Article

A novel insight on an ancient aromatic plant: The rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.)

Authors:
  • Federal Institute of Pernambuco (IFPE), Vitória de Santo Antão, Brazil
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Abstract

Background: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a widely consumed aromatic plant that belongs to the Lamiaceae family. Fresh and dried leaves are frequently used in traditional Mediterranean cuisine and in folk medicine. Scope and approach: For this study, an extensive bibliographic review on rosemary was carried out, including its main uses, components (both nutrients and bioactive), biological activities, interactions with drugs and potential applications. Key findings and conclusions: The nutrient composition of rosemary reveals a great amount of vitamins and minerals. The most well studied bioactive compounds are carnosic acid, carnosol, caffeic acid and its derivative, rosmarinic acid. The levels on bioactive compounds depend on many factors, such as the variety, plant part, edafoclimatic conditions, drying conditions (if applied) and extraction and analysis methods. Numerous biological activities of rosemary are recognized including antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, among others. Therefore it has a vast range of industrial applications such as food and food packaging, pharmaceutical, perfumery and cosmetics industries.

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... For example, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is an aromatic plant that has long been used in herbal remedies due to its multiple biological activities including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory [9][10][11] and skin renewal properties [12]. It is recognized as a major source of bioactives, mainly phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol [13] and has attracted interest from food, pharmaceutical, and health-related industries worldwide [10,14]. In addition, algae-derived products are now part of a growing market, because algae can substitute for chemical and synthetic components in eco-friendly cosmeceuticals [15,16]. ...
... industries worldwide [10,14]. In addition, algae-derived products are now part of a growing market, because algae can substitute for chemical and synthetic components in ecofriendly cosmeceuticals [15,16]. ...
... Both RCH and RSP presented similar (p < 0.05) aw levels within the range typically found for stable spraydried powders [33], besides displaying attractive, vibrant green colors (Figure 2). The spray dried algae-rosemary particles were also characterized regarding the concentration of rosemary phenolic diterpenes, carnosic acid (CA), carnosol (CR), and rosmarinic acid, recognized as potent antioxidant molecules with superior performance when compared to synthetic antioxidants used in the industry [9] and several biological activities [14]. Our results (Figure 3) show that RSP particles captured significantly higher concentrations of rosemary antioxidants when compared to RCH particles. ...
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The present study investigated the effect of spray-dried algae-rosemary particles against pollution-induced damage using ex-vivo human biopsies exposed to diesel engine exhaust (DEE). For this, the complexation of hydroalcoholic rosemary extract with Chlorella (RCH) and Spirulina (RSP) protein powders was conducted. The process efficiency and concentration of rosmarinic acid (RA), carnosic acid (CA), and carnosol (CR) phenolic compounds of both products were compared. The RSP spray-dried production was more efficient, and RSP particles presented higher CR and CA and similar RA concentrations. Therefore, spray-dried RSP particles were prioritized for the preparation of a gel formulation that was investigated for its ability to mitigate pollution-induced skin oxinflammatory responses. Taken altogether, our ex-vivo data clearly demonstrated the ability of RSP gel to prevent an oxinflammatory phenomenon in cutaneous tissue by decreasing the levels of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts (4HNE-PA) and active matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) as well as by limiting the loss of filaggrin induced by DEE exposure. Our results suggest that the topical application of spirulina-rosemary gel is a good approach to prevent pollution-induced skin aging/damage.
... Rosmarinus officinalis L. has been used since ancient times for medicinal purposes and is known for its antiseptic, anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. R. officinalis extracts also exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-ulcerogenic, and antidepressant effects [5,6]. This plant can be used fresh, dried, or as a tea infusion, for cooking purposes as flavoring agents, in the preservation of foods, and cosmetics [6,7]. ...
... R. officinalis extracts also exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-ulcerogenic, and antidepressant effects [5,6]. This plant can be used fresh, dried, or as a tea infusion, for cooking purposes as flavoring agents, in the preservation of foods, and cosmetics [6,7]. ...
... Rosmarinus officinalis L (Rosemary) essential oil mainly contains monoterpenes and monoterpene derivatives (95-98%), with sesquiterpenes being the remainder (2-5%) [14]. Monoterpene hydrocarbons present in Rosmarinus officinalis L (Rosemary) essential oil include 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, linalool, γ-terpinene, thymol, β-pinene, α-pinene, eucalyptol, (-)-bornyl acetate, camphor, and camphene [5,6,[15][16][17][18][19] (Table 1). Essential oils of leaves, with approximately the same length, taken at the same zone of the branches and differing by their age, were characterized by a high content of 1,8-cineole (35.8%), camphor (14.5%), and α -pinene (10.6%). ...
Article
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Abstract The present study describes a procedure to isolate essential oils from Rosmarinus offici-nalis L. using simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE). Rosmarinus officinalis L. can be used for medicinal purposes, as well in the cooking and cosmetics industries. SDE technique extraction combines a steam distillation combined with a continuous extraction using a solvent or a co-solvent mixture, providing faster extractions with low extraction solvent volumes. The effect of the solvent nature and the extraction time on the simultaneous distillation–extraction efficiency was evaluated. The best performance was achieved using pentane as a solvent for 1 h of extrac-tion. The essential oils obtained by simultaneous distillation–extraction extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Extraction efficiencies ranged from 40 to 70% for the majority of the compounds tested, and the precision (measured by the relative standard deviation) varied between 6 and 35%. Among the compounds analyzed the most abundant in the Rosmarinus officinalis L. sample were 1,8-cineole, (-) –borneol, α-pinene, (S)-(-)- α–terpineol, (-)-bornyl acetate, linalool, and 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexanone. The SDE method proved to be a suitable option for obtaining extracts free from cuticular waxes or chlorophylls. Keywords: simultaneous distillation–extraction; Rosmarinus officinalis L., essential oils; foods; cosmetics; nutraceuticals
... The relationship between the antimicrobial activity of essential oils and the synergistic effect of active components was reported in previous studies (Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, 2005). Moreover, antimicrobial activity was associated with camphor (Kotan et al., 2008;Ribeiro-Santos et al., 2015;Teixeira et al., 2013), α-pinene (Ribeiro-Santos et al., 2015;Teixeira et al., 2013), and γ-terpinene (Oyedemi et al., 2009). This implies that minor components also play a role in antimicrobial activity of essential oil due to the synergistic effect of these components (Burt, 2004;Ojeda-Sana et al., 2013;Ribeiro-Santos et al., 2015). ...
... The relationship between the antimicrobial activity of essential oils and the synergistic effect of active components was reported in previous studies (Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, 2005). Moreover, antimicrobial activity was associated with camphor (Kotan et al., 2008;Ribeiro-Santos et al., 2015;Teixeira et al., 2013), α-pinene (Ribeiro-Santos et al., 2015;Teixeira et al., 2013), and γ-terpinene (Oyedemi et al., 2009). This implies that minor components also play a role in antimicrobial activity of essential oil due to the synergistic effect of these components (Burt, 2004;Ojeda-Sana et al., 2013;Ribeiro-Santos et al., 2015). ...
... Moreover, antimicrobial activity was associated with camphor (Kotan et al., 2008;Ribeiro-Santos et al., 2015;Teixeira et al., 2013), α-pinene (Ribeiro-Santos et al., 2015;Teixeira et al., 2013), and γ-terpinene (Oyedemi et al., 2009). This implies that minor components also play a role in antimicrobial activity of essential oil due to the synergistic effect of these components (Burt, 2004;Ojeda-Sana et al., 2013;Ribeiro-Santos et al., 2015). Due to its lipophilicity, fennel essential oil penetrates through skin and blood-brain barrier, so its action already begins by entering the human body, either by inhalation, ingestion or through the skin (Nikaido, 1994), so it can be an efficient component in different food and pharmaceutical products. ...
... Such an endemic richness appears to be a result of the presence of well-differentiated and mixed environments [1]. Rosemary, known botanically as Rosmarinus officinalis L. (R. officinalis), grows wild in the western Mediterranean basin with more than 20 cultivars, ecotypes, or varieties [3][4][5]. Following these authors, R. officinalis has been used, since ancient times, for different medicinal, culinary, and ornamental purposes. ...
... Following these authors, R. officinalis has been used, since ancient times, for different medicinal, culinary, and ornamental purposes. For instance, in food science, R. officinalis is well known for its essential oil used as a food preservative; thanks to its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, rosemary has many other food applications such as culinary, medicinal and pharmacology uses [4,[6][7][8]. Several pharmacological activities of R. officinalis have been outlined and well documented in previous studies as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, attenuating, antitumor, antiproliferative, inhibitory, and antioxidant agent [6,[9][10][11][12]. ...
... Rosemary's nutritional value and its bioactive compounds were reviewed by Ribeiro-Santos et al. (2015) [4]. Various minerals, fatty acids, and vitamins are found in different parts of R. officinalis. ...
Article
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This work was set up to investigate the effects of domestication, solvent, and extraction technique on extracts yield, total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids content (TFC), antimicrobial (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC), and antioxidant (IC50) activities in rosemary aerial parts at flowering stage. Although solvent was the main variability source in our data, all tested factors significantly impacted yield, TPC, TFC, MIC, and IC50. These results were confirmed via principal component analysis, which separated solvents, extraction techniques, and rosemary types on the first three components accounting for more than 99% of data variability. Better values of yield (4.17 ± 0.30 –21.58 ± 0.93% DM), TPC (12.48 ± 1.17–34.72 ± 1.65 mg GAE/g DM), TFC (6.51 ± 1.79–25.02 ± 1.53 mg QE/g DM), MIC (8.17 ± 1.04–24.20 ± 0.98 μg/mL), and IC50 (50.02 ± 0.08–390.00 ± 1.00 μg/mL) were obtained in the case of wild rosemary with Soxhlet extraction especially when combined with more polar solvents (ethanol and methanol). It could be concluded that domestication had negative effects on rosemary phytochemicals and associated antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Rosemary extracts could serve as important ingredients as food preservatives, antimicrobial agents, and nutraceuticals.
... R. officinalis L. (Rosemary) is native to countries in southern Europe such as Portugal, as well as Asian Mediterranean Countries (Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine) [56], and was largely used as a food and natural medicine for over a million of years. R. officinalis possesses many different biological properties that are mainly due to the presence of volatile and phenolic compounds [57]. Extraction of bioactive compounds from rosemary showed that rosmarinic, carnosol, and carnosic acids are the most abundant compounds [57]. ...
... R. officinalis possesses many different biological properties that are mainly due to the presence of volatile and phenolic compounds [57]. Extraction of bioactive compounds from rosemary showed that rosmarinic, carnosol, and carnosic acids are the most abundant compounds [57]. A lot of in vitro studies reported the ability of R. officinalis extracts to exert antioxidant and antidiabetic activities ( Table 2). ...
... Species of this family contain a lot of bioactive secondary metabolites and are extremely rich in (poly) phenols including phenolic acids, phenolic monoterpenoids, and flavonoids. Often Lamiaceae plants share a similar profile of (poly) phenolic compounds, i.e., carvacrol seems to be constantly present in a bundle of species [57,127]. As with most aromatic plants, essential oils are produced from many species of the Lamiaceae family, and many volatile substances are isolated from different plant parts (leaves, flowers, seeds, roots, and fruits) [1]. ...
Article
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Numerous plants, plant extracts, and plant-derived compounds are being explored for their beneficial effects against overweight and liver diseases. Obesity is associated with the increased prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), becoming the most common liver disease in Western countries. Obesity and NAFLD are closely associated with many other metabolic alternations such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. Many herbs of the Lamiaceae family are widely employed as food and spices in the Mediterranean area, but also in folk medicine, and their use for the management of metabolic disorders is well documented. Hereby, we summarized the scientific results of the medicinal and nutraceutical potential of plants from the Lamiaceae family for prevention and mitigation of overweight and fatty liver. The evidence indicates that Lamiaceae plants may be a cost-effective source of nutraceuticals and/or phy-tochemicals to be used in the management of metabolic-related conditions such as obesity and NAFLD. PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and SciFinder were accessed to collect data on traditional medicinal plants, compounds derived from plants, their reported anti-obesity mechanisms, and therapeutic targets.
... Furthermore, their use is growing rapidly in modern therapy of various ailments and diseases. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) are perennial plants from the Lamiaceae family, naturally occurring in the Mediterranean Sea and West Asia, as well as being commonly cultivated in Europe and North America [1,2]. They are widely used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to their various biological activities. ...
... They are widely used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to their various biological activities. which include antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antidepressant, anticoagulant, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, antiulcer, and antitumor [1][2][3][4][5]. For the broad effects of these herbs on human health, a whole range of active compounds are responsible that can act alone or in various combinations. ...
Article
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Rosemary extract (RE) and lemon balm extract (LBE) attract particular attention of pharmacists due to their high therapeutic potential. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I is a heritable disease caused by mutations in type I collagen and characterized by its reduced amount. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the extracts and rosmarinic acid (RA) on collagen type I level in OI skin fibroblasts. Phytochemical analysis of RE and LBE was carried out by liquid chromatography–photodiode array detection–mass spectrometry. The expression of collagen type I at transcript and protein levels was analyzed by qPCR, ELISA, SDS-urea PAGE, and Western blot. In OI patient’s fibroblasts the exposure to the extracts (0.1–100 µg/mL) and RA (0.1–100 µM) significantly increased collagen type I and the best results were obtained with 0.1–10 µM RA and 0.1–10 µg/mL of the extracts. LBE showed a greater stimulating effect than RE, likely due to a higher RA content. Moreover, collagen type III expression and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, -2, -9) activity remained unchanged or decreased. The obtained data support the clinical potential of RA-rich extracts and RA itself in modulating the quantitative defect of type I collagen in type I OI.
... Furthermore, their use is growing rapidly in modern therapy of various ailments and diseases. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) are perennial plants from the Lamiaceae family, naturally occurring in the Mediterranean Sea and West Asia, as well as being commonly cultivated in Europe and North America [1,2]. They are widely used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to their various biological activities. ...
... They are widely used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to their various biological activities. which include antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antidepressant, anticoagulant, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, antiulcer, and antitumor [1][2][3][4][5]. For the broad effects of these herbs on human health, a whole range of active compounds are responsible that can act alone or in various combinations. ...
Conference Paper
Introduction. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I is a connective tissue disorder characterized mainly by bone abnormalities. It is associated with mutations in COL1A1 gene encoding type I collagen, the major protein of the bone and skin. Hence, the reduction of type I collagen biosynthesis by approx. 50% is also associated with impairment of the proper structure and function of the skin. Increasing type I collagen biosynthesis could, at least in part, improve the properties of the affected tissues rich in this protein. The aim. The estimation of the effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract (RE) and its component rosmarinic acid (RA) on type I collagen as well as on the expression of its chaperone HSP47 and the activity of MMPs involved in collagen degradation was the purpose of this study. Material and Methods. The study was performed on the OI human skin fibroblasts and age-matched normal cells. RE was prepared and its chemical composition was determined. The cytotoxicity of RE and RA was assayed by MTT, collagen was determined by Real-time PCR and Western blot, and MMP activity by zymography. Results. RE and RA at the concentrations up to 100 μg/mL and 100 μM, respectively, did not affect cell viability and showed maximal stimulation of collagen type I and HSP47 transcript expression at 10 μg/mL (RE) and 1 μM (RA). The results were confirmed by Western Blot. Additionally, RE decreased MMP-1 and increased MMP-9 activity while RA decreased MMP-9. Conclusion. This study demonstrates new clinically relevant properties of RE and RA related to their potential to promote the expression of type I collagen in OI skin fibroblasts.
... Among rosemary species, several chemotypes can be distinguished, based on the predominant constituents of the essential oil. Examples include: 1,8-cineole; 1,8-cineole/α-pinene/camphor; myrcene; α-pinene/verbenone/bornyl acetate; and 1,8-cineole/borneol/p-cymene [4,5]. Sharma et al. (2020) [6] showed important variation in volatile components in R. officinalis var. ...
... Furthermore, over 20 different types, varieties or cultivars can be distinguished as a function of morphological descriptors [4], such as the calyx, corolla, inflorescence and the presence of glandular trichomes [7], along with whether the plant is prostrate, its leaf size and flower characteristics [8,9]. ...
Article
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This study explores the use of a photoionization detector (PID) to distinguish varieties of rosemary plant, based on their volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The aim was to be able to distinguish plant varieties using a simple, quick, and inexpensive method. Two varieties were studied, Rosmarinus officinalis L. “Prostratus” and “Erectus”. First, the PID was used to detect VOCs emitted by leaves from each variety, and subsequently essential oil was extracted from the same leaves. Then, the well-established GC-MS method was used to characterize and differentiate the oil from each of the two varieties. The PID was able to capture different signals, and a ‘fingerprint’ for each of the two varieties was obtained. To validate the PID performance, the data set obtained was analyzed by means of advanced statistical models (principal component analysis, cluster and support vector machine and artificial neural network) which were able to discriminate the two varieties with high accuracy (over 80%). Therefore, the results confirm that the PID was able to detect differences in VOC emissions. In conclusion, PID proved be an interesting instrument for the classification of rosemary plants, and in this sense could be applied to other aromatic plants.
... Much interest is focused on the Lamiaceae family that consists of roughly 236 genera and 7200 species, such as rosemary, sage, thyme, and oregano, plants of high commercial importance (Hashemi et al., 2017). As an example, rosemary which belongs to the Lamiaceae family, is a widely fresh or dried-consumed aromatic plant and its extracts include various BACs such as carnosol, carnosic acid, caffeic acid, rosmanol, and rosmarinic acid (Ribeiro-Santos et al., 2015). Its EOs include α-pinene, (−)-bornyl acetate, camphor and eucalyptol (Arranz et al., 2015), which produce a synergic effect when combined with others EOs or compounds (Gibriel et al., 2013;Camele et al., 2019). ...
... Its EOs include α-pinene, (−)-bornyl acetate, camphor and eucalyptol (Arranz et al., 2015), which produce a synergic effect when combined with others EOs or compounds (Gibriel et al., 2013;Camele et al., 2019). They are used in traditional food production as flavoring agents, are incorporated in food packaging as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, and in folk medicine due to its anti-cancer and antiinflammatory effects (Teixeira et al., 2013;Ribeiro-Santos et al., 2015). Sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha piperita), marjoram (Marjorana hortensis Moench), oregano compactum (Origanum compactum), and thyme (T. ...
Article
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Abstract Consumers' demands for low-processed and healthier food products led to a search for alternatives to replace or reduce synthetic food additives with natural ones. Aromatic plant derivatives which have GRAS status, have been examined for being natural food preservatives and antioxidants to prolong the shelf-life of foods. They contribute to food safety, owing to their anti-quorum sensing, and anti-biofilm properties. These potential food safety attributes and increasing demand for natural food additive options have led to an interest in the use of them, especially in traditional meat, dairy, and bakery products, which would provide them an added value, and increase the market competitiveness. Therefore, the overall perspective of the value-added effects of using aromatic plants and their derivatives in food production and of their incorporated use into packaging materials for active packaging are discussed in this review. In addition, it provides information on their antimicrobial and antioxidant actions. The review also aims to give detailed information on benefits of vegetal bioactive compounds in health and disease by giving their nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. The current knowledge on their application in the treatment of health disorders is presented, their ability to prevent diseases is discussed, and the areas for future research are proposed.
... Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves have been used since antiquity for culinary purposes as flavoring or food preservatives. 1 Indeed, in the middle of the 20th century, they were found to have the highest antioxidant power among 32 different spices such as thyme or paprika. 2 This property was later attributed mostly to carnosic acid (CA), 3,4 a phenolic diterpenoid which exhibits high radical scavenging capacity, thanks to its catechol function. 5 Interestingly, the catechol function can be regenerated after the first oxidation by a tautomeric rearrangement from the oxidized form of CA into carnosol, allowing CA to participate in additional (hyper-stoichiometric) antioxidation reactions. ...
... Water was evaporated, and the product was directly distilled under vacuum (3 × 10 −2 mbar, 80−90°C) to give a colorless liquid (110 g, 0.68 mol, 34%). 1 Solubilization Curve of CA in C 4 Gly. Hydrotropic solutions of C 4 Gly were prepared at different concentrations and acidified with 1% (v/v) of phosphoric acid (85%) to avoid CA oxidation in water. ...
... Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) is a typical houseplant growing around the globe that belongs to the Lamiaceae family (252,253). The chemical composition of rosemary extract was examined to determine its active principles, which indicated the existence of many compounds, including rosmarinic acid (RA), caffeic acid (CA), chlorogenic acid, carnosic acid, rosmanol, and carnosol (252,(254)(255)(256). Therefore, three types of chemicals have been linked to the biological activity of R. officinalis L.: a volatile fraction, phenolic compounds, and di and triterpenes (254,255). ...
... On the other hand, rosemary extracts have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, antispasmodic, and anti-diabetic bioactivities. The low toxicity and strong cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, diuretic effect, estrogenic effect, as well as memory enhancement and pain relief have been investigated in the reviewed literature (253,(257)(258)(259)(260)(261)(262). On the other hand, rosmarinic acid (RA) was able to reduce inflammation in AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer mouse model by inhibiting NF-kB and STAT3 pathways (263). ...
Article
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second most deadly cancer worldwide. Nevertheless, more than 70% of CRC cases are resulted from sporadic tumorigenesis and are not inherited. Since adenoma-carcinoma development is a slow process and may take up to 20 years, diet-based chemoprevention could be an effective approach in sporadic CRC. The Mediterranean diet is an example of a healthy diet pattern that consists of a combination of nutraceuticals that prevent several chronic diseases and cancer. Many epidemiological studies have shown the correlation between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and low incidence of CRC. The goal of this review is to shed the light on the anti-inflammatory and anti-colorectal cancer potentials of the natural bioactive compounds derived from the main foods in the Mediterranean diet.
... Rosemary Salvia rosmarinus L. is one of the herbal plants commonly known as rosemary (de Macedo et al, 2020). It is an aromatic plant s that use in folk medicine as an oral solution (Ribeiro-Santos 2015), with therapeutic propertiehas suchus antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antitumor, antiulcerogenic, antithrombotic (Ojeda-Sana et al, 2013). It has also used in food and cosmetics industries (de Macedo et al, 2020). ...
Article
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The aim was to extend the shelf life of pear by use of pullulan and extract of Rosemary Salvia rosmarinus L. The coating solution was prepared by mix pullulan and hot aqueous extract of rosemary leaves and study its ability for inhibition of some microorganisms and determination weight loss of pear. The results exhibited that rosemary leaves contain tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, terpenes, and glycosides, while it is free of saponins. The average of inhibition for Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pichia jadinii, Candida albicans, Penicillium ssp. and Aspergillus ssp was 60.125% for rosemary extract and 48.5% for pullulan, while it was 60.5, 67.875, and 54.25% for 0.75+0.25, 0.5+0.5 and 0.25+0.75 of rosemary extract+pullulan respectively. It was noted that the weight loss of pear coated by 0.5 rosemary extract+0.5 pullulan was 0.21 and 6.7% in the 10 and 21d of storage at 4 and 25°C respectively. The coating of pearled to decrease weight loss by nearly 50% after storage for 21d at 25°C and extended the shelf life up to 3d after storage for 10d at 4°C without any changes in general appearance and weight.
... Similarly, Santos et al. reported the fabrication of inclusion complexes of carvacrol with HP-β-CD and β-CD. They reported that these CICs showed improved antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli K12 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurum LT2 [94]. They also demonstrate that a greater antimicrobial capacity was obtained for the encapsulated carvacrol when compared with the nonencapsulated carvacrol. ...
Article
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Using cyclodextrins (CDs) in packaging technologies helps volatile or bioactive molecules improve their solubility, to guarantee the homogeneous distribution of the complexed molecules, protecting them from volatilization, oxidation, and temperature fluctuations when they are associated with polymeric matrices. This technology is also suitable for the controlled release of active substances and allows the exploration of their association with biodegradable polymer targeting to reduce the negative environmental impacts of food packaging. Here, we present a fresh look at the current status of and future prospects regarding the different strategies used to associate cyclodextrins and their derivatives with polymeric matrices to fabricate sustainable and biodegradable active food packaging (AFP). Particular attention is paid to the materials and the fabrication technologies available to date. In addition, the use of cutting-edge strategies, including the trend of nanotechnologies in active food packaging, is emphasized. Furthermore, a critical view on the risks to human health and the associated updated legislation is provided. Some of the more representative patents and commercial products that currently use AFP are also listed. Finally, the current and future research challenges which must be addressed are discussed.
... Rosemary, which is used in folk medicine, has many therapeutic properties: antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antithrombotic, antinociceptive, antidepressant, anti-ulcerogenic, and anti-oxidant activities [63][64][65][66][67][68]. Two groups of compounds are primarily responsible for the biological activity of this plant, the volatile fraction and phenolic constituents as rosmarinic acid [66] and fractions of flavonoids and diterpenes, which are structural derivatives of carnosic acid [67]. ...
Article
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The current work was designed to assess the effect of feed supplemented with essential oils (EOs) on the histological features in sea bass’s gastric mucosa. Fish were fed three diets: control diet (CTR), HERBAL MIX® made with natural EOs (N-EOs), or HERBAL MIX® made with artificial EOs obtained by synthesis (S-EOs) during a 117-day feeding trial. Thereafter, the oxyntopeptic cells (OPs) and the ghrelin (GHR) and somatostatin (SOM) enteroendocrine cells (EECs) in the gastric mucosa were evaluated. The Na+K+-ATPase antibody was used to label OPs, while, for the EECs, anti-SOM and anti-GHR antibody were used. The highest density of OP immunoreactive (IR) area was in the CTR group (0.66 mm2 ± 0.1). The OP-IR area was reduced in the N-EO diet group (0.22 mm2 ± 1; CTR vs. N-EOs, p < 0.005), while in the S-EO diet group (0.39 mm2 ± 1) a trend was observed. We observed an increase of the number of SOM-IR cells in the N-EO diet (15.6 ± 4.2) compared to that in the CTR (11.8 ± 3.7) (N-EOs vs. CTR; p < 0.05), but not in the S-EOs diet. These observations will provide a basis to advance current knowledge on the anatomy and digestive physiology of this species in relation to pro-heath feeds.
... Therefore, WBCs are a key indicator for determining the health status of fish. In this research, the higher count of WBC in groups fed rosemary extract can be related to bioactive compounds of rosemary such as rosmarinic acid (Eftekhar et al., 2018;Moore et al., 2016), which may affect the thymus and spleen and agitate The rosemary is rich in vitamins (such as A, C and B) and minerals (such as Ca, P, Na, K and Fe) (Santos et al., 2015) that may have positive effects on blood parameters. Also, several studies revealed that different herbal plants increasingly improved haematological parameters (Gabriel, 2019). ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the effects of rosemary leaf extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on growth, haematological parameters, immunological profile and body composition in common carp (20.35 ± 0.37 g). The fish (n = 240) were fed with 0.0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1% of rosemary extract in 12 aquaria (300 L) with three replicates (each with 30 fish) for 60 days. At the end of the trial, final weight, WG, SGR, FCR and CF levels were significantly higher in a dose‐dependent manner in the groups fed the diet containing rosemary extract compared with the control group. Moreover, the results of measured trial indices showed a significant increase in a dose‐dependent manner in WBC and RBC counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit, lysozyme, complement, respiratory burst, total protein, albumin and glucose in the fish fed the diet containing rosemary extracts compared with the control group. The contents of cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL were significantly decreased in a dose‐dependent manner and HDL level significantly increased in the groups fed diets containing rosemary extract. The findings of this research suggest that adding rosemary extract, especially 1%, to the food regime could positively change the growth parameters, haematological and immunological profiles of Cyprinus carpio.
... The most important phenolic compound of herbs (rosmarinic acid) was identified in rosemary, thyme, mint, oregano, basil and bay in negative mode. It is endowed by various potent health properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic and anti-depressant [32]. It produced the fragment ions at m/z 179 (caffeic acid) and two caffeic acid fragments at m/z 161 and 135 via the removal of water unit (18 Da) and one unit of CO 2 moiety, respectively from the daughter ion [33,34]. ...
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Culinary spices and herbs have been used to impart a characteristic flavour and aroma in food due to their appealing fragrance. Recently, bioactive compounds from herbs, especially phenolics, have gained much attention due to their potential health outcomes. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify the phenolic compounds from 10 widely used Australian-grown herbs (oregano, rosemary, bay, basil, sage, fenugreek, dill, parsley, mint and thyme). For this purpose, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used for the complete profiling of polyphenolic compounds and quantification of abundant phenolic compounds was completed with high-performance liquid chromatography—photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA). Polyphenols from Australian-grown herbs were estimated through total phenolic content (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and total tannins (TT) along with their in-vitro antioxidant activities. Oregano and mint were estimated with the highest value of TP (140.59 ± 9.52 and 103.28 ± 8.08 mg GAE/g, milligram gallic acid equivalent/gram) while rosemary and mint had the highest TF (8.19 ± 0.74 and 7.05 ± 0.43 mg QE (quercetin equivalent)/g). In this study, eighty-four (84) phenolic compounds were screened and confirmed through LC-MS/MS by comparing their masses and fragmentation pattern with published libraries. The results of this study validate the use of these herbs as bioactives and their positive impact on human health.
... This plant is widely used in cosmetic preparations to protect from degradation and absorbing UV light, is used as a bactericidal and antifungal agent and furthermore, among others, was exploited in topical applications for wound healing, skin cancer and antimycotic properties [5,7]. Different uses of R. officinalis are known and its volatile essential oil (EO) and leaf extracts possess extensively investigated biological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, antiulcer and many others [8]. R. officinalis was investigated for its curative properties against some ailments caused by biochemical, chemical or biological agents as reviewed by Oliviera et al. [9], showing that this plant possesses beneficial effects and may be used to treat health problems. ...
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In this work, essential oils (EOs) and hydrolates (Hys) of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Lavandula angustifolia Mill., grown in Tuscany (Italy), were studied to describe their chemical composition and biological activities. The aromatic profile of the EOs liquid phase was carried out by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), while the volatile composition of vapor phase EOs and Hys was performed by headspace (HS)/GC–MS. The obtained results show that monoterpene hydrocarbons (71.5% and 89.5%) were the main compounds, followed by oxygenated monoterpenes (26.0% and 10.5%) in the liquid and vapor phase of R. officinalis EO, respectively. The oxygenated monoterpenes were the main components of L. angustifolia EO, reaching 86.9% in the liquid phase and 53.7% in the vapor phase. Regarding Hys, they consisted only of oxygenated monoterpenes, and 1,8-cineole (56.2%) and linalool (42.9%), were the main components of R. officinalis and L. officinalis Hys, respectively. Their cytotoxicity was investigated on an SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cell line by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, showing a notable effect of the EOs with a time-independent manner of activity and half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values quite similar for the two plant species (from 0.05% to 0.06% v/v for the three time points evaluated). A measurable activity of Hys was also obtained although with higher EC50 values. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC® 25922, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC® 13525, Acinetobacter bohemicus DSM 102855 as Gram-negative bacteria and Kocuria marina DSM 16420, Bacillus cereus ATCC® 10876 as Gram-positive bacteria, was evaluated by the agar disk-diffusion method and the VPT (vapor phase test) to determinate the MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) and the MBC (minimal bactericidal concentration) values. Both EOs possessed a high activity against all the bacterial strains with MIC values ranging from 0.19% to 3.13% v/v. Unlike EOs, Hys did not show an inhibition of the bacterial growth at the tested concentrations. Furthermore, antioxidant power was measured by 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt-based (ABTS•+) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, showing a remarkable ability to reduce radicals by both EOs; Hys were slightly less active. The findings highlighted that R. officinalis and L. angustifolia EOs and Hys have a chemical composition rich in bioactive molecules, which can exert different biological activities.
... 1,2 Rosmarinus officinalis, an edible evergreen shrub from the Lamiaceae family, has long been used as a medicinal plant for its useful effects, 3 such as antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, and antioxidant action, which are proved scientifically. 4 It has also been used in the food industry as a spice and as a food preservative to prevent food poisoning. 1 Antiproliferative and anticancer activity of this plant is also reported. ...
... The aroma profile of RO also contained trans-caryophyllene (16 %), -pinene (12 %), camphene (10 %), -humulene (7 %) -myrcene (6 %), and -cadinene (5 %). Ribeiro-santos et al. (2015) identified 1,8-cineole, -pinene, camphor, myrcene, verbenone, bornyl acetate and cymene from RO. ...
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The aim of this work was to make an inventory of the aromatic plants pastured by goats in the Aurès Mountains of Algeria and to characterize their volatile and phenolic compounds. In this context, a survey was conducted among goat farmers in this region (department of Batna). Plant volatile compounds were analyzed using HS-SPME/GC-MS and phenolic compounds using HPLC-DAD. According to the results of the survey, twenty-nine (29) aromatic plants were identified as goats' feed. The most cited ones were Thymus algeriensis (96 %), Artemisia herba alba Asso (91 %), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (83 %), Juniperus phoenica L. (80 %), Artemisia campestris L. (80 %), and Marrubium vulgare L. (70 %). The major volatile compounds were -pinene (40 %), a-thujone (38 %), trans-caryophyllene (31 %), a-myrcene (29 %), camphor (27 %), and a-thujone (18 %). The most abundant phenolic compounds were flavonoids (rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, apigenin, hesperidin, isoquercitrin, and quercitrin), cinnamic acid derivatives (chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid), coumarines, and benzoic acid derivatives. The present results indicate that aromatic plants from Aurès mountains of Algeria are rich in phenolic compounds and could be offered as feed for goats.
... Rosmarinus officinalis (family Lamiaceae), commonly known as rosemary, is one of the most popular perennial culinary herbs cultivated worldwide [19,20]. Fresh and dried rosemary leaves have been used in food preparation and herbal teas for their characteristic aroma. ...
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The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by cholinergic agents has been promoted as a potent strategy for treating and managing cognitive decline disorders. A wide range of natural products has long been used as potential sources or formulations of cholinergic inhibitors. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate different Rosmarinus officinalis L. (R. officinalis) extracts for their AChE inhibitory activity using galanthamine as a standard AChE inhibitor. In this study, the ethyl-acetate extract (at a concentration of 250 µg/mL) exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect against AChE with significant inhibition of 75%, comparable to the inhibitor galanthamine with an inhibition of 88%. Kinetic analysis revealed that the extracts could induce a mixed type of inhibition, as observed in the case of galanthamine, with the highest increased Km and decreased Vmax values in the ethyl acetate extract. The antioxidant potential of the three extracts tested was found to be in the order of ethyl-acetate > ethanol > aqueous, with IC50 values of 272 µg/mL, 387 µg/mL, and 534 µg/mL, respectively. Ethyl-acetate was found to have the highest total phenolic content in all extracts. Further, in silico study showed structural binding characterization of rosmarinic acid and carnosic acid with human AChE enzyme. Rosmarinic acid showed strong binding and formed two hydrogen-bonding interactions with Ser-293 and Arg-296. In light of this, the ethyl-acetate extract of the plant may provide some novel potential pharmacological leads for treating and managing cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s.
... Traditional culinary plants are a good source of such bioactive compounds. Examples of these plants are thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), basil (Ocimum basilicum), tea (Camellia sinensis), among others; also other common food ingredients, including some roots, rhizomes, bulbs, barks, flower buds, are highlighted due to their high bioactivity: ginger (Zingiber officinale), turmeric (Curcuma longa), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum) are few examples of those types of food ingredients (Brewer 2011;Andrade et al. 2018;Ribeiro-Santos et al. 2015). These active compounds are generally obtained through extraction (e.g. ...
Chapter
The recent advances in food science and technology have made available alternative methods to preserve foodstuff others than those traditional processes. Active food packaging is one of those current developing technologies that contributes to enlarge the shelf-life of food products. This type of packaging can be distinguished from the materials traditionally used to pack food due to the intentional interaction between the contained food and the packaging material. Compounds with activity are inserted into the packaging material, to functionalize the material with properties (e.g. antimicrobial and antioxidant) capable to retard deterioration processes. In major cases, the pattern of action is based on the delivery of active substances toward the food, thus the importance to study the releasing process and its effectiveness. This chapter summarizes the latest data available on the releasing studies of bioactive compounds used in food packaging material, as well as their effectiveness, focusing especially on polymeric packaging material incorporated with natural compounds. Current available guidelines and regulations are also focused once they represent an important part of those studies.
... Rosemary is rich in carbohydrates, fiber, protein, and minerals. In addition to the richness of its ingredients, it is known that rosemary has many benefits for human health [2,3]. Some of these benefits are antibacterial effects, relieving pain and inflammation, strengthening memory and immune system, protecting against Alzheimer's and dementia disease, supporting the solution of neurological and nervous problems, improving asthma, increasing blood circulation, reproducing beneficial to their ease of integration into the industry, low investment and operating costs, and ease of use. ...
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In the study, we examined in detail the effect of dehydrating using natural drying in the shade, convection drying, and microwave drying, which are the most widely used techniques, especially for tea and spices, both in practice and in theory, on the protein, and mineral composition of rosemary leaves. Also, we determined the color parameters, which are the reason for the selection because it creates the allure for spices. In microwave drying at 600 W, we obtained results close to fresh rosemary in all color parameters, especially brightness and greenness. Although natural drying, which does not have any energy and investment costs, is the second-best method in terms of color, 50 °C, which is the most common drying technique in the market, caused significant color losses affecting the commercial value of the product. We reached the closest protein and P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, and contents to fresh products in dried ones at 600 W. In contrast, in K only, the highest measurement was at 200 W. Strikingly, we observed dramatic losses reducing the benefit obtained from the product regarding protein and almost all nutrients in both convective and natural drying techniques, the most common methods in practice.
... Traditionally, rosemary leaves have been used against muscle, joint and rheumatism pain [4], as a stimulant and diaphoretic and for its flatulence-relieving properties [5,6]. Headaches, epilepsy, dysmennorhea, inflammation and spasmolytic conditions were also treated with rosemary [7,8]. Nowadays rosemary is among the most studied medicinal plants and its essential oil and extracts' therapeutic activity has been evaluated against various diseases [9,10]. ...
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Rosmarinus officinalis is a well-studied plant, known for its therapeutic properties. However, its biological activity against several diseases is not known in detail. The aim of this study is to present new data regarding the cytotoxic activity of a hydroethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis on glioblastoma (A172) and rhabdomyosarcoma (TE671) cancer cell lines. The chemical composition of the extract is evaluated using liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, alongside its total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The extract showed a promising time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against both cell lines. The lowest IC50 values for both cell lines were calculated at 72 h after treatment and correspond to 0.249 ± 1.09 mg/mL for TE671 cell line and 0.577 ± 0.98 mg/mL for A172 cell line. The extract presented high phenolic content, equal to 35.65 ± 0.03 mg GAE/g of dry material as well as a strong antioxidant activity. The IC50 values for the antioxidant assays were estimated at 12.8 ± 2.7 µg/mL (DPPH assay) and 6.98 ± 1.9 µg/mL (ABTS assay). The compound detected in abundance was carnosol, a phenolic diterpene, followed by the polyphenol rosmarinic acid, while the presence of phenolic compounds such as rhamnetin glucoside, hesperidin, cirsimaritin was notable. These preliminary results suggest that R. officinalis is a potential, alternative source of bioactive compounds to further examine for abilities against glioblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma.
... Rosmarinus officinalis L., commonly known as rosemary. This plant has antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antithrombotic, antinociceptive, antidepressant, antiulcerogenic, and antioxidant activities (de Macedo et al., 2020;Ribeiro-Santos et al., 2015). R. officinalis is known to possess numerous pharmacological properties and is also used in food industries and for cosmetic purposes (de Macedo et al., 2020). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance The human skin constitutes a biological barrier against external stress and wounds can reduce the role of its physiological structure. In medical sciences, wounds are considered a major problem that requires urgent intervention. For centuries, medicinal plants have been used in the Mediterranean countries for many purposes and against wounds. Aim of this review Provides an outlook on the Mediterranean medicinal plants used in wound healing. Furthermore, the wound healing effect of polyphenolic compounds and their chemical structures are also summarized. Moreover, we discussed the wound healing process, the structure of the skin, and the current therapies in wound healing. Materials and methods The search was performed in several databases such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. The following Keywords were used individually and/or in combination: the Mediterranean, wound healing, medicinal plants, phenolic compounds, composition, flavonoid, tannin. Results The wound healing process is distinguished by four phases, which are respectively, hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. The Mediterranean medicinal plants are widely used in the treatment of wounds. The finding showed that eighty-nine species belonging to forty families were evaluated for their wound-healing effect in this area. The Asteraceae family was the most reported family with 12 species followed by Lamiaceae (11 species). Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco, and Algeria were the countries where these plants are frequently used in wound healing. In addition to medicinal plants, results showed that nineteen phenolic compounds from different classes are used in wound treatment. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, curcumin, luteolin, chrysin, rutin, kaempferol, quercetin, icariin, morin, epigallocatechin gallate, taxifolin, silymarin, hesperidin, naringin, isoliquiritin, puerarin, genistein, and daidzein were the main compounds that showed wound-healing effect. Conclusion In conclusion, medicinal plants and polyphenolic compounds provide therapeutic evidence in wound healing and for the development of new drugs in this field.
... However, they still contain several compounds with biological activity even after essential oil extraction (Bourgaud et al., 2001;Kontogianni et al., 2013). Evidence points to the potential role of phenolic diterpenes from rosemary and sage in preventing obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disorders (Hassani et al., 2016;Li et al., 2013a;Ribeiro-Santos et al., 2015;Sharifi-Rad et al., 2018). Additionally, its flavonoids and phenolic acids have antioxidant properties and protect against viral and bacterial infections in vitro and in vivo. ...
Article
Background Rosemary and sage are composed of bioactive molecules in high demand by the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries to produce value-added products. After the industrial extraction of essential oils, the raw material still has nonvolatile compounds interesting for other commercial products. The nonvolatile fraction comprises terpenes and phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, and derivatives), which are economically valuable. Modern extraction techniques integrated with other processes within the biorefinery are highly needed to obtain well-evaluated products from these plant matrices. Scope and approach The chemical and biological features of such compounds from rosemary and sage were reviewed and deeply discussed. Recovery technologies, including the influence of operational parameters on extract yield and concentration, were addressed in the past 20 years of available literature. Critical issues for modern production systems, such as applying emerging solvents and developing platforms for zero-waste biorefineries, were also highlighted. Key findings and conclusions The bioactive compounds of rosemary and sage stand out for their specific biological properties. This feature allows obtaining well-defined extracts through modern and emerging extraction technologies, enabling higher specificity for industrial applications. Both raw materials are attractive for biorefineries with current production concepts. However, complete studies addressing the biorefinery of these herbs from a technical, scalable, economic, and environmental point of view are still needed.
... Due to the presence of carnosol/carnosic and ursolic acids, rosemary has therapeutic properties and is used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, primarily for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties [226]. Other uses, including treatments for wound healing, skin cancer, and mycoses, have also been investigated [227][228][229]. Potential applications in the treatment of non-pathological skin conditions, such as ultraviolet damage and aging, have been shown [228][229][230][231]. ...
Article
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Wound healing is a complicated process, and the effective management of wounds is a major challenge. Natural herbal remedies have now become fundamental for the management of skin disorders and the treatment of skin infections due to the side effects of modern medicine and lower price for herbal products. The aim of the present study is to summarize the most recent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies on major herbal preparations, their phytochemical constituents, and new formulations for wound management. Research reveals that several herbal medicaments have marked activity in the management of wounds and that this activity is ascribed to flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic compounds. These phytochemicals can act at different stages of the process by means of various mechanisms, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, collagen synthesis stimulating, cell proliferation, and angiogenic effects. The application of natural compounds using nanotechnology systems may provide significant improvement in the efficacy of wound treatments. Increasing the clinical use of these therapies would require safety assessment in clinical trials.
... O. basillicum seeds are used in Asian beverages and desserts as a source of dietary fiber and are also used in the treatment of cough, headache, worms, diarrhea, and skin infections (Hajmohammadi et al., 2016;Labra et al., 2004). R. officinalis has been used in folk medicine as an oral preparation to relieve renal colic, dysmenorrhea, antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, antithrombotic, antinociceptive, antidepressant, antiulcerogenic, antioxidant activities, and muscle spasms (AI-Sereiti et al., 1999;Begum et al., 2013;Ojeda-Sana et al., 2013;Ribeiro-Santos et al., 2015). N. cataria is widely used to treat diarrhea, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and hepatic injury (Hussain et al., 2018;Sarin & Bafna, 2012;Wan & Jiang, 2018). ...
... Its leaves have significant therapeutic potential against a wide range of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, stomach disorders, respiratory and inflammatory diseases [12]. In folk medicine Rosemary is used for the prevention and the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases [13]. ...
Article
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Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is an ongoing viral pandemic marked by dysfunctional platelet responses resulting in increased risk of thrombotic events. Indeed, platelet hyper-reactivity has been shown to be common in COVID-19 patients. The antiviral effect of a few natural products has been documented by several studies, but none have focus on their effect on platelet function in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this work was to evaluate in vitro the effect of some medicinal plants on platelet activation and aggregation in COVID-19 patients and the possible mechanism. Platelet hyper-reactivity was assessed by measurements of aggregation and translocation/phosphorylation of PKCδ on Tyr 311 following stimulation by collagen, while C. Longa ethanolic extract failed to inhibit platelet hyper-reactivity observed in COVID-19 patients. The present study reports that ethanolic extracts of L. Angustifolia and R. Officinalis could significantly reduce platelet response to low concentrations of collagen. These findings confirmed the link between the traditional medicinal plants used and the results of the scientific research studies. In order to explore, maximum benefits of the present study, it is suggested to conduct further scientific studies using randomized controlled trials.
... R. officinalis is an aromatic plant popularly known as rosemary which has important biological properties, especially due the phenolic and the essential constituents, such as carnosol, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid present in the extract of rosemary and α-pinene, bornylacetate, camphor and eucalyptol present in the essential oil of this species (23) . ...
Article
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Biological activities of essential oils from various plants, including Rosemary, have been attributed to the presence of specific chemical compounds with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The aim of this study is to estimate the antioxidant and antifungal activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil extract. The study included the extraction of essential oil using a Clevenger apparatus. The chemical compositions were evaluated by GC-MS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).The rosemary essential oil extract was tested with regard to antioxidant utilizing 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Microtiter plate Assay used to determine the antifungal and antibiofilm activity. The result showed that the GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were linalool (17.09 %), L-Borneol (11.92 %), Verbenone (8.52 %), camphor (5.30 %), Eucalyptol (4.79 %), while the chemical compositions identified by HPLC shows four phenolic acids were identified in the essential oil, Rosmarinic acid, Caffeic acid, p-Coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and lignans (medioresinol), while Isorhamnetin was the only flavonol detected. The free radicals scavenging activity increased gradually with the increase in the concentration of essential oil which was 81.59 % when compared with BHT and V.C (92.34 and 97.42) respectively. The results of the antifungal activity revealed that Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of C. albicans and C. krusei was 3.125%, while the MIC of C. glabrata was 12.5% in contrast with the highest MIC which recorded for C. tropicalis at 25% of rosemary essential oil. The current results revealed that the reduction of bofilm formation among C. albicans and C. krusei was obvious at the lower concentration (1.56%), where the percentage of biofilm formation in C. albicans was (91.25%) and C. krusei was (84.25%), while C. tropicalis exhibit (86.32%) for biofilm reduction at the concentration (12.5%) of rosemary essential oil, also it was found that the effect of essential oil on C. glabrata biofilm formation was at the concentrations 3.125% and 6.25%. The findings of this study indicated to the significant effect of rosemary essential oil against the growth and biofilm formation of the important pathogenic yeast C. albicans at low concentrations.
Article
Rosmarinus officinalis is a shrub grown spontaneously in Mediterranean basin. It has a large use in pharmaceutical industry due to their bioactive molecules within their essential oils and crude extracts. This plant covers huge areas in Morocco and offers considerable incomes to the local cooperatives, particularly in the Eastern High Atlas Mountains. However, lack of accurate data about the distribution range and the geographic chemical variability are impediments to decision makers to set a sustainable management plan and effective marketing strategies for rosemary products. Thus, the aim of this study is to delineate rosemary land cover in this region with focus on the chemical variability of its essential oil. In that respect, four Sentinel-2A L2A satellite images were mosaicked, georeferenced and clipped to the study area, which concerns the collectivities of Boumeriem and Talsint, Bouchaouen, Beni Tedjite, and Maaterka (Oriental, Morocco). Then, the images were assessed with an object based approach through segmentation and binary classification (rosemary’s shrubs; other lands) that were processed respectively by the multi-resolution and random forest algorithms, incorporated in ecogition v8.8 software. Training and validating data were collected through fieldworks. For the chemical characterization, rosemary leaves were harvested from different locations in Boumeriem and Talsint localities, and extracted with Clevenger apparatus. The obtained essential oils underwent later Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for the chemical identification. As regards cartography, the obtained map have shown that the most important rosemary shrubs cover 60 643 ha and 75 800 ha respectively for Boumeriem and Talsint collectivities. For the chemical composition, all samples showed high content of 1,8-cineole (50.57–62.34%), whereas Camphor and α-Pinene relative concentration didn’t exceed 14.10% and 8.94%, respectively.
Chapter
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) is a medicinal and aromatic herb belonging to the Lamiaceae family. The geographical distribution of the plant covers especially the Mediterranean Region and regions with a Mediterranean climate. In addition, it has been cultured in many countries around the world so far. The aerial components of the plant, particularly the leaves, are rich in both volatile and nonvolatile phytochemicals: terpenes, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, alcohols, and esters. Phenolic compounds such as carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid in its content have been associated with the plant’s anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antithrombotic, and antioxidant activities. The antimicrobial and antioxidant bioactivities of its essential oil have been utilized and accepted as a safe conservator in the food industry. While the bioactivity of the plant has been proven by in vivo and in vitro experiments, the results of clinical studies support the existence of these bioactivities. The potential of rosemary to be transformed into herbal medicine is considerable. In this chapter, we present an overview of the distribution, ethnobotany, bioactive and nutritional composition and available extraction techniques, scientific evidences, clinical and toxicological studies, available commercial formulations, and challenges and future recommendations as potential drug candidate of rosemary.KeywordsRosemaryPhenolic compoundsRosmarinic acidBiological activity Toxicity
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Five norursane-type triterpenoids, including three novel of 3β-28-norursa-12,17,19,21-tetraene-3-ol (1), 3β-28-norursa-12,20(30)-dien-3-ol (2) and 3β-28-norursa-12,16,20(30)-triene-3-ol (3), as well as two known 3β-28-norursa-17,19,21-trien-3-ol (4) and 3β-28-norursa-12-ene-3-ol (5) were isolated from the ethyl acetate dissolved fraction of the ethanol extract from Rosmarinus officinalis. Their structures were elucidated by HR-ESI-MS, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-5 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on NO production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells, and compounds 2, 3 and 5 shown better anti-inflammatory activity.
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Artificial preservatives have long been used by the meat industry to control chemical, microbial, and enzymatic degradation activities; and to enhance the shelf life, safety, and quality of meat products. However, the reported toxicological and carcinogenic effects of these additives; and consumer preferences towards natural or plant-based food preservatives have insisted the meat industry to look for their natural alternatives. Rosemary is one of the most promising, versatile, and most studied natural preservatives that have been reported to reduce the rate of oxidative reactions and microbial growth in meat products, thereby extending their shelf life. The promising biological and functional characteristics of rosemary are due to the presence of bioactive compounds like phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids, and triterpenes. These bioactives are well renowned for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotective properties. This review highlights the use of rosemary in a diverse range of meat products, including in their packaging. Encapsulation of rosemary and its mechanism of action have also been discussed
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The aim of this study is to improve extraction of biologically active compounds (BACs) found in Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Algeria country using green extraction process. The effect of the main process variables (time, ethanol concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio) on maceration efficiency has been studied using Factorial Design (FD) to verify the single factors effects. Total Polyphenol Content (TPC) and Total Flavonoids Content (TFC) were measured to control the maceration efficiency in different experimental conditions. The iso-response curves and the response contours have been exploited. The best experimental results were 0.15 g/mL, 50 %, 1hour and 0.15 g/mL, 50 %, 72hours for TPC and TFC respectively. The values of TPC and TFC were 2.5 mg GAE/g DW and 1 mg QE/g DW respectively. These results were in perfect agreement with the expected theoretical model. The relationship between the TPC and TFC provides a high correlation coefficient (0.82).
Article
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, medicinal plants have attracted great interest in treatment of human diseases. Rosemary is a well-known medicinal plant which has been widely used for different therapeutic purposes. METHODS: This is a narrative review using databases including PubMed, ISI, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, and google scholar, the most authoritative articles were searched, screened, and analyzed. RESULTS: Rosemary is a natural antioxidant which removes reactive oxygen species from tissues and increases expression on Nrf2 gene. Rosemary and its metabolites reduce inflammation by inhibiting production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreasing expression of NF-κB, inhibiting infiltration of immune cells to inflamed sites, and affecting gut microbiome. Besides, rosmarinic acid in rosemary extract has positive effects on renin-angiotensin-system. Rosemary affects respiratory system by reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, muscle spasm, and also through anti-fibrotic properties. Carnosic acid is able to penetrate blood-brain-barrier and act against free radicals, ischemia and neurodegeneration in brain. Cardioprotective effects include correcting lipid profile, controlling blood pressure by inhibition of ACE, prevention of atherosclerosis, and reduction of cardiac muscle hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Accordingly, rosemary supplementation has potential protective effects against COVID-19 and other cytokine storm associated infections, a conclusion that needs more evaluations in the next clinical trials.
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The current study was carried out to assess the effect of the Rosemarinus officinalis extract (RE) as a feed additive on growth performance, immune response, antioxidant status, and disease resistance of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish were randomly distributed into four groups. G1 served as a control, while G2, G3, and G4 were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% of RE, respectively. After the experimental period (8 weeks), fish were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus. The results displayed enhanced growth performance [final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG), weight gain% (WG%), and specific growth rate (SGR)] with a significant reduction in feed conversion rate (FCR) in G3 and G4. A significant increase of the biometric indices [hebatosomatic index (HIS), splenosomatic index (SSI), and condition factor (K)] was recorded in G3, followed by G4 and G2 compared to G1. Serum levels of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, creatinine and nitric oxide (NO) and activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) reduced significantly with increasing the concentration of RE fed. While levels of total protein, albumin, total globulin, γ globulin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and resistance against S.Aureus were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner of RE fed. Additionally, the serum activity of lysozyme and level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) increased significantly in treated groups in a descending manner with increasing the concentration of RE in the feed. Thus, in the present work, the addition of ethanolic RE to the Nile tilapia diets proved to enhance growth performance, innate immunity, and physiological status of fish hence, presenting a promising feed additive in aquaculture. © 2021, Egyptian Society for the Development of Fisheries and Human Health. All rights reserved.
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Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), a culinary herb of the family Lamiaceae, has promising anticancer activity. This overview has updated the current knowledge on the chemistry and anticancer properties of rosemary extract, carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol, focusing on colon and prostate cancer cells since they are the most susceptible. The information was procured from Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, J-Stage, and PubChem. Phenolic compounds isolated from the aerial parts of R. officinalis are flavonoids, phenolic acids, diterpenes, triterpenes, terpenoids, and phenylpropanoids. Some of the compounds are new to science, to the genus, and to the species. Almost 30 compounds possess anticancer properties. Rosemary extracts contain abietane diterpenes, with carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol being the most common. Their molecular structures are similar to three fused aromatic rings. Carnosic acid has a –COOH group at C20, carnosol has a lactone ring occurs across the B ring, and rosmanol has a –OH group at C7. Against colon and prostate cancer cells, the rosemary extract and diterpenes inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. The inhibition of cell migration and adhesion has also been reported. The rosemary extract and diterpenes also inhibited colon and prostate cancer xenograft in mice. Rosemary extract is more cytotoxic than the diterpenes due to its polyphenols such as flavonoids and triterpenes. In vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activities involve different molecular targets and signalling pathways. Some prospects and areas for future research are suggested.
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Background T. vulgaris, commonly known as the thyme, is an aromatic plant belonging to the Lauraceae family. Six different chemotypes were described for T. vulgaris. The chemotypes are named after its dominant monoterpene: geraniol (G), α-terpineol (A), thuyanol-4 (U), linalool (L), carvacrol (C), and thymol (T). Scope and approach For this review, an extensive bibliographic research on Thymus vulgaris was carried out, including its main components both nutrients and bioactives. Botanical description, distribution and cultivation were also addressed as well as uses in folk medicine. Particular attention was given to biological activities, clinical studies, possible limitations and potential applications. Key findings and conclusions T. vulgaris L. is used as food and for medicinal purposes and it has a great economic importance due to its composition on monoterpene derivatives including p-cymene, thymol and carvacrol. The value of T. vulgaris has been recognized by the pharmaceutical industry, because it proved to have hepatoprotective properties and to have effectiveness as expectorant agent, anti-acne agent, and as fungicidal and antiviral drug. It has been also recognized by the industries of pests' repellents, foods, food packaging and cosmetics. This vast number of industrial applications is mainly due to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects.
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Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease are incurable diseases with progressive loss of neural function and require urgent development of effective treatments. Carnosol (CL) reportedly has a pharmacological effect in the prevention of dementia. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of CL's neuroprotection are not entirely clear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of CL-mediated neuroprotection through Caenorhabditis elegans models. First, CL restored ND protein homeostasis via inhibiting the IIS pathway, regulating MAPK signaling, and simultaneously activating molecular chaperone, thus inhibiting amyloid peptide (Aβ), polyglutamine (polyQ), and α-synuclein (α-syn) deposition and reducing protein disruption-mediated behavioral and cognitive impairments as well as neuronal damages. Furthermore, CL could repair mitochondrial structural damage via improving the mitochondrial membrane protein function and mitochondrial structural homeostasis and improve mitochondrial functional defects via increasing adenosine triphosphate contents, mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species levels, suggesting that CL could improve the ubiquitous mitochondrial defects in NDs. More importantly, we found that CL activated mitochondrial kinetic homeostasis related genes to improve the mitochondrial homeostasis and dysfunction in NDs. Meanwhile, CL up-regulated unc-17, cho-1, and cha-1 genes to alleviate Aβ-mediated cholinergic neurological disorders and activated Notch signaling and the Wnt pathway to diminish polyQ- and α-syn-induced ASH neurons as well as dopaminergic neuron damages. Overall, our study clarified the beneficial anti-ND neuroprotective effects of CL in different aspects and provided new insights into developing CL into products with preventive and therapeutic effects on NDs.
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The impact of the addition of commercial thyme (TEO) and rosemary essential oil (REO) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 0.01%) combined with sunflower oil on the lipid quality of Atlantic bonito was investigated during shallow frying. Atlantic bonito treated with TEO and REO had significantly lower lipid content than control and BHT-treated samples (p < 0.05). As compared to controls, the addition of both synthetic and natural antioxidants to sunflower oil resulted in a significant decrease in the peroxide values (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) values of samples. These decreases had a similar effect in both essential oils (EOs) groups, inversely proportional to the increased used concentration. The addition of all EOs into the sunflower oil, except for 0.9% REO group, significantly increased the amount of total saturated fatty acid (∑SFA). Although the addition of EOs at different concentrations has a significant effect on the total monounsaturated fatty acids (∑MUFA) of fried Atlantic bonito, the highest MUFAs content was observed in the 0.6% thyme EO group. Our results indicated that the use of commercial TEO and REO seems to be effective in the protection of the amount of fatty acid compositions of Atlantic bonito, especially eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA). As a result, the lipid quality of Atlantic bonito during shallow frying was improved by all EOs used for the current study.
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This paper aimed to estimate the influence of peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) leaves grinding on the essential oil (PEO) yield, composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Besides positively affecting the yield, grinding provided PEO with 44 compounds, compared to 33 compounds isolated from non-ground leaves. The most abundant compounds in both PEOs were menthol and menthone. PEO isolated from the ground leaves expressed higher antibacterial and antifungal activities , with S. aureus and C. albicans being the most susceptible microorganisms. According to these results, PEO from ground leaves has the potential to be used in food industry and packaging, production of nutraceuticals, natural pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
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In this study, the N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) solution with different lithium chloride concentrations of 3 wt%, 5 wt%, and 7 wt% by phase inversion in ethanol vapor to produce chitin hydrogels for plant growth. The chitin hydrogel prepared with a higher concentration of lithium chloride showed improvements in elastic and mechanical properties. The tensile strength was enhanced from 275.8 to 434 kPa for the chitin hydrogel with 3% and 7% of LiCl. While the reduction in water content suggested forming a denser hydrogel structure at higher LiCl concentrations; the water contact angle (WCA) value indicated that chitin-derived hydrogels are hydrophilic. Moreover, the bio-degradation experiment indicated the degradable percent of the chitin hydrogel placed in 10 mg/L of aqueous lysozyme solutions at 37°C increases during 7 to 28 days from 4.72 wt% to 5.45 wt%. The obtained hydrogel was suitable for the growth and development on rosemary plants. The condition CE15 with the hydrogel of 85 wt% chitin-derived hydrogel and 15 wt% cellulose as best medium planting with the largest effect on the height, the crown's diameters and the number of level-one branches of the rosemary plants.
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The use of natural food ingredients has been increased in recent years due to the negative health implications of synthetic ingredients. Natural bioactive compounds are important for the development of health-oriented functional food products with better quality attributes. The natural bioactive compounds possess different types of bioactivities, e.g., antioxidative, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, and antiobesity activities. The most common method for the development of functional food is the fortification of these bioactive compounds during food product manufacturing. However, many of these natural bioactive compounds are heat-labile and less stable. Therefore, the industry and researchers proposed the microencapsulation of natural bioactive compounds, which may improve the stability of these compounds during processing and storage conditions. It may also help in controlling and sustaining the release of natural compounds in the food product matrices, thus, providing bioactivity for a longer duration. In this regard, several advanced techniques have been explored in recent years for microencapsulation of bioactive compounds, e.g., essential oils, healthy oils, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, flavoring compounds, enzymes, and vitamins. The efficiency of microencapsulation depends on various factors which are related to natural compounds, encapsulating materials, and encapsulation process. This review provides an in-depth discussion on recent advances in microencapsulation processes as well as their application in food systems.
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Hair loss is one of the problems that affects both men and women of different ages. This hair loss can have many causes. Some are caused by treatable problems and some for some no effective cure has yet been found. Lawsonia inermis, Spinacia oleracea, Nigella sativa, Cinnamomum verum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Matricaria chamomilla, Thymus vulgaris, Allium sativum, Allium stipitatum, Arctium lappa, Linum usitatissimum, Aloe vera, Zingiber officinal, Altighaber officinale, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Salvia officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Urtica dioica, and Achillea millefolium stimulate hair growth and treat baldness. It can be said that the use of herbal medicines that are from natural sources do not have the side effects of chemical medicines. Herbal hair loss treatment products usually affect hair follicles and also regulate scalp fat or increase the health of hair grafts and prevent hair loss.
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Antimicrobial effects of carnosic acid, kaempferol and luteolin on biogenic amine (BA) production by five spoilage (Photobacterium damselae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacea, Pseudomonas luteola and Serratia liquefaciens) and five food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC29212, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Salmonella Paratyphi A NCTC13 and Yersinia enterocolitica NCTC 11175) were investigated. The formation of ammonia (AMN), trimethylamine (TMA) and BAs by all bacterial strains were observed using ornithine decarboxylase broth. BAs, AMN, and TMA were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The results showed that significant differences were observed (P ≤ 0.05) in formation among spoilage and also food-borne bacteria. The impact of phenolic compounds on AMN, TMA and BAs production was dependent on bacterial strains. When total amount of cadaverine (CAD), putrescine (PUT), histamine (HIS) and tyramine (TYR) was considered, the phenolic compounds presented antimicrobial activity against fish spoliage bacteria and food-borne pathogens following the order; kaempferol > carnosic acid > luteolin. These phenolics have potential to be used as food preservatives.
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Backgrond: Medicinal plants are promising therapeutic agents. Antimicrobial agents from plants are compounds that kill microorganisms or stop their growth. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis, Zataria multiflora, and Mentha piperita on biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium. Materials and Methods: For the purpose of the present experimental study, extracts of these plants were prepared and their effects on P. aeruginosa growth were assessed using disk diffusion technique and the results were compared with disk diffusion results of kanamycin, imipenem, penicillin, and cephalexin. Then, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of extracts were determined separately. The effect of these extracts on biofilm formation was assessed via staining with crystal violet %1 and acetic acid %30. All tests were repeated three times and statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, v. 16. Results: We found that all three plant extracts at the concentration of 3 mg/ml had antimicrobial properties. The diameter of inhibition halos of extracts of R. officinalis, Z. multiflora, and M. piperita were 15 ,19, and 11 mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of R. officinalis was 75/0 mg/ml and the minimum inhibitory concentration of Z. multiflora and M. piperita 5/1 mg/ml. Also, the results showed that R. officinalis reduces and inhibits biofilm formation at concentrations of 5/1 and 3 mg/ml, respectively. But, Z. multiflora and M. piperita only reduced biofilm formation at concentration of 3 mg/ml. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the alcoholic extract of R. officinalis with a concentration of 3 and 1.5 mg/ml is a potent inhibitor against P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. Abstract (
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Ninety-five rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus Schleid.) genotypes, representing 24 wild populations, collected in different geographical areas in Italy and then cultivated under homogeneous environmental conditions, were characterised for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and three main non-volatile phenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid, carnosol) and acids (rosmarinic acid). Cluster analysis of chemical data highlighted the occurrence of three main groups of populations: one with high levels of verbenone, α-pinene, bornyl acetate, carnosic acid and carnosol, a second one with relatively high levels of camphor and a third one with high levels of 1,8-cineole, β-pinene and sesquiterpenes. This clustering was consistent with geographic origin and previous genetic characterisation of the same populations. Correlation analysis suggested that levels of the key antioxidant carnosic acid were associated to levels of the key aroma compound verbenone. The observed diversity may be exploited in breeding programs to develop lines and designing products with improved flavour quality and functional properties.
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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation by environmental agents and microbial metabolites is potentially implicated in a series of skin diseases. Hence, it would be very important to identify natural compounds that could inhibit the AhR activation by ligands of microbial origin as 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), indirubin (IND) and pityriazepin (PZ) or the prototype ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Five different dry Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts (ROEs) were assayed for their activities as antagonists of AhR ligand binding with guinea pig cytosol in the presence of [3H]TCDD. The methanolic ROE was further assayed towards CYP1A1 mRNA induction using RT-PCR in human keratinocytes against TCDD, FICZ, PZ, and IND. The isolated metabolites, carnosic acid, carnosol, 7-O-methyl-epi-rosmanol, 4′,7-O-dimethylapigenin, and betulinic acid, were assayed for their agonist and antagonist activity in the presence and absence of TCDD using the gel retardation assay (GRA). All assayed ROE extracts showed similar dose-dependent activities with almost complete inhibition of AhR activation by TCDD at 100 ppm. The methanol ROE at 10 ppm showed 99%, 50%, 90%, and 85% inhibition against TCDD, FICZ, IND, and PZ, respectively, in human keratinocytes. Most assayed metabolites exhibited dose-dependent antagonist activity. ROEs inhibit AhR activation by TCDD and by the Malassezia metabolites FICZ, PZ, and IND. Hence, ROE could be useful for the prevention or treatment of skin diseases mediated by activation of AhR.
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Introduction: Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree), Ceratonia siliqua L. (carob), Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (eucalyptus), Laurus nobilis L. (laurel), Mentha aquatica L. (water mint), Myrtus communis L. (common myrtle), and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) are aromatic plants from the Mediterranean region whose parts and preparations are used for their nutritional properties and health benefits. Objectives: To evaluate and compare the metabolites profile, total phenol content (TPC), and antioxidant activity of plant leaves for their future use. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for metabolomics. Data comparison was performed by chemometrics. Methodology: Polar and apolar extracts were analysed using untargeted GC-MS metabolomics followed by chemometrics (principal component analysis, heatmap correlation and dendrogram) to identify, quantify and compare the major organic compounds in the plants. Additionally, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used for the laurel polar extract to identify d-gluco-l-glycero-3-octulose whose presence was unclear from the GC-MS data. TPC and antioxidant assays were performed using classical methods (Folin-Ciocalteu, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)) and correlated to the phytochemical profiles. Results: Forty-three metabolites were identified including amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, phenols, polyols, fatty acids, and alkanes. Eight metabolites (d-fructose, d-glucose, d-mannose, gallic acid, quinic acid, myo-inositol, palmitic and stearic acids) were in common between all species. d-Gluco-l-glycero-3-octulose (37.29 ± 1.19%), d-pinitol (31.33 ± 5.12%), and arbutin (1.30 ± 0.44%,) were characteristic compounds of laurel, carob, and strawberry tree, respectively. Carob showed the highest values of TPC and antioxidant activity. Conclusion: GC-MS metabolomics and chemometrics analyses are fast and useful methods to determine and compare the metabolomics profiling of aromatic plants of food and industrial interest.
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Rosemary essential oil (REO) shows various biological functions and is widely used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection treated by antibiotics leads to serious drug resistance and public health hazard. REO as an antibiotic alternative has become the focus of considerable research efforts. However, knowledge regarding the S. Typhimurium growth characteristics and proteomic responses to REO exposure remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the commonalities and differences in chemical compositions of REOs extracted from Salvia rosmarinus cultivars, ‘Algarve’ (AL), ‘Dutch Mill’ (DM), and ‘Majorca Pink’ (MP) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The three REOs displayed distinct chemical composition profiles, and the DM-REO, predominantly composed of 1,8-cineole and α-pinene, had the highest antibacterial activity. Sublethal levels of DM-REO caused irreversible cell membrane damage, longer lag phases, decreased growth rates, and lower maximum optical densities of S. Typhimurium. The underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms of S. Typhimurium under sublethal DM-REO treatment were investigated using label-free quantitative proteomics. Four hundred thirty-six differentially expressed proteins mainly involved in metabolism, ABC transporters, two-component system, quorum sensing, bacterial chemotaxis, and flagellar assembly were identified. The phenotypic observation test showed that DM-REO significantly inhibited S. Typhimurium motility and quorum sensing. These results increase our understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of REO inhibition in S. Typhimurium.
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Aim. It is well known that the pharmacological activity of essential oils depends on their major components, which may vary enormously. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of samples of essential oil of rosemary of different origins, in order to identify the main therapeutic constituents, according to European Pharmacopoeian (EP). Material and Methods. Analytical GC/MS was carried out on a total of eight samples of essential oil of rosemary: seven samples were commercial products from producers located in different geographical areas; the last sample was prepared in our labo- ratory from fresh flowering terminal sprigs of rosemary collected in Siena’s Province. results. The most representative constituents of the essential oils tested, were 1,8-cineole and camphor. Other components also occurred in significant quantities in some samples, for example and α- and β-pinene, limonene and caryophyllene, in- dicating clear phytochemical differences among samples. discussion. The high quantity of eucalyptol and camphor detected in the samples made them particularly suited for treating minor respiratory disorders. Eucalyptol is expectorant and liquefies bronchial secretions; camphor increases the interval bet- ween inspiration and expiration and increases the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system, facilitating respiration. On the other hand, the essential oils analyzed by us were not suitable for perfume production, because they contained little or no positive aromatic components.
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Reduction or elimination of chemically synthesized additives from foods is a current demand in food industry. A new approach to prevent the proliferation of microorganisms or protect food from oxidation is the use of essential oils or plant extracts as natural additives in foods. We have studied antimicrobial activity of rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) against different species of Listeria and against different strains of L. monocytogenes. We used two extracts of rosemary, VivOX 20 and VivOX 40 (Vitiva d.d., Slovenia) containing different levels of carnosic acid. We wanted to proof an antimicrobial activity of selected rosemary extracts with two most commonly used methods: disc diffusion method and broth dilution method. With the disc diffusion method we have obtained the inhibition zone and at the lowest concentrations, where no visible bacterial growth was recorded, were assumed as minimal inhibitory concentration values (MIC). We determined MIC values in the ranges from 625 μg extract/ml EtOH to 5000 μg extract/ml EtOH for VivOX 20 and from 312.5 μg extract/ml EtOH do 2500 μg extract/ml EtOH for VivOX 40 in the medium. We have established that the resistance of Listeria species against rosemary extracts depends on: selected extract, selected concentration, various species and strain of Listeria. With broth dilution method we have determined minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), as the concentration giving 0.1 % bacterial survival. With this method we have tested two strains of L. monocytogenes and in determinate MBC values in the range from 15.63 μg/ml TSB to 98.5 μg/ml TSB for both tested extracts. Results have confirmed our assumption that resistance of Listeria against rosemary extracts depended on the selected strain.
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The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Labiatae culinary herbs are well documented but the effects of different drying methods are poorly studied. In this study, the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of fresh and oven-dried herbs of oregano, marjoram, rosemary, sage, basil, thyme, peppermint and spearmint were compared with available commercial herbs. Antioxidant properties of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, caffeoylquinic acid content, free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing power and ferrous ion chelating ability were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminium chloride, molybdate, DPPH radical scavenging, potassium ferricyanide and ferrozine assays, respectively. Antibacterial properties were assessed using the disc diffusion assay based on mean diameter of inhibitory zone and minimum inhibitory dose. The two drying treatments were oven drying at 50 o C (OD) and microwave pre-treatment followed by oven drying at 50 o C (MOD). Fresh rosemary and oven-dried oregano had the strongest antioxidant properties. For most herbs, oven drying resulted in loss of antioxidant values compared to fresh herbs with the exception of oregano. Values of oven-dried oregano, spearmint, thyme, peppermint and basil were higher than commercial samples, while those of oven-dried rosemary were lower. Of the six commercial herbs, rosemary had the highest values, followed by oregano, spearmint, thyme, peppermint and basil. All herbs showed no antibacterial activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. Rosemary, sage, peppermint and spearmint inhibited the growth of Gram-positive Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus. Rosemary and sage had stronger antibacterial properties than green and black teas of Camellia sinensis. When used in combination, rosemary and sage can have enhanced antioxidant and antibacterial effects, which are desirable in developing nutraceutical products, and in controlling rancidity and bacterial growth in food.
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Beta-amyloid (A) is considered as one of the major causes of Alzheimer's disease. This study examined the neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid, a naturally occurring polyphenol which is distributed widely in plants, fruits and vegetables, against A-induced toxicity. A decreased significantly the viability of PC12 cells. This was accompanied by an increase in the intracellular calcium levels and cleaved caspase-3. In addition, A induced an increase in Bax, and a decrease in Bcl-2 compared to the controls. However, a pre-treatment with chlorogenic acid rescued the PC12 cells from A by attenuating the elevated intracellular calcium levels and reducing the levels of the apoptosis related proteins, including caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax. These results suggest that the protective effects of chlorogenic acid are, at least in parts, by attenuating the intracellular calcium influx and reducing apoptosis induced by A.
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Rosmarinus offi cinalis (Rosemary) is a common household plant which belongs to the family Lamiaceae and is grown in many parts of the world. It is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple or blue fl owers. The two most commonly grown hardy Rosemaries are Rosmarinus offi cinalis 'Arp' and R. offi cinalis 'Madelene Hill' (syn. 'Hill Hardy'). The other cultivars of the plant are R. offi cinalis 'Albus', R. offi cinalis 'Bendenen Blue', R. offi cinalis 'Goodwin Creek', R. offi cinalis 'Herb Cottage', R. offi cinalis 'Logee's Light Blue', R. offi cinalis 'Miss Jessup's Upright', R. offi cinalis 'Russian River', R. offi cinalis 'Salem'. The chemical constituents include bitter principle, resin, tannic acid, volatile oils and fl avonoids. The volatile oil consists of borneol, bornyl acetate, camphene, cineol, pinene and camphor. It is used for problems involved in central nervous system, cardio vascular system, genito urinary conditions, liver treatments, reproductive system and respiratory system. The volatile oil of the plant is used in oils and lotions for the treatment of various ailments like arthritis, gout, muscular pain, neuralgia, wound and rubbed into hair for stimulating the hair bulbs to renewed activity, to prevent premature baldness.
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Objective: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly being used as adjunctive treatment in primary headache syndromes in many countries. In the Turkish population, no epidemiologic data have been reported about awareness and usage of these treatments in patients with headache. Methods: One hundred and ten primary headache patients attending three headache clinics completed a questionnaire regarding their headaches, the known modalities and the use and effect of CAM procedures for their headaches. Results: The mean age of the patients was 34.7±9.6 years (32.8-36.5). Almost two-thirds of patients had completed high school and university, and one-third of patients were housewives. Migraine without aura (45.5%) was the most frequently diagnosed type of headache followed by migraine with aura (19.1%) and tension-type headache (18.2%). In 43.6% of the patients, headache frequency was 5-10 per month. The most frequently known CAM modalities were massage (74.5%), acupuncture (44.5%), yoga (31.8%), exercise (28.2%), psychotherapy (25.5%), and rosemary (23.6%). The most frequently used CAM treatments were massage (51%) and exercise (11%). Only massage was reported to be beneficial in one-third of the primary headache patients; the other modalities were not. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the subgroup of primary headache patients in Turkey seek and use alternative treatments, frequently in combination with standard treatments. Neurologists should become more knowledgeable regarding CAM therapies; further randomized and controlled clinical researches with large sample sizes are needed.
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The demand for natural antioxidant active packaging is increasing due to their unquestionable advantages compared with the addition of antioxidants directly to the food. Therefore, the search for antioxidants perceived as natural, namely those that naturally occur in herbs and spices, is a field that is attracting great interest. In line with this, in the last few years, natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, carvacrol and plant extracts (e.g. rosemary extract) have been incorporated into food packaging. On the other hand, consumers and the food industry are also interested in active biodegradable/compostable packaging and edible films to reduce environmental impact, minimize food loss and contaminants from industrial production and reutilization by-products. The present review focuses on the natural antioxidants already applied in active food packaging, and it reviews the methods used to determine the oxidation protection effect of antioxidant active films and the methods used to quantify natural antioxidants in food matrices or food simulants. Lastly consumers' demands and industry trends are also addressed.
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To study Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) essential oil effect on primary hypotension and its influence on both physical and psychological aspects responsible of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients. Thirty-two patients with diagnosed hypotension were recruited between March 2007 and September 2008 for a prospective study for 72 weeks in a Spanish pharmacy. Clinical evaluation was carried out through the control of systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels (SBP and DBP, respectively) according to International Standards from the American Society of Hypertension. HRQOL data were recorded within the SF-36 Health Survey(®) questionnaire throughout the study. Statistical methods were used as an essential tool to evaluate the effectiveness of Rosemary essential oil and to assess the relationship between the two quantitative variables (SBP and DBP) and scores from physical and mental summary components (PSC and MSC) obtained from the SF-36 Health Survey. Both blood pressure variables of SBP and DBP reflect the clinically significant antihypotensive effect of Rosemary essential oil that was maintained throughout the treatment period. After validation of the use of the questionnaire (Cronbach's alpha coefficient>0.82), statistically significant differences have been found between pre-treatment and post-treatment values of PSC and MSC, which indicate an improvement in these parameters that is directly related to the variation in blood pressure values. The increase achieved in blood pressure values after administration of Rosemary essential oil is clinically significant. The results obtained from this prospective clinical trial prove the effectiveness of statistical methodology as a new approach to explain the antihypotensive effect of rosemary essential oil and its relationship with the improvement in patients' quality of life.
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Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant's leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive.
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This introductory chapter contains a brief history of herbs and spices, including cultivation, trade and uses. The cultivation requirements of important herbal spices are discussed, as well as uses of herbs and spices in food and beverages, perfumes and cosmetics, and medicinal and nutraceutical uses. The important flavour compounds in major culinary and herbal spices are considered. Other topics discussed in this chapter are antioxidants isolated from herbs and spices, active plant constituents and the molecular phytopharmacology of a few herbs and spices. It also deals with biosafety and efficacy issues from a phytochemical perspective.
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Rosemary is an aromatic herb that has been known from ancient times as a memory herb. This chapter briefly describes the myths and folklore that are associated with this plant, and goes on to give details of the agricultural techniques used in its production, including biotechnology and developments in post-harvest processing and analytical techniques that have improved the extraction of rosemary oil and oleoresin. The culinary and medical uses of the herb are also outlined in this chapter, as is the use of rosemary as a herbal pesticide. The toxicology of rosemary and its oils is discussed at the end of the chapter, which concludes with suggestions for key topics that require ongoing research.