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A large international sample was used to test whether hedonia (the experience of positive emotional states and satisfaction of desires) and eudaimonia (the presence of meaning and development of one's potentials) represent 1 overarching well-being construct or 2 related dimensions. A latent correlation of .96 presents negligible evidence for the discriminant validity between Diener's (1984) subjective well-being model of hedonia and Ryff's (1989) psychological well-being model of eudaimonia. When compared with known correlates of well-being (e.g., curiosity, gratitude), eudaimonia and hedonia showed very similar relationships, save goal-directed will and ways (i.e., hope), a meaning orientation to happiness, and grit. Identical analyses in subsamples of 7 geographical world regions revealed similar results around the globe. A single overarching construct more accurately reflects hedonia and eudaimonia when measured as self-reported subjective and psychological well-being. Nevertheless, measures of eudaimonia may contain aspects of meaningful goal-directedness unique from hedonia. (PsycINFO Database Record
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... A literatura enfatiza a existência de duas perspetivas para conceptualizar o bem-estar: a abordagem hedónica, que o define como a procura pessoal do prazer e evasão à dor e sofrimento; e a abordagem eudemónica, que o define como o nível em que o indivíduo está totalmente funcional (Disabato et al., 2016;Ryan and Deci, 2001;Sheldon et al., 2019;The Children's Society, 2018). Para uma adequada avaliação do bem-estar, ambas as perspetivas devem ser consideradas, englobando a dimensão emocional e a funcionalidade (Disabato et al., 2016;Tamir and Gross, 2011). ...
... A literatura enfatiza a existência de duas perspetivas para conceptualizar o bem-estar: a abordagem hedónica, que o define como a procura pessoal do prazer e evasão à dor e sofrimento; e a abordagem eudemónica, que o define como o nível em que o indivíduo está totalmente funcional (Disabato et al., 2016;Ryan and Deci, 2001;Sheldon et al., 2019;The Children's Society, 2018). Para uma adequada avaliação do bem-estar, ambas as perspetivas devem ser consideradas, englobando a dimensão emocional e a funcionalidade (Disabato et al., 2016;Tamir and Gross, 2011). ...
... The literature emphasizes the existence of two perspectives to conceptualize wellbeing: the hedonic approach, which is defined as the personal search for pleasure and avoidance of pain and suffering, and the eudemonic approach, which is the level of the individual who is fully functional (Disabato et al., 2016;Ryan and Deci, 2001;Sheldon et al., 2019;The Children's Society, 2018). For an adequate assessment of wellbeing, both perspectives must be considered, as this requires an evaluation of the emotional dimension and functionality (Disabato et al., 2016;Tamir and Gross, 2011). ...
Article
Introduction: Wellbeing is a multidimensional concept that assumes that the individual must be involved in his or her daily life and find meaning and purpose in his or her occupation by building a personal identity and maintaining socially valued roles. Objective: This is a recent concept and still little studied, so the purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of wellbeing in young people between 14 and 18 years old in the metropolitan area of Porto. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 847 young people from secondary schools in Porto, Vila Nova de Gaia, Matosinhos, and Gondomar. Two wellbeing assessment scales, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and the Pemberton Happiness Index, and a self-filled sociodemographic questionnaire were used. Results: Statistically significant differences were found regarding sex (pWEMWS <0.001; pPHI <0.001), knowing someone with mental health problems (pWEMWS <0.001; pPHI <0.001), education level (pWEMWS <0.031), and city of residence (pWEMWS <0.045; pPHI <0.011). Conclusion: Young males not knowing individuals with mental health problems and having a lower level of education were significant predictors of wellbeing.
... Hedonic, prudential, eudaimonic (i.e., meaning and virtue), and chaironic (i.e., feeling blessed and fortunate) happiness are all identified by this new paradigm. Recently, several researchers (e.g., Deci & Ryan, 2008;Disabato et al., 2016;Huta & Ryan, 2010) included hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing, also underscoring wellbeing's importance (Lambert et al., 2015). The former is a pleasure orientation (i.e., a positive emotional state, enjoyment, or satisfaction) referring to feeling well over the relatively short term, while the latter is a meaning orientation (i.e., self-acceptance, positive relationships, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth) referencing the pursuit of a sense of flourishing through improved talent and meaning-making over a longer term (Disabato et al., 2016;Filep & Deery, 2010). ...
... Recently, several researchers (e.g., Deci & Ryan, 2008;Disabato et al., 2016;Huta & Ryan, 2010) included hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing, also underscoring wellbeing's importance (Lambert et al., 2015). The former is a pleasure orientation (i.e., a positive emotional state, enjoyment, or satisfaction) referring to feeling well over the relatively short term, while the latter is a meaning orientation (i.e., self-acceptance, positive relationships, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth) referencing the pursuit of a sense of flourishing through improved talent and meaning-making over a longer term (Disabato et al., 2016;Filep & Deery, 2010). Taking tourism research as an example, McCabe and Johnson (2013) employed emotional and eudaemonic wellbeing, life domains (i.e., the British Household Panel Survey), satisfaction with life (i.e., the SWLS), and positive functioning (i.e., resilience and self-esteem) to measure social tourists' wellbeing. ...
... In sum, these findings echo Ryan and Deci (2001) in terms of the importance to happiness of eudaimonia derived from meaning, gratitude, social relationships, goal direction, and selfchallenge. This also recalls Disabato et al. (2016) in terms of the functioning of the two types of wellbeing in eliminating doubts. The results are also supported by Diener (1984) and Fredrickson et al. (2013) in the substantial correlation found between the two constructs of wellbeing, further elaborating upon the causal relationship between hedonia and eudaimonia. ...
Article
In response to the overwhelming global turbulence seen in 2020, humankind has renewed their pursuit of resiliency and ways to maintain wellbeing. There is limited work on COVID's effects on wellbeing of pilgrims in important pilgrimages, such as the Hajj. The current study offers a timely collection of data obtained from pious worshippers attending the 2020 Matsu pilgrimage. The goal of this work was to understand how to ensure religious tourists' wellbeing during a pandemic through an analysis of the perceptions of pilgrims persevering in their faith, even during this extremely negative world event. The resilience developed and restoration perceived from attending the pilgrimage were found to have significant direct effects on attendees' wellbeing. Thus, this research provides useful references to ways of caring for people's wellbeing that were developed during the pilgrimage, as well as vital information about the psychological resiliency derived from spiritual tourism in hard times.
... O conceito de bem-estar pode ser entendido como constituído por duas dimensões, 1) o bem-estar hedónico ou subjetivo, salienta a importância da satisfação com a vida e os seus componentes afetivos -o afeto positivo e o afeto negativo -representando a maximização do prazer e de emoções positivas e a minimização da dor e de emoções negativas (Di Fabio & Palazzeschi, 2015;Selcuk et al., 2016). 2) o bem estar eudaimónico, que se refere ao funcionamento psicológico ideal que depende da autorrealização e do desenvolvimento humano, isto é, da capacidade de atingir o máximo potencial (Di Fabio & Palazzeschi, 2015;Kashdan et al., 2015;Selcuk et al., 2016). Outros autores expandiram a perspetiva do bemestar, incluindo aspetos sociais do bem-estar subjetivo (Hervás & Vázquez, 2013). ...
... The concept of well-being can be understood as consisting of two dimensions: 1) hedonic or subjective well-being, which highlights the importance of life satisfaction and its affective components -(positive affect and negative affect) representing the maximization of pleasure and positive emotions and the minimisation of pain and negative emotions (Di Fabio & Palazzeschi, 2015;Selcuk et al., 2016). 2) eudaimonic well-being, which refers to optimal psychological functioning that depends on self-actualisation and human development, i.e., the ability to achieve one's maximum potential (Di Fabio & Palazzeschi, 2015;Kashdan et al., 2015;Selcuk et al., 2016). Other authors have expanded the perspective of well-being to include social aspects of subjective well-being (Hervás & Vázquez, 2013). ...
... Isto pode significar que o item 10 da Secção A, talvez pela sua redação, evoca uma experiência vivida no presente, saturando dessa forma o fator II. Por sua vez, a Secção B é constituída por um conjunto de experiências positivas e negativas que podem ser confundidas e interligadas com a componente hedónica do bem-estar, saturando dessa forma o fator I (Gallagher et al., 2009;Hervás & Vázquez, 2013;Kashdan et al., 2015;Nelson et al., 2014). Por outro lado, na versão curta do PHI (secção A), todos os itens saturam no fator I, como acontece com a validação original, podendo-se assumir um modelo unifatorial de ordem superior, ou seja bem-estar integrativo (Hervás & Vázquez, 2013). ...
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Introduction: Given the attention that well-being has received worldwide as being a crucial aspect of the overall health of individuals, its measurement has become increasingly important. Thus, the need for validation of brief and integrative instruments that assess the levels of well-being in the population has emerged. Objective: Contribute to the cultural adaptation and psychometric validation of the Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) for the Portuguese population. Material and Methods: The study was carried out using a convenience sample of 1,728 individuals whose responses were collected online and by paper. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct, content, and criterion validity were analysed. Results: The sample consisted mainly of women (n = 1,185), with a mean age of 20.04 ± 20.38 years. The internal consistency of the PHI was very good (α = 0.90), as well as test-retest realibility, with r = 0.79 and p ≤ 0.01 for the correlation between totals and with values ranging from [0.20, 0.46] in Section A and [-0.05, 0.69] in Section B. In the construct validity, only Item 10 of Section A presented values lower than the standard values, which puts into question the validity of this item. Criterion validity had a high correlation (r = 0.75; p ≤ 0.01) when compared to the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS). Conclusion: Considering the good psychometric properties obtained in this study, this instrument can contribute to advancing the complex task of measuring well-being, as well as monitoring and assessing changes at these levels.
... The following arguments have been offered on this topic: (1) In terms of duration, HWB reflects more temporary emotional experience, while EWB is a relatively stable and continuous state (Lee et al., 2018); (2) In the context of human biology and evolution, HWB could stimulate the basic physical and psychological adaptation of individuals, while EWB could inspire more complex social and cultural capabilities. They are involved in different gene regulation systems (Disabato et al., 2016;Fredrickson et al., 2013); (3) With respect to differences in information processing, HWB is related to happy, rewarding, emotional, self-related, and social cognitive processing, while EWB is connected to self-related, social emotional, and cognitive processing (Carpenter et al., 2000;Fransson and Marrelec, 2008;Kong et al., 2015bKong et al., , 2015cKringelbach, 2005;Lewis et al., 2014;Sato et al., 2015;Sergerie et al., 2008). HWB and EWB thus address different features of well-being and are often regarded as two different constructs (Disabato et al., 2016). ...
... They are involved in different gene regulation systems (Disabato et al., 2016;Fredrickson et al., 2013); (3) With respect to differences in information processing, HWB is related to happy, rewarding, emotional, self-related, and social cognitive processing, while EWB is connected to self-related, social emotional, and cognitive processing (Carpenter et al., 2000;Fransson and Marrelec, 2008;Kong et al., 2015bKong et al., , 2015cKringelbach, 2005;Lewis et al., 2014;Sato et al., 2015;Sergerie et al., 2008). HWB and EWB thus address different features of well-being and are often regarded as two different constructs (Disabato et al., 2016). Therefore, it is meaningful and essential to investigate the effect of FSSS on HWB and EWB simultaneously in the same study. ...
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Empirical evidence based on retrospective measures has shown that family subjective socioeconomic status (FSSS) was connected to well-being, but few studies have examined this relationship using a daily diary design. Here, we examined the link between FSSS and well-being as well as the mediating roles of social support and self-esteem in a total of 220 emerging adults using a 14-day daily diary design. The multilevel regression analysis found that FSSS positively predicted two types of well-being, including hedonic well-being (HWB) and eudaimonic well-being (EWB). Moreover, the multilevel 2-2-1 mediation analysis indicated that social support and self-esteem performed as independent mediators of the associations between FSSS and two types of well-being. The mediating effect of self-esteem also had no significant difference from that of social support. Furthermore, when age, gender, and family objective socioeconomic status were controlled, these findings remained significant. The implications and limitations of the findings are also discussed.
... All other studies that conducted validity calculations related to happiness were mainly focused on the validity of other phenomena of interest, such as well-being [53], emotional competences [37,49], mental health [59,141], personality [124], and other concepts. In contrast to the happiness-centered validation studies, here, concurrent validities Happiness (glad, happy, and cheerful), anger (angry, cross, and short-tempered), anxiety (afraid, anxious, and worried), and sadness (sad, down, and dreary) ...
... Such affective constructs included depressiveness, neuroticism, emotional expressions, self-esteem, mindfulness, etc. Some validation studies also correlated happiness to cognitive or evaluative aspects of well-being, such as life satisfaction or perceived health [22], and, very rarely, to eudaimonic measures [53]. However, the eudaimonic aspect of well-being is more complicated to measure, especially among younger people, because it requires more extensive cognitive processing [6]. ...
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Background: Happiness is a phenomenon that relates to better mental and physical health and even longevity. There has been an increase in surveys assessing subjective well-being as well as happiness, one of the well-being components that reflect one's feelings or moods. Happiness is mostly measured in adult samples. There is a lack of an overview of the tools used to evaluate adolescent happiness, so this paper aimed to review them. Methods: A literature search was performed in the PubMed and PsycArticles databases (2010-2019). In total, 133 papers met the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. Results: The results are grouped according to the type of measure, single or multiple items, that was used in a study. Almost half of the studies (64 of 133) evaluated subjective happiness using single-item measures. The most commonly used scales were the 4-item Subjective Happiness Scale and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. Among the 133 articles analyzed, 18 reported some validation procedures related to happiness. However, in the majority of cases (14 studies), happiness was not the central phenomenon of validation, which suggests a lack of happiness validation studies. Conclusions: Finally, recommendations for future research and for the choice of happiness assessment tools are presented.
... Hedonic well-being, also referred to as emotional well-being, is defined as a positive emotional state that an individual experiences at the moment [24,25] Eudaimonic well-being, also known as psychological well-being, describes well-being as a state of optimal human functioning (e.g., self-actualization, personal growth, and pursuit of meaning in life) that extends beyond the experience of pleasure, also entails the fulfillment of one's real potential [24,26]. Emotional well-being and psychological well-being are distinct constructs [27] that differ in their level of stability [28] and their association with other constructs [29]. Emotional well-being is relatively unstable and highly susceptible to stressful life events [30]. ...
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Previous research has confirmed the harmful effects of cyber-ostracism on adolescents. However, research that has investigated the effect of cyber-ostracism on adolescents’ psychological well-being and the underlying mechanisms of this influence remains scarce. Using a sample of 421 Chinese adolescents, this study examined the short-term effect of cyber-ostracism on adolescents’ psychological well-being, along with the mediating effect of rumination. Mindfulness is considered as a moderator influencing this underlying mechanism. Questionnaires regarding cyber-ostracism, rumination, and mindfulness were administered at the beginning of the spring semester. Psychological well-being was assessed three months later. The study found that cyber-ostracism significantly and negatively predicted adolescents’ psychological well-being. As shown by the mediation analysis, rumination partly mediated the effect of cyber-ostracism on adolescents’ psychological well-being. Moderated mediation analysis indicated that mindfulness played a moderating role in the relationship between cyber-ostracism and adolescents’ psychological well-being as well as the relationship between cyber-ostracism and rumination. Specifically, mindfulness would decrease the negative impact of cyber-ostracism on adolescents’ psychological well-being. This study uncovers the short-term effect of cyber-ostracism on adolescents’ psychological well-being and accentuates the underlying mechanisms of this effect, which has substantial implications for interventions and practices to reduce the detrimental effects of cyber-ostracism among adolescents.
... Some studies indicated that EWB and SWB facets differ in terms of temporal stability (Ryff et al., 2015) and their associations with other variables (Ryff, 1989), whereas other researchers have questioned the validity of distinguishing between SWB and EWB facets due to conceptual (Kashdan et al., 2008) or empirical reasons (Disabato et al., 2016;Goodman et al., 2018). Longitudinal studies contrasting the impact of unemployment on CWB, AWB and EWB facets are currently lacking. ...
Article
While long-lasting declines in life satisfaction following unemployment have been well documented, evidence on the impact of unemployment on affective and eudaimonic well-being is scarce. Moreover, most existing studies relied on yearly panel data and were unable to separate the immediate effects of entering unemployment from prospective effects occurring before individuals become unemployed. The present study identified the immediate effects of entering unemployment on cognitive, affective and eudaimonic well-being facets using a control-group design based on monthly panel data of initially employed German jobseekers who were at high risk of losing their job. In order to investigate patterns of short-term adaptation, the study further examined whether average well-being levels change within the first months of unemployment using a mixed-effects trait-state-occasion model. All effects were separately computed for jobseekers affected by mass-layoffs or plant closures and individuals who registered as jobseekers due to other reasons. Multi-item instruments and experience sampling were used to validly measure the various well-being facets. The results indicate that life satisfaction and income satisfaction significantly decreased for individuals affected by mass-layoffs or plant closures from the last month in employment to the first month in unemployment. For individuals who registered as jobseekers due to other reasons, these effects were smaller and not significant in the case of life satisfaction. Crucially, there were no immediate effects of entering unemployment on the examined affective and eudaimonic well-being facets. Moreover, well-being levels were generally stable within the first months of unemployment indicating a general absence of short-term adaptation.
... In this way, individuals feel grounded and highly involved, and thus they better appreciate the tiny things in life and the feelings in themselves of being good. This is in line with Disabato, Goodman, Kashdan, Short, and Jarden (2016) subjective well-being model, which revealed a strong relationship between hedonic well-being, happiness, and engagement. However, such immersion is also distinct from the intense involvement studied before as a luxury experience whereby the ego is lost by indulging in the moment, and it becomes disassociated from space and time (Williams, Bargh, Nocera, & Gray, 2009). ...
Article
The concept of “new luxury” has challenged the conventional marketing of luxury goods as prestigious, leading to greater expansion of mass luxury meaning. This has become more evident since the outbreak of COVID-19, which has been a catalyst for consumption in the luxury market. This paper investigates the mass marketing of luxury goods and explores the essence of masstige luxury consumption since the outbreak of COVID-19. An interpretive approach was conducted based on semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 31 participants. It analyzes four themes of mass luxury: self as content, self as process, self as context, and self–other. We further argue that the mass consumption of luxury reduces cognitive dissonance, with the pandemic resolving the dark side of conventional luxury consumption. Our findings provide important insights for both scholars and practitioners in the development of a more holistic understanding of masstige in the post-COVID era.
... Hedonic and eudemonic well-being are strongly correlated with each other (Disabato et al., 2016;Joshanloo, 2016;Linley et al., 2009;Longo et al., 2016) and may have a bidirectional causal relationship. Leading a meaningful life, for example, can be a source of positive emotions, but positive emotions can also make life feel more meaningful (King et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Research on well-being has exploded in recent years, with over 55,000 relevant publications annually, making it difficult for psychologists—including key communicators such as textbook authors—to stay current with this field. Moreover, well-being is a daily concern among policymakers and members of the general public. It is relevant to the lives of students—illustrating the diverse methods used in the behavioral sciences, presenting highly-replicated findings, and demonstrating the diversity of individuals and cultures. Therefore, five experts present eight major findings that teachers and authors should seriously consider in their coverage of this field. These topics range from processes such as adaptation, to influences such as income, to the benefits of well-being, to cultural and societal diversity in well-being and its causes. We also examined how much these topics were covered in fifteen of the most popular introductory psychology textbooks. Although some topics such as social relationships and well-being were discussed in nearly all textbooks, others were less frequently covered including the validity of self-reported well-being, the effects of spending on happiness, and the impact of culture and society on well-being. We aim to ensure more complete coverage of this important area in psychology courses.
... In addition to the implications for promoting EWB, the current study has implications for promoting HWB in NPA contexts. While EWB may be longer lasting than HWB, the importance of HWB for overall psychological wellbeing is still significant (Disabato et al., 2016). Thus, for individuals who are are more motivated by opportunities for enjoyment than by health-related values, emphasising the pleasurable aspects of NPA (Williams and Bohlen, 2019) such as positive emotions or kinaesthetic and other sensory stimulation, has the potential to foster HWB. ...
Article
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The current study evaluated the degree to which nature-based physical activity (NPA) influenced two distinct types of psychological wellbeing: hedonic wellbeing and eudaimonic wellbeing. The type of motivation an individual experiences for physical activity, and the extent to which individuals have a sense of relatedness with nature, have been shown to influence the specific type of psychological wellbeing that is experienced as a result of NPA. However, the role of these two variables in the relationship between NPA and psychological wellbeing has not been examined. Thus, this study assessed the potential mediating influence of (1) motivational quality and (2) nature relatedness on the relationships between NPA and hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing, respectively. Participants ( N = 262) completed an online survey assessing hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing, NPA, intrinsic motivation, autonomous extrinsic motivation, and nature relatedness. Data were analy s ed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling. Results showed that motivational quality and nature relatedness both fully mediated the relationships between NPA and hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing. Specifically, intrinsic motivation positively mediated the relationship between NPA and hedonic wellbeing. Autonomous extrinsic motivation and nature relatedness positively mediated the relationship between NPA and eudaimonic wellbeing. These findings suggest that the associations between NPA and eudaimonic wellbeing and hedonic wellbeing, respectively, are driven by different mechanisms relating to an individual’s (1) underlying motivation and (2) sense of connection to nature. These findings suggest that promoting distinct types of wellbeing (hedonic vs. eudaimonic) through NPA requires distinct approaches. Emphasising enjoyment, pleasure, and positive kinaesthetic experiences within NPA may be more conducive to hedonic wellbeing, while highlighting opportunities for connecting with nature or experiencing valued outcomes of NPA may be more conducive to eudaimonic wellbeing.
... Hedonia has most often been represented by subjective well-being (SWB) -positive affect, life satisfaction, and low negative affect (Diener et al., 1999); eudaimonia has most often been represented by psychological well-being (PWB) -autonomy, purpose in life, personal growth, positive relationships with others, environmental mastery, and self-acceptance (Ryff, 1989). In confirmatory factor analyses and exploratory structural equation modeling with one latent variable representing or approximating SWB and a second latent variable representing PWB, researchers have found that the two latent factors had very strong correlations (Disabato, Goodman, Kashdan, Short, & Jarden, 2015;Joshanloo et al., 2016;Keyes et al., 2002). ...
Article
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The degree of distinctness between eudaimonia and hedonia has often been studied by comparing subjective well-being and psychological well-being. It is argued here that the distinctness is best studied when both concepts are measured in parallel terms, e.g., both as momentary feelings, both as trait-level motives, etc. We classified measures of eudaimonia and hedonia into three categories identified by Huta and Waterman (2014)-orientations/ motives, behaviors, experiences/feelings-crossed with two hierarchical levels (Vallerand, 1997)-global/trait, situational/state. Within cells of this classification, degree of distinct-ness between theoretically eudaimonic and theoretically hedonic variables was examined using exploratory factor analytic methods and inter-correlations. Thirty-one measures of eudaimonia and hedonia were studied, across seven global studies and three situational studies, with each situational study addressing a different time span (the moment, one day, one week). It was found that eudaimonia and hedonia were clearly distinct as global or situational orientations/motives, global behaviors, and situational experiences for the momentary time span. Eudaimonia and hedonia showed little or subtle distinctness when measured as global experiences, or situational experiences for a one-week time span. When forcing one-factor solutions of global or situational experiences, positive affect accounted for the most variance in overall well-being; life satisfaction accounted for less variance, but was still a good proxy for overall well-being experience.
... In fact, some research (Fredrickson et al., 2013) even suggests that the eudaimonic-hedonic distinction might be genetically-determined and beyond conscious experience (for more on these controversial findings, see Brown et al., 2014;Fredrickson, 2016). Along the same lines, a large-scale study by Disabato et al. (2016), involving over 7,500 participants from over 100 countries, also could not establish discriminant validity between self-reported eudaimonic and hedonic well-being (r = .96), leading them to argue in favor of a single overarching construct only. ...
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Directed motivational currents, unique and intense goal-directed motiva-tional surges lasting over a period of time, have received increasing attention recently. This article reports the first systematic review of this phenomenon. A total of 21 reports appearing between 2013 and 2020 were included in the analysis. The results show that the majority of empirical reports were small-scale qualitative studies (median = 18 participants). The evidence on the three characteristics proposed as necessary and/or distinguishing conditions of directed motivational currents (vision, salient facilitative structure, and positive affect) is inconclusive due to the presence of directed motivational currents cases not exhibiting these features, and the absence of direct comparative analyses with non-directed motivational currents cases. A few intervention studies (N = 4) were conducted, but their results are also inconclusive due to a number of methodological limitations. Contrary to the claim that directed motivational current experiences are the "optimal form" of motivation, the results additionally showed that these experiences could lead to intense stress, anxiety, depression, sleeplessness, and panic attacks, thereby raising ethical concerns about deliberately inducing directed motivational currents in learners. We conclude that, although the concept of directed motivational currents is Safoura Jahedizadeh, Ali H. Al-Hoorie 518 promising, more research is needed to reach a better understanding of its potential. We end this article by suggesting directions for future research into directed motivational currents, including renaming them as sustained flow.
... While scholars have further projected the potential long-term impacts from the pandemic on people's well-being, including eudaimonic well-being (Gray et al. 2020;Paleari et al. 2021), it is not surprising to see more public attention to and interest in boosting individuals' psychological well-being (Zvolensky et al. 2020). Yet the public may not necessarily know how to enhance their happiness, especially eudaimonia (Disabato et al. 2016). Hence it is of particular importance for scholars to educate people about the consumption types that are more beneficial for their well-being, such as tourism experiences that can unconsciously contribute to eudaimonia. ...
Article
To inform consumption choices bring people greater happiness, it is necessary to identify the types of consumption with greater happiness-generating potential. Using an experimental design, this research demonstrates that tourism experiences tend to cultivate happiness better than possessions, by empirically testing a potential underlying mechanism of such superiority—tourism’s potential to cultivate eudaimonia (i.e., the more enduring form of happiness that accounts for the bigger picture beyond the self) without explicit eudaimonic motives. The mechanism can aid the identification of forms of consumption that maximize happiness. This research makes multi-faceted contributions to the tourism and consumption literature on eudaimonia and happiness promotion, including how its revealed potential in implicitly cultivating eudaimonia renders tourism a better consumption choice than material possessions for happiness maximization. Practically, the study suggests how tourism experiences can be designed and marketed to capitalize on the eudaimonic potential.
... This is similar to the findings of Lamborn et al. [(62), p. 15], who also argued that researchers should, therefore, "exercise caution when using and interpreting mean specific subscores" of these bifactor models. The relative strength of the g-factor in this model is not surprising, as studies comparing hedonic and eudaimonic conceptualisations of mental health have shown consistent support for a more general conceptualization of wellbeing and mental health (90). Our results, therefore, support ever-growing evidence in the literature for a tripartite model of mental health (62). ...
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Critics of positive psychology have questioned the validity of positive psychological assessment measures (PPAMs), which negatively affects the credibility and public perception of the discipline. Psychometric evaluations of PPAMs have shown that various instruments produce inconsistent factor structures between groups/contexts/times frames, that their predictive validity is questionable, and that popular PPAMs are culturally biased. Further, it would seem positive psychological researchers prioritize date-model-fit over measurement quality. To address these analytical challenges, more innovative and robust approaches toward the validation and evaluation of PPAMs are required to enhance the discipline's credibility and to advance positive psychological science. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) has recently emerged as a promising alternative to overcome some of these challenges by incorporating the best elements from exploratory-and confirmatory factor analyses. ESEM is still a relatively novel approach, and estimating these models in statistical software packages can be complex and tedious. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide novice researchers with a practical tutorial on how to estimate ESEM with a convenient online tool for Mplus. Specifically, we aim to demonstrate the use of ESEM through an illustrative example by using a popular positive psychological instrument: the Mental Health Continuum-SF. By using the MHC-SF as an example, we aim to provide (a) a brief overview of ESEM (and different ESEM models/approaches), (b) guidelines for novice researchers on how to estimate, compare, report, and interpret ESEM, and (c) a step-by-step tutorial on how to run ESEM analyses in Mplus with the De Beer and Van Zy ESEM syntax generator. The results of this study highlight the value of ESEM, over and above that of traditional confirmatory factor analytical approaches. The results also have practical implications for measuring mental health with the MHC-SF, illustrating that a bifactor ESEM Model fits the data significantly better than any other theoretical model.
... In comparison, eudaemonic explanations of well-being naturally encompass meaning and self-actualization, explaining well-being as the extent to which an individual is completely functional (Ryan and Deci, 2001). Both concepts emphasize a nous of positivity; nevertheless, the hedonic viewpoint focuses on the feelings, satisfaction, and pleasure of the individual at a given moment, while the eudemonic viewpoint is more shaped by ideas of a life well lived that is incorporated in societal settings and societies (Disabato et al., 2016). Student well-being must be accepted in learning situations as containing learners' emotional, social, physical, and mental routes of being that it fluctuates everyday as it is influenced by on whether their emotional, social, physical, and mental desires have been gratified (van der Kaap-Deeder et al., 2017). ...
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Well-being has become extensively viewed as apprehension for administrations in the last decades and schools have been progressively realized as locations for encouraging well-being which is a considerable development in inquiries on mediations connected to learner well-being. In this way, the function of teachers has got specific consideration regarding students’ well-being, given the merits of teacher-student interactions. High-quality educator-learner relationships offer a support base for long-term learners’ education. Educator interpersonal behavior that makes learners feel supported and cared for is known as emotional support. These behaviors can help learners’ emotional and social needs; meet learners’ families, and being available when learners need additional help. This review attempts to consider the eminence of teacher interpersonal behavior and learner-teacher relations in the classroom and indeed illustrate their relationship and influence on students’ well-being. As a final point, this review can provide suggestions and recommendations for teaching participants in the scholastic context.
... Many studies support the claim that eudiamoniabased well-being relates to optimal functioning, resilience, and mental health (see Ryff & Singer, 2013, for a review). Indeed, scores on these well-being dimensions correlate with less depression (Bhullar et al., 2014;Wood & Joseph, 2010) and more optimism (Augusto-Landa et al., 2011), gratitude, hope, and grit (Disabato et al., 2016). ...
Article
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As part of the shift to a more positive psychology, researchers have demonstrated a relatively new and intense fascination with humility. Following a discussion of this construct and its correlates, we investigate how humility relates to personality dimensions, anxiety and depression, love of life and happiness, and self-efficacy in two samples—college students and adult Mturk workers. In both studies, we used the Dual Dimension Humility Scale, a measure that does not conflate the construct with honesty. Among students ( N = 399), aspects humility correlated with dimensions of personality (more conscientiousness and openness, and less agreeableness and neuroticism), less depression, more love of life and happiness, and stronger social self-efficacy. Although fewer associations were found, overall, among adults ( N = 509), aspects of humility correlated with dimensions of personality, less anxiety, and some dimensions of psychological well-being. The most unique contributions of this study include linking humility with college students’ love of life and self-efficacy, and with adults’ well-being. We conclude with a discussion of ideas for future research and potential applications to boost humility.
... Deși conceptul de stare de bine (wellbeing) este studiat intens de multă vreme -o primă tentativă de definire apare in Etica lui Aristotel, care introduce termenul "eudaimonia", definit ca o stare de excelența a împlinirii umane -literatura mai recentă abundă de studii pe marginea unor concepte înrudite, cum sunt: fericirea (happiness), înflorirea personală (flourishing), sau bunăstarea (thriving) (vezi Keyes, 2010;Disabato et al., 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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The COVID-19 pandemic brought major disruptions at the social, economic, and psychological levels around the world. Since many schools moved from classroom-based to online education for extended periods of time, questions arose about the long-term impact of this crisis on the overall quality of the education, from the perspectives of the wellbeing of the students and teachers, and of the educational outcomes. In this study, we assume that the time spent online can be used as a measure of the changes occurred in the structure of daily life activities during the pandemic and investigate the influence of this variable on the wellbeing of the students. Also, considering the fact that the creativity is an important educational outcome, we explore the connection between the wellbeing and the creativity of the sudents. Our experiment was conducted in April, 2021, during the lockdown in Romania, when all the educational activities were carried out online, and involved a number of 98 students aged 14 to 21 years. Contrary to the common perception, our study found that the increased time spent online did not have a negative impact on the wellbeing of the subjects. This is, probably, due to the fact that all the participants in the experiment used to spend a considerable amount of time online before the lockdown. We also found that the creativity of the students is not directly influenced by the time spent online, but there are some interesting corelates between the students' wellbeing and certain factors of creativity.
... PA, SVB och LS speglar alla subjektiv, hedonistisk lycka och de används omväxlande med begreppet lycka i forskningslitteraturen. Samtidigt har man även kunnat visa att de olika mätinstrumenten för lycka 11 i hög grad korrelerar med varandra och därmed saknar klar diskriminativ validitet(Disabato, Goodman, Kashdan, Short & Jarden, 2016;Medvedev & Landhuis, 2018). ...
Thesis
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Ett av de mest robusta fynden inom personlighets- och välbefinnandeforskning är det starka sambandet mellan personlighetsdraget extraversion och positiva emotioner, lycka samt subjektivt och psykologiskt välbefinnande. Vad som kunde förklara varför extraverta är lyckligare har i årtionden ingående undersökts, om än osystematiskt och från skilda utgångspunkter. Detta har även noterats på fältet, och för att underlätta fortsatt forskning belyser denna litteraturöversikt hur frågeställningen undersökts till dags dato. Utifrån McCraes och Costas (1991) ursprungliga uppdelning i instrumentella och temperamentella modeller samt Hampsons (2012) indelning av medierande och modererande personlighetsprocesser identifieras, systematiseras och presenteras de huvudsakliga förklaringarna som förekommer i litteraturen för sambandet mellan extraversion och lycka. Resultatet består av ett konceptuellt diagram (se Figur 1 s. 20–21) med två övergripande förklaringsmodeller, sex distinkta mekanismer, tio personlighetsprocesser och tretton hypoteser som redovisas med tillhörande forskningslitteratur. Förutom en historisk överblick över tillvägagångssätt i forskningen presenteras även aktuell metodik för personlighetsprocesser. Vidare behandlas även hur resultaten är symptomatiska för den rådande problematiken kring konceptualisering, operationalisering samt metodologi inom personlighets- och lyckoforskning, samt resultatens och socialpsykologins relevans för fortsatt forskning och befrämjande av lycka och välbefinnande. [One of the most robust findings in personality and well-being research is the strong relationship between the personality trait extraversion and positive emotions, happiness, and subjective and psychological well-being. The factors explaining why extraverts are happier has been investigated in depth for decades, albeit unsystematically and from different points of view. This has also been noted in the field, and to facilitate further research, this literature review highlights how the issue has been investigated to date. Based on the original division into instrumental and temperamental models by McCrae and Costa (1991), and the division of mediating and moderating personality processes by Hampson (2012), the main explanations that appear in the literature for the relationship between extraversion and happiness are identified, systematized, and presented. The result consists of a conceptual diagram (see Figure 1, pp. 20–21) with two overall explanatory models, six distinct mechanisms, ten personality processes, and thirteen hypotheses, which are reported with associated research literature. In addition to a historical overview of research approaches, current methodology for personality processes is also presented. Furthermore, the issue of how the results are symptomatic of the prevailing problems around conceptualization, operationalization, and methodology in personality and happiness research is also discussed, as well as the relevance of the results and social psychology for continued research and the promotion of happiness and well-being.]
... Some studies indicated that EWB and SWB facets differ in terms of temporal stability (Ryff et al., 2015) and their associations with other variables (Ryff, 1989), whereas other researchers have questioned the validity of distinguishing between SWB and EWB facets due to conceptual (Kashdan et al., 2008) or empirical reasons (Disabato et al., 2016;Goodman et al., 2018). Longitudinal studies contrasting the impact of unemployment on CWB, AWB and EWB facets are currently lacking. ...
Preprint
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While long-lasting declines in life satisfaction following unemployment have been well documented, evidence on the impact of unemployment on affective and eudaimonic well-being is scarce. Moreover, most existing studies relied on yearly panel data and were unable to separate the immediate effects of entering unemployment from prospective effects occurring before individuals become unemployed. The present study identified the immediate effects of entering unemployment on cognitive, affective and eudaimonic well-being facets using a control-group design based on monthly panel data of initially employed German jobseekers who were at high risk of losing their job. In order to investigate patterns of short-term adaptation, the study further examined whether average well-being levels change within the first months of unemployment using a mixed-effects trait-state-occasion model. All effects were separately computed for jobseekers affected by mass-layoffs or plant closures and individuals who registered as jobseekers due to other reasons. Multi-item instruments and experience sampling were used to validly measure the various well-being facets. The results indicate that life satisfaction and income satisfaction significantly decreased for individuals affected by mass-layoffs or plant closures from the last month in employment to the first month in unemployment. For individuals who registered as jobseekers due to other reasons, these effects were smaller and not significant in the case of life satisfaction. Crucially, there were no immediate effects of entering unemployment on the examined affective and eudaimonic well-being facets. Moreover, well-being levels were generally stable within the first months of unemployment indicating a general absence of short-term adaptation.
... Indeed, how to best conceptualize and measure well-being is a complex area of research with sometimes mixed findings regarding the applicability of different theories (e.g. Disabato et al., 2016). Future studies would benefit from using self-contained scales that include multiple components of QOL, and which are related to an organized theory of well-being (e.g. ...
Article
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Sexual satisfaction (SS) may be an important predictor of broader quality of life (QOL; e.g. life satisfaction, etc.). However, past studies have rarely examined moderating variables of this association. The current study examined gender differences in the association between QOL and satisfaction with both intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects of sex (e.g. one’s physical pleasure vs. quality of emotional connection with a partner). 188 adults completed measures of SS and QOL. SS was moderately correlated with a range of QOL outcomes. Satisfaction with intrapersonal aspects of sex was generally a stronger predictor of QOL for men whereas satisfaction with interpersonal factors was sometimes more predictive of QOL in women. Implications regarding the broader impact of sexual well-being are discussed.
... Mental wellbeing, however, is not universally defined, although it is generally accepted that wellbeing is best described as a multi-dimensional construct, that incorporates pleasure and happiness, as well as psychological and other forms of functioning, and ultimately concerns the factors that allow optimal human functioning (Dodge et al., 2012;van Agteren et al., 2021). Eudemonic (i.e., personal fulfillment and living one's values) and hedonic (i.e., the pursuit of happiness and other pleasurable feelings) theories have characterized mental wellbeing definitions historically, however such definitions have been criticized for focusing exclusively on positive feelings and positive functioning which can be restrictive and specific to the culture in which individuals live (Disabato et al., 2016;Huta, 2017). Further, alongside the lack of consensus for theoretical underpinnings of mental wellbeing, there are also consequential inconsistencies in the measurement of mental wellbeing which further complicate the field. ...
Article
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Elite athletes experience both universal and sport-related mental health risks. Young high-performance athletes on pathways to professional sport also face the additional challenges associated with the developmental period of adolescence and early adulthood, making prevention and mental health promotion critical in this population group. This community case study considers the wider youth mental wellbeing evidence base, alongside primary prevention in elite sport, and proposes a model of wellbeing for the specific implementation in youth high performance athletes in the Australian setting. The Mental Fitness Model is based on the PERMA theory of wellbeing, which comprises positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment, and is tailored specifically to the unique needs of young high-performance athletes in Australia. The Model sits within a host of evidence-based, appropriately resourced, wellbeing science activities, coordinated by an overall strategy that allows monitoring and continuous improvement. As such, we propose this application of wellbeing science is highly novel for the youth high performance setting. Future work is needed to test the feasibility of this model in an applied context. Further work is also needed to integrate specifically cultural considerations for wellbeing, and to integrate the lived experiences of young people through participatory research. This model is proposed to hold unique promise to meet the mental wellbeing needs of young high-performance athletes, whilst promoting positive mental health that can track into adulthood.
... To circumvent the data-collection challenges of estimating good outcomes after psychopathology, our research team relied on archived national population data collected originally for other purposes. We focused on psychological well-being because it is central to good outcome, can be readily measured (Keyes, 2005), and can be represented with a single, broad dimension (e.g., Disabato et al., 2016). ...
Article
If one struggles with depression, anxiety, or suicidal impulses, what is the best outcome that one can hope for? Can psychopathology be a bridge to a better place where people operate with autonomy and self-mastery, enjoy healthy relationships, experience frequent positive emotions, and view life as meaningful and purposeful? Studies of national samples have revealed that a substantial number of people with depression, panic disorder, and suicidal impulses go on to achieve high levels of psychological well-being. We consider the practical and theoretical implications of these findings and call for a transformational mental-health agenda that focuses on good outcomes.
... Original definitions of hedonic well-being (e.g., Aristippus, 435-356 BC; Epicurus, 341-270 BC) included the lack of pain and the indulgence of pleasure, but also abstinence from non-meaningful/sinful pleasure (Annas, 1987;O'Keefe, 2017). Popularly, hedonic well-being has been described as when pleasure outweighs pain (Disabato et al., 2016). In terms of human nature, hedonistic perspectives assume that humans are malleable, and that her nature is changed and affected by experiencing external stimuli and adapting to her surrounding environment (e.g., by social norms) (Tooby & Cosmides, 1992). ...
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In the past decades, the contributions of individuals have come into greater focus on all levels of employment in many types of organizations. For example, this is manifested through an increased use of individual performance-based pay setting, where individual evaluations of employees’ contributions lead to diversified pay raises among peers. The reasons for using such a pay system include that it is expected to motivate better performance and inspire those who perform well to remain with the organization. Criticism of this type of pay system, however, has come from a motivation theory perspective, for example, along with assertions that it is too resource intensive. The general aim of this dissertation was to contribute to the present research regarding how pay-related perceptions relating to these pay systems may encourage work and employees’ well-being. Study I aimed at investigating how various aspects of individual performance-based pay setting (instrumentality of the pay system, performance-based pay-raise amount, and procedural pay-setting justice) and various work design factors addressing employees’ psychological needs (feedback, job autonomy, and social support from colleagues) relate to employee task and contextual performance. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses supplemented by relative weight analysis showed that the work design factors – especially job autonomy – evidenced stronger positive relations with employee performance. Study II aimed at identifying groups of employees with similar pay-related characteristics and perceptions of pay setting (regarding pay-levels, perceived horizontal pay dispersion, transactional leadership and procedural pay-setting justice) in the Swedish private sector, and then examining the differences between these groups in regard to work-related (task performance and turnover intention) and health-related outcomes (self-rated health and work-related exhaustion). Latent profile analysis identified six distinct groups. A key finding was that groups characterized by perceptions of low horizontal pay dispersion who also experienced a high pay-setting quality (referring to high levels of transactional leadership and procedural pay-setting justice) – and by high procedural fairness in particular – had the most favorable levels of task performance, turnover intention, and work-related exhaustion. In combination with high pay and high procedural quality, however, high horizontal pay dispersion was associated with fairly decent outcomes, especially in regard to health. Study III aimed at compiling research, especially from a self-determination theory perspective, that concerned how work-related reward systems might encourage work and well-being in organizations by influencing employees’ psychological need satisfaction and motivation types (e.g., autonomous work motivation). It was argued that organizations should lower the saliency of monetary rewards. Instead, they need to design the work, within the limits of the context in which they operate, such that autonomous work motivation is encouraged, thus bringing about maximum well-being and high-performance outcomes. In general, the dissertation maintains that successful individual performance-based pay-setting systems require accurate administration. If not, they may run the risks of discouraging performance, decreasing retention, and lowering employees’ well-being.
... Alternatively, trying to self-grow constantly with values and complete mental actualization is called eudaimonia (Giuntoli et al., 2021). Both of the key terms emphasize an optimistic feeling; but the hedonic approach concentrates on people's affections, pleasure, and happiness at a certain time, whereas the eudemonic approach is (Disabato et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Well-being is a crucial necessity within the educational setting that is also taken into account as a central aspect of people’s inclination in the subject of positive psychology (PP) study which is vital for the learners’ affective equilibrium and proper development and improvement. Likewise, learners’ engagement has been demonstrated to have a fundamental function in education. A great amount of attention has been given to this concept and its possible indicators because of its role at the core of learners’ educational achievement. Alternatively, it is commonly maintained that self-efficacy has turned into a significant mental concept enhancing the educational cycle and educational presentation that influences learners’ decisions regarding their educational assignment and manners and their way of thinking and feeling when it comes to education. This review attempts to survey the role of learners’ self-efficacy as a mediator on their well-being and academic engagement. In conclusion, some suggestions and commendations have been proposed for language-teaching participants in scholastic situations.
... Different cultures may also report varying levels of well-being due to factors including individualism or collectivism, the conceptualization of the self (Suh and Oishi, 2002), and cultural factors influencing item response (Kitayama et al., 2010;Cummins, 2019). However, the literature also provides evidence in support of basic construct equivalence and cross-cultural comparison at both the individual and societal levels (Boarini et al., 2014;Disabato et al., 2016;Aschauer, 2019). ...
Article
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Research has suggested a fundamental connection between fairness and well-being at the individual, relational, and societal levels. Mattering is a multidimensional construct consisting of feeling valued by, and adding value to, self and others. Prior studies have attempted to connect mattering to both fairness and a variety of well-being outcomes. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that mattering acts as a mediator between fairness and well-being. This hypothesis was tested through Covariance-Based Structural Equation Modeling (CB-SEM) using multidimensional measures of fairness, mattering, and well-being. Results from a Latent Path Analysis conducted on a representative sample of 1,051 U.S. adults provide support to our hypothesis by revealing a strong direct predictive effect of mattering onto well-being and a strong indirect effect of fairness onto well-being through mattering. Results also show that mattering is likely to fully mediate the relationship between fairness and multiple domains of well-being, except in one case, namely, economic well-being. These findings illustrate the value of a focus on mattering to understand the relationship between fairness and well-being and to provide future directions for theory, research, and practice. Theoretical implications for the experience of citizenship and participation, along with cross-cultural considerations, are also discussed.
... The positive relationships dimension suggests the goodness and closeness of interpersonal relationships between people. Finally, environmental mastery signifies the extent to which a person can manage their daily lives effectively (Disabato et al., 2016;Ryff & Singer, 2008;Ryff, 1989). In this study, we seek to examine how and why are the Islamic practices and spiritual facilities important for Ryff's (1989) six dimensions of eudaimonic psychological well-being (RQ3). ...
Article
Prior studies suggest that knowledge about workers’ psychological well-being is overly focused on materialism or biologically-based understanding, not taking into account the role of spirituality in one’s well-being. Drawing on Ryff’s (1989) psychological well-being framework and using an interdisciplinary approach, this paper offers a model of ‘well-being in Islam’ through theorizing this concept from an Islamic lens and contextually studying the implications of Islamic practices and spiritual facilities for employees' psychological well-being in workplaces. Drawing on qualitative data collected from twenty-two employees, our model (findings) shows that worshipping Allah, contemplative practices, and patience are key elements of one’s well-being. This paper also points towards the important role of specific spiritual provisions (e.g., designated rooms for prayer, prayer time and ablution facilities) and contemplative practices (e.g., ritualistic-cyclic, creative process, generative, movement practices, stillness, activist, relational) for Ryff’s six dimensions of employees’ eudaimonic well-being. This study is unique as it integrates the notion of well-being in Islam into management and organization studies and offers a novel and contextual extension of Ryff’s theory by integrating a spiritual notion of well-being. In the end, theoretical and practical implications are offered.
... Eudemonic well-being describes when an individual feels they are living with purpose or meaning (Waterman et al., 2015). A critical feature that distinguishes eudemonic from hedonic well-being is that eudemonic well-being involves the pursuit of goals that carry personal meaning or value (Disabato et al., 2015), whereas hedonic well-being is characterized by the pursuit of goals that bring pleasure or behavioral pursuits that avoid pain (Murphy & Eaves, 2016;Williams, 2018). Subjective vitality is the only core affect that has been explicitly defined as a form of eudemonic well-being. ...
Article
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Subjective vitality is a form of eudemonic well-being and signifies the availability of energy that an individual can use to adaptively engage with their environment. Subjective vitality is a positive predictor of physical health outcomes and overall well-being. Prior work with older adults has shown that individuals who follow prescribed or structured physical activity programs experience increases in subjective vitality. There is limited research testing whether self-directed, leisure time physical activity is associated with similar improvements in subjective vitality. Three studies tested whether self-directed, leisure time physical activity leads to higher subjective vitality among a population of emerging adults. All three studies supported the hypothesis that subjective vitality is higher following a session of self-directed, leisure time physical activity than before. Study 2 further showed that the influence of self-directed, leisure time physical activity was tied to active participation and was not triggered through simple recall of a recent episode of self-directed, leisure time physical activity. Study 3 suggested the influence of self-directed, leisure time physical activity on subjective vitality dissipates quickly. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that self-directed, leisure time physical activity could serve as an effective means of providing individuals with immediate boosts in subjective vitality. Such boosts may facilitate adaptive behaviors that, in turn, support future health and well-being. Implications for theory and research are discussed.
... ‫وقد‬ ‫أشار‬ (Seligman, 2011) (Disabato et al., 2016;Kryza-Lacombe, et al., 2018) . (Ruyff, Singer,1996) . ...
Article
The study aimed to identify the impact of the Workplace Tele- pressure on psychological well-being, through the interaction of psychological Hardiness. Among the faculty members of Al-Azhar University–Asyut. This study was conducted on a sample size reached (384), and the number of valid lists on which the statistical analysis was conducted 280 lists with a response rate of (73%). The most important results of the study are proving the interactive role of the variable of psychological Hardiness and its dimensions (commitment and control) in the relationship between Workplace Tele-pressure and psychological well-being. In light of the results, a group of recommendations was developed
... The World Health Organization (WHO) states that "mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and can make a contribution to his or her community (World Health Organization, 2014)" rather than the absence of mental illness. In line with the new tradition of positive mental health, scholars have recently argued two different types of mental well-being: hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (e.g., Disabato et al., 2016;Huta & Ryan, 2010;Huta & Waterman, 2014). ...
... Dispositional gratitude can also be characterized as a trait that highlights between-person differences in how often or likely someone is to feel grateful in a specific instance. Prior research has found that higher dispositional gratitude and more frequent state-level gratitude are associated with a range of positive psychosocial outcomes, including increased prosocial behavior (Ma et al., 2017;Tsang & Martin, 2019), increased affiliation or connectedness with others (Algoe et al., 2016;Froh et al., 2010;Williams & Bartlett, 2015), and hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (Disabato et al., 2016;Kashdan et al., 2006;Wood et al., 2009). ...
Article
Background Dispositional gratitude has been implicated as a psychological characteristic that may modulate risk for mental health outcomes. Using a population-based sample of U.S. military veterans, this study evaluated the association between dispositional gratitude and the development of psychopathology and suicidal behaviors over a 7-year period. Methods A nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans was surveyed at four timepoints across seven years. Analyses were restricted to veterans without incident outcomes at baseline. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine the relation between baseline levels of dispositional gratitude and risk of developing (a) major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); (b) suicidal ideation; and (c) suicide attempts. Results A total 9.6% of veterans developed MDD, GAD, and/or PTSD, 9.5% developed suicidal ideation, and 2.8% reported having attempted suicide over the 7-year follow-up period. Among veterans with high levels of dispositional gratitude, incidence was lower for MDD/GAD/PTSD (8.0%), suicidal ideation (6.8%), and suicide attempts (1.5%). Conversely, veterans with low dispositional gratitude were at substantially higher risk of developing MDD/GAD/PTSD (27.7%), suicidal ideation (33.6%), and suicide attempts (20.3%). Conclusions High dispositional gratitude may help protect against the development of psychopathology and suicidal behaviors in U.S. military veterans, whereas low gratitude may increase risk of developing these outcomes. Collectively, these results support the potential utility of enhancing gratitude as part of primary prevention efforts for veterans, service members, and other populations at heightened risk for adverse mental health outcomes.
Article
To what extent does a suicide attempt impair a person’s future well-being? We estimated the prevalence of future well-being (FWB) among suicide attempt survivors using a nationally representative sample of 15,170 youths. Suicide attempt survivors were classified as having high FWB if they reported 1) a suicide attempt at Wave I; 2) no suicidal ideation or attempts over the past year at Wave III (seven years after); 3) a well-being profile at or above the top quartile of non-suicidal peers. 75 of 574 suicide attempt survivors (∼ 13%) met criteria for FWB at Wave III, compared to 26% of non-suicidal peers. Wave I well-being levels, not depressive symptoms, predicted the likelihood of FWB at Wave III (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.44; p < 0.05). In conclusion, a non-fatal suicide attempt reduced but did not preclude FWB in a large national sample. The observation that a segment of the population of suicide attempt survivors achieves FWB carries implications for the prognosis of suicidal behavior and the value of incorporating well-being into investigations of suicide-related phenomena.
Chapter
Das folgende Kapitel widmet sich der Operationalisierung des Begriffes Glück im Kulturvergleich. Dieses Kapitel hat das Ziel die generelle Operationalisierbarkeit, sowie Schwierigkeiten und auftretende Unterschiede bei einer kulturvergleichenden Perspektive strukturiert darzustellen. Dafür wird im ersten Teil auf die Entwicklung des Forschungskonstrukts Wohlbefinden an sich eingegangen und darauf folgend auf die Ergebnisse bisheriger Forschung zur Entstehung von Wohlbefinden. Im Anschluss wird aufgezeigt, warum eine kulturvergleichende Perspektive für das Verständnis des Konstruktes notwendig ist und was subjektive Lebenszufriedenheit ist. Dadurch soll ein grundlegendes Verständnis über die Wechselwirkungen Glück, Lebenszufriedenheit, subjektives Wohlbefinden und Kulturellen Dimensionen geschaffen werden.
Article
(analítico)El objetivo del estudio fue conocer los efectos de la parentalidad en la autodeterminación y en la calidad de vida de los adolescentes. Participaron 544 adolescentes escolarizados (55 % mujeres), entre los 13 y 18 años. Se analizó el efecto de la parentalidad en la autodeterminación de los adolescentes y en el bienestar subjetivo y psicológico con análisis de mediación. Se obtienen cuatro modelos significativos. Se utilizó el contraste de medidores de idoneidad. Se acepta la hipótesis de relación causal y explicativa de la parentalidad en la autodeterminación y el efecto en el bienestar subjetivo y el bienestar psicológico. Se concluye que la parentalidad incide significativamente en la autonomía y competencia en la adolescencia; sin embargo, la relación de autodeterminación genera un escaso aporte en el bienestar. Palabras clave: Parentalidad, adolescencia, autodeterminación, bienestar subjetivo, bienestar psicológico.
Article
We examined the structure of subjective well-being (SWB), comprising life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA), in everyday life. 4,286 French adults (Mage = 30 years; 72% female) rated momentary LS, PA, and NA on at least four occasions over 25 days (average). A random intercept cross-lagged panel model revealed strong loadings from LS, PA, and NA on latent SWB factors within and across occasions, but weak and inconsistent cross-lagged effects. Correlations among LS, PA, and NA were consistent across age, sex, day of the week, and time of day. Further, most individuals were characterized by a positive LS-PA correlation along with negative LS-NA and PA-NA correlations, providing evidence of generalizability across individuals.
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What are the most important predictors of subjective well-being? Using a nationally representative publicly available dataset from the Midlife in the United States project (N = 4,378), we applied linear regression, which often relies on assumptions of linearity and a priori interactions, and advanced machine learning approaches, which maximize prediction by thoroughly exploring nonlinear effects and higher-order interactions, to determine the ordering and characteristics of predictors of well-being. Advanced machine learning models generally did not predict well-being more accurately than did regression models, suggesting that many predictors of well-being may be linear and non-interactive. Consistent with this implication, the introduction of product and squared terms in regression models improved prediction, but only nominally. Our findings replicated previous research, with sociability, physical health, disengagement from goals, sex life quality, wealth, and religious activity emerging as the strongest predictors of well-being, and demographic factors emerging as relatively weak predictors. Furthermore, self-reported “aches” (the strongest “objective” predictor of well-being), stress reactivity, and disengagement negatively predicted well-being, reinforcing the role of stress in psychological maladjustment. Finally, unlike prior research, control over one’s life—and control over financial and work matters in particular—strongly predicted well-being.
Article
In this study, in which the correlational research model was used, it was aimed to examine the relationship between the leisure satisfaction and mental well-being levels of special athletes' families. The research group consists of the families of licensed special athletes participating in national and international championships. Accordingly, a total of 255 family members, 78.8% mother (n=201) and 21.2% father (n=54), participated in the study voluntarily. In the scope of the research, "Personal Information Form", "Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale" and "Leisure Satisfaction Scale" were used as data collection tools to obtain information about the demographic characteristics of families. Descriptive analyzes such as frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to obtain information about demographic characteristics, and Pearson Correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between measurement tools. Simple linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictive effect of families' leisure satisfaction levels on their mental well-being. According to the results, it has been determined that there is a positive moderate relationship between the leisure satisfaction and mental well-being levels of special athletes' families, and that leisure satisfaction is a significant predictor of the mental well-being of family members.
Chapter
Hedonia and eudaimonia are motivating forces through which individuals pursue well-being. The latter is a multidimensional concept, while hedonia and eudaimonia, both of which are realized through the reward system of the brain, are known to influence each other. Researchers have shown that specific extrinsic values (e.g., material wealth, power over other people, etc.) are associated with a sense of "good life" and may influence both hedonia and eudaimonia. The HEEMA (Hedonic, Eudaimonic, and Extrinsic Motives for Activities) scale was developed to evaluate all three ways of seeking well-being, hedonia, eudaimonia, and extrinsic values, in both a healthy and unhealthy fashion. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the HEEMA scale in a sample of 225 Greek individuals. Participants filled the HEEMA, SWLS, MLQ, Self-Esteem questionnaire, DASS-21, MHC-SF, and Big Five Inventory, anonymously. Reliability and validity indices of the scales were satisfactory (Cronbach's α were 0.734, 0.811, and 0.843 for the hedonic, eudaimonic, and extrinsic motives subscales, respectively). Indicatively, the study showed a positive correlation between aspects of well-being and positive emotions, satisfaction with life, sense of meaning and purpose, as well as with specific personality traits, while negative correlations were found between eudaimonic orientation and depression.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze how hospitality industry employees’ perceptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and participation in CSR activities influence their well-being and loyalty boosterism. Design/methodology/approach: Using the positive psychology approach of well-being (hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions) and the affect theory of social exchange, a survey of hospitality employees was conducted to test the theoretical model. Findings: Employees’ perceptions of CSR significantly influenced their participation in CSR activities. CSR participation positively influenced employees’ hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, which in turn influenced their loyalty boosterism. The mediation effects of well-being and the sequential mediation effects of CSR activity participation and well-being were also significant in the relationships mentioned above. Research limitations/implications: While panel data offer many advantages, they also have limitations. The authors, therefore, suggest future studies replicate their conceptual model and empirically test it through firms well known for their CSR. In addition, future studies may cover the whole hospitality industry to enhance generalizability. Practical implications: By exploring the connection between employees’ CSR perceptions and participation, this research can help hospitality practitioners develop more engaging CSR strategies and activities, which in turn can foster employees’ well-being and enhance their loyalty boosterism. Originality/value: This study is among the first to empirically demonstrate the effect of CSR in both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being and to explore the connection between employee perceptions of CSR and participation in CSR activities.
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V monografiji avtorice predstavljajo ugotovitve več raziskav, ki so jih izvedle v zadnjih desetih letih, in jih umestijo na področje pozitivne psihologije, ki se je kot znanstvena disciplina uveljavila po letu 2000. Kot teoretični okvir v prvem poglavju predstavijo raziskave laičnega pojmovanja sreče in teoretične modele subjektivnega blagostanja. Poudarek na znanstveni ustreznosti merskih instrumentov v pozitivni psihologiji je spodbudil interes za konstrukt subjektivnega blagostanja tudi na drugih področjih psihologije.
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Psychology is concerned with human behaviour, therefore all psychologies are contextually-embedded and culturally informed. A movement towards globalising psychology would invariably diminish the localised socio-cultural situatedness of psychology, and instead seek to advance a dominant Euro-American centred psychology even in regions where such applications do not fit. The emergence of strong voices, and theoretically grounded and empirically supported positions from the global South in general and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, in studies of well-being allows for the opportunity to explore and describe an Africa(n) centred positive psychology. Acknowledging the limitations of cross-cultural psychological approaches, which have encouraged the uncritical transportation of Euro-American centred concepts and values, in this chapter we utilise assumptions from critical, cultural and African psychology to present our initial thoughts about a culturally embedded, socially relevant and responsive, and context respecting Africa(n) centred positive psychology. This challenge warrants consideration of early contributions to the study of well-being, its current data-driven positivist tendency, as well as African worldviews grounded in interdependence, collectivism, relatedness, harmony with nature, and spirituality. For an Africa(n) centred positive psychology, it is also essential to consider questions of epistemology, ways of knowing about the world and the human condition, context respecting knowledge, and theory building. Drawing on current scholarly evidence in sub-Saharan Africa, which emphasises relationality and societal values and norms shaping experiences of well-being, we propose future directions and discuss implications for empirical research and theory building within positive psychology which seeks to centre Africa and African experiences.
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Fredrickson et al. [Fredrickson BL, et al. (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(33):13684-13689] claimed to have observed significant differences in gene expression related to hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions of well-being. Having closely examined both their claims and their data, we draw substantially different conclusions. After identifying some important conceptual and methodological flaws in their argument, we report the results of a series of reanalyses of their dataset. We first applied a variety of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis techniques to their self-reported well-being data. A number of plausible factor solutions emerged, but none of these corresponded to Fredrickson et al.'s claimed hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions. We next examined the regression analyses that purportedly yielded distinct differential profiles of gene expression associated with the two well-being dimensions. Using the best-fitting two-factor solution that we identified, we obtained effects almost twice as large as those found by Fredrickson et al. using their questionable hedonic and eudaimonic factors. Next, we conducted regression analyses for all possible two-factor solutions of the psychometric data; we found that 69.2% of these gave statistically significant results for both factors, whereas only 0.25% would be expected to do so if the regression process was really able to identify independent differential gene expression effects. Finally, we replaced Fredrickson et al.'s psychometric data with random numbers and continued to find very large numbers of apparently statistically significant effects. We conclude that Fredrickson et al.'s widely publicized claims about the effects of different dimensions of well-being on health-related gene expression are merely artifacts of dubious analyses and erroneous methodology.
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Interest in eudaimonia (e.g., growth, meaning, authenticity, excellence) and its distinction from hedonia (e.g., pleasure, enjoyment, comfort, absence of distress) is growing rapidly, as researchers recognize that both concepts are central to the study of well-being. Yet research on these concepts faces challenges as well: findings based on different operationalizations can be quite discrepant; definitions of eudaimonia and hedonia sometimes fall into different categories of analysis (e.g. when eudaimonia is described as a way of functioning, hedonia as an experience); and the terms eudaimonia and hedonia are sometimes defined vaguely or applied to concepts that may be mere correlates. To aid in addressing these challenges, we propose the following terminology and classification for discussing conceptual and operational definitions: (1) degree of centrality – differentiating concepts that are core (i.e., definitional), close-to-core (i.e., given some attention but not central), and major correlates; (2) category of analysis– identifying which of the following categories a definition represents: (a) orientations (orientations, values, motives, and goals), (b) behaviors (behavioral content, activity characteristics), (c) experiences (subjective experiences, emotions, cognitive appraisals), (d) functioning (indices of positive psychological functioning, mental health, flourishing); and (3) level of measurement – identifying whether a definition is used for trait and/or state comparisons. The work of scholars with a program of research on eudaimonia or the distinction between eudaimonia and hedonia is reviewed and discussed within the framework of the proposed classification; several points of convergence and divergence across definitions are highlighted; and important questions and directions for future research are identified.
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The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast western and eastern conceptualizations of happiness and optimal functioning. Towards this end, accounts of happiness and optimal functioning provided in western philosophy and scientific psychology are compared with those in some eastern schools of thought (namely, Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and Sufism). Six fundamental differences in western and eastern conceptualizations of the good life are identified and discussed in the context of broader psychological theory. It is hoped that this theoretical analysis will stimulate more culturally informed research among happiness researchers.
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The search for cut-off criteria of fit indices for model fit evaluation (e.g., Hu & Bentler, 19999. Hu , L. and Bentler , P. M. 1999. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling., 6: 1–55. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]View all references) assumes that these fit indices are sensitive to model misspecification, but not to different types of models. If fit indices were sensitive to different types of models that are misspecified to the same degree, it would be very difficult to establish cut-off criteria that would be generally useful. The issue about SEM fit indices being sensitive to different types of models has not received sufficient attention, although there is some research suggesting that this might be the case (e.g., Kenny & McCoach, 200312. Kenny , D. A. and McCoach , D. B. 2003. Effect of the number of variables on measures of fit in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling., 10: 333–351. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]View all references). This study examines if fit indices are sensitive to different types of models while controlling for the severity of model misspecification. The findings show that most fit indices, including some very popular ones (e.g., RMSEA), may be sensitive to different types of models that have the same degree of specification error. The findings suggest that, for most fit indices, it would be difficult to establish cut-off criteria that would be generally useful in SEM applications.
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Kashdan, Biswas-Diener, and King (2008) provide a wide-ranging critique of eudaimonic theory and research. In this paper, I question whether the timing of their analysis is appropriate given that work on eudaimonic constructs has begun only recently. In an effort to increase the clarity regarding points at issue, both conceptual and operational definitions of hedonia and eudaimonia as two conceptions of happiness are analyzed along with definitions of four conceptions of well-being (subjective, hedonic, psychological, and eudaimonic), and both hedonism and eudaimonism as ethical philosophies. Responses are provided to numerous points in the Kashdan et al. (2008) critique including their claims that work from a eudaimonic perspective (1) does not fully capture the philosophical roots of eudaimonia, (2) is overly abstract, (3) lacks clarity at the point of operationalization and measurement, (4) is overly complex thus preventing meaningful scientific inquiry, (5) provides evidence only for quantitative, not qualitative, differences, (6) is potentially elitist, and (7) misrepresents the moral standing of hedonia and eudaimonia. Evidence is presented in support of the view that hedonia and eudaimonia represent inter-related but reliably distinguishable and qualitatively distinct conceptions of happiness making independent contributions to an array of outcome variables. A set of recommendations is advanced as to how theory-building and empirical research can be strengthened in light of the multiple conceptualizations of happiness and well-being now current in the literature.
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In an earlier paper (Kashdan, Biswas-Diener, & King, 2008), we outlined a critique of the distinction being made between eudaimonic and hedonic forms of happiness. That paper seems to have had the desired effect in stimulating discourse on this important subject as evidenced by a number of responses from our colleagues. In this paper, we address these responses collectively. In particular, we outline common intellectual ground with the responding authors as well as points of difference.
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Kashdan, Biswas-Diener and King (20086. Sen , A . 1999 . Development as freedom , New York : Knopf . View all references) debated with Waterman (20087. Waterman , AS . 2008 . Reconsidering happiness: A eudaimonist's perspective . Journal of Positive Psychology , 3 : 234 – 252 . [Taylor & Francis Online]View all references) the value of eudaimonic perspectives in well-being research. In this invited response we discuss problems associated with reducing the conceptualization of well-being to subjective well-being (SWB). Although we like and use SWB ourselves as an indicator of well-being, the value of eudaimonic thinking, both in the generation of hypotheses concerning how goals and lifestyles link with wellness, and in broadening and differentiating the outcomes considered to be reflective of wellness. We agree that eudaimonic research in psychology is young and varied, but suggest that preemptively constraining the field to a “big one” (SWB) conceptualization of wellness would be less generative.
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Using a ''subjectivist'' approach to the assessment of happiness, a new 4-item measure of global subjective happiness was developed and validated in 14 studies with a total of 2 732 participants. Data was collected in the United States from students on two college campuses and one high school campus, from community adults in two California cities, and from older adults. Students and community adults in Moscow, Russia also participated in this research. Results indicated that the Subjective Happiness Scale has high internal consistency, which was found to be stable across samples. Test-retest and self-peer correlations suggested good to excellent reliability, and construct validation studies of convergent and discriminant validity confirmed the use of this scale to measure the construct of subjective happiness. The rationale for developing a new measure of happiness, as well as advantages of this scale, are discussed.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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Investigations of the structure of psychological well-being items are useful for advancing knowledge of what dimensions define psychological well-being in practice. Ryff has proposed a multidimensional model of psychological well-being and her questionnaire items are widely used but their latent structure and factorial validity remains contentious. Methods: We applied latent variable models for factor analysis of ordinal/categorical data to a 42-item version of Ryff's psychological well-being scales administered to women aged 52 in a UK birth cohort study (n=1,179). Construct (predictive) validity was examined against a measure of mental health recorded one year later. Results: Inter-factor correlations among four of the first-order psychological well-being constructs were sufficiently high (>0.80) to warrant a parsimonious representation as a second-order general well-being dimension. Method factors for questions reflecting positive and negative item content, orthogonal to the construct factors and assumed independent of each other, improved model fit by removing nuisance variance. Predictive validity correlations between psychological well-being and a multidimensional measure of psychological distress were dominated by the contribution of environmental mastery, in keeping with earlier findings from cross-sectional studies that have correlated well-being and severity of depression. Conclusion: Our preferred model included a single second-order factor, loaded by four of the six first-order factors, two method factors, and two more distinct first-order factors. Psychological well-being is negatively associated with dimensions of mental health. Further investigation of precision of measurement across the health continuum is required.
Article
Defining hope as a cognitive set that is composed of a reciprocally derived sense of successful (1) agency (goal-directed determination) and (2) pathways (planning of ways to meet goals), an individual-differences measure is developed. Studies with college students and patients demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and test–retest reliability, and the factor structure identifies the agency and pathways components of the Hope Scale. Convergent and discriminant validity are documented, along with evidence suggesting that Hope Scale scores augmented the prediction of goal-related activities and coping strategies beyond other self-report measures. Construct validational support is provided in regard to predicted goal-setting behaviors; moreover, the hypothesized goal appraisal processes that accompany the various levels of hope are corroborated.
Article
This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
Article
"Construct validation was introduced in order to specify types of research required in developing tests for which the conventional views on validation are inappropriate. Personality tests, and some tests of ability, are interpreted in terms of attributes for which there is no adequate criterion. This paper indicates what sorts of evidence can substantiate such an interpretation, and how such evidence is to be interpreted." 60 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Although the concept of HAPPINESS plays a central role in ethics, contemporary philosophers have generally given little attention to providing a robust account of what this concept entails. In a recent paper, Dan Haybron sets out to accomplish two main tasks: the first is to underscore the importance of conducting philosophical inquiry into the concept of HAPPINESS; the second is to defend a particular account of happiness—which he calls the 'emotional state conception of happiness'—while pointing out weaknesses in the primary competing accounts of happiness, including the hedonistic account. I argue against his claim that the emotional state conception of happiness is superior to the hedonistic conception of happiness. In the course of defending the hedonistic account of happiness against Haybron's attacks, I provide my own explanation for why the study of happiness is important to ethics.
Article
This article reviews research and interventions that have grown up around a model of psychological well-being generated more than two decades ago to address neglected aspects of positive functioning such as purposeful engagement in life, realization of personal talents and capacities, and enlightened self-knowledge. The conceptual origins of this formulation are revisited and scientific products emerging from 6 thematic areas are examined: (1) how well-being changes across adult development and later life; (2) what are the personality correlates of well-being; (3) how well-being is linked with experiences in family life; (4) how well-being relates to work and other community activities; (5) what are the connections between well-being and health, including biological risk factors, and (6) via clinical and intervention studies, how psychological well-being can be promoted for ever-greater segments of society. Together, these topics illustrate flourishing interest across diverse scientific disciplines in understanding adults as striving, meaning-making, proactive organisms who are actively negotiating the challenges of life. A take-home message is that increasing evidence supports the health protective features of psychological well-being in reducing risk for disease and promoting length of life. A recurrent and increasingly important theme is resilience - the capacity to maintain or regain well-being in the face of adversity. Implications for future research and practice are considered. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Article
In PNAS, Frederickson and colleagues (1) claim “hedonic and eudaimonic well-being engage distinct gene regulatory programs despite their similar effects on total well-being and depressive symptoms.” Complex analyses depend entirely on distinguishing hedonic vs. eudaimonic well-being with a self-report measure. Any interpretation needs to accommodate the high likelihood of confounding and reverse causality with genetic influences on both gene expression and well-being.
Article
Researchers often debate about whether there is a meaningful differentiation between psychological well-being and subjective well-being. One view argues that psychological and subjective well-being are distinct dimensions, whereas another view proposes that they are different perspectives on the same general construct and thus are more similar than different. The purpose of this investigation was to examine these two competing views by using a statistical approach, the bifactor model, that allows for an examination of the common variance shared by the two types of well-being and the unique variance specific to each. In one college sample and one nationally representative sample, the bifactor model revealed a strong general factor, which captures the common ground shared by the measures of psychological well-being and subjective well-being. The bifactor model also revealed four specific factors of psychological well-being and three specific factors of subjective well-being, after partialling out the general well-being factor. We further examined the relations of the specific factors of psychological and subjective well-being to external measures. The specific factors demonstrated incremental predictive power, independent of the general well-being factor. These results suggest that psychological well-being and subjective well-being are strongly related at the general construct level, but their individual components are distinct once their overlap with the general construct of well-being is partialled out. The findings thus indicate that both perspectives have merit, depending on the level of analysis.
Article
Empirical researchers maximize their contribution to theory development when they compare alternative theory‐inspired models under the same conditions. Yet model comparison tools in structural equation modeling—χ difference tests, information criterion measures, and screening heuristics—have significant limitations. This article explores the use of the Friedman method of ranks as an inferential procedure for evaluating competing models. This approach has attractive properties, including limited reliance on sample size, limited distributional assumptions, an explicit multiple comparison procedure, and applicability to the comparison of nonnested models. However, this use of the Friedman method raises important issues regarding the lack of independence of observations and the power of the test.
Article
The orientations to happiness scale (OTH) was designed to measure three routes to happiness: pleasure (hedonia), meaning (eudaimonia) and engagement (flow). Past research utilising the scale suggests that all orientations predict life satisfaction, with meaning and engagement the stronger predictors relative to pleasure. However, these findings are inconsistent with other research; one plausible explanation being that the OTH scale lacks validity. This was tested by having participants (N = 107) complete the OTH scale and the Satisfaction with Life scale, prior to completing an online diary reporting actual instances of hedonic and eudaimonic behaviour. Although meaning predicted eudaimonic behaviour, the pleasure orientation was unrelated to hedonic behaviour. Further, hedonic behaviour was more strongly related to life satisfaction than eudaimonic behaviour; inconsistent with OTH scale results. These findings challenge the validity of the OTH scale, and subsequently bring into question those conclusions drawn from past research utilising the OTH scale.
Article
Some problems in the measurement of latent variables in structural equations causal models are presented, with examples from recent empirical studies. Latent variables that are theoretically the source of correlation among the empirical indica tors are differentiated from unmeasured variables that are related to the empirical indicators for other reasons. It is pointed out that these should also be represented by different analytical models, and that much published research has treated this distinction as if it had no analytic consequences. The connection between this theoretical distinction and disattenuation effects in latent variable models is shown, and problems with these estimates are discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for decisions about whether and how to measure latent variables when manifest variables are potentially available.
Article
The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.
Article
There has been relatively little systematic investigation of the effect of the number of variables on measures of model fit in structural equation modeling. There is conflicting evidence as to whether measures of fit tend to improve or decline as more variables are added to the model. We consider 3 different types of specification error: minor factors, 2-factor models, and method errors. Using a formal method based on the noncentrality parameter (NCP), we find that root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA) tends to improve regardless of the type of specification error and that the comparative fit index (CFI) and Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), generally, though not always, tend to worsen as the number of variables in the model increases. The formal method that we develop can be used to investigate other measures of fit and other types of misspecification.