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Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau Ethanol Extract Inhibits Hepatoma in Mice through Upregulation of the Immune Response

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Clinacanthans nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau is a popular medicinal vegetable in Southern Asia, and its extracts have displayed significant anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism for this effect has yet to be established. This study investigated the antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of C. nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau 30% ethanol extract (CN30) in vivo. CN30 was prepared and its main components were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). CN30 had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor volume and weight. Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining and TUNEL assay revealed that hepatoma cells underwent significant apoptosis with CN30 treatment, while expression levels of proliferation markers PCNA and p-AKT were significantly decreased when treated with low or high doses of CN30 treatment. Western blot analysis of PAPR, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl2 also showed that CN30 induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, intracellular staining analysis showed that CN30 treatment increased the number of IFN-γ⁺ T cells and decreased the number of IL-4⁺ T cells. Serum IFN-γ and interleukin-2 levels also significantly improved. Our findings indicated that CN30 demonstrated antitumor properties by up-regulating the immune response, and warrants further evaluation as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of cancers.
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Molecules 2015, 20, 17405-17428; doi:10.3390/molecules200917405
molecules
ISSN 1420-3049
www.mdpi.com/journal/molecules
Article
Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau Ethanol Extract Inhibits
Hepatoma in Mice through Upregulation of the Immune Response
Danmin Huang 1,2,*, Wenjie Guo 3, Jing Gao 3, Jun Chen 1,3,* and Joshua Opeyemi Olatunji 3
1 School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
2 Bio Nice Food Science Sdn. Bhd. No.5, Jalan SILC ¼, Perindustrian SILC, Nusajaya,
Johor 79200, Malaysia
3 School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China;
E-Mails: guowj06@126.com (W.G.); jinggao@mail.ujs.edu.cn (J.G.); pere@fastermail.com (J.O.O.)
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mails: danminhuang@126.com (D.H.);
shchen@ujs.edu.cn (J.C.); Tel.: +60-7-2378208 (D.H. & J.C.); Fax: +60-7-2375649 (D.H. & J.C.).
Academic Editor: Arduino A. Mangoni
Received: 19 April 2015/ Accepted: 9 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
Abstract: Clinacanthans nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau is a popular medicinal vegetable in
Southern Asia, and its extracts have displayed significant anti-proliferative effects on cancer
cells in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism for this effect has yet to be established.
This study investigated the antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of C. nutans (Burm. f.)
Lindau 30% ethanol extract (CN30) in vivo. CN30 was prepared and its main components
were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass
spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). CN30 had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor volume and
weight. Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining and TUNEL assay revealed that hepatoma
cells underwent significant apoptosis with CN30 treatment, while expression levels of
proliferation markers PCNA and p-AKT were significantly decreased when treated with low
or high doses of CN30 treatment. Western blot analysis of PAPR, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl2
also showed that CN30 induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, intracellular
staining analysis showed that CN30 treatment increased the number of IFN-γ+ T cells and
decreased the number of IL-4+ T cells. Serum IFN-γ and interleukin-2 levels also
significantly improved. Our findings indicated that CN30 demonstrated antitumor properties
by up-regulating the immune response, and warrants further evaluation as a potential
therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of cancers.
OPEN ACCESS
Molecules 2015, 20 17406
Keywords: Clinacanthus nutans; tumor; apoptosis; immunoregulation
1. Introduction
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent and lethal liver malignancies, with over
half a million new cases annually. Hepatitis B and C virus infections account for the majority of reported
HCC cases, although other factors such as obesity, diabetes, and cirrhosis, are increasingly becoming
relevant in HCC, largely due to its limited treatments [1]. Currently, only 5% of patients with HCC are
suitable for transplantation or surgical resection due to the advanced stage at diagnosis in most patients [2].
Vincristine, fluorouracil, cytoxan, cisplatin, and doxorubicin are the first-line medicines for HCC
treatment. However, most of these drugs are non-specifically cytotoxic and produce significant side
effects [3]; because of this, there has been a search for more effective and relatively safer treatments for
HCC based on natural products.
Tumor and cancerous cells express low major histocompatibility complex (MHC) levels and high
levels of immune suppressive cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β), leading to compromised immune regulatory
cells. These immune suppressive cytokines have been implicated in tumor progression in many types of
cancers, and cause tumor cells to be invisible to the innate immune system [4,5]. In addition to the
conventional mechanisms by which anticancer agents are widely believed to act, increasing evidence
suggests that anticancer agents could also exert their effects by supplanting immunosuppressive
mechanisms induced in tumor cells by directly or indirectly stimulating immune effectors [5].
Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans), also known as Sabah snake grass in Malaysia, belongs to the family of
Acanthaceae and is a native herb in tropical Asia. It is an important traditional medicine in China, Malaysia,
and Thailand [6]. In Malaysia and Thailand particularly, it has been widely used in the treatment of skin
rashes, insect and snake bites, herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus lesions, mental tension,
diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis [7–9]. Previous reports have indicated that chloroform extracts from
C. nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau displayed significant ant proliferative effects on various cancer cells
in vitro [10]. However, the mechanism underlying this anticancer activity is yet to be understood or
elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the inhibitory effect of an ethanol extract of
C. nutans on hepatoma in vivo and further investigate its underlying multiple immune-based mechanism
of action.
2. Results and Discussion
2.1. Identification CN30 by HPLC
The chemical profile of a 30% ethanol extract of C. nutans (CN30) was shown in Figure 1 and
identified by HPLC and LC-MS based on the HPLC fingerprints, molecular ions [M H], and MS/MS
fragment ions analysis. CN30 contained sevencompounds that were identified based on the HPLC
fingerprints, molecular ions [M H], and MS/MS fragment ions analyses. The identified compounds
were shaftoside, orientin, vitexin, isoorientin, isovitexinand and 6,8-apigenin-C-α-L-pyranarabinoside
Molecules 2015, 20 17407
(refer to Figures 1–10). The identities of these molecules were additionally confirmed with the aid of
1H-NMR analysis, which was consistent with previously reported data [11].
Analytical HPLC was used to determine the purities of the seven major compounds obtained from
CN30 by HSCCC (shown in Figure 2). The HPLC analysis of each fraction, which revealed that the
components eluted in the order of peaks, was performed by MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR analysis, as
follows. These phytochemicals are the active constituents of CN30 showing antitumor effects [12–17].
To identify the active components contributing to the up-regulation of the immune response (UIR)
efficacy of C. nutans, a bioassay-guided fractionation and purification process was performed to
elucidate its bioactive fractions and compounds.
Figure 1. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) chromatograms of the
flavonoids in CN30 extract fractions purified through a C18 cartridge.
A total of seven compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of CN30.
The known compounds (four) were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data to
those reported in the literature (Table 1 and Figure 2).
Table 1. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) data,
protonated and deprotonated molecules (m/z) for peaks, including the retention times (Rt),
MS/MS experiments, and maximal absorption wavelength (λmax) of the constituents found
in C. nutans.
Rt (min) Tentative Compound [M H] (m/z) Fragment Ions, (m/z) Fragment Ions of [M H]
14.11 Isoorientin 579 288, 383, 563, 579, 692 235, 270 (99.14), 346 (100), 395,
14.37 Orientin 579 288, 382, 579, 692, 714 239, 258 (97.22), 348 (100), 349
(100), 440
16.33 Isovitexin 563
244, 289, 382, 447, 549,
563, 676
242 (96.17), 258 (100), 296, 321,
329, 338
17.60 Vitexin 533 533 235, 270 (99.14), 347 (100)
18.66
Apigenin6-C-β-D-
glucopyranosyl-8-C-α-
L-arabinopyranoside
563 249, 289, 335, 382, 397,
447, 512, 563, 676 234, 272 (98.95), 335 (100), 396
20.05 6,8-Apigenin-C-α-L-
pyranarabinoside 533 289, 382, 497, 533, 565, 646 235, 271, 335 (100), 396
RT: 0.00 - 45.00
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Time (min)
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
450000
500000
550000
600000
650000
700000
750000
800000
uAU
16.33
15.69
14.37
20.05
14.11
18.66
2.05 2.35
8.87
1.55 21.1613.88
12.36 21.96 24.60
2.71 26.10 27.11 29.37
3.72 6.54 31.59 39.59
34.52
NL:
8.18E5
Total Sca n
PDA
2014-10-
27-30%
Molecules 2015, 20 17408
Figure 2. Chemical structures of known flavones in CN30 extract: (1) Shaftoside (Apigenin
6-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside); (2) Apigenin 6,8-C-α-L-pyranarabinoside;
(3) Orientin; (4) Isoorientin; (5) Vitexin; (6) Isovitexin.
Figure 3. Mass spectrometry of CN30 extract by HPLC in the 14.11 min peak area.
Shaftoside (1) Apigenin 6,8-C-α-L-pyranarabinoside (2)
Orientin (3) Isoorientin (4)
Vitexin (5) Isovitexin (6)
(Apigenin 6-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside)
2014-10-27-30% #3470 RT: 14.11 AV: 1NL: 3.78E3
T: ITMS - c ESI Full ms [100.00-1000.00]
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
m/z
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
Intensity
692.76
579.17
383.00
563.30
676.87
288.98 714.98 778.83 948.52
428.88
248.91 473.18 604.42
370.27
144.75
Molecules 2015, 20 17409
Figure 4. Mass spectrometry of CN30 extract by HPLC in the 14.37 min peak.
Figure 5. Mass spectrometry of CN30 extract by HPLC in the 16.33 min peak.
Figure 6. Mass spectrometry of CN30 extract by HPLC in the 18.66 min peak.
2014-10-27-30% #3539 RT: 14.37 AV: 1NL: 6.13E3
T: ITMS - c ESI Full ms [100.00-1000.00]
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
m/z
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
Intensity
579.17
692.74
382.91
714.98
288.88 676.74
411.06 478.93 776.77 828.89
248.89 999.14
2014-10-27-3 0% #4045 RT: 16.33 AV: 1NL: 1.02E4
T: ITMS - c ESI Full ms [100.00-1000.00]
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
m/z
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
Intensity
563.12
382.99 676.55
447.03 699.05
549.24 828.71289.02 631.21 977.34
896.74
244.79
2014-10-27-30% #4651 RT: 18.66 AV: 1NL: 4. 28E3
T: ITMS - c ESI Full ms [100.00-1000.00]
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
m/z
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
Intensity
563.13
676.69
382.96
699.06
397.07
445.17 820.62660.60
289.12 930.22
761.07
512.44
249.09
Molecules 2015, 20 17410
Figure 7. Mass spectrometry of CN30 extract by HPLC in the 20.05 min peak.
The optimized and validated method was applied to determine the concentration of the compounds in
CN30 including Shaftoside (Apigenin6-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside), Apigenin
6,8-C-α-L-pyranarabinoside, orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin and vitexin. The structures of the new
compounds (three) were established by interpretation of their spectroscopic data, in particular by 2D
MS. Proposed structure of flavonol glycosides found in CN30 are shown in Figure 8 and Table 2.
Figure 8. Proposed structure of flavonols glycosides found in CN30.
Table 2. Proposed structure of flavonols glycosides found in CN30.
Proposed Structure R1 R
2 R
3 R
4 R
5 R
6
Shaftoside Glc H Rha H OH H
Isoorientin Glc H H H OH H
Orientin H H Glc H OH OH
Isovitexin Glc- H H H OH H
Vitexin H H Glc H OH H
Apigenin 6,8-di-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside Rha H Rha H OH H
2014-10-27-30% #5006 RT: 20.05 AV: 1NL: 6.20E3
T: ITMS - c ESI Full ms [100.00-1000.00]
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
m/z
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
Intensity
533.15
646.58
382.94 497.19 565.09
669.05
289.02 451.43 935.05
861.39
821.72
601.05
248.91
Molecules 2015, 20 17411
2.2. Identification of Compounds
Flavonoids were identified by LC-MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and direct TLC and PLC comparisons with
authentic samples. TLC, HPLC, LC-MS, and 1H- and 13C-NMR data of the isolated flavonoids are
as follows.
CompoundCN30 1: colorless needles (methanol), mp 235–237 °C, ESI-MS m/z: 168.0 [M H].
1H-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO) δ 12.25 (s, 3H), 9.21 (s, 6H), 8.85 (s, 3H), 6.91 (s, 6H), 3.37 (d,
J = 4.7 Hz, 16H), 2.55–2.46 (m, 5H). 13C-NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 170.4 (-COOH), 146.4 (C-3, 5),
139.6(C-4), 122.2 (C-1), 110.5 (C-2, 6). Compound 1 by NMR spectral data: it can be concluded that
the compound was gallic acid. After the gallic acid known reference co-thin detection, Rf values are the
same and the color is exactly the same, so this compound has been identified as gallic acid.
CompoundCN30 2: yellow powder, HPLC: (Rt = 14.11 min). LC-MS: 447 [M H], 895 [2M H],
471 [M + Na]+, 919 [2M + Na]+, 449 [M + H]+, 487 [M + K]+.Calc. for C21H20O11. 1H-NMR
(500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 13.55 (1H, brs, 5-OH), 7.44 (1H, dd, J = 2.5 Hz, 9.0 Hz, 6-H), 7.38 (1H, d,
J = 2.5 Hz, 2-H), 6.90 (1H, d, J = 9.0 Hz, 5-H), 6.64 (1H, S, 3-H), 4.58 (1H, d, J = 10.0 Hz, 1′′-H).
13C-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 163.44 (C-2), 102.38 (C-3), 181.45 (C-4), 160.59 (C-5), 108.88
(C-6), 163.44 (C-7), 93.73 (C-8), 156.27 (C-9), 102.79 (C-10), 121.56 (C-1), 112.92 (C-2), 145.95
(C-3), 150.44 (C-4), 116.00 (C-5), 118.82 (C-6), 73.18 (C-1′′), 70.50 (C-2′′), 78.95 (C-3′′),
70.19 (C-4′′), 81.35 (C-5′′), 61.34 (C-6′′). Compound 2 was finally identified as isoorientin by comparing
with these NMR spectral data and after isoorientin known reference co-thin detection, Rf values are the
same. The color is exactly the same.
CompoundCN30 3: yellow powder, HPLC: (Rt = 14.37 min), ES-MS: [M – H]447 m/z. calc. for
C21H20O11. 1H-NMR (500MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 3.22–3.88 (6H, m, glucosyl-H), 4.72 (1H,d, J = 9.0 Hz,
H-1′′), 6.25 (1H, s, H-6), 6.65 (1H, s, H-3), 6.90 (1H, d, J = 8.2 Hz, H-5), 7.44 (1H, d, J = 2.1 Hz,
2-H), 7.50(1H, dd, J = 2.1, 8.0Hz, H-6), 13.15 (1H, s, 5-OH). 13C-NMR (125 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ:
164.16 (C-2), 102.41 (C-3), 182.03 (C-4), 160.47 (C-5), 98.31 (C-6), 162.80 (C-7), 104.65 (C-8), 156.01
(C-9), 103.79 (C-10), 121.97 (C-1), 114.07 (C-2), 145.95 (C-3), 149.90 (C-4), 115.78 (C-5), 119.45
(C-6), 73.50 (C-1′′), 70.90 (C-2′′), 78.88 (C-3′′), 70.83 (C-4′′), 82.04 (C-5′′), 61.76 (C-6′′). Compound
3 was finally identified as orientin by comparing with these NMR spectral data and after orientin known
reference co-thins detection, Rf values are the same. The color is exactly the same.
CompoundCN30 4: yellow powder, HPLC: (Rt = 16.33min), TOF-MS: 455 [M + Na]+, 432 [M H], 471
[M + K]+, 887 [2M + Na]+, 903 [2M + K]+ calc for C21H20O10. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 13.46
(1H, brs, 5-OH), 7.85 (2H, d, J = 8.5 Hz, 3,5-H), 6.94 (2H, d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2,6-H), 6.71 (1H, s, 3-H),
6.42 (1H, s, 8-H), 4.56 (1H, d, J = 9.8 Hz, 1′′-H). 13C-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 163.32
(C-2), 102.60(C-3), 181.73 (C-4), 160.64 (C-5), 108.95 (C-6), 163.32 (C-7), 93.79 (C-8), 156.31
(C-9), 102.95 (C-10), 121.00 (C-1), 128.35 (C-2, 6), 116.01 (C-3, 5), 161.32 (C-4), 73.13 (C-1′′),
70.52 (C-2′′), 78.93 (C-3′′), 70.20 (C-4′′), 81.38 (C-5′′), 61.37 (C-6′′). Compound 4 was finally identified
as isovitexin by comparing with these NMR spectral data and after isovitexin known reference co-thin
detection, Rf values are the same and the color is exactly the same.
Molecules 2015, 20 17412
CompoundCN30 5: HPLC: (Rt = 17.60 min).ES-MS: 432 [M H]. calc. for C21H20O10. 1H-NMR
(500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ:4.94 (1H, d, J = 9.8 Hz, H-1′′) 6.44 (1H, s, H-6), 6.94 (1H, s, H-3), 7.05 (2H,
d, J = 8.7 Hz, H-3, 5), 8.26 (2H, d, J = 8.7 Hz, 2,6-H), 10.35 (1H, s, 4-OH), 10.83 (1H, s, 7-OH), 13.17
(1H, s, 5-OH). 13C-NMR (125 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 164.98 (C-2), 102.51 (C-3), 182.73 (C-4), 155.64 (C-5),
98.45 (C-6), 162.31 (C-7), 104.56 (C-8), 160.28 (C-9), 104.07 (C-10), 122.07 (C-1), 128.99 (C-2,6),
115.01 (C-3,5), 161.32 (C-4), 73.93 (C-1′′), 71.03 (C-2′′), 79.01 (C-3′′), 70.20 (C-4′′), 81.29 (C-5′′),
61.36 (C-6′′). Compound 5 was finally identified as vitexin by comparing with these NMR spectral data
and after vitexin known reference co-thin detection, Rf values are the same and the color is exactly the same.
CompoundCN30 6: HPLC: (Rt = 18.66 min), as a pale yellow powder, sprayed aluminum chloride reagent
and yellow spots, ammonia fuming bright yellow spots, molish reaction was positive, indicating that the
compound is a flavonoid glycoside. TOF MS ES + (m/z) 565, 587, 603 given spectral peaks, indicating
that the compound has a molecular weight of 563 to [M H] peak, [M + Na]+ peak of 587, 603 [M + K]+
peak. C26H28O14. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) spectrum: δ 13.90 (s, 1H) 5-OH flavone active
hydrogen signals; δ 8.091 (brs, 2H) of the flavone ring B 2,6 bit signal hydrogen, δ 6.919 (2H, d, J =
8.8 Hz) of the B-ring flavonoid 3,5-hydrogen signal, as AABB coupling system, δ 6.720 (s, 1H) which
presumably is the C-ring flavonoid 3 hydrogen signal-position. Shift value between 4.8 and 3.0 for the
sugar hydrogen signal, δ 4.788 and δ 4.727 for the end of two protons on the sugar.
13C-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) spectrum of the low-field, the emergence of four carbon signals,
respectively, between 163.607, 161.133, 159.678, 154.644. 80–60 ppm of carbon signal on sugar, occurs
within the range 11 signal. We initially speculated that the flavonoid contains a five-carbon sugar and a
six-carbon sugar. In addition, based on molecular weight, we found CompoundCN30 6 is relatively larger
than CompoundCN30 7, and difference between both two compounds was 30. With reference to Hu and
colleagues [18], we may imply that skeleton structure of the CompoundCN30 6 to be apigenin. Thus, we
may consider that a low-field signal oxygenated carbon nucleus overlapped. Similarly, signals of carbon
6 and 8 of apigenin nucleus does not appear at 100–90 ppm, but moved to displaced downfield, so
according to the general law of carbon flavonoid glycoside bond, we may hypothesize carbon 6 and 8
was connected with sugar by carbon-to-carbon bond and, this compound is 6,8-biglycoside apigenin.
According to obtained HMQC spectrum, δC 75.211 and δH 4.788 are interlinked, which carbon and
hydrogen signals are belonging to upper group in the arabinose. At the same time, δC 73.788 interacts
with δH 4.727, both are carbon and hydrogen signals in glucose upper group. Based on HMBC spectrum,
we can recognize that glucose is connected to carbon 6 and, arabinose to carbon 8.
According to 13C-NMR and 1H-NMR data reported in the literature that are basically the same [19],
the compound is determined to be apigenin-6-C-β-D-glucose-8-C-α-L arabinose, i.e., summer Buddha
Tower glycosides.
For CompoundCN30 6 during the drying process, acetic acid is not completely removed, the
performance of the 1H-NMR δ of about 1.9 molecules of hydrogen as acetic signal is a sharp singlet,
13C-NMR in, δ 21 molecules of methyl acetate peak, in the HMQC spectrum, both associated compound
13C-NMR and 1H-NMR with the literature on the CompoundCN30 6 as shown in Figure 9 and Table 3.
The glucose 3, 4, 5-position hydrogen chemical shifts between δ 3.2–3.4, overlapping with the water
peak, 1H-NMR is not marked, so there is no attribution for them.
Molecules 2015, 20 17413
O
3
OH
2
1
1'
2' 4'
5'
3'
6'
O
4
OH
HO
5
7
O
OH
HO
1'' 6
O
OH
OH
HO
8
1'''
HO
HO
Figure 9. Structure of apigenin 6-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside.
Table 3. 1H-NMR & 13C-NMR data of compounds 6 in CN30.
Carbon 13C-NMR 1H-NMR 13C-NMR [19]
1H-NMR [19]
(Reference Volume)
2 164.127 164.1
3 102.333 6.774 (1H, s) 102.2 6.78 (1H, s)
4 182.308 182.3
5 158.892 158.7
6 108.588 108.4
7 162.014 161.2
8 104.786 104.7
9 154.910 155.0
10 103.427 103.5
1 121.331 121.1
2 129.360 8.149 (2H, brs) 129.4 8.15 (2H, brs)
3 116.117 6.914, 6.892 (2H, d, J = 8.8 Hz) 116.0 6.91 (2H, d, J = 8.8 Hz)
4 161.239 161.2
5 116.117 6.914,6.892 (2H, d, J = 8.8 Hz) 116.0 6.91 (2H, d, J = 8.8 Hz)
6 129.360 8.149 (2H, brs) 129.4 8.15 (2H, brs)
6-Ara
1′′ 74.298 4.665 (1H, d, J = 9.2 Hz) 74.1 4.66 (1H, d, J = 9.5 Hz)
2′′ 68.776 3.997 (1H, brm) 68.6 4.00 (1H, brm)
3′′ 74.829 3.448 (1H, m) 74.6 3.44 (1H, m)
4'' 69.126 3.802 (1H, m) 69.0 3.79 (1H,m)
5'' 70.294 3.870, 3.606 (2 × 1H, 2 × m) 70.2 3.83, 3.60 (2 × 1H, 2 × m)
8-Ara
1′′′ 74.298 4.724 (1H ,d, J = 9.2 Hz) 74.1 4.72 (1H, d, J = 9.4 Hz)
2′′′ 69.126 4.211 (1H, brm) 69.0 4.22 (1H, brm)
3′′′ 75.031 3.487 (1H, m) 74.9 3.48 (1H, m)
4′′′ 70.294 3.802 (1H, m) 70.2 3.85 (1H, m)
5′′′ 71.059 3.901, 3.635 (2 × 1H, 2 × m) 71.0 3.90, 3.62 (2 × 1H, 2 × m)
5-OH 13.752 (1H, brs) 13.76 (1H, brs)
Molecules 2015, 20 17414
CompoundCN30 7: HPLC: (Rt = 20.05 min) as a pale yellow powder, sprayed aluminum chloride reagent
and yellow spots, ammonia fuming bright yellow spots, mulish reaction is positive, indicating that this
compound is a flavonoid glycoside. TOF-MS-ES+ (m/z) spectrum gives peaks 533 for the
[M H] peak, [M + Na]+ peak of 557, 573 for the [M + K]+ peak indicating the molecular weight of
the compound is 534.
1H-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) spectrum: δ 13.752 (s, 1H) 5-OH flavone active hydrogen signals;
δ 8.149 (2H, brs) of the flavone ring B 2,6 bit signal hydrogen, δ 6.93 (d, 2H, J = 8.8 Hz) 3,5 hydrogen
signal, as AABB coupling system, δ 6.83 (s, 1H); we speculated that flavonoids may be on the C-ring
3-hydrogen signal. Shift value between 3.0–4.8 for the sugar hydrogen signal, δ 4.724 and δ 4.665 for
the end of two protons on the sugar.
Based on the 13C-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) spectrum of the low-field, we identified five peaks of
164.127, 162.014, 161.239, 158.892, 154.910, which indicated the compound contains three oxygen-carbon
signals, and it can be implied that the molecule of the compound contains three hydroxyl groups. When
comparing with the literature [19] alignments, it can be hypothesized that three OH-groups are connected
to the 5, 7, 4 position which supports, again, that the nucleus of the flavonoid is apigenin. However, in
100–90 ppm, carbon 6 and 8 signals of apigenin does not appear on the nucleus, but is shifted to
downfield. Furthermore, based on the law of carbon flavonoid glycoside bonds, we also imply that
carbons 6 and 8 are connected with the sugar by carbon-to-carbon bonds and the identified compound is
6,8-biglycoside apigenin. The signal between 80–60 ppm was typical of sugar carbon signals; only seven
carbon signals can be detected, which may be resulted from overlapped carbon signals.
According to 13C-NMR and 1H-NMR data reported in the literature are essentially the same [20], it
is determined that the compound is 6,8-apigenin-C-α-L-pyranarabinoside.
For CompoundCN30 7, during the drying process, acetic acid is not completely removed; the
performance of the 1H-NMR δ of about 1.9 molecules of hydrogen as the acetic signal is a sharp singlet,
13C-NMR in, δ 21 molecules of methyl acetate peak, in the HMQC spectrum, both associated Compound
13C-NMR and 1H-NMR with the literature on CompoundCN30 7 as shown in Figure 10 and Table 4.
These molecules confirmed by using NMR were in accordance with previously reported results.
Interestingly, these seven phytochemicals present in CN30 have been reported as the active constituents
of showing antitumor effects [12–17]. Hence, the following studies aimed to evaluate the inhibitory
effect of CN30 on hepatoma in vivo and elucidate its possible mechanism.
O
3
OH
2
1
1'
2' 4'
5'
3'
6'
O
4
OH
HO
5
7
O
OH
OH
HO
1'' 6
O
OH
OH
HO
8
1'''
Figure 10. Structure of apigenin 6,8-di-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside.
Molecules 2015, 20 17415
Table 4. 1H-NMR & 13C-NMR data of compounds 7 in CN30.
Carbon 13C-NMR 1H-NMR 13C-NMR [19]
1H-NMR [1]
(Reference Volume)
2 164.127 164.1
3 102.333 6.774 (1H, s) 102.2 6.78 (1H, s)
4 182.308 182.3
5 158.892 158.7
6 108.588 108.4
7 162.014 161.2
8 104.786 104.7
9 154.910 155.0
10 103.427 103.5
1 121.331 121.1
2 129.360 8.149 (2H, brs) 129.4 8.15 (2H, brs)
3 116.117 6.914, 6.892 (2H, d, J = 8.8 Hz) 116.0 6.91 (2H, d, J = 8.8 Hz)
4 161.239 161.2
5 116.117 6.914, 6.892 (2H, d, J = 8.8 Hz) 116.0 6.91 (2H, d, J = 8.8 Hz)
6 129.360 8.149 (2H, brs) 129.4 8.15 (2H, brs)
6-Ara
1′′ 74.298 4.665 (1H, d, J = 9.2 Hz) 74.1 4.66 (1H, d, J = 9.5 Hz)
2′′ 68.776 3.997 (1H, brm) 68.6 4.00 (1H, brm)
3′′ 74.829 3.448 (1H, m) 74.6 3.44 (1H,m)
4′′ 69.126 3.802 (1H, m) 69.0 3.79 (1H, m)
5'' 70.294 3.870, 3.606 (2 × 1H, 2 × m) 70.2 3.83, 3.60(2 × 1H, 2 × m)
8-Ara
1′′′ 74.298 4.724 (1H, d, J = 9.2 Hz) 74.1 4.72 (1H, d, J = 9.4 Hz)
2′′′ 69.126 4.211 (1H, brm) 69.0 4.22 (1H, brm)
3′′′ 75.031 3.487 (1H, m) 74.9 3.48 (1H, m)
4′′′ 70.294 3.802 (1H, m) 70.2 3.85 (1H, m)
5′′′ 71.059 3.901, 3.635 (2 × 1H, 2 × m) 71.0 3.90, 3.62(2 × 1H, 2 × m)
5-OH 13.752 (1H, brs) 13.76 (1H, brs)
2.3. Effect of CN30 on HepAXenograf Growth in Vivo
As indicated in Figure 11, CN30 treatment led to a significant and dose-dependent reduction in tumor
size and weight with the inhibition ratios of 8.2% and 58.6% at doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg, respectively
(p < 0.05). Specifically, fluorouracil also reduced 37.1% of tumor weight, which was significantly lower
than that treated with 10 mg/kg of CN30 (p < 0.05).
Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining was used to verify the antitumor activity of CN30. From
Figure 12, a different cellular architecture and typical pathological characteristics of malignancy were
observed in the corresponding specimens from mice with HepAxenografts treated by CN30 or
fluorouracil. CN30 (10 mg/kg) and fluorouracil had the similar effect on the tumor cell damages, such
as condensation of cytoplasm and pyknosis of nuclei. Hence, it could be concluded that CN30 reduced
the tumor volume and growth rate of HepA cells in vivo.
Molecules 2015, 20 17416
Figure 11. CN30 inhibited HepAxenograft growth in vivo. HepA tumor cells (1 × 107; grown in donor
mice) were transplanted subcutaneously into the axilla of the ICR mice. Seventy-two hours after tumor
cell transplantation, mice were randomly allocated to control and treatment groups according to tumor
size, with 10 mice per group. Treatments were administered on days 0–10. Tumor volume was measured
every day (A). After the mice were sacrificed, solid tumors were separated. Dissected tumors coming
from control (vehicle-treated) mice, fluorouracil-treated (20 mg/kg) mice, and CN30-treated (3 or 10 mg/kg)
mice were weighed (B) and photographed (C). Results in (A) and (B) were shown as mean ± SD and a
significant difference between treatment and control groups was indicated by * p < 0.05, ** p< 0.01.
Figure 12. Hematoxylin-eosin (H & E) staining of tumor tissue Paraffin sections of tumor
tissues from mice were analyzed by H & E staining. Representative images are shown for
each group (Scale bar for Control Group represents 50 μm, while the other 3 Groups
represent 100 μm).
2.4. Effect of CN30 Treatment on Body Weight and Immune Organ Index
Thymus index is closely related to immune function. In tumor-bearing mice, these two indices were
often used for the evaluation of immune function. The body weight and thymus index of experimental
mice treated with CN30 (25.8 ± 1.8 g for CN30 3 mg/kg group and 25.7 ± 1.9 g for CN30 10 mg/kg
group) and fluorouracil (control) were as shown in Figure 13. The body weights of mice treated with
CN30 were found to be significantly higher than those treated with fluorouracil (22.9 ± 1.9 g). The
thymus was almost diminished in fluorouracil treated mice (thymus index: 0.00106 ± 0.00044) while
CN30 has no effect on thymus (thymus index: 0.00307 ± 0.00017) compared with normal mice (thymus
index: 0.0036 ± 0.00016).
Molecules 2015, 20 17417
Figure 13. Effects of CN30 treatment on body weight, body weight without tumor, and
thymus index of tumor-bearing mice. (A) Body weight changes in tumor-bearing mice in
each group. (B) Bodyweight without tumor in each group. (C) Thymus index of
tumor-bearing mice. Results were shown as mean ± SD (n = 10) and a significant difference
between treatment and control groups was indicated by * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
2.5. Effect of CN30 on Induced Tumor Cell Apoptosis
As shown in Figure 14, immunohistochemical staining and Western blot indicated that the expression
of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was significantly decreased after CN30 treatment (Figures 14
and 15). Treatment with CN30 caused cleavage ofcaspase-3, suggesting the initiation of the apoptosis
pathway. Likewise, the expression level of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX was increased, with a
corresponding decrease in the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 in treated tumor-bearing models suggestive of
induced apoptosis by a shift in the BAX: Bcl2 ratio favoring apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of
p-AKT, cleaved-caspase-3, and BAX was significantly increased in treated models.
Proteins from tumor tissues from mice in each group were extracted and analyzed by Western blot. PCNA,
p-AKT, Bcl2, BAX, and caspase-3 were examined in tumor tissues. Actin was used as the loading control.
Figure 14. Immunohistochemistry analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in
tumor tissues. Paraffin sections of tumor tissues from mice were analyzed by
immunehistochemical staining. Representative images show PCNA expression
(magnification, ×200) in tumors. (Scale bar for Control Group represents 50 μm, while the
other 3 Groups represent 100 μm).
Molecules 2015, 20 17418
Figure 15. (A) Western blots of apoptosis-related protein in tumor tissues. Protein of tumor
tissue from mice in each group were extracted and analyzed by western blot. PCNA, p-AKT, Bcl2,
BAX and caspase-3 in tumor tissues were examined. Actin was used as the loading control.
(B) PCNA, p-AKT, Bcl2, BAX and caspase-3 in tumor tissues were shown as mean ± SD
(n = 10) and a significant difference between treatment and control groups was indicated by
*p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
2.6. CN30 Treatment Enhanced CD8+ T Cell Infiltration
CD8+ T cells have been reported to play an important role in antitumor immunity. As shown in
Figure 16, treatment with CN30 significantly enhanced the infiltration of CD8+ T cells to HepA tumor
cells compared with the untreated control group, indicating that CN30 treatment could promote the
function of CD8+ T cells.
2.7. Effect of CN30 on Serum Cytokines Levels in HepA-Bearing Mice
We investigated the effect of CN30 on IFN-γ and IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-10 levels in HepA
tumor-bearing mice. As seen in Figure 17, compared with those of the control group, IFN-γ and IL-2
Molecules 2015, 20 17419
levels of mice treated with CN30 were significantly increased (IFN-γ: control group 25.4 ± 4.8 pg/mL,
CN30 10 mg/kg group 82.8 ± 10.2 pg/mL. IL-2: control group 29.3 ± 6.8 pg/mL, CN30 10 mg/kg group
112.2 ± 14.1 pg/mL), while TNF-α and IL-10 showed no obvious change.
Figure 16. Immunofluorescence analysis of CD8+ cell infiltration in the tumor tissues in
each group. Sections of tumor tissue from each group were stained with CD8+-FITC
(Fluorescein isothiocyanate), DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and photographed by
fluorescence microscopy (×100). (Scale bar for Control Group represents 50 μm, while the
other 3 Groups represent 100 μm).
Figure 17. Effect of CN30 treatment on IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-10 levels in the serum
of tumor-bearing mice. The serum of the mice in each group was taken and cytokine levels
were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data are presented as mean
± SD (n = 10). ** p < 0.01 vs. control group.
Molecules 2015, 20 17420
2.8. CN30 Treatment Promoted Th1 Cell Differentiation in HepA-Bearing Mice
The effect of CN30 on T helper cells was investigated by analyzing the levels of T cell subsets in the
spleen of tumor-bearing mice by intracellular staining (Figure 18). Spleen T cells from each group were
extracted and stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin/monensin for 6 h. The
subsets were examined by intracellular staining. Data are presented as mean ± SD (n = 3). * p < 0.05 vs.
control group.
Figure 18. Intracellular staining of Th1 cells in the spleen of tumor-bearing mice. CN30
could significantly elevate the ratio of IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells (Th1) in treated tumor-bearing
mice (A) (control group 4.6%, CN30 10 mg/kg group 12.4%) while levels of IL-4+ CD4+ T
cells (Th2) were decreased slightly (control group 6.3%, CN30 10 mg/kg group 5.7%) (B).
Levels of IL-17A+ CD4+ T cells and FOXP3+ CD4+ T cells remained unchanged (C,D).
Molecules 2015, 20 17421
2.9. Discussion
HCC is the most common type of liver cancer and is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide,
with more than 500,000 new cases of HCC annually [20,21]. The most commonly available treatment
options for HCC are orthotopic liver transplantation, surgical resection, local destruction, and
chemotherapy. However, the level of success of such treatment for tumors is largely dependent on the
size and location of the tumor at the time of diagnosis, as well as the side effects and toxicities associated
with most of the approved drugs for HCC treatment [22,23]. As such, there has been an extensive search
for drugs that are effective in the prevention and management of HCC, and compounds with natural
origins are attracting increasing interest and have the potential to become suitable options for the
prevention and treatment of HCC.
Clinacanthus nutan is a well-known medicinal plant widely used in Thai traditional medicine, has
been used for the treatment of HZV lesions, insect bites, snake bites, and hepatitis [24]. Our results from
both HPLC and MS analysis indicated the presence of flavone c-glycosides as the active constituents in
CN30 extracts.
Recent studies have demonstrated that the immune system plays a critical role in the antitumor
defense and immunomodulation could be a promising strategy in targeting tumor cells [25]. The spleen
and thymus indices play an important role in the functioning of the immune systems of different
organisms. T cells are involved in the process of tumor initiation, development, and metastasis inhibition.
Mature T cells mainly differentiate into CD4+ and CD8+ cells [26,27]. CD4+ T cells induce the maturation
of B cells into plasma cells and the activation of cytotoxic T cells, including CD8+ cells [28]. With the
help of activated CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells migrate to the tumor site and exert a specific cytotoxic
effect. Perforin and granzymes are released from CD8+ T cells [29]. Perforin forms pores in the cell
membrane of the target cell, creating an aqueous channel through which the granzymes enter, leading to
cell apoptosis via degradation of target cell DNA or stimulation of the FasL/Fas pathway [30,31]. Our
results indicated that the thymus index of tumor-bearing mice treated with CN30 was significantly
enhanced compared with those of fluorouracil-treated and untreated HepA tumor-bearing mice, which
had decreased thymus indices. Likewise, CD8+ T cells were largely presented in the tumor tissues after
CN30 treatment, which suggests that CN30 has protective effects on immune function by possibly
promoting the functions of CD8+ T cells in suppressing HepA tumor growth.
CD4+ T lymphocytes are classified mainly as Th1, Th2, and Th17 subsets, according to the type of
cytokines secreted. However, these subsets play different roles during tumor development. Th1 cells
mainly secrete IL-2 and IFN-γ, which can suppress tumor growth by promoting CTL function [32,33].
IL-2 is an important component of the cytokine network and is believed to promote lymphocyte mitosis,
which enhances the osmotic lysis function of the killer cells and assists in generating antibodies. IFN-γ
is an important cytokine that is critically involved in the innate immune response. It increases the
expression of Class II MHC molecules and activation of macrophages. These cytokines are increased in
cancer and tumor cells to boost the immune function. Th2 cells mainly secrete IL-4, and IL-10, which
are involved in humoral immune and allergic reactions and have been shown to promote tumor growth
by stimulating cell proliferation or conferring tumor cell resistance to apoptosis [34–36]. Tregs
characterized by FOXP3 transcription factor may foster tumor expansion by suppressing CD8+ CTLs
and NK cells [37]. Th17-derived cytokine IL-17 can stimulate STAT3 signaling in tumors or promote
Molecules 2015, 20 17422
myeloid-derived suppressor cell-mediated tumor-promoting microenvironments [38,39]. In the present
study, the levels of serum IL-2 and IFN-γ were significantly increased, while a corresponding decrease
in serum levels of IL-4 was observed in CN30-treated tumor-bearing mice.
Thus, the aforementioned results demonstrated that CN30 exerted its antitumor activity by
enhancement of immune cytokine levels in the serum, thereby promoting the immune response in HepA
tumor-bearing mice. These findings provide evidence for the application of C. Nutans in the treatment
of cancers.
3. Experimental Section
3.1. Chemicals
Fluorouracil was purchased from Nantong Jinghua PharmaceuticalCo., Ltd (Nantong, Jiangsu,
China). Antibodies against p-AKT, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl-2were procured from Cell Signaling
Technology (Danvers, MA, USA). PCNA and β-Actin were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Inc. (Dallas, TX, USA). Hematoxylin and eosin dye were purchased from Nanjing Jiancheng
Bioengineering Institute (Nanjing, Jiangsu, China). RIPM1640 medium and fetal bovine serum (FBS)
were obtained from Life Technology (Grand Island, NY, USA). ELISA assay kits for TNF-α, IFN-γ,
IL-10, and IL-2 were purchased from Dakewe Biotech Company (Shenzhen, Guangdong, China).
GTVisin™ anti-mouse/anti-rabbit immunohistochemical analysis kit was bought from Gene Company
(Shanghai, China). FITC-anti-CD8, FITC-anti-CD4, PE-anti-IFN-γ, APC-anti-IL-17A, PE-anti-FOXP3,
APC-anti-IL-4, and intracellular staining kits were purchased from eBioscience (San Diego, CA, USA).
All other chemicals were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).
3.2. Plant Material
Fresh aerial parts of C. nutans were collected in November 2014 from Seremban, Negeri Sembilan
province, Malaysia. The specimens were authenticated by Professor Jun Chen at the School of Pharmacy,
Jiangsu University, China. A voucher specimen was stored at the herbarium of Jiangsu University.
3.3. Extraction and Isolation
The dried aerial part of C. nutans (Burm. f) Lindau (2.0 kg) were first extracted twice with six-fold
95% ethanol for 2 h each at reflux, evaporated under reduced pressure to remove ethanol and
concentrated to yield a viscous ethanol extract vacuum distillation extract, dissolved in water, and
filtered. This extract was water-soluble (382 g yield 19.1%, w/w). The crude extracts were combined and
subjected to further fractionation on a Diaion HP-20 macroporous adsorption resins (Mitsubishi Kasei,
Tokyo, Japan) column (10 cm × 1500 cm). After reaching the adsorption equilibrium, resins were first
eluted with deionized water and then consecutively eluted with 30%, 70%, and 90% ethanol solution.
After concentration and freeze drying, the ethanol extract was further partitioned using the aqueous
fraction (AF yield 49.2%, w/w), 30% ethanol fraction (CN30, yield 9.1%, w/w), 70% ethanol fraction
(CN70, yield 18.7%, w/w), and 90% ethanol fraction (CN90, yield 19.6%, w/w), and were subjected to
plant material for pharmacological study.
Molecules 2015, 20 17423
The guided isolation and purification of major components in active fractions were performed under
monitoring by HPLC and TLP analysis, and major components were tracked by comparison of HPLC
chromatograms of the active fraction and its sub-fractions.
The optimum conditions for thin layer chromatography were confirmed: 2 μL of the sample solution
was applied to silica gel G plates. After detection, butanol–acetic acid–water (BAW) (v/v/v) 4:1:5 was
used as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. There appeared to be clear and concentrated
spots in the iodine-cylinder.
Solutions in part by HP-20 column (100 × 600), first with water, then eluted with ethanol, evaporated
to dryness via ethanol elution to give 10 g of brown extract (A), by means of Sephadex
LH-20 (5%–30% ethanol gradient elution) to give two portions Min: B (1 g), C (3 g). The two parts are
by MCI-gel (10%–50% methanol gradient elution) to give four components (I–IV), and several
components were purified by silica gel (200–300 mesh) 100–200 mesh polyamide column, with H2O
and 30% and 60% ethanol gradient elution, (v/v, 25:75, H2O–MeOH). Column chromatography, eluted
with system CHCl3–MeOH–H2O (100:10:1–80:20:1), most after using ODS (eluting system:
MeOH–H2O, 10% to 70%) to give compounds I (147 mg) and II (73 mg).
3.4. LC/MS/MS Experiment
A fresh petal was homogenized and extracted with the mobile phase consisting of (A) 0.1% formic
acid in water and (B) methanol. The crude extract was suspended in H2O and passed through a 0.5 μm
Fluorpore Millipore membrane from Merck Inc. (Darul Ehsan, Malaysia) prior to injection (10 μL
aliquot) into the Cosmosil™ C18-AR-II, LC Column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm), Nacalai HPLC
system(Kyoto, Japan). The flavonoids in the eluates were analyzed with an LC/MS/MS system; the
eluates from a Shimadzu GC 20 instrument (Kyoto, Japan) equipped with a C18-AR-II, LC Column and
a Finngan surveyor PDA plus Detector was introduced into an Esquire3000 ion trap mass spectrometer,
LXQ from Thermo Scientific (Waltham, MA, USA). MS data were collected in auto-MS/MS mode. The
samples were eluted at 35 °C with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection wavelength was 280 nm. The
solvent system used was a linear gradient of 1% to 90% solvent D (methanol) in solvent C (0.1% formic
acid) over a period of 45 min.
3.5. Animal Studies
All animal welfare and experimental procedures were carried out in strict accordance to the
Guidelines for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (The Ministry of Science and Technology of
China, 2006) and the related ethical regulations of the university. ICR mice (with normal T/B cells,
6–8 weeks, 18–22 g) were obtained from The Experimental Animal Center of Jiangsu University.
HepAhepatocarcinoma tumor cells were obtained from Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and cultured in the
aseptic form for tumor-bearing mice. Ascites were drawn from hepatocarcinoma mice (HepA) under
aseptic conditions, and diluted in normal saline and subcutaneously implanted by injecting 0.2 mL of
PBS containing 1 × 107 viable tumor cells under the skin on the right oxter of the mice. After 72 h of
implantation, the tumor-bearing mice were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups
(10 mice per group), according to tumor size. Group one was injected with the tumor cells but treated
with water only, group two was injected with tumor cells and received intraperitoneal injections of
Molecules 2015, 20 17424
fluorouracil (20 mg/kg), and groups three and four were injected with tumor cells and treated with CN30
(3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively) for 10 consecutive days through a gastric probe. The mice were
weighed every day. On the 10th day, mice were weighed and euthanized, and tumors were removed and
the weight measured. Tumor volumes were measured and calculated using the equation volume = a ×
b2/2, where “a” is the maximal width and “b” is maximal orthogonal width. The tumor wet weights of
the treated (Tw) and control (Cw) groups were measured on the last day of each experiment, and the
percentage of tumor growth inhibition was calculated as follows: Inhibition (%) = [1 (Tw/Cw)] ×100%.
3.6. Hematoxylin-Eosin Staining
H & E staining was performed on sections that were cut from tumor specimens that had been
fixed in 4% buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. The stained tissues were examined under a
light microscope.
3.7. Western Blot Analysis
Tissue lysates were prepared from xenograft tumors. Protein extracts were obtained and the protein
concentration was determined using the Bradford Protein Assay Reagent. Equal amounts of total protein
lysates were loaded on 10% SDS-PAGE and transferred onto PVDF membranes. After blocking, the
membranes were incubated overnight with various primary antibodies at 4 °C. After washing three
times with TBST, the blot was further incubated for 2 h at room temperature with horseradish
peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies. After washing three times with TBST, target proteins were
detected by the ECL system.
3.8. Immunofluorescence Histochemistry
CD8+ T cell infiltration analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded colonic tissue sections
(5 μm). Briefly, the sections were deparaffinized in xylene, rehydrated through graded ethanol, and
rinsed with distilled water and 1% PBS-Tween. Endogenous peroxidase activity was blocked using 2%
hydrogen peroxide for 10 min. The sections were further incubated with 3% goat serum to block
non-specific protein staining. The sections were further incubated for 2 h at room temperature with
primary antibodies anti-CD8-FITC (1:100) and then overnight at 4 °C. The slides were then counter-stained
with DAPI for 2 min. The reaction was stopped by thorough washing with water for 20 min.
Images were visualized by confocal laser-scanning microscope (Olympus, Lake Success, NY, USA).
3.9. Determination of Biochemical Parameters
Blood samples were collected from tumor-bearing mice prior to sacrifice by cervical dislocation,
deposited for 1 h at 4 °C, and centrifuged at 3000 g for 15 min. Subsequently, the serum was collected
for the determination of IL-17A, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α level according to the protocols available in
the commercially available ELISA kit.
Molecules 2015, 20 17425
3.10. Intracellular Staining
The intracellular expression of IL-17A, IL-4, FOXP3 and IFN-γin CD4+ T cells was analyzed using
an eBioscienceintracellular staining kit (San Diego, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s
instructions. In brief, lymphocytes obtained from the spleens were incubated with PMA
(100 ng/mL)/Inomycin (1 μg/mL) and monensin (1 μg/mL) in complete media at 37 °C for 4 h. Surface
staining was performed with a CD4-FITC for 15 min at 4 °C. The cells were fixed and permeabilized
with fixation buffer and permeabilization wash buffer, and intracellular cytokine staining was performed
with IL-17A-APC, IL-4-APC, FOXP3-PE, and IFN-γ-PE, respectively, for 20 min. Then cells were then
analyzed by FACS.
3.11. Statistical Analysis
Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). All experiments were performed in triplicate.
Data were statistically evaluated by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test for multiple
comparisons. Significance was set at p < 0.05.
4. Conclusions
CN30, a 30% ethanol extract of C. nutans exhibited antitumor activity in HepA tumor-bearing mouse
models at doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg, with a higher inhibition rate than that observed in the fluorouracil-treated
mice as positive control. Furthermore, CN30 could significantly increase the thymus indices and IL-2
and IFN-γ levels in the serum. The results suggest that C. nutans has potential antitumor and
immunomodulatory properties and CN30 may possibly have an indirect antitumor activity by enhancing
immunologic functions, which would be explored as a potential therapeutic treatment against cancer in
the future.
Acknowledgments
The author greatly acknowledges financial support through grants by Bio Nice Food Science Sdn.
Bhd. (1122960-U), Bio Nice Industry Sdn. Bhd. (726120-M) and Bio Nice Medicare Group Sdn. Bhd.
(614471-X). The authors are grateful to Arduino A. Mangoni for academically editing the manuscript.
Author Contributions
Danmin Huang and Jun Chen conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, and
drafted the manuscript. Danmin Huang, and Wenjie Guo designed experiments, analyzed results and
helped to draft the manuscript. Jing Gao performed partial design and data interpretation.
Joshua Opeyemi Olatunjiper performed partial help to draft the manuscript.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Molecules 2015, 20 17426
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Sample Availability: Samples of the compounds are not available from the authors.
© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article
distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
... The results of the LC/MS/MS analyses of the C. nutans ethanolic leaf extract in this study demonstrated the presence of myricetin, orientin, iso-orientin, vitexin, iso-vitexin, isookanin, apigenin and ferulic acid as some of the important bioactive compounds of the plant. However, three of these compounds-myricetin, isookanin and ferulic acid-were additional compounds identified in the C. nutans ethanolic leaf extract cultivated in Pahang-Malaysia, which were not among the compounds identified earlier by Huang et al. [17] and Chelyn et al. [18], as well as other recent literatures as reported by Khoo et al. [31]. ...
... The identification of orientin, isoorientin, vitexin and isovitexin in this study corroborates the earlier report by Huang et al. [17] where a total of seven compounds including shaftoside (apigenin-6-C-β-d-glucopyranosyl-8-C-α-l-arabinopyranoside), apigenin 6,8-C-α-l-pyranarabinoside, orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin and vitexin were identified from 30% ethanol extract of C. nutans. Similarly, Chelyn et al. [18] reported that shaftoside, iso-orientin, orientin, iso-vitexin and vitexin were the major flavonoids found in the leaves of C. nutans cultivated in Perak, Johor, and Negri Sembilan, Malaysia [18]. ...
... The presence of these compounds could be responsible for most of the pharmacological activities associated with C. nutans, including antitumor, anti-snake and insect bites, anti-VZV lesions and anti-hepatitis activities reported in the literature [17,43,44]. Although these compounds are reported to have potential pharmacological activities, it should be noted that the compounds could also have some adverse effects on normal cells, especially when consumed in large quantities. ...
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This study investigated the leaves of Clinacanthus nutans for its bioactive compounds and acute and subacute toxicity effects of C. nutans ethanolic leaf extract (CELE) on blood, liver and kidneys of ICR mice. A total of 10 8-week-old female mice were divided into groups A (control) and B (2000 mg/kg) for the acute toxicity study. A single dose of 2000 mg/kg was administered to group B through oral gavage and mice were monitored for 14 days. In the subacute toxicity study, mice were divided into five groups: A (control), B (125 mg/kg), C (250 mg/kg), D (500 mg/kg) and E (1000 mg/kg). The extract was administered daily for 28 days via oral gavage. The mice were sacrificed, and samples were collected for analyses. Myricetin, orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, isookanin, apigenin and ferulic acid were identified in the extract. Twenty-eight days of continuous oral administration revealed significant increases (p < 0.05) in creatinine, ALT and moderate hepatic and renal necrosis in groups D and E. The study concluded that the lethal dose (LD 50) of CELE in mice is greater than 2000 mg/kg and that repeated oral administrations of CELE for 28 days induced hepatic and renal toxicities at 1000 mg/kg in female ICR mice.
... This extract was shown to trigger the upregulation of caspases -3, -7, -8, and -9 activities and elevate the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase. In vivo studies also demonstrated that C. nutans may reduce the tumour volume in hepatoma xenograft mice and upregulate their immune response, as evidenced by the elevation of IFN-ƴ + T cells and the reduction of the IL-4 + T cells (Huang et al., 2015). Apart from that, C. nutans was non-toxic to normal cells as no inhibitory effect was observed on the tested normal fibroblast cells (NIH 3T3 and L929), breast cells (MCF10A) and kidney cells (Vero) (Roslan et al., 2018;Zakaria et al., 2017;Sulaiman et al., 2015). ...
... µg/mL) a. Binds with the apoptosis related protein, p53binding protein Mdm-2 Palmitic acid, linolenyl alcohol (Ismail et al., 2020) Leaves/ Ethanol, Ethyl acetate MCF-7 (24.04±1.7 µg/mL-28.90±2.1 µg/mL) a. Increases antioxidant capacity Alpha tocopherol (Sulaiman et al., 2015) In vivo Leaves/ Ethanol Hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft mice (dose 3 and 10 mg/kg i.g) a. Causes apoptosis through upregulation p-AKT, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax expression b. Promotes immunomodulation by elevating the thymus indices and IL-2 and IFN-ƴ levels Flavonoids-gallic acid, isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, vitexin, apigenin (Huang et al., 2015) Leaves/ Methanol Gallic acid, cathecin (Yaacob et al., 2014;Baraya et al., 2018;Yaacob et al., 2010) Stem and leaves/ Ethyl acetate MCF-7 (38 µg/mL and 23 µg/mL) ...
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Cancer is a complex disease and ranks as a leading cause of death globally. Despite many advances made in cancer therapeutics, adverse side effects and treatment resistance remain a great problem. In that sense, there are increasing demands to discover new anticancer agents from naturally-derived compounds. Medicinal plants represent a valuable source of new drugs with promising efficacy and safety. They produce various secondary metabolites, which exhibit unique structures and a pharmacological spectrum of activity, including antitumour activity. Clinacanthus nutans, Strobilanthes crispus, Ficus deltoidea, Curcuma longa, Centella asiatica and Piper betle are among the plants species commonly used to cure cancer in traditional medicine formulae in Malaysia. The present review aims to highlight the anticancer properties of the listed Malaysian herbs with a focus on their bioactive compounds and the mode of action. Overall, many studies have disclosed the presence of active metabolites in these plants, including phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponin, curcumin and Asiatic acid. They possess significant cytotoxic or antiproliferative effects primarily via the induction of apoptosis, elevation of antioxidant activity and inhibition of cancer activating enzymes. Hence, further investigation into their clinical therapeutic potential may be noteworthy. Additionally, this review article also provides the reader with information concerning the conventional anticancer drugs and their limitations, recent developments and milestones achieved in plant- derived cancer therapeutics as well as different approaches to enhance the production of these anticancer molecules.
... They extracted the collected leaves with methanol and found that the leaf extracts possess cytotoxicity and apoptotic activities against the human skin cancer cell line, D24 melanoma cells [5]. In addition to the anti-proliferative effects on various cancer cell lines, the aerial parts of the plant have also been reported to exhibit significant antitumor and apoptotic activities on the in vivo mice cancer model [6]. While most of the anticancer studies on this plant are focused on the aerial part, our group have conducted an anti-proliferative study on the underground part, i.e., the root ( Figure 1) [7]. ...
... Some of the stems of the purchased plants were re- Owing to its promising anti-proliferative activities, several attempts have been conducted to isolate the anti-proliferative compounds and/or active fractions from the C. nutans leaf. Huang and colleagues [6] have extracted the aerial parts of C. nutans with ethanol, followed by further fractionation on a Diaion HP-20 macroporous adsorption resin to produce a 30% ethanol fraction (CN30) and other fractions. The CN30 fraction was found to be able to induce inhibition in tumor size and weight of the HepA xenograft model mouse (hepatoma cell-injected mice). ...
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Isolation of anti-proliferative compounds from plants is always hindered by the complexities of the plant’s nature and tedious processes. Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau is a medicinal plant with reported anti-proliferative activities. Our study aimed to isolate potential anti-proliferative compounds present in C. nutans plant. To start with, for our study, we came up with a strategy by first profiling the volatile compounds present in the leaf, stem and root of C. nutans using GC-MS. Comparing the plant’s volatile profiles greatly narrowed down our target of study. We decided to start with the isolation and characterization of a pentacyclic terpenoid, i.e., lupeol from the roots of C. nutans, as this compound was found to present abundantly in the roots compared to the leaf or stem. We developed a simple maceration and re-crystallization method, without the necessity to go through the fractionation or column chromatography for the isolation of lupeol. Characterizations of the isolated compound identified the compound as lupeol. The anti-proliferative activity of the isolated lupeol was further investigated against the MCF-7 cell line, which showed comparable anti-proliferative activity with the authentic lupeol and camptothecin. Our strategy to profile every part of the plant first, followed by selection of the most suitable plant part and targeted compound proved useful for further isolation and characterization bioactive compound from C. nutans.
... Compound ( (4) was identified as Isovitexin [45]. ...
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Citation: El-Hela, A.A.; Bakr, M.S.A.; Hegazy, M.M.; Dahab, M.A.; Elmaaty, A.A.; Ibrahim, A.E.; El Deeb, S.; Abbass, H.S. Phytochemical Characterization of Pterocephalus frutescens with In-Silico Evaluation as Chemotherapeutic Medicine and Oral Pharmacokinetics Prediction Study. Sci. Pharm. 2023, 91, 7. https:// Abstract: Virtual screening of the potential lead chemotherapeutic phytochemicals from medicinal plants has useful application in the field of in-silico modelling and computer-based drug design by orienting and scoring ligands in the active binding site of a target protein. The phytochem-ical investigation of the Pterocephalus frutescens extract in n-butanol resulted in the isolation and structure elucidation of three iridoids and four flavonoids which were identified as Geniposide (1), Geniposidic acid (2), Nepetanudoside C (3), Isovitexin (4), Luteolin-7-O-glucoside (5) Isoorientin (6) and Orientin (7), respectively. Molecular docking studies were used to compare the binding energies of the isolated phytochemicals at four biological cancer-relevant targets; namely, aromatase, carbonic anhydrase IX, fatty acid synthase, and topoisomerase II-DNA complex. The docking study concluded that the isolated compounds have promising cytotoxic activities, in particular, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside (5) and Orientin (7) which exhibited high binding affinities among the isolated compounds at the active sites of the target enzymes; Aromatase (−8.73 Kcal/mol), and Carbonic anhydrase IX (−8.92 Kcal/mol), respectively, surpassing the corresponding binding scores of the co-crystallized ligands and the reference drugs at these target enzymes. Additionally, among the isolated compounds, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside (5) showed the most outstanding binding affinities at the active sites of the target enzymes; Fatty acid synthase, and Topisomerase II-DNA complex with binding scores of −6.82, and −7.99 Kcal/mol, respectively. Finally, the SwissADME online web tool predicted that most of these compounds possessed acceptable oral bioavailability and drug likeness characteristics.
... [72] Saponins flavonoids tannins steroids phenols terpenoid nutans could also reduce tumor growth in a mouse HepA hepatoma model, producing better result than an established chemotherapeutic drug, namely fluorouracil. [36] ...
... The result revealed that CDC25C expression was significantly enriched in the cell cycle, TP53 signaling pathways, DNA damage response, regulation of protein kinase activity, immunomodulatory pathways, glutathione metabolism, and glycolysis in PAAD. Tumor occurrence and development are closely associated with the interactions between the tumor and immune cells [36,37]. Immune infiltration analysis showed that CDC25C overexpression can significantly inhibit the number of naive B cells in the tumor. ...
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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) is a common digestive tract malignant tumor with an extremely poor prognosis. The survival and prognosis may significantly improve if it is diagnosed early. Therefore, identifying biomarkers for early diagnosis is still considered a great clinical challenge in PAAD. Cell Division Cycle 25C (CDC25C), a cardinal cell cycle regulatory protein, directly mediates the G2/M phase and is intimately implicated in tumor development. In the current study, we aim to explore the possible functions of CDC25C and determine the potential role of CDC25C in the early diagnosis and prognosis of PAAD. Expression analysis indicated that CDC25C was overexpressed in PAAD . In addition, survival analysis revealed a strong correlation between the enhanced expression of CDC25C and poor survival in PAAD. Furthermore, pathway analysis showed that CDC25C is related to TP53 signaling pathways, glutathione metabolism, and glycolysis. Mechanically, our in vitro experiments verified that CDC25C was capable of promoting cell viability and proliferation. CDC25C inhibition increases the accumulation of ROS, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, suppresses glycolysis metabolism and reduces GSH levels. To summarize, CDC25C may be involved in energy metabolism by maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. Our results suggested that CDC25C is a potential biological marker and promising therapeutic target of PAAD.
... Based on the active compounds, pharmacological activities such as anti-oxidative (Pannangpetch et al., 2007;Arullappan et al., 2014), anti-proliferative (Yong et al., 2013;Ghazemzadeh et al., 2014), anti-tumorigenic (Huang et al., 2015), anti-bacterial (Chomnawang et al., 2009;Arullappan et al., 2014), anti-viral (Kunsorn et al., 2013) and anti-inflammatory (Wanikiat et al., 2008) have been reported with C. nutans. Owing to the growing *Corresponding author. ...
... Furthermore, a previous study in our group by Aliyu et al. [10] reported that C. nutans ethanolic leaf extract cultivated in Pahang, Malaysia contained phytochemical compounds including myricetin, isookanin and ferulic acid [10] . These compounds were in addition to those reported earlier by previous researchers [11][12][13] . ...
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Clinacanthus nutans has been used traditionally in the treatment of herpes simplex viral infection. This research evaluated the toxicity effects of sub-chronic oral administration of Clinacanthus nutans ethanolic leaf extract in Institute of Cancer Research mice. A total 50, 8 w old female mice were divided into five groups of 10 mice each; Group A (control), Group B (125 mg/kg), Group C (250 mg/kg), Group D (500 mg/kg) and Group E (1000 mg/kg). The extract was administered orally for 90 d. The mice were monitored and sacrificed on d 91. Blood, liver and kidney samples were collected for analyses. There was significant (p<0.05) alterations in the haematological parameters of the mice in Group E and a significant increase in creatinine levels in groups B, C, D and E compared to A. The plasma level of alanine aminotransferase was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups D and E, compared to A. Histopathological evaluation of liver and kidneys revealed a moderate cytoplasmic vacuolation, eosinophilic cytoplasm and pyknosis of hepatocytes, as well as mild to moderate activated Kupffer cells in Group E. Similarly, the renal tubular cells showed mild to moderate renal cytoplasmic vacuolation, eosinophilic cytoplasm, pyknotic and karyolytic cells in Group E. It is concluded that repeated oral doses of Clinacanthus nutans ethanolic leaf extract for 90 d induced hepato-renal toxicities in female Institute of Cancer Research mice.
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The application of natural products and supplements has expanded tremendously over the past few decades. Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans), which is affiliated to the Acanthaceae family, has recently caught the interest of researchers from the countries of subtropical Asia due to its medicinal uses in alternative treatment for skin infection conditions due to insect bites, microorganism infections and cancer, as well as for health well-being. A number of bioactive compounds from this plant’s extract, namely phenolic compounds, sulphur containing compounds, sulphur containing glycosides compounds, terpens-tripenoids, terpens-phytosterols and chlorophyll-related compounds possess high antioxidant activities. This literature search yielded about one hundred articles which were then further documented, including the valuable data and findings obtained from all accessible electronic searches and library databases. The promising pharmacological activities from C. nutans leaves extract, including antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-venom, analgesic and anti-nociceptive properties were meticulously dissected. Moreover, the authors also discuss a few of the pharmacological aspect of C. nutans leaves extracts against anti-hyperlipidemia, vasorelaxation and renoprotective activities, which are seldom available from the previously discussed review papers. From the aspect of toxicological studies, controversial findings have been reported in both in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. Thus, further investigations on their phytochemical compounds and their mode of action showing pharmacological activities are required to fully grasp both traditional usage and their suitability for future drugs development. Data related to therapeutic activity and the constituents of C. nutans leaves were searched by using the search engines Google scholar, PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct, and accepting literature reported between 2010 to present. On the whole, this review paper compiles all the available contemporary data from this subtropical herb on its phytochemistry and pharmacological activities with a view towards garnering further interest in exploring its use in cardiovascular and renal diseases.
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Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Family: Acanthaceae) is a medicinal herb widely distributed in the tropic and subtropic areas of Asia. C. nutans is traditionally consumed as vegetable or herbal tea, as well as a folk medicine for anticancer and antifungal activities. However, to date, chemical constituent responsible for observed health beneficial effects of this medicinal plant is not clear. In the current study, 32 compounds (1−32), including three new megastigmanes (1–3) were isolated from the aerial parts of C. nutans. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive NMR, MS, and CD spectroscopic data analysis, as well as chemical hydrolysis. Among the isolates, cycloartane triterpenoids (9, 10, and 12) displayed moderate anti-proliferative effects against HepG2 cell growth with IC50 values ranging from 9.12 to 19.89 μM. Data obtained from flow cytometry analysis and western blotting assays revealed that compounds 9 and 12 induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells by modulating the expression of proteins associated to mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, megastigmanes 1, 2, 7, and 8 enhanced the anti-Candida albicans activity of amphotericin B (AmB), supporting the synergistic effects between megastigmanes and AmB. This is the first report of anticancer and antifungal potential of cycloartane triterpenoids and megastigmanes in C. nutans, which shed useful insights on the relationship between C. nutans's chemical constituent and its beneficial effects to health. Findings from this study support further development of this medicinal plant for potential pharmaceutical applications.
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Optimized nutrition through supplementation of diet with plant derived phytochemicals has attracted significant attention to prevent the onset of many chronic diseases including cardiovascular impairments, cancer, and metabolic disorder. These phytonutrients alone or in combination with others are believed to impart beneficial effects and play pivotal role in metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, glucose intolerance, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Epidemiological and preclinical studies demonstrated that fruits, vegetables, and beverages rich in carotenoids, isoflavones, phytoestrogens, and phytosterols delay the onset of atherosclerosis or act as a chemoprotective agent by interacting with the underlying pathomechanisms. Phytochemicals exert their beneficial effects either by reducing the circulating levels of cholesterol or by inhibiting lipid oxidation, while others exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet activities. Additionally, they reduce neointimal thickening by inhibiting proliferation of smooth muscle cells and also improve endothelium dependent vasorelaxation by modulating bioavailability of nitric-oxide and voltage-gated ion channels. However, detailed and profound knowledge on specific molecular targets of each phytochemical is very important to ensure safe use of these active compounds as a therapeutic agent. Thus, this paper reviews the active antioxidative, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, or antiangiogenesis role of various phytochemicals for prevention of chronic diseases.
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Background: Pigeonpea is ranked as the sixth largest grain legume produced by volume and as such is a major global food crop for livestock and human consumption. We show that pigeonpea contains a number of flavonoids and report their distribution and concentration within different parts of the plant. Findings: There are a total of 27 flavonoids reported in the literature representing seven flavonoid classes. We found no published evidence of flavanols (catechins/flavan-3-ols) or aurones reported from pigeonpea, nor any study of the flavonoids from pigeonpea flowers. Conclusions: Despite over 40 years of research in to various aspects of pigeonpea we identified research gaps related to the phytochemical properties of pigeonpea. We explain how addressing these gaps could help to realise the full potential of pigeonpea in agricultural production.
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Four new sulfur-containing compounds, named clinamides A-C (1-3), and 2-cis-entadamide A (4), were isolated together with three known compounds from the bioactive ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Clinacanthus nutans. These secondary metabolites possess sulfur atoms and acrylamide functionalities. The structures of the isolated components were established by interpretation of their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR.
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Clinacanthus nutans (family Acanthaceae) has been used for the treatment of inflammation and herpes viral infection. Currently, there has not been any report on the qualitative and quantitative determination of the chemical markers in the leaves of C. nutans. The C-glycosidic flavones such as shaftoside, isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin have been found to be major flavonoids in the leaves of this plant. Therefore, we had developed a two-step method using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the rapid identification and quantification of the flavones C-glycosides in C. nutans leaves. The TLC separation of the chemical markers was achieved on silica gel 60 plate using ethyl acetate : formic acid : acetic acid : water (100 : 11 : 11 : 27 v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. HPLC method was optimized and validated for the quantification of shaftoside, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin and was shown to be linear in concentration range tested (0.4–200 μg/mL, r 2 ≥ 0.996), precise (RSD ≤ 4.54%), and accurate (95–105%). The concentration of shaftoside, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin in C. nutans leave samples was 2.55–17.43, 0.00–0.86, 0.00–2.01, and 0.00–0.91 mmol/g, respectively.
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CD4 molecules serve as coreceptors for the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex that are engaged coordinately with TCR and facilitate antigen-specific T-cell activation leading to interleukin 2 (IL-2) production and proliferation. However, cross-ligation of CD4 molecules prior to TCR stimulation has been shown to prime CD4 T cells to undergo apoptosis. Although in vivo and in vitro experiments have implicated the involvement of Fas/FasL interaction in this CD4 cross-linking (CD4XL)-induced apoptosis, detailed mechanisms to account for cell death induction have not been elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that CD4XL in purified T cells not only led to Fas up-regulation but also primed CD4 T cells to express FasL upon CD3 stimulation and rendered the T cells susceptible to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Notably, in addition to CD4+ T cells, CD4XL-induced sensitization for apoptosis was observed in CD8+ T cells as well and was associated with Bcl-x down-modulation. Both CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets underwent apoptosis following cell–cell contact with FasL+ CD4 T cells. CD28 costimulation abrogated CD4XL/CD3-induced apoptosis with restoration of IL-2 production and prevented Bcl-x down-modulation. As CD4 molecules are the primary receptors for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), we conclude that HIV-1 envelope mediated CD4XL can lead to the generation of FasL-expressing CD4+ T cells that can lead to apoptosis of CD4 as well as CD8 T cells. These findings implicate a novel mechanism for CD8 T-cell depletion in HIV disease.
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Presently, researchers have been given remarkable attention to complementary and alternative medicine to deal with cancer treatment from medicinal plants mainly due to its fewer side effects and ease availability. Several scientific studies deep- rooted the anti- cancerous property of Ocimum sanctum Linn., a traditional medicinal plant commonly known as Tulsi. The chemopreventive and radiopreventive property of O. sanctum along with its anti- oxidant, anti- inflammatory and anti- stress property reside as a backbone for it anti- cancerous effect. It is demonstrated that the cornerstone behind this effect is the various phytochemical constituents such as eugenol, orientin, vicenin- 2, linolenic acid and ursolic acid. The present review is an effort to amalgamate the various scientific studies underlying the anti-cancerous effect of O. sanctum under one roof. In this review, the anti-cancerous activity of O. sanctum in numerous cancers such as lung, skin, oral, cervical, gastric, breast and prostate were comprehensively represented.
Article
Aim: To isolate the chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Stellaria media (L.) Cyr. Methods: The compounds were isolated through column chromatography and recrystallization. The structures were elucidated by means of physio-chemical data and spectroscopy. Result: Fourteen C-Glycosylflavones were isolated from this plant, and their structures were elucidated as apigenin (1) ,vicenin (6,8-di-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl apigenin) (2),8-C-β-D-galactopyranosyl isovitexin(6-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8-C-β-D-galactopyranosyl apigenin) (3), 6-C-β-D-galactopyranosyl vitexin (6-C-β-D-galactopyranosyl-8-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl apigenin) (4), 6, 8-di-C-α-L-arabinopyranosyl apigenin (5), schaftoside (6-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8-C-α-L-arabinosyl apigenin) (6), isoschaftoside (6-C-α-L -arabinosyl-8-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl apigenin) (7), 6-C-β-D-galactopyranosyl-8-C-α-L-arabinosyl apigenin (8), 8-C-β-D-galactosyl apigenin (9), vitexin (8-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl apigenin) (10), isovitexin (6-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl apigenin) (11), tricetin 6,8-di-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl (12), tricetin 6-C-α-L-arabinosyl-8-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl (13) and 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6-C-β-D-6″-acetyl-glucopyranosyl apigenin (14). Conclusions: Compounds 3-8 and compounds 12 and 13 have been found in the plant for the first time, and compound 14 is a new C-glycosylflavone.
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Primary liver cancer (namely hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC) is worldwide the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh one in women, and it represents the third most frequent cause of cancer death. HCC rates are particularly high in eastern/south-eastern Asia and in Africa, intermediate in Southern Europe, and low in most high-income countries. Persistent infections by HBV or HCV are the main recognized risk factors for HCC. Aflatoxin exposure is also an important risk factor for HCC development in Africa and eastern Asia. In high-income countries heavy alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, overweigh, diabetes, familial/genetic factors, and selected dietary aspects, have a more relevant role. Updated geographic patterns and time trends in mortality from HCC in Europe, USA, Japan, and Australia are provided in the present review, together with an overview of relevant etiologic factors for HCC and of main measures for the prevention of this neoplasm.
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Early diagnosis and aggressive therapy improves outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several potentially curative as well as palliative treatment options are available for patients. The choice of therapy is influenced by factors such as extent of tumor and severity of underlying liver dysfunction as well as availability of resources and of expertise. A systematic, algorithmic approach would ensure optimal therapy for each patient and is likely to improve outcomes. Even after receiving therapy for HCC, patients remain at risk for recurrent HCC as well as progression of underlying cirrhosis. Proper assessment and monitoring is needed for the underlying liver disease, which may progress to liver failure and have a major impact on long-term survival. Comprehensive care for patients with cirrhosis includes interventions such as antiviral therapy for HBV and HCV, abstention from alcohol, management of fatty liver disease, endoscopic surveillance and treatment for complications of portal hypertension and, if indicated, immunization against HAV and HBV. An algorithmic approach is useful for choosing the most appropriate treatment option for the individual patient from among the various options that are available. The general consensus is that the BCLC system should be preferred for staging HCC as it is useful in predicting outcomes and planning treatment. The BCLC system classifies patients with HCC into five categories: very early, early, intermediate, advanced, and terminal. It incorporates data on tumor status (number and size of nodules, vascular invasion, extra-hepatic spread), liver function (CTP status, presence of portal hypertension) and overall health status (constitutional symptoms, cancer symptoms, performance status). Treatment allocation according to sub-class of patients is a merit of the BCLC system; a few limitations have been noted, particularly with respect to patients with BCLC stage B and C disease. The treatment algorithm as per BCLC system is summarized in this review.