ArticlePDF Available

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE BUFFERS STRESS: A STUDY ON EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND COPING STYLES

Authors:

Abstract

Emotional Intelligence is the ability to restrain negative feelings of anger, stress and anxiety, and focus on positive feelings of patience, confidence and empathy. Emotional Intelligence has an impact on work-related outcomes as employees are stressed and insecure in work environment. Coping Styles refer to what a person thinks or does to manage an emotional encounter. It can be described in terms of responses, tactics, strategies, cognitions or behavior. The purpose of this project is to find out the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Coping Styles. Emotional intelligence (EI) plays an important role in coping with stress and improving the performance of the individual. The standardized questionnaires on Emotional Intelligence and Coping Styles were used to collect the primary data. The secondary data was collected from research papers and journals.150 employees from IT sector were taken as sample for the study. Correlation and regression through SPSS were conducted to analyze and interpret the result. The obtained values of (r =.42) and (R square =.18) reflect that Emotional Intelligence has a moderate positive relationship with coping styles for stress in the employees of IT industry and there may be other factors also which affect the coping styles of the individuals in the organization. The present research can be further extended to study the other factors which affect the coping styles of the individuals.
EXCEL International Journal of Multidisciplinary Management Studies ________________ ISSN 2249- 8834
EIJMMS, Vol.3 (11), November (2013)
Online available at zenithresearch.org.in
76
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE BUFFERS STRESS: A STUDY ON
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND COPING STYLES
DR.HARMINDER KAUR GUJRAL
AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL
AMITY UNUVERSITY
ABSTRACT
Emotional Intelligence is the ability to restrain negative feelings of anger, stress and anxiety, and
focus on positive feelings of patience, confidence and empathy. Emotional Intelligence has an
impact on work-related outcomes as employees are stressed and insecure in work environment.
Coping Styles refer to what a person thinks or does to manage an emotional encounter. It can be
described in terms of responses, tactics, strategies, cognitions or behavior. The purpose of this
project is to find out the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Coping Styles.
Emotional intelligence (EI) plays an important role in coping with stress and improving the
performance of the individual. The standardized questionnaires on Emotional Intelligence and
Coping Styles were used to collect the primary data. The secondary data was collected from
research papers and journals.150 employees from IT sector were taken as sample for the study.
Correlation and regression through SPSS were conducted to analyze and interpret the result. The
obtained values of (r =.42) and (R square =.18) reflect that Emotional Intelligence has a
moderate positive relationship with coping styles for stress in the employees of IT industry and
there may be other factors also which affect the coping styles of the individuals in the
organization. The present research can be further extended to study the other factors which affect
the coping styles of the individuals.
KEYWORDS: Emotional Intelligence, Coping Styles, Tactics, Environment.
______________________________________________________________________________
Introduction
Emotional Intelligence is a social intelligence that may be learned, developed and improved.
Emotional Intelligence includes an ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and
emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and
actions. It has become increasingly clear that traditional intelligence (and IQ) is not enough to
determine success. As the world becomes increasingly inter-connected, people need to work far
more co-operatively. It is now recognized that, to manage, relate and work with others, a
different set of skills are required. It is Emotional Intelligence, which is filling this gap. Bar-On
(1997) defines emotional intelligence as an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies and
skills. These influence one's ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures.
Emotional Intelligence is concerned with our:
knowledge of ourselves self-awareness;
knowledge of others emotional literacy;
EXCEL International Journal of Multidisciplinary Management Studies ________________ ISSN 2249- 8834
EIJMMS, Vol.3 (11), November (2013)
Online available at zenithresearch.org.in
77
ability to mange ourselves self-regulation or self-control;
ability to mange others social skills;
ability to motivate ourselves energy, drive, creativity and self-motivation;
ability to motivate others influence, inspiration and leadership.
Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been recently validated with major skill areas that can influence
career and create abilities that improve the worth of the employees at work. Emotional
intelligence matters twice as much as technical and analytic skill combined for star
performances. And the higher people move up in the company, the more crucial emotional
intelligence becomes. Bosses and leaders, in particular, need high EQ because they represent the
organization to the public, they interact with the highest number of people within and outside the
organization and they set the tone for employee morale. Leaders with empathy are able to
understand their employee’s needs and provide them with constructive feedback.
Developing emotional intelligence in the workplace means acknowledging, that emotions are
always present and doing something intelligent with them. People vary enormously in their skill
with which they use their own emotions and react to the emotions of othersand that makes the
difference .Stress being viewed by the researchers as internal demands that exceed personal
resources, while coping being viewed as emphasizing psychological strengths that enable a
person to cope with stress (Pike, 2003; Strümpfer, 2003). Coping style refers to what a person
thinks or does to try to manage an emotional encounter. It can be described in terms of strategies,
tactics, responses, cognitions, or behavior. Coping strategies are defined as cognitive and
behavioral tactics employed by individuals to work with real or perceived problems and
difficulties. Organizations have to survive in an environment characterized by increased global
competition, ongoing developments in organizations, and a drive for greater cost-effectiveness,
and increased competitiveness in the workplace. At workplaces people are constantly feel
stressed and insecure. The mechanism which allows a person to survive an emotionally painful
environment also makes it difficult for them to respond sensitively and empathetically towards
others. Stress affects employer’s and employee’s performance which questions the survival of
both because if the work efficiency of the employees is reduced, there would be a great fall in
productivity and it directly affects the employer also. This affects the organizational performance
in an increasingly competitive market. It is therefore, an essential task for management to deal
effectively and prevent the disaster. Organizations constantly have to implement changes in
structure, strategy, culture and process to ensure continued organizational performance and to
maintain the competitive advantage. Change is thus not only about the implementation of new
systems and processes but also about the people within this environment; how the individuals
behave, what they think, how they interact, their perceptions and their ability to handle the
changing environment. The workplace had become a high stress environment in most of the
organizations. Employees are experiencing high level of stress due to various factors such as
high workload, high targets, type of work, tight deadlines, lack of job satisfaction; long working
hours, pressure to perform, etc. Interpersonal conflicts at the workplace, boss-subordinate
relationships and relationships with peers, are also a source of stress.
Kumar & Rooprai (2009) conducted a study to analyze if emotional intelligence is a predictor in
managing stress and anxiety. Emotional Intelligence Scale, Stress Inventory and General Anxiety
test were used for the measurement of all the variables. Emotions play an integral part in
managing stress and anxiety at workplace. It highlighted the need for examination of the
relationship of emotional intelligence as an overarching concept to the management of stress.
EXCEL International Journal of Multidisciplinary Management Studies ________________ ISSN 2249- 8834
EIJMMS, Vol.3 (11), November (2013)
Online available at zenithresearch.org.in
78
Descriptive statistics, Correlation and Regression analysis were conducted for data analysis.
Results indicate that there was a significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and the
variables of Stress. Stress management component and anxiety component; emerge as
statistically significant with respect to the relationship with Emotional Intelligence. Studies
conducted with nurses and nursing students show that emotional intelligence is a skill that
minimises the negative stress consequences. The results indicate positive correlations between
clarity and social support, social support and repair, and social support and well-being. Clarity
and emotional repair are predictors of social support and emotional repair is the main predictor
of well-being. These results show the importance of perceived emotional intelligence in stress
management (Montes-Berges & Augusto, 2007). 'Managing our emotions, and relating to others,
are among the greatest challenges that we face in life' (Lopes & Salovey, 2004) conducted a
study to understand the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and coping styles with
stress. All participants completed the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS) and the Tehran coping
styles Scale (TCSS). The results revealed that EI was positively associated with problem-focused
and positive emotional focused coping styles, and negatively associated with negative emotional
focused coping styles. EI is supposed to influence coping strategies through regulation and
management of emotions, utilization and facilitation of emotions, and appraisal of emotions.
Saras et al, (2009) analyzed the relationship between emotional intelligence and stress
management in a group of managers. The general aim of this research was to determine whether
there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and stress management in a group of
managers. This was done through a quantitative study of the relationship between stress
management and emotional intelligence. These constructs were operationalised by means of a
combination of scales present in the Feelings and Emotions domain of the Occupational
Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32i) and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On EQ-). The
correlation and regression results seem to indicate that stress management (the ability to cope
with stress) is a component of emotional intelligence, while stress can be either an input or an
outflow of emotional intelligence or the lack thereof.
Corser et al (2005) examined the association between emotional intelligence (emotion-relevant
abilities) and stress (feelings of inability to control life events), considering personality (self-
perception of the meta-emotion traits of clarity, intensity, and attention) as a moderating variable.
Emotional intelligence is potentially helpful in reducing stress for some individuals, but
unnecessary or irrelevant for others. Campbell et al, (2007) explored the relationship between
emotional intelligence and ways of coping in adolescents. Emotional competence was associated
with the use of adaptive coping strategies. Adolescents higher in emotional intelligence were
more likely to use adaptive coping strategies when faced with stressful situations. Those who use
emotional intelligence to guide their thoughts and actions find it easy to adjust in stressful
conditions. These individuals have increased self control skills, empathetic skills, self awareness,
to be more likely to engage in adaptive coping strategy, and in turn report reduced levels of
psychological distress. Studies conducted with nurses and nursing students show that emotional
intelligence is a skill that minimizes the negative stress consequences. The results indicate
positive correlations between clarity and social support, social support and repair, and social
support and well-being. Clarity and emotional repair are predictors of social support and
emotional repair is the main predictor of well-being. These results show the importance of
perceived emotional intelligence in stress management (Montes-Berges & Augusto, 2007). Kim
et al, (2010) studied the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and coping styles using
EXCEL International Journal of Multidisciplinary Management Studies ________________ ISSN 2249- 8834
EIJMMS, Vol.3 (11), November (2013)
Online available at zenithresearch.org.in
79
an adult, hospitality industry population. The hierarchical regression indicates that EI is by far
the most dominant predictor of task coping among all selected explanatory variables; EI does not
have much influence on emotion coping after the entry of two basic personality traits
(neuroticism and extraversion); and EI is significantly related to avoidance coping encompassing
social diversion and distraction. The study also revealed the critical role played by demographic
characteristics (experience, age and gender) in individual coping efforts.
Based on literature review an attempt has been made to conduct a descriptive research to study
the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Coping styles for stress using standardized
questionnaires for Emotional Intelligence and Coping Styles for stress.
Objectives
To assess the level of Emotional Intelligence of the employees.
To analysis the coping styles of the employees.
To examine the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and coping styles.
Major Hypothesis
Ho: There exists no relationship between Emotional Intelligence and coping styles of the
employees.
H1: There exists a relationship between Emotional Intelligence and coping styles of the
employees.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Sample Size: 150 participants from IT sector.
Sample Design: Convenience sampling.
Research instruments:
Two standardized questionnaires one on Emotional Intelligence and other on Coping Styles
were taken as instruments for the study.
DATA ANALYSIS
Data was analyzed using SPSS package. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the
relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Coping styles, and Regression analysis was
conducted to study the impact of Emotional Intelligence on Coping Styles of the employees of IT
sector.
EXCEL International Journal of Multidisciplinary Management Studies ________________ ISSN 2249- 8834
EIJMMS, Vol.3 (11), November (2013)
Online available at zenithresearch.org.in
80
Table: 1 Correlation Analysis
Correlations
Emotional
intelligence
Coping styles
Emotional
intelligence
Pearson
Correlation
1
.424**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
150
150
Coping styles
Pearson
Correlation
.424**
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
150
150
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level
(2-tailed).
Interpretation - Table shows the correlations between Emotional Intelligence and Coping Styles
in the IT sector. The correlation coefficient is .424 which is positive and moderate. There is a
significant correlation between emotional intelligence and coping styles for stress.
Table.2 : Regression Analysis
Model
Variables
entered
Variables
removed
Method
1
Emotional
Intelligencea
.
Enter
a. All requested variables entered.
Model Summary
Model
R
R Square
Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of
the Estimate
1
.424a
.180
.174
.36025
a. Predictors: (Constant), Emotional Intelligence
Interpretation - Table shows the impact of Emotional Intelligence on Coping Styles for stress
on the employees of IT sector. The obtained value of r square is .18 which is moderately positive
and and shows a significant impact of Emotional Intelligence on Coping Styles for stress.
EXCEL International Journal of Multidisciplinary Management Studies ________________ ISSN 2249- 8834
EIJMMS, Vol.3 (11), November (2013)
Online available at zenithresearch.org.in
81
DISSCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
Emotional Intelligence buffers stress. Taking insight from the preceding statement the present
research was planned to study whether there exists a relationship between emotional intelligence
and coping styles. If we follow Goleman’s model of emotional intelligence, we find few
components of emotional intelligence as shield to proneness to stress. Does EI really work as
shock absorber and helps in coping with stress.
Two standardized questionnaires one on emotional intelligence and other on coping styles were
conducted to study the relationship between variables and data was analyzed using SPSS
package. Pearson’s correlation and regression were conducted to analyze and interpret data. The
findings confirm a relationship between these variables as Emotional Intelligence was found to
have a positive correlation with coping styles. The obtained value of correlation between
Emotional Intelligence and Coping styles (r=.424-table 1) shows that there is a significant
positive correlation between the variables. The obtained R2 value (.18- table 2) also indicates an
impact of Emotional Intelligence on coping styles of individuals towards stress. With increasing
globalization and challenging work environment, an individual puts in a large part of his life and
time to cope up with turbulent changes, emphasizing the role of emotional intelligence in
managing diverse situations in life.
People high on Emotional Intelligence build links within an organization and with the people
they serve, whereas those low on EI may tend to create problems for the organization through
their individual behaviors. So one should emphasize on developing emotional intelligence to
overcome stress at workplace and to get success in life as Emotional intelligence is the basis for
personal qualities such as realistic self-confidence, personal integrity, knowledge of personal
strengths and weaknesses, resilience in times of change or adversity, self-motivation,
perseverance, and the knack for getting along well with others. As far as development of
emotional intelligence is concerned it is not fixed genetically or set irrevocably in early
childhood. In fact, as people grow older they seem to develop greater emotional intelligence.
Additional good news comes from the realm of neuroscientists who have proven that our brains
remain plastic (capable of creating new connections and growing) throughout our lives.
Although people are not born with Goleman's five dimensions of EI-self-awareness, self-
regulation, self motivation, social awareness, and social skills--those traits can be learned
throughout life. To cope up with increased level of Stress in the organization the employees
should work on their self awareness, social awareness, self management and people management
skills as they improve the employee’s trust level and they work more efficiently and
productively. The management needs to impart training on developing emotional intelligence
skill to cope up with challenges at personal and professional front which will be favourable for
overall wellbeing of the organization.
REFERENCES
Bar-On, R. (1997). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual.
Toronto: Multi-Health Systems. Journal of applied psychology, Vol.3, No. 2.
Campbell, A., & Ntobedzi, A., (2007). Emotional Intelligence, Coping and
Psychological Distress: A Partial Least Squares Approach to Developing a Predictive
Model. Electronic
EXCEL International Journal of Multidisciplinary Management Studies ________________ ISSN 2249- 8834
EIJMMS, Vol.3 (11), November (2013)
Online available at zenithresearch.org.in
82
Corser, C., & Dalsky, J., (2005). Emotional Intelligence under stress: Useful,
unnecessary, or irrelevant. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 39, Issue 6,
Pages 10171028.
Kumar Sunil. & K.Y. Rooprai, 2009. Role of Emotional Intelligence in Managing
Stress and Anxiety at workplace ASBBS Annual Conference: Las Vegas, 16: 1.
Kim, H., & Agrusa, J., (2010). Emotional Intelligence and Coping Styles among
Hospitality Industry Employees. International CHRIE, Vol.8.
Lopes, P., & Salovey, P. (2004). Toward a broader education: Social, emotional and
practical skills. In P. Salovey, M.A. Brackett & J.D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional
intelligence: Key readings on the Mayer and Salovey model (pp. 287-303). New
York: Dude Publishing.
Montes-Berges, B., & Augusto, J.M. (2007). Exploring the relationship between
perceived emotional intelligence, coping, social support and mental health in nursing
students. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 14(2), 163-171.
Pike, A. (2003). Dealing with stress: Health and safety. Emergency Services SA,
24(5), 20-21.
Strümpfer, D.J.W. (2003). Resilience and burnout: A stitch that could save nine.
South African Journal of Psychology, 33(2), 69-79.
Saras Ramesar, Pieter Koortzen, Rudolf M. Oosthuizen, (2009), The relationship
between emotional intelligence and stress management” SA Journal of Industrial
Psychology; Vol 35, No 1 (2009), 10 pages.
... A person with a high Emotional Quotient is able to monitor and control ones feelings and use them to guide both thoughts and actions. Therefore, one is able to manage stressful situations calmly and proactively (Gujral, 2013;Kumar & Rooprai, 2009;Patton, 2002). EQ is a strength for professionals who have to face a high emotional burden (Zeidner, et al., 2004). ...
... The soft skills development program oriented to EQ, SQ, and AQ development can be included in preliminary activities such as orientation, guidance, and counseling as well as soft skill development special activities. The development program is an implied theory by Stoltz (2000), Buzan (2002), Singh (2006), Yusuf (2006), Gujral (2013) who define that EQ, SQ, and AQ can be developed through systematical modeling, guidance, teaching, and training in schools. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aims to analyze the effects of intelligence quotient, emotional quotient, spiritual quotient, and adversity quotient on the graduates quality of vocational higher education. Data were collected from 217 cadets at Surabaya Shipping Polytechnic who already took an internship as respondents using stratified cluster random technique. This is a correlational and quantitative study using a questionnaire developed from several existing scales and analyzed using Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine the path of effects and to create the best structural model of intelligence-based graduates quality (IESA-Q). The results indicate that there are direct and indirect effects of intelligence quotient, emotional quotient, spiritual quotient, and adversity quotient on graduates quality, meaning that each quotient has a positive effect on graduate’s quality. The process to create the professional and ethical quality of Surabaya Shipping Polytechnic graduate is dominated by Emotional Quotient (25,2%) and Spiritual Quotient (21,4%), while Intelligence Quotient (IQ) becomes the support as it effects the development process of all quotients, Emotional Quotient (EQ), Spiritual Quotient (SQ), and also Adversity Quotient (AQ). Therefore, based on the findings of this study, the student acceptance requirements are emphasized on IQ and EQ as a basis to develop other quotients in order to generate graduates with good quality. Learning is designed on IQ, EQ, SQ, AQ to control and to evaluate process and product outcomes.
... Genel olarak bakıldığında ise alanyazında, duygusal zekâ ile stresle baş etme tarzı (Çimli & Çelik, 2019;Sarabia Cobo vd., 2017;Hyung, Abuelkassem & Woo, 2019;Jung & Yoon, 2016;Hyun & Jerome, 2011;Wons & Matusiewicz, 2011;Noorbakhsh, Besharat, Zarei, 2010;Kaur, 2013;Larijani vd., 2017 ;Biranvand vd., 2015); kültürel zekâ ile stresle baş etme tarzı (Brislin vd. 2006;Mosanya, 2019); spiritüel zeka ile stresle baş etme tarzı (Pourfarokh, 2014;Yazdkhasty, vd., 2016) arasındaki ilişkiyi inceleyen araştırmalar mevcuttur. ...
... Although it is not surprising that emotional intelligence is the subject of predominant interest in the literature on tourist guiding, it is noteworthy that social intelligence, which is at least as important as the emotional intelligence skill in the tour guide's service performance, has not been adequately studied. In general, in the literature, there are studies examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and coping with stress (Cimli & Çelik, 2019;Sarabia Cobo et al., 2017;Hyung, Abuelkassem & Woo, 2019;Jung & Yoon, 2016;Hyun & Jerome, 2011;Wons & Matusiewicz) , 2011;Noorbakhsh, Besharat, Zarei, 2010;Kaur, 2013;Larijani et al., 2017;Biranvand et al., 2015); ...
... Emotional intelligence also plays a significant role in the experience of job satisfaction and personal growth (Lubbadeh, 2020). According to Gujral (2013), leaders that display high emotional intelligence cope better with personal and professional challenges, interpersonal conflicts at the workplace, boss-subordinate relationships, and relationships with peers. On the other hand, Rani and Yadapadithaya (2018) found that those displaying low levels of emotional intelligence will be easily overwhelmed by job demands. ...
... EI has also been proven to be a buffer to stress by assisting individuals in adopting effective coping styles (Harminder, 2013;Kwok & Gu, 2017;Por, Barriball, Fitzpartick, & Roberts, 2011). Cha and Nock (2009) discovered that EI could moderate the relation between risk factors and suicidal behaviors where people with high emotional intelligence showed no relation between risk factors and suicidal behaviors. ...
Article
Students in Hong Kong are facing tremendous stress due to the overly competitive atmosphere and high expectations of academic success from their parents. Although Hong Kong was a British colony for more than 150 years, some of the traditional Confucian values remained embedded in Hong Kong citizens. Moreover, those values were highly influential for both parents and students in building a framework of expectation regarding education. However, superior expectations could lead to frustrations, causing stress and mental health problems for the students. This study aimed to seek a way for students from a CHC background to succeed academically without enduring the overwhelming stress that could potentially lead to emotional breakdowns. By examining the intertwined relationship between EI and learning motivation, the two reputable factors for academic achievement, in a sample of 737 primary students, the current study discovered the significant role of EI in improving students’ academic achievement. Results from this study suggest that by enhancing students’ level of EI, their learning motivation would increase accordingly, and eventually, their academic achievement would improve. Several implications for EI improvement were revealed.
... Nurses who have a high level of emotional Intelligence build relations within an organization and with the people they serve; whereas, those with low level of EI may tend to create problems for the organization through their individual behaviors. Therefore, developing emotional intelligence should be emphasized in order to overcome stress at workplace and accomplish goals and cope with stress 5 The study of 6 represent that emotions play an important role in a profession that requires not only technical expertise, but mainly relies on the psychological and physical care of human beings. The positive effects of EI with respect to the quality of nursing work and the ability to mitigate the impact of a difficult working environment via the contribution of emotional selfmanagement and the personal stress management capacity in environments that is full of stress. ...
Article
Background: Emotional Intelligence is a broad concept that connecting various personality and cognitive traits of human beings. The concept of emotional intelligence is described as the individual's capability of recognizing their own emotions and the emotions of others, and practice this understanding to navigate important interactions successfully.
... In this context, emotional intelligence is an essential aspect for school students to overcome academic stress. Meanwhile, Gujral (2013) pointed that students are capable to overcome academic stress with improving emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence focuses on balancing the negative emotions such as anger, stress, depression, anxiety. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors reviewed the dimensions/subscales of emotional intelligence and deliberated its significance associated in enhancing emotional competencies, thereby overcoming academic stress in students. The present review makes the reader understand and rationalize the significance of emotional intelligence for students to develop their emotional competencies to empower themselves and combat academic stress and enhance their academic performance.
... The results of research conducted among students show that emotional intelligence is positively associated with problem-focused and positive emotional-focused coping styles and negatively associated with negative emotional-focused coping styles (Noorbakhsh et al., 2010). The results of research in the IT industry also show that emotional intelligence has a positive impact on employees (Kaur, 2013). Extant research concentrates on many different aspects of emotional intelligence and stress-coping strategies among people of varied ability levels who participate in different musical and nonmusical activities. ...
Article
This article addresses the psychosocial functioning of young people with artistic abilities. The study involved 354 students from music, art, and general education schools, ages 16 to 19 years. The research hypothesis was that the diversity of situations experienced by students studying at different types of schools could generate differences in their socio-emotional functioning, focusing on features such as emotional intelligence and coping strategies. The variables connected with emotional intelligence were acceptance, empathy, controlling, and understanding, and the variables connected with coping strategies were task-, emotion-, and avoidance-orientation. The results indicated that music students differed significantly from art students in the level of their emotional intelligence in general results and on the Acceptance scale; they are more aware of the positive and negative emotions that they feel, express their emotions more easily, and can effectively use their knowledge about the emotions they experience. Moreover, in stressful situations, music students exhibit task-oriented coping strategies significantly more often and are significantly less likely to engage in substitute actions than are art students.
Book
Full-text available
W XXI wieku świat ulega gwałtownym przemianom. Utrzymanie stabilizacji i rentowności placówki w dłuższym okresie, przy równoczesnym zapewnieniu pacjentom najwyższej jakości leczenia i bezpieczeństwa, determinowane jest przez szereg różnorodnych czynników: zewnętrznych, wewnętrznych i osobowych. Brakuje jednak jednoznacznej odpowiedzi, które czynniki mają kluczowe znaczenie w sprawowaniu skutecznego przywództwa w placówce medycznej. Finansowanie systemu ochrony zdrowia, nowe technologie, epidemiologia, profil i jakość życia pacjentów, efektywność wydatkowania funduszy − to przesłanki warunkujące zapotrzebowanie na dobrze przygotowanych, wykwalifikowanych i skutecznie zarządzających liderów placówek medycznych. Potrzeba tworzenia nowoczesnych placówek medycznych opartych na pracy zespołów interdyscyplinarnych, doskonaleniu jakości usług medycznych oraz pokonywaniu barier komunikacyjnych w zespołach medycznych to wyzwania stojące przed liderami tych jednostek. Największe zalety książki: • szczegółowe omówienie przywództwa i jego znaczenia w placówkach medycznych; • przedstawienie autorskiego, ogólnego i zweryfikowanego statystycznie modelu skutecznego przywództwa w placówce medycznej w Polsce oraz w wybranych krajach nordyckich, mogącego mieć zastosowanie również w pandemicznym świecie VUCA; • zidentyfikowanie i omówienie hierarchii czynników determinujących skuteczność przywództwa, mogącej posłużyć do przygotowania szkoleń dla liderów placówek medycznych i wskazania kierunków rozwoju indywidualnego dla osób na stanowiskach przywódczych różnych szczebli w strukturze organizacyjnej tych instytucji.
Article
Full-text available
Teaching is the set of activities involved in assisting or educating to enhance the knowledge and skills of the learners. The multiple roles played by faculty members and sometimes hinder them to succeed in their career. Teaching is professional job, they have to find ways to play their roles effectively and efficiently. The term Emotional Intelligence can be defined as the ability to identify and manage one's own emotions as well as the emotions of others. The study aims to find the impact of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction of college faculty members, Vellore. Descriptive research design and simple random sampling method were used. The sample size for the study was 119 and questionnaire method was adopted to collect the data. The multiple regression results revealed that three variables of emotional intelligence skills affect the job satisfaction of faculty members working in Arts and Science College, Vellore.
Article
Full-text available
This investigation among 158 freshmen examined the association between emotional intelligence (emotion-relevant abilities) and stress (feelings of inability to control life events), considering personality (self-perception of the meta-emotion traits of clarity, intensity, and attention) as a moderating variable. Results suggest that emotional intelligence is potentially helpful in reducing stress for some individuals, but unnecessary or irrelevant for others. We highlight results among the highly stressed intense but confused participants in particular because they have average emotional intelligence, but do not appear to use it, presumably because they lack confidence in their emotional ability.
Article
Full-text available
Regardless of where one lives in the world, one cannot escape three defi ning forces of our time: globalisation, the information revolution and the speed of change (Cascio, 2001). To ensure continued organisational performance and to maintain the competitive advantage, organisations must therefore constantly implement changes in strategy, structure, process and culture (Higgs, 2002; Langley, 2000). Goleman (1998) proposes a solution of self-awareness as a key skill in handling stress, thereby indicating that a lack of emotional intelligence in such an unstable environment means possible failure that can impact on everyone’s future. The general aim of this research was to determine whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and stress management in a group of managers. This was done through a quantitative study of the relationship between stress management and emotional intelligence. These constructs were operationalised by means of a combination of scales present in the Feelings and Emotions domain of the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32i) and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On EQ-i). The correlation and regression results seem to indicate that stress management (the ability to cope with stress) is a component of emotional intelligence, while stress can be either an input or an outflow of emotional intelligence or the lack thereof.How to cite this article:Ramesar, S., Koortzen, P., & Oosthuizen, R.M. (2009). The relationship between emotional intelligence and stress management. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/ SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, 35(1), Art. #443, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v35i1.443
Article
https://scholarworks.umass.edu/refereed/CHRIE_2010/Saturday/8/ This study examines the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and three coping styles (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-oriented coping) using an adult, hospitality industry population. The hierarchical regression indicates that EI is by far the most dominant predictor of task coping among all selected explanatory variables; EI does not have much influence on emotion coping after the entry of two basic personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion); and EI is significantly related to avoidance coping encompassing social diversion and distraction. In addition, this study reveals the critical role played by demographic characteristics (e.g., age, experience, and gender) in individual coping efforts.
Article
Partial Least Squares analysis is an alternative way of modeling data which is relatively new to the Social Sciences. The current study, reported here, investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence, coping styles and the experience of psychological distress in adolescents. Although there has been quite a lot of research in this area there are few predictive models in the literature relating to adolescents. Participants were 85 Australian high school students. It was predicted that higher emotional intelligence would be related to decreased levels of psychological distress and to more adaptive coping but to less maladaptive coping. The results showed no direct association between emotional intelligence and psychological distress. However, there appeared to be an indirect relationship with psychological distress being predicted by coping style and coping style predicted by emotional intelligence. The implications of these findings for interventions with adolescents are discussed.
Article
t The phenomenon of emotional intelligence is a growing topic for behavioural investigation as researchers strive to understand its influence on various social interactions. Recent research indicates that emotions play an integral par in Managing stress and Anxiety at workplace. A review of the literature highlights the need for examination of the relationship of emotional intelligence as an overarching concept to the Management of Stress and Anxiety. The researcher examines two null hypotheses that investigate the measurement of emotional intelligence as a predictor in managing Stress and Anxiety. 120 Management students were taken for the study. Emotional Intelligence Scale, Stress Inventory and General Anxiety test were used for the measurement of all the variables. Descriptive statistics, Correlation and Regression analysis were used for data Analysis. Results indicate that there was a significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and the variables of Stress and Anxiety. Stress management component and anxiety component; emerge as statistically significant with respect to the relationship with Emotional Intelligence.
Article
The central argument in this article is that there are psychological variables, subsumed here under the generic heading of resilience, that advance fortigenesis and thus create tendencies contrary to those that produce burnout, or favourable to its antipode of engagement. In a literature review, five theoretical variables are presented: engagement, meaningfulness, subjective well-being, positive emotions, and proactive coping, as well as five somewhat practical suggestions: personal strategic planning, restorative places, optimal experience (flow), interpersonal flourishing, and Balint groups. Some comments are made about research needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Studies conducted with nurses or nursing students have shown that emotional intelligence is a skill that minimizes the negative stress consequences. The present work examines the role of perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) measured by the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, in the use of stress-coping strategies, in the quantity and quality of social support and in the mental health of nursing students. The results indicated positive correlations between clarity and social support, social support and repair, and social support and mental health. Hierarchy regression analysis pointed out that clarity and emotional repair are predictors of social support, and emotional repair is the main predictor of mental health. These results show the importance of PEI in stress coping within the nursing framework.
Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems
  •  Bar-On
 Bar-On, R. (1997). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems. Journal of applied psychology, Vol.3, No. 2.
Dealing with stress: Health and safety
  • A Pike
 Pike, A. (2003). Dealing with stress: Health and safety. Emergency Services SA, 24(5), 20-21.