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On the turning away: An exploration of the employee resignation process

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Abstract

Although a significant body of work has amassed that explores the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of employee turnover in organizations, little is known about how employees go about quitting once they have made the decision to leave. That is, after the decision to voluntarily quit their job is made, employees must then navigate through the process of planning for their exit, announcing their resignation, and potentially working at their company for weeks after their plans to resign have been made public. Our lack of understanding of the resignation process is important as how employees quit their jobs has the potential to impact the performance and turnover intentions of other organizational members, as well as to harm or benefit the reputation of the organization, overall. Moreover, voluntary turnover is likely to increase in the coming decades. In this chapter, we unpack the resignation process. Specifically, drawing from the communication literature and prior work on employee socialization, we develop a three-stage model of the resignation process that captures the activities and decisions employees face as they quit their jobs, and how individual differences may influence how they behave in each of these three stages. In doing so, we develop a foundation upon which researchers can begin to build a better understanding of what employees go through after they have decided to quit but before they have exited their organization for the final time. Copyright r 2015 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

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... Therefore, we recommend caution in overinterpreting this finding to be indicative of the magnitude of the effect that all dispositional traits combined would have on turnover. For example, other research has found stronger relationships between dispositions and turnover using the "Big 5" personality traits (Zimmerman, 2008) with recent research outlining the multitude of theoretical reasons why dispositions should be related to employee withdrawal behaviors (Klotz & Zimmerman, 2015;Zimmerman et al., 2016). ...
... Also, although we found a significant effect between instrumental attachment and turnover that was not mediated by job search, based on the variables included in our model we are unable to completely explain the nature of this relationship. The unmediated effect between instrumental attachment and turnover may convey the importance of that factor when employees are faced with turnover decisions not brought about by way of the typical process of searching for a job before deciding to leave (Klotz & Zimmerman, 2015;Lee & Mitchell, 1994;Lee, Mitchell, Wise, & Fireman, 1996). Even though additional research is needed, this remaining direct effect may indicate that employees lower in instrumental attachment are more vulnerable to leaving due to perceptions of unsolicited job offers as more enticing compared to their current positions. ...
Article
To identify a set of broad factors that reflect the constructs measured in three content models of employee turnover, we hypothesized 19 scales would reduce to five factors related to employee job‐search behavior and actual turnover decisions: one's affect toward the organization, work environment, instrumental attachment, extraorganizational ties, and sense of obligation. Using a sample of 888 staff members from a large university, the factor structure was confirmed. Multivariate regression results also indicated one's work environment, instrumental attachment, and sense of obligation were significantly and negatively related to both job search and turnover, with work environment and instrumental attachment exhibiting the strongest effects. Extraorganizational ties were only significantly and negatively related to job search. Interestingly, affect toward the organization was not significantly related to either job search or turnover. Path analyses indicated the effects of four of the factors on turnover were fully mediated by job search, with instrumental attachment the sole factor that was only partially mediated. Our model provides a foundation for future researchers to test the uniqueness of new predictors of turnover, as well as guidance to practitioners regarding where resources might be best utilized in curbing turnover.
... Turnover may also spread via coworkers exhibiting behavioral cues of their EoM, such as discussing job search activities, invitations for interviews, receipt of job offers, or turnover decisions. EoM cues may spread by way of coworkers sharing information about their impending departure with their work colleagues (such as during the resignation process; Klotz & Zimmerman, 2015) or coworkers sharing information about others' departure. For instance, through a series of focus groups of hospitality employees, Felps et al. (2009) found that employees in locations with higher rates of turnover tended to discuss turnover more frequently. ...
... For instance, leavers may share information about their new job that encourages stayers to engage in (upward) social comparisons or actively recruit their former colleagues to their new employer. Klotz and Zimmerman (2015) noted this trend, suggesting that "resigning employees may intentionally induce turnover intentions in a coworker in order to convince him or her to make the transition to a new organizational role alongside them" (p. 70). ...
Article
Employee turnover has long been considered a prominent concern for managers because it is associated with expenses, such as loss of productivity and replacement costs. Moreover, employee turnover is also detrimental to an organization because it may stimulate additional incidents of turnover within the workplace. That is, employee turnover can be “contagious” in that employees tend to imitate the turnover‐related attitudes and behaviors of their coworkers. To date, the “turnover contagion” phenomenon has been investigated from multiple perspectives, splintering this research into several, seemingly distinct topics. Because of such diverse approaches to studying the spread of turnover, we lack a clear perspective on what turnover contagion is, how the turnover contagion process unfolds, and how to manage it. To resolve the ambiguities surrounding the turnover contagion process, we review 42 research papers relevant to the turnover contagion process. Based on our review, we present an integrated perspective on “turnover contagion” that clearly delineates this phenomenon, describes what the extant research says about how coworker turnover processes impact employees' propensities to leave, and offers future research directions with the potential to deepen our understanding and management of turnover contagion.
... Steel (2002) identified four main stages of job search prior to actual resignation: passive scanning of the labor market, searching for alternative employment, interacting with prospective employers, and comparing one's current job with outside job opportunities. Klotz and Zimmerman (2015) added a fifth stage, which is actively planning one's resignation announcement. These behaviors include confiding resignation plans to colleagues, customers, or vendors; seeking information on how to resign (e.g., reviewing the company's formal resignation policy); and "housekeeping" activities to prepare to leave (e.g., removing possessions from one's desk or locker; Klotz & Zimmerman, 2015). ...
... Klotz and Zimmerman (2015) added a fifth stage, which is actively planning one's resignation announcement. These behaviors include confiding resignation plans to colleagues, customers, or vendors; seeking information on how to resign (e.g., reviewing the company's formal resignation policy); and "housekeeping" activities to prepare to leave (e.g., removing possessions from one's desk or locker; Klotz & Zimmerman, 2015). ...
Article
This study introduces the concept of pre-quitting behaviors (PQBs), which employees in the process of leaving an organization may unknowingly “leak” and others can observe and use to identify those at risk of turnover. We develop a theoretical framework that explains how and why turnover proclivity can be encoded into observable PQBs. Then, on the basis of input from employees who voluntarily left and their managers, we identify a range of PQBs that served as the basis for an initial measure of the behaviors. Analysis of data to assess the validity of inferences based on the measure revealed that PQBs predicted future voluntary turnover over and above established antecedents of this outcome. Overall, this study suggests that the psychological and behavioral processes that activate and facilitate voluntary turnover are manifest in observable behaviors and thus opens a new line of inquiry into the process of employee turnover.
... The costs of turnover are considerable for organizations (Moynihan and Pandey 2008;Simmons 2008), particularly in terms of search and recruitment as well as company performance (Shaw et al. 2005). Turnover among managers may create uncertainty among employees and their beliefs about the future of the organization (Klotz and Zimmerman 2015), and replacing a manager may be difficult and time-consuming. As one of the most powerful sources of long-term competitive advantage lies in human and social capital (Becker et al. 2001;Pfeffer 1995), the departure of managers may endanger inter-organizational relationships and cause a loss in firm-specific human capital (Furtado and Karan 1990), as well as having negative effects on organizational performance (Hill 2009). ...
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The aim of the present longitudinal study was to quantitatively examine whether an ethical organizational culture predicts turnover among managers. To complement the quantitative results, a further important aim was to examine the self-reported reasons behind manager turnover, and the associations of ethical organizational culture with these reasons. The participants were Finnish managers working in technical and commercial fields. Logistic regression analyses indicated that, of the eight virtues investigated, congruency of supervisors, congruency of senior management, discussability, and sanctionability were negatively related to manager turnover. The results also revealed that the turnover group is not homogeneous, and that there are several different reasons for leaving. The reasons given for turnover were grouped into five different categories: (1) lay-off, (2) career challenges, (3) dissatisfaction with the job or organization, (4) organizational change, and (5) decreased well-being/motivation. ANCOVA analyses showed that those managers who stayed in their organization perceived their ethical culture to be stronger than those in turnover groups, and especially compared to groups 3 and 5. The results acquired through different methods complemented and confirmed each other, showing that by nurturing ethical virtues an organization can decrease job changes and encourage managers and supervisors to want to remain in their organization.
... Despite a lot of attention paid to turnover in organizations, there is surprisingly little research on what happens after employees communicate their decisions to leave, especially about how managers and other organizational members react (Klotz & Zimmerman, 2015). Findings from this study highlight the importance of paying attention to how employees are "offboarded" from organizations: retention efforts after employees have decided to quit are valuable, even when they are unlikely to succeed in convincing employees to stay. ...
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... terms of employees' behaviors during this period of transition (Klotz & Zimmerman, 2015). In addition, we note one more specific area of research that warrants significant future attention: the role of GMA in the withdrawal process. ...
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... Despite a lot of attention paid to turnover in organizations, there is surprisingly little research on what happens after employees communicate their decisions to leave, especially about how managers and other organizational members react (Klotz & Zimmerman, 2015). Findings from this study highlight the importance of paying attention to how employees are "offboarded" from organizations: retention efforts after employees have decided to quit are valuable, even when they are unlikely to succeed in convincing employees to stay. ...
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The challenge of developing and maintaining an effective organisation is intimately linked with HR activities that include selecting and motivating employees. Many organisations engage in an internal selection process designed to fill upper level positions with employees who have proven their worth at a lower level in the organisation. However, some observers have questioned whether this approach actually results in optimal individual and organisational performance. Using the Peter Principle as a starting point, this article examines the evidence for problems with merit-based promotions, as well as various explanations that have been advanced for why these problems occur. This article then proposes a new model, based on contemporary management theory and evidence, which addresses the question of why promotions fail.
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Although scholars recognize the importance of trustworthiness for both job applicants and hiring organizations, prior research exploring trustworthiness during the organizational pre-entry period is scattered across a number of disparate literatures. This paper selectively reviews prior work that investigates the role of trustworthiness in the recruitment and selection processes. Within these pre-entry processes, we explore how job applicants' and hiring organizations' perceptions of one another's trustworthiness, conceptualized as each parties' attitudes regarding the others' benevolence, integrity, and ability, influence meaningful recruitment and selection outcomes. Avenues for future research regarding trustworthiness are also identified in each section of the review. Finally, particular attention is given to two overarching issues at the intersection of trustworthiness and pre-entry processes—trust violations and individual differences in propensity to trust. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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In this study we developed and tested a self‐regulatory model of trait affect in job search. Specifically, we theorized that trait positive and negative affect would influence both motivation control and procrastination, and these mediating variables would, in turn, influence job search outcomes through job search intensity. Using longitudinal data from 245 graduating students who were searching for a full‐time position, we found that positive, but not negative, affect influenced the self‐regulatory variables of motivation control and procrastination, which in turn influenced the job search outcomes. Procrastination had direct effects on the number of first interviews, controlling for job search intensity, and on the number of second interviews, controlling for first interviews, suggesting the importance of timeliness of job search activities. We discuss the implications of such results for understanding the role of affect and self‐regulation in the job search process and for measuring the quality as well as quantity (i.e., intensity) of job search tactics.
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to chronicle the study of deviant behavior aimed at the organization, or CWB-O, from the dawn of the Industrial Revolution to the present day. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Counterproductive work behaviors that have been documented and studied since the Industrial Revolution were systematically reviewed and discussed. Findings ‐ Over the past few centuries, employees have engaged in behaviors that harm their organizations; as organizations have become more complex, however, employees have found many more ways to engage in CWB-O. Further, recent advances in technology have made employee CWB-O much more ambiguous. Research limitations/implications ‐ The study of CWB-Os will remain a rich area for researchers as the boundaries between work and personal life continue to blur, as employees develop new forms of CWB-O, and as employers increase their use of technology to detect employee deviance. Practical implications ‐ As the penetration of technology into job roles grows and the use of personal mobile devices becomes institutionalized, managers now must decide how much company time they will tolerate their employees spending on personal issues while at work. Put another way, managers must cope with the reality that a certain amount of what was once considered deviant behavior in the workplace may now be a minimum expectation of employees. Originality/value ‐ This paper builds a historical foundation of the present conceptualization of CWB-O, thereby providing scholars with a greater understanding of what past events drove the emergence of the types of CWB-O that are prevalent today and why some counterproductive behaviors may have become less prevalent.
Article
In theory, employee turnover has important consequences for groups, work units, and organizations. However, past research has not revealed consistent empirical support for a relationship between aggregate levels of turnover and performance outcomes. In this paper, we present a novel conceptualization of turnover to explain when, why, and how it affects important outcomes. We suggest that greater attention to five characteristics—leaver proficiencies, time dispersion, positional distribution, remaining member proficiencies, and newcomer proficiencies—will reveal dynamic member configurations that predictably influence productive capacity and collective performance. We describe and illustrate the five properties, explain how particular member configurations exacerbate or diminish turnover's effects, and present a new measurement approach that captures these characteristics in a collective context and over time.
Article
Turnover research typically views voluntary turnover as an end state that severs the employment relationship permanently. However, this perspective overlooks the possibility that an employee who quits may return in the future. Anecdotal and empirical evidence suggest that these “Boomerangs” can be a valuable staffing resource for their organizations. Yet, research regarding this type of employee is largely absent. Thus, we know little about whether the experiences of these temporary leavers differ from those who leave an organization permanently. In this paper, we examined differences between Boomerangs (employees who quit but are later rehired) and “Alumni” (employees who quit but will not return) using both qualitative and quantitative data. In a large sample of professional service employees, we found that Boomerangs and Alumni reported different reasons for having quit, which meant they were more likely to be classified on different paths in the unfolding model of turnover. In addition, survival analyses on the time to turnover suggest that Boomerangs quit earlier than Alumni in their original tenure, paradoxically suggesting that employees who quit earlier may be the very employees who will return in the future. Together, our findings suggest an extension to the unfolding model that considers how the timing of and reasons for turnover impact post-turnover (return) decisions.
Article
Socialization theory has focused on enculturating new employees such that they develop pride in their new organization and internalize its values. We draw on authenticity research to theorize that the initial stage of socialization leads to more effective employment relationships when it instead primarily encourages newcomers to express their personal identities. In a field experiment carried out in a large business process outsourcing company in India, we found that initial socialization focused on personal identity (emphasizing newcomers’ authentic best selves) led to greater customer satisfaction and employee retention after six months than socialization that focused on organizational identity (emphasizing the pride to be gained from organizational affiliation) or the organization’s traditional approach, which focused primarily on skills training. To confirm causation and explore the mechanisms underlying the effects, we replicated the results in a laboratory experiment in a U.S. university. We found that individuals working temporarily as part of a research team were more engaged and satisfied with their work, performed their tasks more effectively, and were less likely to quit when initial socialization focused on personal identity rather than on organizational identity or a control condition. In addition, authentic self-expression mediated these relationships. We call for a new direction in socialization theory that examines how both organizations and employees can benefit by emphasizing newcomers’ authentic best selves.
Article
The unfolding model emphasizes the role of shocks (jarring events that initiate exit cognitions) in the turnover process. In contrast to earlier survey-based research, we used exit interviews to classify organizational leavers along the model's paths. The data provide support for the model but highlight several aspects of shocks not addressed by previous research. Employees on the same path may experience distinctly different shock subgroups (e.g., work or nonwork), some employees require shock combinations (e.g., push and pull shocks) to motivate leaving, and some dissatisfied employees experience shock-like events (final straws) that confirm previous exit cognitions rather than initiate them. The research demonstrates how organizations can use exit interviews to better understand their employee exit patterns. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Numerous attempts have been made to explain the processes leading to the decision to change jobs, but such efforts generally have not given attention to the possible influence of job performance on these processes. Presented here are a model and several hypotheses/propositions that suggest how job performance may relate (1) directly to various forms of employee turnover and (2) to precursors of turnover. The potential theoretical and applied relevance of the work is discussed.
Article
Despite being a staple of human resource management since the 1920s, the exit interview (EI) has contributed information about employee turnover that has produced as much skepticism as confidence regarding its authenticity. As the EI is a situated conversation about organizational disengagement, research on relevant communication phenomena is applied to extend our understanding of the EI. A model of the EI is presented that is based on two dialectical processes that address the conversational purposes of the interviewee and interviewer. Petronio’s treatise on the reveal-conceal dialectic is used to identify factors that influence the departing employees’ self-revelations, that is, the authenticity of personal information regarding their reasons for voluntarily leaving their jobs. Lamiell’s dialectic process is used to account for the interviewer’s sense of authenticity-inauthenticity about the departing employee’s responses.
Article
The research reported here used a multimethod approach to investigate the effects on survivors-i.e., the individuals who remain after a layoff has taken place-of their prior identification with and the organization's compensation to those laid off. Based on a justice theory framework, we hypothesized that survivors would exhibit the most negative reactions (from an organizational perspective) when they identified with the layoff victims and when they felt that the victims had not been well compensated. These two independent variables were manipulated in a laboratory study in which work performance served as the dependent variable. A field study was also used to survey employees who had survived a major layoff in their work organization. Included in the survey were measures of the independent variables, as well as the dependent variable: survivors' change in organizational commitment, relative to the pre-layoff period. As expected, survivors reacted most negatively when they identified with layoff victims who were perceived to have been inadequately compensated. The negative reaction took the form of reduced work performance in the lab study and lowered organizational commitment in the field study. Explanations, theoretical and practical implications, and avenues for further research are discussed.
Article
The present article chronicles the history of the field of organizational justice, identifies current themes, and recommends new directions for the future. A historical overview of the field focuses on research and theory in the distributive justice tradition (e.g., equity theory) as well as the burgeoning topic of procedural justice. This forms the foundation for the discussion offive popular themes in contemporary organizational justice research: (a) attempts to distinguish procedural justice and distributive justice empirically, (b) the development of new conceptual advances, (c) consideration of the interpersonal determinants of procedural justice judgments, (d) new directions in tests of equity theory, and (e) applications of justice-based explanations to many different organizational phenomena. In closing, a plea is made for future work that improves procedural justice research methodologically (with respect to scope, setting, and scaling), and that attempts to integrate and unify disparate concepts in the distributive and procedural justice traditions.
Article
This study explores how employees accounted for their engagement in circumvention (i.e., dissenting by going around or above one's supervisor). Employees completed a survey instrument in which they provided a dissent account detailing a time when they chose to practice circumvention. Results indicated that employees accounted for circumvention through supervisor inaction, supervisor performance, and supervisor indiscretion. In addition, findings revealed how employees framed circumvention in ways that enhanced the severity and principled nature of the issues about which they chose to dissent.
Article
This paper presents a new, motivated attributions model of trust development. The model builds on two simple insights: that the parties in a potentially trusting relationship are likely to view their interaction differently and that their attributions of each other’s behavior will be self-servingly motivated. The model specifically focuses on the role of dependence in motivating attributions of trustworthiness, suggesting, for instance, that people ameliorate the anxiety associated with dependence by perceiving others as trustworthy. The model explains why trustors, contrary to the prescriptions of the dominant, rational choice approach, often engage in large, seemingly irrational acts of trust and when and why these acts, despite being tremendously risky, can be crucial to trust development. The paper explores the consequences of these insights for interpersonal interactions as well as touching on the potential for extensions to inter-organizational and international interactions.
Article
Downward career changes are challenging in societies which place a premium on the accumulation of material wealth and discourage risk-taking, such as Singapore. To better understand how individuals manage their identities during such changes, 30 individuals who had completed a voluntary downward career change were interviewed. Results suggest three phases of communication during this process: (1) Decision making, in which individuals communicate to gather information about the change and seek support for it; (2) Announcement, in which they strategically time, frame, and deliver the message to maximize acceptance of the change; and (3) New career, in which they reframe, refocus, and recalibrate to increase their social identity. The findings suggest strategies individuals may use to effectively manage their social identities as they change careers and suggest strategies organizations may use for recruiting individuals into socially less-prestigious occupations.
Article
Dalton, Krackhardt, and Porter (1981) suggested that examining avoidable and unavoidable turnover could improve understanding and prediction of turnover. Unavoidable leavers and stayers in the current study were found to be no different from each other, whereas both groups were significantly different from avoidable leavers on levels of satisfaction, organizational commitment, job tension, and withdrawal cognitions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
3 different information sources of reasons for voluntary resignation of several hundred professional employees in a large manufacturing company were evaluated: (a) exit interviews conducted by company management, (b) follow-up attitude questionnaires mailed from the company's personnel department, and (c) exit interviews by an outside consultant. Over 3 successive years, the distribution of reasons for termination derived from management exit interviews did not correlate significantly with data from the follow-up mail questionnaire. For 37 Ss there were significant differences between exit intreviews by management vs repeat interviews of the same individuals by the outside consultant (p < .01). More negative information was generated through the consultant interviews (p < .01). Results suggest distortion to exit interview data collected by company management. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
246 employees of a large company who received or did not receive mentoring completed a multi-item questionnaire investigating their work actions, personality profiles, experiences, and backgrounds. Other measures included scales for rating job satisfaction. Mentored Ss reported having more career mobility/opportunity, recognition, satisfaction, and promotions than did nonmentored Ss. Ss' organizational positions were also related to career/job experiences. High-level Ss reported having more career mobility and satisfaction than low-level Ss. In terms of sex and job level, mentoring was egalitarian in its positive effect on job/career outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study tested the usefulness of a new job search behavior measure to account for voluntary turnover beyond more frequently tested work attitude and withdrawal cognition variables. Using two samples, 339 registered nurses and 234 insurance company employees, three measures of job search were distinguished: preparatory job search behavior, active job search behavior, and general effort job search. Active job search behavior had a stronger relationship to voluntary turnover than preparatory job search behavior or general effort job search, and it accounted for significant additional turnover variance beyond work attitude and withdrawal cognition variables. Stronger results were found when unavoidable leavers were deleted from the turnover subsample.
Article
Job search behaviors occur across various contexts, involving diverse populations of job seekers searching for employment opportunities. In particular, individuals may search for their first jobs following a period of education, may seek reemployment following job loss, or may search for new opportunities while currently employed. Research in each of these contexts has evolved somewhat separately, yet there is value to applying the ideas and findings from one search context to other search contexts. The purpose of this article is to review the prior research in each of the three job search contexts and offer an integrative analysis of the predictors, processes, consequences, and varying objectives of job search behavior across an individual’s potential employment situations (i.e., new entrant, job loser, employed job seeker). Implications for future research on job search behavior are discussed
Article
Daily affect often is determined by unpredictable events, but also has predictable components. We describe how the simultaneous modeling of overall affect level, cyclical variation in affect, and the occurrence of affective events can provide a clearer understanding of how affective well-being fluctuates over time. We examined intrinsic task motivation as a positive affective event, and had an opportunity to examine a single large negative affective event as well. Specifically, data collection was interrupted by a hurricane which made landfall very close to the data collection site, disrupting the lives of employees for weeks or months. We hypothesized that affect spin-an individual difference measure of variability in the affect circumplex-would increase reactions both to positive and negative affective events. These ideas were examined with 65 employees who provided daily ratings of affect for 21 days. Positive affect was influenced by several factors, whereas negative affect was less predictable. Affect spin moderated many of the dynamic components of daily positive affect, largely supporting the notion that affect spin reflects sensitivity both to positive and negative affective events. Discussion centers on the utility of incorporating dynamic accounts of affect in the study of well-being and work. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
We hypothesized that leader-member exchange (LMX) and perceived organizational support (POS) would each interact with work value congruence in relation to intrinsic career success. In a sample of 520 teachers from 30 high schools in Turkey, we found that work value congruence was positively related to job and career satisfaction when POS was low but not related to job and career satisfaction when POS was high. Similarly, work value congruence was positively related to career satisfaction when LMX was low but not related when LMX was high. The results contribute to the POS, LMX, and person-organization fit literatures by demonstrating the compensatory nature of LMX and POS for low value congruence in its relation to job and career satisfaction.
Article
Ninety-eight personnel directors each read one variation of a letter of recommendation contained in a 2 (specific examples versus no examples) X 2 (numerical data versus nonspecific adjective modifiers) X 2 (favorable letter versus one unfavorable statement) factorial design. A survey of their perceptions revealed that the example specificity and favorability main effects increased several positive perceptions of the recommendee. Example specificity also enhanced the perceived credibility of the letter writer. The letter variations containing specific examples with either no numbers or one unfavorable statement produced the most positive perceptions of the recommendee. One implication of these findings is that writers of letters of recommendation should emphasize specific performance examples. Whether citing numerical data or negative information is effective requires further study.
Article
This study examined antecedents to involuntary turnover due to a reduction in force. The authors used structural equation modeling and logit regression analysis with a sample of 194 salespeople to test an exploratory process model of involuntary turnover. Results showed that general mental ability and conscientiousness were indirectly correlated with involuntary turnover through job performance, whereas the relationship of tenure, gender, job involvement, sales volume, and supervisory ratings of job performance to turnover was direct. The results demonstrate that involuntary turnover decisions are significantly related to performance; however, other variables also influenced these decisions. Implications and future research needs are discussed.
Article
Using the methodology of policy capturing, this research identifies the role that performance, time on the job, commitment of long-term employment and employability play in judgment of termination fairness and employer obligations. Previous research (Rousseau and Anton, 1988) found that seniority and past commitments of long-term employment contributed significantly to judgments of termination fairness and obligation. The present study considered these variables along with performance (past, present and future potential) using 116 participants in human resource management courses. Results indicated that present performance, time on the job, and commitments affect judgments regarding termination fairness and obligation. Past and future performance, however, had no impact on these judgments. Implications of the findings for understanding employer and employee obligations are discussed.