Book

Researching Lived Experience: Human Science For An Action Sensitive Pedagogy

Abstract

Cover Blurb: Researching Lived Experience introduces an approach to qualitative research methodology in education and related fields that is distinct from traditional approaches derived from the behavioral or natural sciences—an approach rooted in the “everyday lived experience” of human beings in educational situations. Rather than relying on abstract generalizations and theories, van Manen offers an alternative that taps the unique nature of each human situation. The book offers detailed methodological explications and practical examples of hermeneutic-phenomenological inquiry. It shows how to orient oneself to human experience in education and how to construct a textual question which evokes a fundamental sense of wonder, and it provides a broad and systematic set of approaches for gaining experiential material that forms the basis for textual reflections. Van Manen also discusses the part played by language in educational research, and the importance of pursuing human science research critically as a semiotic writing practice. He focuses on the methodological function of anecdotal narrative in human science research, and offers methods for structuring the research text in relation to the particular kinds of questions being studied. Finally, van Manen argues that the choice of research method is itself a pedagogic commitment and that it shows how one stands in life as an educator.
... The analysis generated six superordinate themes: Learning and challenging identity, balancing: negotiation and adaption, managing emotional fluctuations, relying on significant others, motivating and persisting and moving forward. Van Manen's (1990) four existentials -(temporality, spatiality, corporeality and relationality) as the core structure of lived experienceprovide a theoretical basis to illustrate the relationships and dynamics of those themes in a holistic conceptual framework of DBA students' lived experience. Central in this framework is students' research development as embodied practice, challenged by destabilising forces (experienced as stress) primarily arising from issues within temporality and relationality. ...
... Phenomenology, as the study of experience (Smith et al., 2009), provides an approach to examine lived experience where an individual's meaning of the situation is brought into focus (Osborne, 1994). Phenomenological inquiry explores the structure of the lived world "as experienced in everyday situations and relations" (van Manen, 1990, p. 101), which consists of multiple and different lifeworlds e.g. of a mother, student, teacher, supervisor (van Manen, 1990). This means a person inhabits several lifeworlds (Schutz et al., 1973). ...
... To gain a holistic understanding of the lived experience of a part-time doctoral student, I take those lifeworlds into account. van Manen (1990) defined four existentials as the fundamental structure of a lifeworld (see also Meleau-Ponty, 1962cited inSmith et al., 2009)spatiality, corporeality, temporality and relationality. I will draw on this as the theoretical basis to define the core elements of lived experience. ...
Thesis
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This research provides an in-depth study of the lived experience of German managers who undertake part-time doctoral study at a British University. The Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), as a professional doctorate with its initial structured taught phase, is the subject of investigation. It is of particular interest to German business professionals as the national education system does not provide opportunities to undertake part-time doctoral study, especially in such a format. The focus of this study is managers’ experienced stress and the coping strategies applied as part-time DBA students, within their context and through the perspectives of other lifeworlds. Previous research on the doctoral experience has not focused on the DBA and, specifically, its related stress, or by applying interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). A case-by-case and across cases analysis is used to provide a holistic understanding of managers’ lived experience in their context. Four student cases were explored over 8 to 10 months through several interviews, with the students, their supervisors, their partners, and their work colleagues. The analysis generated six superordinate themes: Learning and challenging identity, balancing: negotiation and adaption, managing emotional fluctuations, relying on significant others, motivating and persisting and moving forward. Van Manen’s (1990) four existentials – (temporality, spatiality, corporeality and relationality) as the core structure of lived experience – provide a theoretical basis to illustrate the relationships and dynamics of those themes in a holistic conceptual framework of DBA students’ lived experience. Central in this framework is students’ research development as embodied practice, challenged by destabilising forces (experienced as stress) primarily arising from issues within temporality and relationality. In response, students seek control in the form of maintaining balance by negotiation and adaption, managing emotional fluctuations, and seeking support from significant others. Development happens in a cyclic fashion, where a maturation process appears to be characterised by passing a threshold while experiencing pain. Core findings reveal most stressors arise from the discrepancy between an individual’s mindset as a manager and the academic thinking and rigour required of a DBA. Being a ‘student’ in a novice role creates uncertainty and destabilises self-confidence and thus a manager’s identity. This illustrates that students’ research development requires learning and identity work. The findings illuminate the barrier between practitioner and academic thinking that DBA students need to overcome and emphasize the need for consideration in programme conception and acknowledgement by educators, supervisors, and prospective students of the individual’s process of development.
... 77). Phenomenological research is not as straightforward as it appears and at the same time, it is not very difficult either (Van Manen, 1990). In a phenomenon, the researcher needs to identify the most important themes that determine the experience as a whole as compared to all the experimental themes that accompany the phenomenon. ...
... Van Manen (1990) illustrates that the researcher needs to maintain a strong relationship with the phenomenon. There will be various instances where the researcher may be tempted to change the direction of the phenomenon, but it is necessary to preserve the experience of the phenomenon from the participants' point of view. ...
... Van Manen (1990) points out that "To be oriented with an object means we are animated by the object in full and human sense" (p. 33). ...
... A phenomenological approach was utilized in this study. The purpose of this research method is to describe and understand the common elements of a phenomenon that is experienced by a group of people (Creswell, 2007: van Mannen, 1990. Some basic assumptions of phenomenology are as follows: (a) people know experience by attending to the perceptions and meanings that emerge from an event, (b) people describe, explicate, and interpret their experience, and (c) while an individual's interpretation of a specific phenomenon is unique, there is essence to experience that is Zinck Journal of Counseling Research and Practice Volume 2 Number 1 shared (Patton, 2002). ...
... We utilized bracketing (also called epoche) in order to avoid imposing our preconceptions or bias on the research process (Creswell, 2007, Moustakas, 1990, Patton, 2002. Bracketing involves setting aside any potential prejudgments or assumptions in order to approach interviews and analyses with an unbiased and receptive presence (van Mannen, 1990). It allows researchers to approach interviews and analyses with a sense of "not knowing" (Patton, 2002) in order to elicit authentic and detailed descriptions of informant experience. ...
... It allows researchers to approach interviews and analyses with a sense of "not knowing" (Patton, 2002) in order to elicit authentic and detailed descriptions of informant experience. Bracketing requires sustained attention, concentration, and presence (Creswell, 2007, Moustakas, 1990, Patton, 2002, van Mannen, 1990. We made bracketing an intentional and conscious act that was facilitated through selfmonitoring of our statements during interviews, selfreflection, and peer consultation. ...
Article
Utilizing focus groups with middle, high school, and university students, this phenomenological study developed a three-faceted perspective on student preferences for the personal and professional qualities of high school counselors. Findings revealed that students value the accessibility of counselors. Informants identified elements of accessibility that include authentic concern, trustworthiness, an interactive presence, unconditional acceptance, and attuned empathy as the primary qualities they prefer in a high school counselor. The findings have implications for the professional development of high school counselors and for those who train, hire, and supervise them.
... Descriptive-interpretive phenomenology adopted by Van Manen (1997) was the methodology used in designing the present study (22). In the phenomenological research, researcher tries to understand the lived experiences of participants. ...
... The subthemes had been additionally integrated in line with their interrelationships, from which the main themes emerged. One of the research activities recommended by van Manen is balancing the research context by considering parts and whole (22). Given the signi cance of this issue, the researcher did a reciprocating motion between the whole and the parts via way of means of bearing in thoughts the pursued the research question in any respect tiers of a study. ...
Preprint
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Background The global number of women in prison has increased in recent years. Some of these incarcerated women experience pregnancy. Pregnancy in prison has a great impact on the experience of mothers and can affect women’s role in motherhood. This study aimed to understand the meaning of motherhood in pregnant prisoners. Methods The present qualitative research was carried out using a descriptive-interpretive phenomenology via interviews with 11 pregnant or early postpartum women in prison. The participants were purposefully selected from incarcerated pregnant women in 2020 in Iran. Six-step Van Manen’s phenomenological approach was used for data analysis. Results The main theme of “motherhood, as a double-edged sword"emerged from the analysis, which consisted of two sub-themes, including “Moving in a circle between togetherness and separation” and “Being subject to ambiguous and illusory thoughts”. Based on the findings, motherhood in prison is just like living in a world, which is shaky and chaotic, and mothers are confused between reaching to and separation from the child. Furthermore, they experience the anxiety and worries of motherhood, and cannot be confident regarding the future of themselves and their children. Conclusion The experience of motherhood in prison for women was like a double-edged sword; on the one hand, they were fully immersed in motherhood feelings and emotions, which enhanced mother’s tolerance in prison, and on the other hand, the presence of child caused the aggravation of stress and anxiety.
... Quinn (1998), on the other hand, believes that a fundamental focus of reflection on experience is to generate knowledge that guides practices by healthcare professionals, including registered nurses. Van Manen (1990) supports the notion that reflective journals are suitable for data collection in phenomenological inquiry since reflection assists participants to consider important aspects of their lived experience of phenomena. He further argues that valuable accounts of the human lived experience that are of interest to researchers incorporate use of reflective journals as a data collection method. ...
... Taylor (2006:167) states that reflective journals "generate subjective, contextdependent, relative knowledge that resonates as truth for the individual and for other people who recognize similar experiences". Another valuable aspect is that reflective journals offer rich narrative accounts of participants" lived experiences (Croke 2004;Plack et al. 2005;Ritchie 2003;Taylor 2006;Walker 2006), and provide a safe and private opportunity for RNs to freely review and examine their practice experiences (Burrows 1995;Edwards 1996;Minghella & Benson 1995;Riley-Doucet & Wilson 1997;Van Manen 1990). The structured approach of reflective journals in this research was used primarily to guide participants to offer relevant information about their lived experiences, thus providing the means to answer the research question (Johns 2004). ...
Thesis
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ABSTRACT There is paucity of research studies from Saudi Arabia on „end-of-life‟ (EOL) care regarding hospitalised patients after a „do-not-resuscitate‟ (DNR) decision has been made. The aim of this research study was to describe the lived experiences and explore the meaning of these experiences and the extent of nurses‟ involvement as team members in EOL care, in the context of a physician-led health care team. The research site was a large tertiary-level teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the research location was the general medical units that are frequent sites of death in EOL care after a DNR decision had been made. The research problem focused on involvement of nurses, who were largely non-Muslim, multinational and non-Arabic speaking, and local patients who were mainly Muslim and speak Arabic as their primary language...The research study design embraced qualitative, exploratory and descriptive approaches utilising aspects of phenomenology. Congruent with qualitative inquiry, the literature review commenced at the beginning of the research study and continued in an iterative manner after data collection, throughout data analysis, and during the thesis generation. Purposive sampling was used to recruit registered nurse participants who met the participation criteria in relation to direct experiences in EOL care after the DNR decision on general medical units...Three main themes that emerged from the data analysis were (i) exhausted medical treatment, (ii) continuity of nursing care and (iii) Islamic considerations in nursing care. Related sub-themes were also identified as an extension to the description of the main themes...A focused discussion on the research findings is presented comparing the similarities and differences with existing literature. Recommendations emanating from the present study with regard to professional nursing practice and future research on the phenomenon of nurses‟ involvement in EOL care after DNR and related aspects are outlined in the final chapter
... Please consider internal motivations (i.e., personal needs; HEU) and external motivations (i.e., social; HBE, retailer; HCE, and market; NE)." This approach enabled the millennial participants to openly speak about their experiences and options on the topic (van Manen, 1990). ...
... The researcher organized the transcripts individually, coded the data, and narrowed this information into categories. Themes emerged based on the purpose of the study from the analysis and interpretation (van Manen, 1990). The researcher recruited another trained researcher to analyse the data individually (McCracken, 1988). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine how millennial luxury consumers define luxury based on a holistic systems theory perspective. The human ecosystem and its components were used to fully investigate the system of the millennial luxury consumer. A mixed methodology was employed by conducting interviews and then a consumer survey. Based on the findings from this research, the definition for luxury based on the view of the millennial luxury consumer is as followed: Luxury is the characteristics of the product themselves, addresses the consumer’s personal needs, and addresses the consumer’s social needs. This study suggests that the ecosystem of the millennial luxury consumers, including its environments and interactions, helped in constructing their definition of luxury. This definition delivers millennial luxury consumer insights for luxury retailers and may provide strategic adaptations to help attract and retain millennial luxury consumers, while also supporting business sustainability in a challenging retail environment.
... [32] On the other hand, architecture is the art of creating space, [33] and when the relationship between man and space, based on experiences for man, space becomes place. [34] A place or living space is a situation where our lived experiences take shape, [35] and lived experience is an experience that is achieved without voluntary thinking and without resorting to classification or conceptualization. [36] Man's lived experience of space focuses on a sense of place, [22] and a sense of place is a sensory relationship with a place perceived through concepts and signs. ...
Article
Background: In recent years, among managers and designers of health-care spaces, there has been a growing tendency to move toward hospital design by combining patient perceptions and expectations of the physical environment of the care area. The main idea of this study was to present a conceptual model of hospital architecture in our country with a patient-centered approach based on some factors that were affecting the sense of place. This model determined the architectural features of treatment spaces from a patient's lived experience that could have a positive mental effect on patients as well. The main question of the research was how to adapt the objective perception to the patient's mental perception to create a sense of place in the hospital space? Materials and methods: This research was qualitative with a phenomenological approach, conducted between July and December 2020. Purposeful sampling consisted of 23 patients, 13 males in the male surgery unit and 10 females in the gynecology unit, who were interviewed in-depth. They were hospitalized for at least 3 days in two hospitals (Dr. Pirooz in Lahijan and Ghaem in Rasht). The data were analyzed by the Colaizzi method. Results: The results consisted of 530 primary codes, 57 subthemes, and 7 main themes. The main themes were hospital location, access to hospital, hospital identity, hospital dependency, hospital attachment, human interactions in the hospital, and hospital evaluation. Conclusion: The hospital form guided the patient, and the hospital function directed and obviated the patient's needs. The healing environment and human interactions with it caused the patient to be satisfied with the hospital environment.
... Max Van Manen (1990) describes writing and re-writing as key to making sense of experiences; it is the process of re-visiting and re-questioning through writing that leads to a description and interpretation of experience. Both Van Manen (1990Manen ( , 2014 and Bleich (1978) ask inquirers to engage in dialogue with their own texts (texts including written texts, transcripts of conversations, and memories and interpretations of experiences). Paulo Freire (2006) argued for the centrality of dialogue to human existence; we become ourselves by claiming the word for ourselves, a process facilitated and mediated by interaction with others. ...
... This qualitative study operated within a constructivist research paradigm, taking a relativist-subjectivist ontological-epistemological perspective [22][23][24] and utilised semi-structured individual interviews. A phenominological methodology [25] with an inductive thematic analysis approach was employed to explore the participants' lived experiences of their second-year international rural placement. Furthermore, theoretical framework analysis was utilised in identifying and contextualising the transformative learning aspects of this second-year international rural placement. ...
Article
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Introduction Rural placements are an important component of rural medical education programs seeking to develop rural practice pathways for medical students. These placements are usually domestic, but James Cook University in Australia developed an international rural placement program in the first half of the medical course that was funded through bursaries. This study explores how the international rural placement helped to shape the lives (personal development and learning) of the participants, using Transformational Learning Theory as a framework for identifying and describing the transformational elements, process and impact of the program. Methods Sixty-five students received a bursary for an international rural placement between 2001–2019. All were contacted by email and invited to participate in a short survey and a follow-up interview. Fifteen participants agreed and twelve were able to participate in individual semi-structured interviews which were recorded, transcribed and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Results Participants reported that the bursary provided a “once in a lifetime opportunity” to “experience eye-opening and culturally rich difference”. Nonetheless, some elements of the placement experience presented disorientating dilemmas that triggered deep reflections and shifts in perceptions. The bursary recipients realised that “being open-minded” allowed them “enjoy good company”. They were also able to assume “outsider view which allowed reassessment of their own country” and the “isolation experiences gingered desire to right health wrongs”. The triggers and mental shifts had significant impact on the bursary recipients and fostered the development of “inspirational new horizons” based on an appreciation of the “value of rural practice” and “role-modelling for life-long learning.” These findings are consistent with Transformational Learning Theory. Conclusion Participants in this study reported meaningful and strongly positive impacts from the experiences gained during an international rural clinical placement early in their course. They described transformative experiences which appear to contribute strongly to personal development. This finding supports maintaining opportunities for international experiences during rurally-oriented medical programs as these may impact longer term career choice.
... The author randomly selects a transcript to read holistically for understanding experiences of participants and then writes key words or phrases describing what participants mean (Tesch, 1990) on the right-hand side of the page. A selective reading approach is adopted by the author by highlighting significant statements to formulate meanings (van Manen, 1990). While reading and doing the coding, the question "What statement(s) or phrases(s) seem particularly essential or revealing about the phenomenon or experience being described?" ...
Chapter
Employability skills are largely conceptualized by employers and scholars and less by students, especially international research students in non-Western institutions. This chapter contributes to the literature by examining perceptions of employability skills of international research students at a Malaysian research university. The analysis of 27 semi-structured interviews reveals that students perceive employability skills, such as research, teaching, technical and project management skills as vital for their career outcomes. Soft skills, such as communication skills (both written and oral), interpersonal skills, flexibility, problem-solving and career planning, and personal attributes such as self-confidence and flexibility are necessary ingredients for the development of the skills cited. The chapter concludes that employability skills should not be assumed as a generic list of skills but as contextual skills which are desired by international research students to cater for their various employment opportunities either in their home, host or third country.
... This study was conducted according to the analysis process suggested by van Manen [19] to discover the essential meaning of the daily experiences of elderly women with multimorbidity living only with their spouses. First, the recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the information recorded in the field notes was added to the transcript. ...
Article
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Elderly women with multimorbidity in elderly couple households face the double burden of managing their diseases while fulfilling their gender roles. This study aimed to investigate the daily life experiences of elderly women with diabetes and multimorbidity living as part of couple households in Korea. Ten women aged 65 or more with diabetes and multimorbidity and living as part of elderly couple households participated in this phenomenological qualitative study. The data were analyzed with van Manen’s method of study of analytical phenomena. Four essential themes were identified. Participants regarded diabetes and multimorbidity as a part of the aging process and continued to function as caregivers for their husbands and themselves, avoiding becoming a burden to their adult children. The findings of this study could help healthcare providers better understand elderly women with diabetes and multimorbidity and assist in improving the health of such women.
... One popular method to thematise meaning in qualitative psychological research is the aforementioned coding thematic analysis, in which codes develop into themes (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Another method originates from the hermeneutic phenomenological tradition and aims to illuminate the hidden meanings of lived experiences through interpretation (Ho et al., 2017;van Manen, 2016). Finally, there is a thematic analysis approach that is based on the tradition of descriptive phe- Sundler et al., 2019). ...
Article
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People have experienced many forms of temporal disorientation during the Covid-19 crisis. For this study, we collected a rich corpus of reports on the multifaceted experiences of disorientation during the pandemic. In this paper, we study the resulting corpus using a descriptive approach. We identify six emerging themes: temporal rift; temporal vertigo; impoverished time; tunnel vision; spatial and social scaffolding of time; suspended time. We offer a phenomenological analysis of each of the themes. Based on the phenomenological analysis, we draw a key distinction between episodic and existential forms of temporal disorientation, and we argue that the Covid-19 crisis is best conceptualised as a period of suspended time.
... The methodology was qualitative since our research question concerned students' experiences and reflections. Phenomenology is the study of an individual's lived experience of the world [34], and we followed the phenomenological path, as we are interested in how students perceive and understand the phenomena in question, and what kinds of meaning these phenomena have in their subjective experiences [35]. ...
Article
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The fields of intercultural communication (IC) and intercultural education are in flux and the paradigmatic shift is away from essentialist approaches on culture and interculturality towards seeing IC and interculturality as flexible, fluid, contradictory, political, and ideological constructs. This study presents a virtual exchange project, a joint introductory course on IC between a Finnish university and a French university. One of the objectives of the course was to provide students with a more critical, non-essentialist perspective on interculturality. This study presents an analysis of 32 students’ texts (learning logs) that are processed qualitatively using content analysis to find answers to questions of (1) how students make sense of their experience of learning IC through multilingual online interactions, and (2) how different approaches on culture and interculturality are reflected in students’ leaning logs. The learning logs are written by participants during their six-week learning experience. The findings indicate that students gained confidence in interacting with people from diverse backgrounds and using multiple languages. How students reacted to and reflected on the more critical perspective on interculturality varied greatly, with many learning logs seeming to juggle between different approaches. The online environment was considered a major source of concern prior and at the beginning of the course, but as the course progressed it did not represent a barrier within the documented experiences. Our analysis aims to help teachers of IC to better address the needs of different learners. We also discuss the challenges and possibilities of a multilingual intercultural virtual exchange with a view to creating safe and motivating spaces for teaching and learning about interculturality.
... Finally, we collected qualitative data from students on their perception of the project. As a phenomenological study, we did not specifically seek to test existing theories about student learning; rather, we aimed to characterize the unique ways in which students experience the same phenomenon as a way to compile a comprehensive description of students' "lived experiences" (Starks & Brown Trinidad, 2007;Van Manen, 2016). ...
Article
Scientific practices are still largely absent from undergraduate curricula. Incorporating primary scientific literature (PSL) and podcasting into course curricula is an engaging way to provide instruction in scientific practices to undergraduate students. We present an innovative class project for biology undergraduates where students read a piece of PSL, develop annotations to learn more about the research contained within the PSL, and develop and produce a podcast episode to share the research findings with a general audience. To understand student perceptions of the project, we conducted surveys to obtain qualitative responses along with measures of science identity and project ownership. We found that the students felt like the project belonged to them and that their work on the project would ultimately benefit the scientific community. Here, we include a project handbook, schedule, and materials that can be used by any instructor to carry out this project.
... The philosophical assumptions studied the lived experiences of individuals (Van Manen, 1990), and created the development the essence of the lived experiences, not just descriptions (Moustakas, 1994). Furthermore, these lived experiences allowed me to understand how events, activities, and meanings are shaped by the unique circumstances in which they occur (Creswell & Poth, 2016). ...
Thesis
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Internal migration has been a long tradition in Nigeria. Culture is a significant aspect of internal migration in Nigeria as internal migrants move from one state to another. They, therefore, must adapt to a new culture, language, beliefs, and social identity. In addition, existing evidence showed that social, cultural, and economic factors were linked to a migrant’s status thereby impacting their mental health. Studies conducted in Nigeria identified the causation of mental disorders to supernatural causes and drug misuse with stigma towards people with mental disorders. This study identified and explored factors impacting the mental health of voluntary internal migrants in Nigeria. In addition, the study examined the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of Nigerian participants towards mental disorders. After a thorough search of existing literature on mental health in Nigeria, there were no studies exploring experiences of mental health among voluntary internal migrants in Nigeria. Therefore, a qualitative phenomenological study was conducted with nineteen voluntary internal migrant participants from Kaduna state, Federal Capital Territory (Abuja), and Lagos states in Nigeria. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken using the video conferencing platform Zoom©. The ‘silences’ theoretical framework was used as a guide in this study which explored the experiences of a marginalised and underresearched group of voluntary internal migrants in Nigeria. Five themes emerged from this study: ‘purpose of migration, ’ ‘experience of migration, ’ ‘coping strategies, ’ ‘knowledge of mental health, ’ and ‘impact of internal migration on mental health.’ The participants described the reasons for migrating as work, marriage, and wanting a better life. They described having accommodation issues, difficulties finding a job, language and cultural barriers, transportation problems, infrastructural challenges, and experienced challenges of lack of social support. In addition, they explained that insecurity challenges in the nation negatively affected them. These challenges resulted in significant stress, ultimately leading to poor mental health. Religion and perseverance helped them cope after relocating. Finally, there was an improvement in knowledge of mental health, but there were still high levels of stigma towards persons with mental disorders. This study contributes to existing knowledge by exploring the gaps in the body of knowledge regarding the experiences of voluntary internal migrants concerning mental health in Nigeria. In the long-term, this study will assist in creating further research to assist relevant stakeholders in providing more access and delivery of mental health services in Nigeria.
... För det första beskrivs ett vardagligt, känt och situerat fenomen genom att, för det andra, använda empiriska data som exempel som, för det tredje, presenteras med ett okonventionellt formulerat språk. van Manen (1990Manen ( , 2014 betonar textens möjlighet att levandegöra levda erfarenheter och det är i själva språket nyckeln till fenomenologiska studier ligger, menar han. I själva skrivprocessen bearbetas empirin, analyseras resultat och där vrids och vänds på empirin utifrån teorier och begrepp. ...
Thesis
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Storytelling is deeply interwoven with the act of teaching and learning. Teachers tell stories and anecdotes within their everyday teaching practice. Previous research on teachers’ storytelling in the interdisciplinary field of educational science has focused mainly on language development, literacy, and students’ learning from social, historical and psychological perspectives. In this thesis, the main interest is in the teachers’ perspective and their lived experience of telling stories in teaching situations. The overall aim of this thesis is to describe the pedagogical implications of teachers’ oral storytelling. Storytelling is contextualized within the framework of teaching - which in turn is understood and discussed within the continental European tradition of didaktik. From this tradition, the concept pedagogical tact is used to illuminate teachers’ storytelling at the intersection of theory and practice. The empirical data is derived from interviews and video observations. The interviews are contextualized and exemplified through both a Swedish and an Indian context. The analysis of the interviews and observations is based on a phenomenological analysis of storytelling which implies a perspective that sees storytelling as embodied. Four studies were carried out and the findings are presented in four papers. Overall, the results show that teachers’ storytelling is an everyday phenomenon, both spontaneous and prepared, closely intertwined with their relationship to their students and the content. Since teachers’ experiences of storytelling appear from the data to be spontaneous and reciprocal, such as listening to the listeners, it is suggested here that the pedagogical actions of the teachers can be described as a pedagogical tact – a tact of telling. Another important result which appears in this thesis is the importance of taking the lived body into account in teachers’ storytelling, and this aspect constitutes a contribution to research on teachers’ storytelling. Thus, the teachers’ experience of and knowledge about storytelling and didaktik are crucial for how their students experience the content. Storytelling as teaching is not completely possible to predict and consequently impossible to fully measure and control. With today’s increased demands for students’ performance to be measurable, teaching that does not lead to measurable results can therefore be seen as carrying a risk of failure. From a continental European didaktik perspective, teachers’ storytelling is, on the contrary, seen as important and as an opportunity - a way of teaching that enables students and teachers to create meanings in relation to content.
... Phenomenology seeks to explore contextual meaning through the situational knowledge of those being researched as well (Creswell, 2009). Van Manen's (1990) approach to phenomenology not only attends to the description of the phenomenon, but adds an interpretation by the researcher as a critical element of the lived experience or phenomenon and has served as a guiding influence in the development of this research study. To study how students experience and understand the group supervision component of a field practicum course within counselor education, we established our research framework based on three primary questions: ...
Article
In this phenomenological study, we explored experience of students (N=6) in group supervision within a practicum field experience course. Using a narrative-focused approach for data analysis and interpretation of journal entries, were created a thematic structure of the participants’ lived experiences using the Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ). Discussion and implications of this journal writing activity are offered to help reveal and understand the instructional effectiveness of a field practicum counseling course.
... In particular, a hermeneutic phenomenological approach was used to understand the essence of the shared experience of participants using the SVVR mobile application. According to Van Manen (1990), "Phenomenology describes how one orients to lived experience; hermeneutics describes how one interprets the "texts" of life" (p. 4). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the adoption of a virtual reality (VR) technology among parents of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study sought to learn what might increase adoption of VR technology among other parents of individuals with ASD. The study employed interviews, focus groups, and observation to collect data. The findings of the study identified factors that positively/negatively affected the parents’ decision to adopt VR technology with their children. To increase the adoption of VR by other parents of individuals with ASD, parents suggested that understanding of VR learning applications needs to increase, more teachers should be trained to use VR and there should be greater exposure to VR in schools and at home. The findings of this study may help eliminate concerns about using VR technology as a therapy for ASD individuals and encourage more parents, teachers, and other stakeholders to adopt it.
... The researchers will present the results of literacy quadrant implementation with teacher candidates registered in secondary English Language Arts methods courses from two public universities. This study followed a phenomenological hermeneutic approach described by van Manen (1990) and Heidegger (1927Heidegger ( , 1996 as a human science research approach using semiotics to develop an appropriate writing approach for the method of phenomenology and hermeneutics (van Manen, 1997). Additionally, researchers adapted and used Frayer's Model (1969), a graphic organizer that helps students form concepts and learn new vocabulary by using four quadrants on a chart to define examples, non-examples, characteristics, and non-characteristics of a word or concept. ...
Article
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The researchers of this hermeneutic phenomenological study applied Colaizzi’s (1978) method to analyze and interpret English Language Arts (ELA) teacher candidates’ (TC) learning experiences with literacy quadrants and narratives while attending secondary writing instruction methods courses in diverse institutional settings. Qualitative strategies of data collection included inquiry-driven activities such as drawing and written reflections to literacy quadrants, as well as oral responses to open-ended questions. TCs, moving from knowledge to action, were reflexive about their literacy and learning experiences and the application of knowledge and practices when preparing to teach English to all students. Analysis of TCs’ narratives showed reliance on prior assumptions about teaching writing, increased reflexive stance toward literacy practices, and improved awareness of their professional identities, efficacy, and agency as teachers. The Journal of Writing Teacher Education
... There are two approaches to phenomenology. First is the transcendental phenomenological approach (Moustakas, 1994) in which the focus is on description of the phenomenon, and second is the hermeneutic approach (Van Manen, 2016) in which the focus is on interpretation of the description/meaning of the lived experiences. Both approaches inform our study of teachers' lived experience through the process of teaching and assessment during the COVID-19 lockdown as we describe "what" they experience, and wherever possible an explanation of "how." ...
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In March 2020, an unexpected event changed the educational systems throughout the world. In the United States, the COVID-19 pandemic caused public places to close down, including schools. To continue education, schools in Maine went online. This study describes how Maine secondary science teachers taught and assessed their students while teaching remotely for the first time during the lockdown. It does so by investigating teachers’ perspectives about the impact on their students, how they handled the issue of equity, their new priorities and expectations, their teaching and assessment challenges, and their successful strategies during the initial phase of the lockdown. Apart from experiences shared by all teachers (N=10), the differences among the experience of teachers in high socioeconomic status (SES) schools (called affluent) vs the low-SES schools (called high-need) has been analyzed. For this qualitative research, semi-structured Zoom interviews were done with voluntary participation from secondary school teachers who were recruited through a snowball sampling method. A phenomenological approach was used in this research to capture the overall experience of teachers and to make meaning out of it, resulting in five themes. A comparative coding process to better understand the phenomenon was utilized to compare and contrast teachers in affluent schools vs high-need schools through the five themes. In addition, an open coding method, inspired by the grounded theory approach, led to seven emergent findings, which further describe nuances of the five overall themes. Results show that teaching and assessment were affected significantly during the Spring of 2020. Students were impacted greatly in all schools. In the wake of this impact, teachers shifted their priorities to the well-being of students rather than academics. To be more fair and equitable, they reduced their academic expectations and focused on being more available to support students. Moreover, the grading system (or in some cases criteria) was relaxed. Thus, teaching rigor was reduced, and assessment got streamlined. In the Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT), lessons shifted more towards content than practices, and teachers tried to do new engaging lessons to retain student engagement. Teachers struggled with informal formative assessment and also with active learning. For many teachers, student engagement and attendance declined with time. Teachers were not very satisfied with their teaching as they were challenged with technology, exhaustion, family responsibilities, and not being able to help struggling students as usual. Participants also shared what they were grateful for, things they learned, and their future plans to support student learning. This study highlights the inequity in Maine schools that was exacerbated during the lockdown. Teachers in high-need schools reduced their expectations a lot more than affluent schools because their students were more severely impacted, and they did not receive the same parental and administration support as affluent ones. The grading system was another limiting factor for high-need schools. There were significant differences in the two categories of teachers in terms of their challenges, strategies, and future plan. The role of parents became more important than ever before as students worked from home. All teachers persevered in the face of various challenges, tried new strategies, and did their best to support their students
... It is noted that the phenomenological approach is the most widely employed, justifiably the most suitable methodology to elicit experiences and perspectives from a group of people who have long been marginalised and disenfranchised. Using a phenomenological approach to understand other people's lived experiences indicates researchers intend to restore sensitivity in human relationships (van Manen, 2016). We are delighted to see that their interest in ethnic minorities has gone beyond the prevailing paradigm of logic, cognition, prediction, and control. ...
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This paper presents a systematic review of research on Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) education for ethnic minority students in Hong Kong SAR. Using three databases and screening with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, the study selected 38 empirical studies published in English-language peer-reviewed journals. We find that there has been a surge of publications in Hong Kong in the past decade (2010–2020), and they are mostly authored by scholars from three universities in Hong Kong. Most of the research took a phenomenological approach, using interviews as the main data collection method and focusing on underprivileged South Asian students in secondary schools. The thematic analysis showed that Hong Kong’s CSL adopted a poststructuralist paradigm for understanding and revealing social inequalities surrounding Chinese language education for ethnic minority students. The study concludes that Hong Kong must decolonise its education system to genuinely support ethnic minority students to achieve educational equality and social justice.
... Som Richardson (1990) anskueliggjør, organiserer mennesker personlige livshistorier som fortellinger som er skapt for å forklare og rettferdiggjøre erfaringer -og mine informanter var selvsagt opptatt av å gi yrket sitt legitimitet. I et profesjonsperspektiv er disse «profesjonelle fortellingene» i seg selv verdt å granske naermere, fordi de kan si noe om nettopp sterk yrkes-eller organsisasjonsidentitet. Det er også et poeng at det kan vaere glidende overganger mellom allerede ferdigtenkte og organisasjonsmessig legitime programerklaeringer og utsagn som relaterer seg tettere til informantens levde liv (Staunaes og Søndergaard, 2005), og at språk intellektualiserer bevisstheten (van Manen, 1990). ...
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The Norwegian local journalism has gone through critical changes during the last years, due to digital transformation and economical decline. Journalists experience the tension between tradition and innovation. This thesis scrutinizes how local journalism actors experience their professional everyday life and their vocational role in a time of digital changes. It further explores which tensions the intersubjective experiences carry. Data from semi-structured interviews with 16 local journalists and editors forms the basis for the research, and the theoretical framework is everyday sociology, with emphasis on the sociological phenomenology of Alfred Schutz and Berger & Luckmann. Methodologically, the study follows a sociological phenomenological approach. The thesis shows how changed working conditions affect the perceived meaning of work, the professional understanding, the perception of audience and journalistic quality, as well as the significance of the community in local journalism. Through the concepts of “relevance system” and “relevance structures” the analyses show how ideal-typical “traditional anchored” and “digital oriented” local journalists divergently hierarchize perceived meaning, professional values and journalistic relevance. While the traditionalists emphasise a critical, demarcated and autonomic professional role, the digital oriented journalists underscore public-mindedness, service orientation and storytelling. In addition, the analyses reveal that the measurability of online readership leads to a diminished focus on locally framed journalism. Increased demands of work effort and efficiency cause a tension between desktop reporting and fieldwork. This change strains the proximity affordance, which traditionally has been the distinctiveness and strength of local journalism. Everyday working demands also lead to resignation and declined attachment among a large part of the journalists. In an overall perspective, the analyses point towards a tension between what is measurable – the quantified online readership, and what cannot be measured – the social significance of local journalism. The thesis suggests that the local mission of local journalism is weakened, that professional values are under pressure and that the news production is becoming more commercialized.
... We used survey data (online, and paper-pencil) to report descriptive statistics on 2YC faculty enactment of various student success-oriented reform activities by computing frequency counts, means, and correlations. To gain deeper understanding of the geoscience faculty work, we employed phenomenology (van Manen, 2016) to examine the essence of CA roles employed by the faculty THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON FACULTY LEADERSHIP 13 over the life of the grant, from the beginning months to the present time, which is now four years into the effort. Important to this aspect of the research, we triangulated multiple data sources to ensure a robust data collection and analysis process and to ensure the meaning and veracity of the results. ...
... software version 8.4.4 (1135) for data analysis, and Van Manen's five-step thematic analysis was used during the data analysis. 36 Firstly, the researcher uploaded the transcripts to ATLAS.ti, read and reread the transcripts, which gave the researcher insight into the emerging codes. ...
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Background: Sensitivity to women's cultural needs and expectations by care providers is essential. Skilled birth services for women are as essential as traditional birth services. Therefore, collaborative skilled and cultural care optimises childbearing experiences. Aim: This study explored the experiences of birth attendants (BAs) with sensitivity to cultural practices (CPs) during pregnancy and birth among the Keiyo community in Kenya. Setting: The study was conducted in the purposively selected public health centres and dispensaries offering maternity services and the villages in Keiyo South Sub County in Kenya. Methods: A qualitative interpretive phenomenological study of BAs was conducted. Iterative and inductive interviews using a semistructured guide were conducted with 11 skilled BAs (SBAs) and eight traditional BAs (TBAs). Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using ATLAS.ti software version 8.4.4 (1135), following Van Manen's five thematic analysis steps. Results: Three themes emerged: birth attendants' cultural encounters, response to cultural encounters and collaboration. Birth attendants' responses to different cultural encounters revealed their awareness of CPs. The response was experienced as a sensitivity to the need for a triad (woman, TBAs and SBAs) collaborative care, enabling collaborative, woman-centred and culturally safe care. Conclusion: Birth attendants are exposed to cultural encounters, and their responses determine their awareness of enabling sensitive care for optimal childbearing experiences. The study illuminated the need for further collaborative engagements between the BAs and the community to facilitate positive experiences by women through woman-centred, culturally safe care.
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Introduction The organisational silence of nursing teams has received increasing attention from managers. Chinese nurses have a relatively high score for organisational silence, and male nurses score higher than female nurses. Lack of professional empathy, high pressure in the work environment, and traditional Chinese cultural factors suggest that Chinese male nurses’ experiences of and reasons for organisational silence are complex and unique. Taking male nurses in the emergency department as an example, this study explores the experience and meaning of male nurses’ organisational silence and provides ideas for nursing managers to understand the silence of male nurses. Methods and analysis An interpretative phenomenological approach underpins the study design. In this study, the purposive sampling method will be used to select male nurses who meet the inclusion criteria with maximum differentiation as a strategy. Face-to-face semistructured interviews and Van Manen analysis methods will be used for data collection and analysis. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University (ethical approval ID: 2019-KL-036-01). Participants will provide informed consent, will be able to withdraw at any time and will have their contributions kept confidential. The findings of the study will be shared with relevant stakeholders and disseminated in conference presentations and journal publications. Trial registration number Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2100047057).
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Globally, LGBTQIA+ individuals experience several health disparities. This qualitative exploratory study aimed to understand the experiences of discrimination faced by LGBTQIA+ patients in Indian hospitals using a human rights perspective. Self-identified LGBTQIA+ patients, cis-gender heterosexual employees, and administrators attending/working at public, private, and non-profit trust hospitals were interviewed in Mumbai and Delhi. The “right to non-discrimination” emerged as the central theme, with systemic and organisational discrimination as core themes. LGBTQIA+ patients faced intersectional discrimination, which had implications for their dignity and wellbeing. Discrimination in public hospitals was explicit, whereas discrimination in trust and private hospitals was subtle. Employees of core departments like psychiatry, dermatology, and HIV services, which routinely catered to LGBTQIA+ patients, were more sensitised than other departments. Most administrators and doctors were not familiar with the varied needs of the LGBTQIA+ spectrum and treated them as a homogenous group. Public hospitals did not have separate human resource departments, and most of the gender-affirmative guidelines/policies were not inclusive of the entire LGBTQIA+ spectrum. Trust hospitals, especially those with religious affiliations, tended not to have LGBTQIA+ inclusive policies. Some administrators believed that serving the minuscule LGBTQIA+ population may adversely affect business in private hospitals. Policymakers, government, and executives need to be accountable at the systemic level for better enforcement of ratified treaties and laws, designing inclusive public health policies, and reforming medical curricula. Hospital and healthcare administrators must be accountable for implementing inclusive policies and practices and creating a non-discriminatory environment for LGBTQIA+ patients.
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Although many design for manufacturing tools and methods have been developed, it is unclear if engineers at startups widely use these design support techniques. We interviewed twelve engineers employed at startups to better identify common practices related to design for manufacturing. Specifically, we sought to learn the design for manufacturing strategies and tools used, and the timing of considering manufacturing constraints—such as process cost and geometry restrictions—in startups’ new product development processes. Interviews were analyzed using an inductive coding approach. All interviewees viewed design for manufacturing as being necessary for a successful product launch, but the implementation of considering manufacturing constraints varied. Interviewees mainly learned of the importance of design for manufacturing through negative personal design experiences where they did not emphasize the consideration of manufacturing constraints, a process which was described as “earning scars.” Formal education was viewed by interviewees as having limited practical utility, and startups’ staffing and funding constraints contributed to informal new product development processes and design practices. We identified ten emergent informal design for manufacturing strategies employed at startups, with most strategies relying heavily on consulting external manufacturing experts. We noted only a limited use of design for manufacturing tools, such as manufacturing simulation software and cost modeling. Insights from this paper can lead to better educational practices, contribute to more contextualized advising of startups, and guide other resource-constrained design teams.
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The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the growing body of research on the use of poetry as a means of data analysis, presentation and dissemination. It is based on my doctoral thesis entitled ‘Travelling to the top of the mountain: The use of poetry to explore Palestinian and Arab teachers’ perceptions and the experience of their participation in a drama in education summer school’ (Alsawayfa 2019). The aim of this chapter is to consider the potential of using found poetry as an alternative means of data analysis and re-presentation in qualitative research and share how an in-depth understanding of the drama summer school participants’ stories and lived experiences was gained through this approach.
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This comparative case study explores the perceptions of caregivers and professionals, regarding the repetitive behaviour (RB) in their 4-to-13-year-old children/ students with vision impairment (VI) or with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study was conducted in Greece, as no related research has been conducted in the country. Research questions: This research aims to address the types of RBs observed by adults in children with VI or ASD, the explanations the adults employ to interpret these behaviours and the impact RBs have on the child, the caregiver, the professional and society. The underlying reason for this is an attempt to discover any potential differences between two different disabilities in a comparative fashion. The research questions that support the study are: 1. What are the RBs that caregivers and professionals observe in children with VI and children on the ASD? Does the child’s individual characteristics such as their age or ability have an impact on their behaviour? 2. What explanations do caregivers and professionals attribute to these behaviours? and 3. What is the impact of these behaviours a) on the child, b) on the caregiver/ professional, c) on others? Design: This study is based on interpretivist paradigm and followed a qualitative approach. A comparative case study design based on the ecological systems theory (EST) was adopted. 35 caregivers and accredited professionals were recruited (17 for the VI group, out of whom 8 were caregivers and 9 were professionals, and 18 for the ASD group, out of whom 9 were caregivers and 9 were professionals). Following the completion of a pilot study, all participants were interviewed regarding one specific child – their own child/ student – via semi-structured interviews. During the interviews, the researcher used a research diary as a methodological tool and video elicitation as a facilitation tool. A cross-case analysis was conducted and data was analysed according to the method of thematic analysis. Results: A link has been indicated between VI and ASD, which concerns perceptions about the socially constructed manner in which an RB is perceived. ASD is perceived by the participants as a disability with challenging characteristics, such as an RB. The ASD group perceived RB as linked to ableism, social stigmatisation and taboo, in contrast to VI, where the existence of RB seems to be a consequence of sensory loss. Bi-directionality of EST seems to have been lost completely and the macrosystem seems to drive the interactions between the ecological systems. School policy and practical implications are discussed. Keywords: repetitive behaviour, vision impairment, autism spectrum disorder, caregivers and professionals’ perceptions, social stigma, ableism
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Although international female students accounted for 44% of the enrolled international students in the United States (U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Student and Exchange Visitor Information System, 2020), their experiences regarding their ethnic name are relatively understudied in onomastic literature. This study considers the experiences of eight international female graduate students of Color who are studying at a Midwestern predominantly White university. Utilizing Critical Race Theory (CRT) and Critical Race Feminism (CRF) as the theoretical and analytical lenses, this qualitative phenomenological study collected data through semi-structured, in-depth interviews. We explore the meaning of ethnic names and their connection to participants’ multidimensional identities. Findings include experiences with microaggressions, discrimination, and racism among students in relation to their ethnic name, and point to underlying factors. Finally, implications are offered for students, faculty members, and administrators to build authentically inclusive and equitable learning communities more effectively.
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This chapter stems from the convergence of two independent efforts to develop and research pedagogy which can prepare individuals to enact with high responsibility and creativity in complex situations. The main design questions are: How does a human being cope with complexity and uncertainty to take care, in different domains and contexts, of the human activity system for which he/she is responsible? And what transformations to the traditional business education programmes are necessary to meet this challenge? The shared long-term aim is to change the traditional curriculum by expanding the boundaries of our understanding of problem situations as a human activity in which technical matters intertwine with belief, desires and emotions.Our findings are drawn from a primarily qualitative study of the pedagogical design and outcomes of the interdisciplinary Masters in Innovation, Creativity and Leadership (MICL) launched at City, University of London in 2010. We focus on the lived experience of the students, especially the first cohort to complete the final module, Creativity and the Creative Industries (CCI); and relate our analysis to the CLEHES process, a strategy of learning developed by García De la Cerda et al. (2018).Building on the work of Beer (1994), Maturana and Varela (1987) and Espejo (1996), García and his collaborators configure CLEHES as a nurturing technology to enhance enactive management which treats humans and organisations as activity systems with six ontological dimensions: body (cuerpo in Spanish), language, emotion, history, eros and silence (García De la Cerda and Saavedra Ulloa 2006; García De la Cerda and Orellana Muermann 2008; García De la Cerda 2009; García De la Cerda and Laulié Cerda 2010; García De la Cerda and Saavedra Ulloa 2016; García De la Cerda 2017; García De la Cerda et al. 2018). CLEHES involves three strategies of observation (García De la Cerda et al. 2018): Self-observation Observation of interactions, conversations and dialogues Observation of an organisational network. We conclude that there is considerable potential in further exploring the six ontological dimensions, O Technology and CLEHES (García De la Cerda et al. 2018) to better understand the necessary conditions for arts-based HE pedagogy in management and professional education.KeywordsCreative managementComplexity managementCLEHES enactive laboratoryEmbodied and arts-based management pedagogyInterdisciplinary business school pedagogy
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Neste ensaio teórico analisamos que as "boas práticas" vem ganhando evidência no campo da Educação Física. Visando compreender a construção desse conceito e as possíveis consequências de seu uso, o problematizamos mediante reflexão hermenêutica expressa num ensaio narrativo. Realizamos leituras interpretativas e o confronto de fontes bibliográficas. Observamos sua origem em áreas técnicas e administrativas que, posteriormente, derivaram em estudos sobre "melhores práticas" e "benchmarking", revelando limitações teóricas e empíricas que sugerem atenção. Não obstante, identificamos o mérito de articular pesquisa científica e campo de intervenção. Na área educacional seu uso pode representar "sedutora armadilha", conduzindo a princípios que balizam a mercantilização da Educação. Alternativamente, evocamos o conceito de "experiência compartilhada" como possibilidade para o estudo da docência fundamentada no "saber da experiência" de Outros. Sumariamente, convidamos educadores/as a repensar a troca de experiências como oportunidade para uma educação de qualidade e como resistência à perspectiva neoliberal da educação. Palavras-chave: Educação Física Escolar. Inovação Pedagógica. Práticas Pedagógicas.
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We investigated the lived workplace flourishing of South African female academics applying an interpretative phenomenological approach. Informants were female academic employees, ranging in ages from 32 to 58 years, within a university of technology. Most of the participants (60%) were black. Microsoft Teams facilitated semi-directive interviews during the lockdown level 5 restriction. Following analyses, themes included work-life languishing from the disconnect of teaching in a digital context and work flourishing from the commitment to sectoral professionalism and enabling digital technology adoption. Traditional academic institutions should reimagine a hybrid work environment that accelerates digital technologies’ transformative adoption and incorporation in a post-COVID era. Forthcoming academia’s assistance should enhance coping strategies and boundary segmentation skills in the “new normal”.
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Enhancing international students’ employability skills is an increasing concern of universities around the world. Little is known about how non-Western higher education institutions are developing employability of international students. This chapter fills the literature gap by investigating key initiatives and strategies adopted by a Malaysian research university in enhancing employability of international students, thereby contributing to international student development scholarship. Thematic analysis of 55 semi-structured interviews with postgraduate international students and staff members revealed that this university has initiated several within-curricular, co-curricular and extra-curricular initiatives to develop internationals students’ discipline-related skills, soft skills and cross-cultural/interpersonal skills. The chapter discusses differences in the adoption of these initiatives compared with those adopted by universities in the West and explains the causes of such differences.
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Bu çalışmanın amacı ortaokul öğrencilerinin uzay ve uzay araştırmalarına ilişkin düşüncelerini belirlemektir. Ortaokul öğrencilerinin uzay ve uzay araştırmalarına ilişkin düşüncelerinin belirlenmesinin amaçlandığı bu betimsel çalışmada nitel araştırma yönteminin fenomenoloji (olgubilim) deseni kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu, 2020-2021 eğitim öğretim yılında Mersin İli Toroslar ilçesinde öğrenim gören 8 ortaokul öğrencisinden oluşmaktadır. Bu çalışmada veriler açık uçlu yarı yapılandırılmış sorulardan oluşan görüşmeler yolu ile toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde içerik analizi yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda; ortaokul öğrencilerinin uzay kavramına ilişkin bir fikir sahibi oldukları, ortaokul öğrencilerinin uzayı merak ettikleri, uzaya gitmek istedikleri, uzaya ilişkin uzayda yaşam, karadelikler, yeni gezegen gibi öğrenmek istedikleri şeylerin olduğu ve uzay ile ilgili araştırma yapmayı istedikleri sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlar doğrultusunda fen bilimleri derslerinde uzay ve çalışmalarına ilişkin belgesellere, filmlere ve güncel çalışmaların görüntülerine yer verilmesi, fen bilimleri dersinde uzayın somutlaştırılması, materyal kullanımının çoğaltılması, okullarda uzay kulüpleri kurulması önerisinde bulunulabilir.
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Racial diversity in higher education leadership has been slow to cultivate and keep pace with demographic changes. Even though there are numerous ways to examine this elusive problem, higher education scholarship has not studied how faculty of Color construct a leader identity. Using an interpretative phenomenological analytical approach, this qualitative exploratory study examines how 31 newly tenured faculty of Color participants from three different research-intensive, Midwestern, public institutions construct a leader identity. Using DeRue and Ashford’s (2010) leader identity theory as an analytical framework to view the everyday experiences of faculty of Color, results are presented through three different levels of social analysis: (a) intrapersonal reflections, (b) interpersonal interactions, and (c) organizational acknowledgments. Results indicate leader identity is catalyzed from: (a) racial community inspiration, (b) career aspiration, (c) explicit encouragement, (d) interdisciplinary organizational structures, and (e) diversity advocacy. On the other hand, leader identity is inhibited by: (a) researcher and leader identity conflict, (b) lack of preparation, (c) implicit signaling, (d) tokenization withdraw, (e) ambiguous collective endorsement, and (f) formal leader denial. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.
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Researchers established that inclusive postsecondary education programs are beneficial for students with and without disabilities. However, research regarding faculty perspectives of these programs and faculty-perceived benefits and challenges is limited. This qualitative study interviewed faculty members (n=8) at a university in the southeastern United States who included university students with an intellectual disability in their general courses. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of university faculty regarding the benefits and challenges of including students with intellectual disability in their courses, as well as gaining their recommendations for faculty members who may include students with ID in future courses. Key findings included higher levels of inclusivity, increased awareness of disability, increased engagement, and a focus on improving teaching skills. Challenges were identified in the areas of awareness, worrying about making mistakes, and practical concerns. Recommendations for future instructors included being prepared with strong pedagogy, having structured classroom management plans, and being provided the opportunity to meet students with ID prior to future inclusive courses.
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Purpose Eating difficulties cause reduced food intake and poor quality of life among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. Therefore, next-of-kin eating support is crucial. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of being close to AYAs with cancer in the context of eating when they are at home between high-emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) sessions. Method In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 next-of-kin to AYAs (15–29 years old) with oncological or haematological diseases, treated with HEC. Van Manen’s hermeneutic-phenomenological approach guided the design. Results The essential meaning of the next-of-kin experiences is reflected in the overarching theme “Utilizing meals as an action-opportunity” consisting of two subthemes: ’Being on constant alert’ and “Walking a tightrope to maintain usual everyday life.” Conclusions Findings revealed that utilizing meals as an action-opportunity towards AYAs’ food intake involved existential feelings including fear of losing their loved ones. Next-of-kin experienced that providing support through and with food was their only avenue of action. However, this sparked feelings of frustration and powerlessness.
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The researchers of this hermeneutic phenomenological study applied Colaizzi’s (1978) method to analyze and interpret English Language Arts (ELA) teacher candidates’ (TC) learning experiences with literacy quadrants and narratives while attending secondary writing instruction methods courses in diverse institutional settings. Qualitative strategies of data collection included inquiry driven activities such as drawing and written reflections to literacy quadrants, as well as oral responses to open-ended questions. TCs, moving from knowledge to action, were reflexive about their literacy and learning experiences and the application of knowledge and practices when preparing to teach English to all students. Analysis of TCs’ narratives showed reliance on prior assumptions about teaching writing, increased reflexive stance toward literacy practices, and improved awareness of their professional identities, efficacy, and agency as teachers.
Article
Providing quality education for all pupils requires cooperation from members of the entire school community. One group of professionals is school assistants, who, together with teachers, play an important role in supporting pupils and inclusive education. Due to pupils’ diverse needs, the responsibilities of school assistants in schools have broadened; yet, their role in the school community has rarely been studied. This study focuses on school assistants’ experiences and addresses the following research question: How is belonging argumented in school assistants’ narratives at their work? The data comprise free writings (N = 52) and interviews (N = 9) of school assistants’ work. The narratives are analysed using categorical-content analysis. The results yield three experiences of belonging: stories of belonging, stories between belonging and non-belonging and stories of non-belonging. The study data reveal how a school as an institution can be based on conventional practices, where relationships are often formed through hierarchies, old-fashioned work roles and exclusive meeting policies. The study’s conclusion encourages the recognition of structural inequalities in school communities.
Article
p>A qualitative research design was used to listen to the experiences of women who engaged in science fiction fandom activities through online social media and how these experiences impacted their psychological well-being. The study targeted a specific population of science fiction fandom users who engaged in social media activities for at least one hour per week and had done so for at least one year. The sample consisted of 12 participants. Thematic analysis was used with the qualitative software program ATLAS.ti to analyze, code, and categorize data obtained via the transcripts. Five themes appeared from the data: nonjudgmental fandom culture, positive impact on personal relationships, mental health-related experiences, fandom as coping, and impact of negative experiences. Results showed that women who engaged in fandom activity were drawn to those communities due to the nonjudgmental nature of that fandom culture and the relationships that they formed. All participants felt their participation positively affected their psychological well-being and actively used it as an emotional coping skill. Future research could focus on a quantitative study to better understand how women utilize science fiction fandom for social interaction and coping. This insight may aid in generalizability to the broader comprehension of fandom engagement’s perceived effect on psychological well-being. Additionally, looking at computer-mediated versus face-to-face communication to include a third category combing the methods may benefit counselors in better understanding the world of their clients.</p
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This study aims to highlight co-existing perspectives in the decolonising debate by examining how geo-political historicity permeates throughout epistemologies and ontologies and manifests through creative practices such as design. The thesis sets out to study a small group of globally mobile designers in a transnational design community in Bali, Indonesia. This is a practice-led research project based on my working life and transcultural experiences as a design practitioner living and working in Bali. I recognised patterns in the expressions of the community of designers who I have named Designer Beyonders for the pragmatic reasons of selection and to draw upon the creativity research of Paul Torrance (1993) from the adjacent field of psychology. The Designer Beyonders (DBs) of this study demonstrated significant sensibilities that have implications for decolonising design epistemologies and practices. These included qualities such as dynamic, flexible, intersubjective, and creative action-led approaches to problem solving. In this study, the designers’ practices demonstrate deep-seated visions that address and challenge the epistemic injustice of colonialism through anti-colonial relationships, anchored in clear sets of values. The study perspective is framed within epistemic decolonisation, which creates a form of social hope via the emancipatory political creativity that the Designer Beyonders, working in Bali, and their world artisanship of design practices offer. These design practices contribute to a re-centring of the knowledge enterprise and how it is currently taught and practised in the West. There are three studies positioned within a critical constructivist paradigm that aim to rebalance the asymmetrical flows of power, knowledge, and resources between people, including during the knowledge recovery process, such as through life story interviews and a sensory cartography workshop where the participants could explore their own lives and emotions that could extend towards others in both social and political ways. The contextual review on decolonising design presents a pedagogical opening, by examining practice, that explores how to deliver the kinds of knowledge and understanding that can properly address longstanding systemic issues of power. For this reason, the qualitative and ethnographic research was designed with proximity in mind through a multi-method approach whilst asking the meta-question of the study: how to materialise decolonisation in design research and practice. This led to a conceptual action meta-framework, the Visitor's Hut, that acts to facilitate a self-awareness as a researcher through the complexity of global conversations; many worlds meeting. The key findings, across the three studies, indicate that the DBs embrace difference through the politics and ethics of interdependence, rather than domination. Their stories offer a social hope through an ecology of design knowledges recovered from their practices. This is an ecology that represents interculturality and assists in understanding both the circulation of knowledges and an ecological perspective. It is a critical metaphor for design that can embed new patterns of interculturality into design philosophy and practice. Thus, an ecology of design knowledge is an epistemological and political option for designers to ensure inclusion and optimise the opportunity for materialisation of decoloniality. These are active processes through material participation and practices such as a designer who keeps bees, fermenters, plastic eradicators, indigo growers, designers of waste management, beach cleaners, clay players, body mappers, game makers, anti-trend writers, and heritage preservers: others will be more deeply explored in the findings. These are knowledges that illuminate that the practice of inclusion is not diversity for diversity's sake but has the purpose of repair through the concept of creating opportunities for transposition. The three studies illuminate the deep connection between physical mobility and mental imagination.
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ABSTRACT The commencement of the role of patient liaison nurse (PLN) in the ambulatory care context of a Middle Eastern teaching hospital was an organizational response to patient care concerns during the site absence of physicians and the healthcare team. The PLN consequently evolved as a functional role of the registered nurse (RN) in ambulatory care nursing. The core research question asked was: how can a model be developed to describe the PLN role? The related topics for research included (i) the lived experiences of nurses in the functional role of the RN as PLN, (ii) what the nursing management team in the ambulatory care context considered as the functional role of the RN as PLN, (iii) the core and related concepts of the functional role of the RN as PLN, (iv) a conceptual framework to describe the PLN role, (v) the relational statements of the model that describes the functional role of the RN as PLN, (vi) the evaluation of the model, and (vii) formulation of guidelines for operationalization of the model. A qualitative process of scientific research inquiry followed two phases. The first phase included the research methods on the critical incident technique and reflective journaling to study the lived experiences of the PLN participants, and vignette responses that were used to investigate what nursing management respondents considered to be the functional role of the RN as PLN. The empirical results that emerged from the data analyses of the reflective journals and vignette responses were stated as conclusion statements of the emergent themes, and were used in phase two as the starting point for model development. The process of scientific inquiry concluded with an evaluation of the model, and the generation of guidelines for the operationalization of the model for patient liaison nursing in the ambulatory care context of a Middle Eastern teaching hospital.
Thesis
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Vocational Education and Training (VET) is not known for its transformative learning spaces. In the work-dominated discourse of VET policy and practice it is commonly and officially assumed that as the name suggests, Vocational Education and Training is directed towards preparation for work or developing skills for employment. Industry requires workers with particular skills and knowledge, and supported by associated government funding, Australia’s industry-driven VET sector responds to identified demands through training and assessing these potential workers. The ‘banking model’ fervently critiqued by Freire (1972) is alive and well in VET (Schmidt, 2020). As a practitioner working in VET teacher professional learning, my research joins a chorus of those contesting the effectiveness and adequacy of the instrumentalist approaches employed in the landscapes of VET. This qualitative case study investigates the experiences of five VET teachers who participated in a teacher professional learning program at one Victorian TAFE college, and the conditions they identified as promoting transformed perspectives of learning and teaching. The findings of my thesis contribute at a micro level to the larger picture of visionaries in the field of VET policymaking (Kangan, 1974; Wheelahan, 2019b). It offers the potential ‘how’ of implementing this vision of reimagining the pedagogy of VET, beginning in spaces of VET teacher professional learning. I argue that a humanising pedagogy of VET that understands Learning as a transformative journey, Education as spaces of human flourishing, and Teaching as an act of love, is a strong foundation on which to lay a vision for VET.
Article
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Following the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated lockdown restrictions in March 2020, young people were suddenly faced with a reduction and reconfiguration of the spaces in which they could ‘be’. This paper explores how in this lockdown context, young women (aged 10-20) experienced their bodies and wellbeing, where traditional social connections (particularly school and physical connections) were not possible. Based on qualitative responses (n=511) from an online, open-ended survey on wellbeing, physical activity, body image and social media usage, we explore how a reduction and reconfiguration of space, understood relationally, contributes to an individual's wellbeing. Using abductive reasoning and taking a phenomenological approach, we concentrate on the embodied experience of wellbeing and how this links to the spaces in which the body is lived. We suggest that the removal of spaces during lockdown, which on the one hand can be seen as problematic for maintaining wellbeing, also enabled many young women to experience new connections – with their bodies, family, and the environment and nature, that supplemented previous connections and fostered positive relationships and wellbeing. The removal of specific performative modes of judgement associated with the school environment was a positive influence on many young women's relationships with their own bodies and their wider construction of wellbeing, but increased use of social media spaces were found to reconstitute these performative experiences. The benefits of the specific and newly delimited freedoms associated with the forced lockdown have implications for an understanding of embodied wellbeing that is not individual, instead embedded inextricably in relations of connectedness with others in space and the nature of these intersubjective experiences.
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