HIIT groups has been attributed to potential adaptations in
TT synthesis and/or the secretory capacity of the Leydig
cells in the HIIT sessions (20).
The results of this study showed that both VVHIIT and
VIHIIT regimens were able to improve V
peak, VT, anaer-
obic power, and hormonal adaptations, but there were some
differences between these 2 HIIT programs. As shown, the
major differences were that the improvement in aerobic
power in VVHIIT group was signiﬁcantly higher than
VIHIIT group, and improvement in anaerobic power in
VIHIIT group was signiﬁcantly higher than VVHIIT group.
Because of these results, both of these HIIT programs can
be useful according to the priority of these physiological
requirements. If the target of the training schedule is to
increase both aerobic and anaerobic power, and also
improvement in anaerobic power is more important, using
VIHIIT program will be more helpful than VVHIIT. If the
goal is to increase aerobic power more than anaerobic
power, using VVHIIT program would be more useful than
In conclusion, this study found signiﬁcant increases in
peak, VT, and anaerobic power as a result of 9 HIIT
sessions over 3 weeks in trained professional canoe polo
athletes. Moreover, our results indicate that the exercise per-
formed by the VVHIIT and VIHIIT groups led to an
anabolic-type hormonal adaptation, suggesting a positive
training response. This is the ﬁrst study to indicate a practical
model of HIIT for canoe polo athletes. Therefore, these
HIIT protocols could be considered as an alternative to con-
tinuous aerobic training and were able to improve aerobic
and anaerobic performances in professional male canoe polo
athletes under the conditions of this study.
This study has examined the hormonal and physiological
responses to 2 paddling-based HIIT programs in professional
male canoe polo athletes. The most important ﬁnding of our
study was that adding the HIIT protocol over 9 sessions
during the preseason conditioning phase was an effective way
of improving both aerobic and anaerobic performances in
professional male canoe polo athletes. Moreover, the changes
observed in the TCR suggest mainly exercise-related anabolic
adaptations. Considering that such training protocols have
a very low volume, canoe polo players and their coaches can
use this type of training programs when canoe polo players
have to reach several peaks over an annual cycle, particularly
when the aim is to increase performance in a limited period. It
is clear that different training protocols with longer and/or
more intense exercise, shorter rest periods, and/or different
ﬁtness status of the athlete may lead to different responses
(28). However, the response of these adaptations to different
types of training stimulus can be used by the coaches and
athletes for designing the training load and for better training
periodization throughout the training seasons and competi-
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