to SNF ratios - 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 of the milk and type of milk - cow and buffalo milk. The concentration of TS significantly (p<0.05) increased all the compositional attributes of Basundi studied, except fat to SNF ratio. It also had a progressive significant influence on specific gravity, viscosity, insolubility index and pH (up to 2.5× concentration only), whereas water activity (aw) decreased. The observed effect was the direct consequence of concentration of TS coupled with heat treatment. The ratio of fat to SNF markedly increased fat, TS and fat to SNF ratio of the resultant product. At all the levels of fat to SNF ratios studied, viscosity increased significantly. Buffalo milk yielded the product with significantly higher fat, protein, ash, SNF, TS, fat to SNF ratio, pH and insolubility index as compared to cow milk, which had significantly higher values for lactose, sucrose and free fatty acids (FFA) content. Sensory attributes of all the experimental Basundi except colour and appearance in fat to SNF ratio, were significantly (p<0.05) influenced. Among the treatments studied, Basundi prepared employing concentration ratio of 2.5× of the milk TS, including sugar, standardization of buffalo milk to 0.5 fat to SNF ratio and use of buffalo milk was adjudged the best on the basis of organoleptic attributes of the product.