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Antimicrobial Activity of Aqueous-Alcoholic Extracts and the Essential Oil of Verbascum thapsus L.

Authors:
  • Amol University of Special Mod
  • Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, Iran

Abstract

Background: The increasing resistance of human pathogens to the available antimicrobials is a serious threat, resulting in the need for novel antibiotic resources such as plants. Some species of the genus Verbascum have been used by mankind since ancient times as an effective remedy for infectious diseases. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous-alcoholic extracts and the essential oil of Verbascum thapsus L. against different kinds of bacterial and fungal strains, viz. Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activities of the V. thapsus extracts were examined in the present study on the basis of disc diffusion and microdilution assays, and their potency was quantitatively assessed in terms of inhibition zone diameters and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. Results: The disk diffusion test showed that the methanol extract of V. thapsus had more growth inhibitory effects on E. coli and S. pyogenes than the aqueous and ethanol extracts. The methanol and aqueous extracts had no effects on S. aureus. The maximal inhibition zone for the microorganisms sensitive to the methanol extract was in the range of 7 - 16.8 mm, and the MIC value was 31.25 μg/mL. For the ethanol extract, the maximal inhibition zone was 5.3 - 11 mm and the MIC value was 62.5 - 125 μg/mL. The essential oil of V. thapsus did not exhibit any antibacterial and antifungal activities. Conclusions: The findings of the present study revealed the V. thapsus extract possesses compounds with antibacterial properties that can be used as novel antimicrobial agents in the development of new drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases. © 2015, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences.
Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. 2015 August; 10(3): e23004. DOI: 10.17795/jjnpp-23004
Published online 2015 August 29. Research Article
Antimicrobial Activity of Aqueous-Alcoholic Extracts and the Essential Oil of
Verbascum thapsus L.
Fatemeh Ghasemi 1; Fakhreddin Rezaei 1; Atefeh Araghi 2; Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini
Tabari 2,*
1Young Researchers and Elite Club, Babol Branch, Islamic Azad University, Babol, IR Iran
2Department of Veterinary Medicine, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, IR Iran
*Corresponding author: Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini Tabari, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, IR Iran. Tel: +98-1144265008,
Fax: +98-1144271054, E-mail: m_abuhoseini@yahoo.com
Received: September 9, 2014; Revised: February 25, 2015; Accepted: March 11, 2015
Background: The increasing resistance of human pathogens to the available antimicrobials is a serious threat, resulting in the need for
novel antibiotic resources such as plants. Some species of the genus Verbascum have been used by mankind since ancient times as an
effective remedy for infectious diseases.
Objectives: This study was designed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous-alcoholic extracts and the essential oil of
Verbascum thapsus L. against different kinds of bacterial and fungal strains, viz. Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus
aureus, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus fumigatus.
Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activities of the V. thapsus extracts were examined in the present study on the basis of disc
diffusion and microdilution assays, and their potency was quantitatively assessed in terms of inhibition zone diameters and minimum
inhibitory concentration (MIC) values.
Results: The disk diffusion test showed that the methanol extract of V. thapsus had more growth inhibitory effects on E. coli and S. pyogenes
than the aqueous and ethanol extracts. The methanol and aqueous extracts had no effects on S. aureus. The maximal inhibition zone for
the microorganisms sensitive to the methanol extract was in the range of 7 - 16.8 mm, and the MIC value was 31.25 μg/mL. For the ethanol
extract, the maximal inhibition zone was 5.3 - 11 mm and the MIC value was 62.5 - 125 μg/mL. The essential oil of V. thapsus did not exhibit any
antibacterial and antifungal activities.
Conclusions: The findings of the present study revealed the V. thapsus extract possesses compounds with antibacterial properties that can
be used as novel antimicrobial agents in the development of new drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases.
Keywords: Antimicrobial Activity; Aqueous Extract; Alcoholic Extract; Essential Oil; Verbascum Thapsus L.
Copyright © 2015, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the mate-
rial just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
Plants play an essential role in the everyday needs of hu-
man life. They are used as food, cosmetics, flavors, medi-
cines, and ornaments (1). Medicinal plants because of
their potential health effects have become part of comple-
mentary medicine worldwide (2). Various plant extracts
have been widely used for therapeutic purposes, includ-
ing battling infectious diseases (3). Verbascum L. is a mem-
ber of the family Scrophulariaceae represented by 5,100
species, all of which are grown in temperate and tropical
areas (4). The genus Verbascum comprises 360 species (5).
Scrophulariaceae are a source of saponins, monoterpene
glycosides, iridoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, neolig-
nan glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, spermine alkaloids,
phenolic acids, and fatty acids (6). Plants within the ge-
nus of Verbascum have beneficial therapeutic effects and
are employed in traditional medicine. It is reported that
the leaves and flowers of Verbascum show mucolytic and
expectorant effects and are utilized to treat respiratory
diseases such as dry cough, bronchitis, tuberculosis, and
asthma in traditional medicine. Also, these plants are
drawn upon to treat superficial fungal infections, rheu-
matic pain, hemorrhoids, diarrhea, and wounds. It is also
reported that these plants have inhibitory effects against
influenza viruses A2 and B and murine lymphocytic leu-
kemia (7). In Asia, Europe, and Northern America, several
Verbascum species have been indicated as having antioxi-
dant, narcotic, antiseptic, emollient, astringent, expec-
torant, sedative, and diuretic properties; moreover, they
are used as a treatment for inflammations, tumors, and
migraine (8). The ever-increasing resistance of human
pathogens to the available antimicrobial agents is a seri-
ous threat, resulting in an urgent need for novel antibi-
otic resources such as plants (9). Some species of the ge-
nus Verbascum have been used by mankind since ancient
times to treat internal and external infections. The genus
Verbascum has been tested for antimicrobial and antifun-
Ghasemi F et al.
Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. 2015;10(3):e230042
gal activity; however, the results have revealed that the
extracts of the different species of the genus Verbascum
do not exhibit similar antimicrobial effects against differ-
ent kinds of bacteria and fungi (10).
2. Objectives
The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy
of the methanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of Verbas-
cum thapsus against Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes),
Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus),
Candida albicans (C. albicans), and Aspergillus fumigatus (A.
fumigatus) via the disk diffusion method and determina-
tion of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values.
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Collection, Identification, and Preparation of
the Plant Material
Aerial parts of V. thapsus were collected from the sub-
urbs of Arak, Markazi Province, center of Iran, and iden-
tified by the Research Center of Agriculture and Natural
Resources of Sari, Mazandaran, Iran. A voucher specimen
(Herbarium No. 448) was deposited at the herbarium of
the Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resourc-
es of Sari, Mazandaran. The collected plant material was
dried in the shade, and the leaves were separated from
the stem and ground in a grinder with a 2-mm diameter
mesh. The aqueous extract of V. thapsus was obtained by
blending 10 g of V. thapsus powder in 100 mL of boiling
sterile distilled water, centrifuged at 5,000 rpm, and ster-
ilized by ltration (0.45 μm). The aqueous extract was
concentrated in vacuum at 40°C using a rotary evapora-
tor. The residues obtained were stored at 4°C. The metha-
nol extract of V. thapsus was prepared by taking 10 g of V.
thapsus powder in Soxhlet extraction with methanol (3X)
for 6 hours. Then, the methanol was evaporated under
vacuum, and the residue was dissolved in dimethyl sulf-
oxide (DMSO) to give a concentration of 100 mg mL-1. The
ethanol extract of V. thapsus was obtained by blending 10
g of V. thapsus powder with 50% ethanol (3X) at 50°C. The
ethanol was evaporated under vacuum, and the residue
was dissolved in DMSO to give a concentration of 100 mg
mL-1. For the isolation of essential oil, 100 g of V. thapsus
powder was hydrodistillated in a Clevenger-type appara-
tus for 3 hours. The oil was dried over anhydrous sodium
sulfate and kept at 4°C in a sealed brown vial (10).
3.2. Antimicrobial Assay
E. coli ACCT 25922, S. aureus ACCT 1112, S. pyogenes PTTC
1447, C. albicans ATCC 10231, and A. fumigatus ATCC 26606
were obtained from the Industrial Research and Training
Center of Iran to examine the antimicrobial activity of V.
thapsus.
The disk diffusion method with a 6-mm filter paper
disk (Roshd Research Laboratory, Iran) was used for the
screening of antibacterial and antifungal activities (11).
The bacterial and fungal strains were respectively tested
on Müller-Hinton and Sabouraud dextrose agars. Steril-
ized paper disks were loaded with different amounts of
V. thapsus extracts (ethanol, methanol, and water) and oil
(100, 200, 300, and 400 μg, respectively) and then placed
on the inoculated agars. Antimicrobial tests by the disc
diusion method were carried out using 100μL of sus-
pension containing 108 CFU/mL of the microorganisms.
All the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours for bac-
teria; at 25°C for 24 hours for C. albicans; and at 29°C for
2 days for A. fumigatus. Inhibition zone diameters were
measured after a conventional incubation period. Genta-
micin (10 μL) and nystatin (10 μL) (obtained from Sigma)
were used as positive reference standards respectively
for bacterial and fungal strains. Antimicrobial tests were
thereafter carried out via the disc diffusion method using
100 μL of suspension containing 108 CFU/mL of bacteria.
Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the
zone of inhibition against the test organisms. Each assay
in this experiment was repeated 3 times.
The MIC values of the V. thapsus extracts and oil against
the bacterial strains and the A. fumigatus and C. albicans
isolates were also determined based on a micro-well dilu-
tion method (12, 13). The inocula of the microorganisms
were prepared from broth cultures, and suspensions
were adjusted to 0.5 McFarland standard turbidity. The
96-well plates were prepared by dispensing into each
well 1 mL of nutrient broth. Also, 1 mL of V. thapsus ex-
tracts initially prepared at a concentration of 1000 μg/mL
was added into the first and second wells. Subsequently,
1 mL from 1 mL of the content of test tube number 2 was
added to test tube number 3 and mixed completely. This
process was performed serially to the last test tube. At the
end, 1 mL content of the last test tube (number 12) was dis-
carded. Finally, 100 μL of the inoculums was added to test
tubes number 2 to 12; and in order to have equal amounts
of material in all the test tubes, 0.9 mL of test tube num-
ber 1 was discarded. The plate was covered with a sterile
plate sealer. The contents of each well were incubated in
a shaking incubator at 200 rpm at 37°C for an appropri-
ate time period (24 hours for bacteria and 72 hours for
fungi). Microbial growth was determined by absorbance
at 600 nm using the microplate reader. The extracts and
essential oil tested in this study were screened 3 times
against each organism. The MIC was defined as the lowest
concentration of the compounds to inhibit the growth of
the microorganisms (12).
DMSO 10%, which was used for diluting the alcoholic ex-
tracts and oil of V. thapsus to a concentration of 100 mg
mL-1, was tested against the microbial strains of the pres-
ent study and showed no antimicrobial activity.
4. Results
The inhibition zone against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, and E.
coli for all the 3 extracts is shown in Table 1. The disk diffu-
sion test showed that the methanol extract of V. thapsus
Ghasemi F et al.
3
Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. 2015;10(3):e23004
had more growth inhibitory effects on E. coli and S. pyo-
genes than the aqueous and ethanol extracts. On the other
hand, the methanol and aqueous extracts had no effects
on S. aureus, while the ethanol extract had growth inhibi-
tory effects on this bacterium. A. fumigatus and C. albicans
were not susceptible to the antimicrobial compounds of
the extracts. Surprisingly, no antibacterial or antifungal ac-
tivity was observed for the essential oil of V. thapsus.
The MIC value for the aqueous extract was 62.5 μg/mL
for E. coli and 250 μg/mL for S. aureus and S. pyogenes. The
MIC value of the ethanol extract was 62.5 μg/mL for E. coli
and S. pyogenes and 125 μg/mL for S. aureus. The MIC value
for the methanol extract for E. coli and S. pyogenes was
31.25 μg/mL (Table 2).
Table 1. Antimicrobial Activity of Verbascum thapsus Extracts and Oil Against the Tested Microbial Strains Based on the Disk Diffusion Method a
Strains Aqueous Extract, μL Ethanol Extract, μL Methanol Extract, μL Essential
Oil, μL
Gentami-
cin
Nystatin
10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40
E. coli 5.83 ± 0.2 6.83 ± 0.2 8.93 ± 0.08 - 6.03 ± 0.04 8 ± 0.35 11 ± 0.0 7 ± 0.0 10 ± 0.0 13.87 ± 0.11 16.83 ± 0.2 - - - - 33.67 ± 0.22 -
S. aureus - - - - - - 5.3 ± 0.19 7 ± 0.14 - - - - - - - - 25.17 ± 0.2 -
S. pyogenes - 5.93 ± 0.08 9.07 ± 0.15 10 ± 0.0 - 5.83 ± 0.2 8 ± 0.35 10.93 ± 0.36 - 8 ± 0.14 10.23 ± 0.18 13 ± 0.0 - - - - 25 ± 0.0 -
A. fumiga-
tus
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 37 ± 2.12
C. albicans - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23.33 ± 1.08
a Inhibition zone is expressed in diameter around the test disk (mm ± SEM).
Table 2. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Values of Verbascum thapsus Against the Microorganisms Tested in the Microdilution
Assay
Strains Aqueous Extract, μg/mL Ethanolic Extract, μg/mL Methanolic Extract, μg/mL Essential Oil, μg/mL
E. coli 62.5 62.5 31.25 -
S. aureus - 125 - -
S. pyogenes 250 62.5 31.25 -
A.fumigatus - - - -
C. albicans - - - -
5. Discussion
Today more than ever, the increasing occurrence of
antibiotic-resistant strains has led to an urgent demand
for new antibiotics (14). The majority of the available
drugs in developing countries are driven from medicinal
plants; and in industrialized countries, plants make up
the raw material for the synthesis of pure chemical de-
rivatives (15).
In the current study, 2 Gram-positive strains (S. pyogenes
and S. aureus), 1 Gram-negative strain (E. coli), and 2 fun-
gal strains (A. fumigatus and C. albicans) were used to com-
pare the antimicrobial activity of the aqueous-alcoholic
extracts and the essential oil of V. thapsus. Some previous
investigations have indicated that there is no antimicro-
bial activity for the oil obtained from the dried flowering
aerial parts of V. thapsus (16). In line with these studies,
the results of the present study showed that the essential
oil of V. thapsus had no antimicrobial activity against any
of the bacterial or fungal isolates tested in the study.
The maximal inhibition zone for the microorganisms
sensitive to the methanol extract was in the range of
7 - 16.8 mm, and the MIC value was 31.25 mg/mL. For the
ethanol extract, the maximal inhibition zone was 5.3 - 11
mm and the MIC value was 62.5 - 125 mg/mL. These re-
sults clearly indicated that the alcoholic extracts of V.
thapsus were able to inhibit the growth of some patho-
genic bacteria; however, the effectiveness varied against
the different microorganisms tested. The findings of the
present study confirmed the reported results of some
other investigations insofar as some Verbascum species
contain substances with antimicrobial properties (17,
18). Some studies have been conducted on the antimicro-
bial properties of several Verbascum species extracts (16,
19-22). The results of the present study are in agreement
with a study performed by Guarino (23), who examined
the antimicrobial activity of V. macrurum leaves extracts
and demonstrated that the ethanol-aqueous extract ex-
hibited the most activity against Gram-positive bacteria
such as S. aureus.
In addition, the methanol extracts of the seeds, roots,
leaves, and flowers of V. blattaria, V. bombyciferum, V. ni-
grum, V. chaixii, V. dumulosum, V. phlomoides, V. olympicum,
V. roripifolium, and V. phoeniceum have been previously
studied for their antimicrobial activities. One study re-
ported that the extracts had a strong antimicrobial ac-
tivity against E. coli ATCC 11230 (24). Turker and Camper
(10) studied the antibacterial activity of V. thapsus extracts
(aqueous, ethanolic, and methanolic) and commercial
products of Common Mullein (an alcoholic extract, a
flower oil, tea bags, and swallow capsules) against some
bacterial strains (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S.
Ghasemi F et al.
Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. 2015;10(3):e230044
aureus, and S. epidermidis) and reported antibacterial
activity with S. epidermidis, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, and
E coli. The commercially Mullein flower oil sample (flow-
ers extracted in pure olive oil) had growth inhibitory ef-
fects on all the test organisms except S. epidermidis and
S. pyogenes (10). Another study showed that the V. thapsus
oil exhibited concentration-dependent antimicrobial ac-
tivity against B. subtilis, S. typhi, S. aureus, A. niger, and P.
aeruginosa. The results also demonstrated that the essen-
tial oil had no antimicrobial activity against E. coli and C.
albicans, which chimes in with the results of the present
study (18).
These kinds of differences in susceptibility against anti-
microbial agents in plant extracts may be related to the
inheritance of antimicrobial-resistance genes in bacteri-
al strains and/or the differences in cell-wall composition
of bacterial strains (19). Chemical composition may dif-
fer between essential oils and extracts from the same or
taxonomically similar species (25) due to external factors.
These differences will in turn affect the biocidal activity
of oils (26).
Finally, the results of the present study indicated that
V. thapsus possesses compounds with antibacterial prop-
erties that can be used as novel antimicrobial agents in
the development of new drugs for the treatment of infec-
tious diseases. The presence of these medicinal effects
suggests that this plant, V. thapsus, may be a source of bio-
active substances with multifaceted activities. Further
phytochemical analyses such as fractionation should be
performed on these extracts to isolate active constituents
and conduct subsequent pharmacological evaluations.
Acknowledgements
We express our special thanks to Dr. Mohammad Reza
Youssefi, Head of Young Researchers’ and Elite Club,
Babol Branch, Islamic Azad University, for his kind techni-
cal advice and support.
Authors’ Contributions
Fatemeh Ghasemi and Fakhreddin Rezaei developed
the original idea and the protocol and analyzed data.
Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini Tabari and Atefeh Araghi con-
tributed to the development of the protocol, abstracted
the data, and prepared the manuscript.
Funding/Support
This study was supported in part by Grant#bpj91035,
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Babol Branch, Islamic
Azad University, Babol, IR Iran.
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... In the research conducted, the Toxic effects of this plant have not been seen [25,29,31,32]. Besides, the traditional use of Mullein as herbal medicine is described in the EMA Pharmaceutical Monograph [33]. ...
... Each can of cream contained 7.5% of plant extract. The safety of this dose was obtained according to previous ndings and studies [33]. The same base cream with green color was used to make the placebo. ...
... It seems that the improvement of redness and secretions at the episiotomy site in this study can be attributed to the antiin ammatory and antioxidant effects of the compounds of this plant, especially the polysaccharide in it, which accelerates the wound healing process by preventing wound infection [20,46,50]. While the results of one study showed that the Verbascum extract oil has no antibacterial and antifungal activity [33]. ...
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Background: The pain and discomfort caused by episiotomy affect the quality of life of the mothers, so rapid and complete repair of the episiotomy is very important. Due to the effective ingredients of Verbascum Thapsus, it has been used since ancient times to treat wounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Verbascum Thapsus on episiotomy wound healing. Methods: The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Ninety-three primiparous women who referred to Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Saveh in 2015 were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (Verbascum Thapsus) and control (placebo). Both groups covered the episiotomy wound twice a day for 10 days with 2 cm of prescribed creams. Wound healing was assessed using the REEDA scale before the intervention and on days 1,3 and 10 after the intervention. Results: Before the intervention, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of demographic characteristics, obstetrics and REEDA scores between the two groups (p <0.05). The mean scores of REEDA on days 1 and 3 in the intervention group was better than the control group but was not statistically significant. However, on the tenth day after the intervention, the mean scores of REEDA were significantly better in the Verbascum group than the placebo (p = 0.01). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, it seems that Verbascum Thapsus is effective in repairing episiotomy wounds. The researchers hope that the results of this study can provide the clinical evidence for the use of this herbal medicine in the wound healing process. Trial registration: this study was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) with the code “IRCT201404073106N15” on 02/12/2015
... In the research conducted, the Toxic effects of this plant have not been seen [25,29,31,32]. Besides, the traditional use of Mullein as herbal medicine is described in the EMA Pharmaceutical Monograph [33]. ...
... Each can of cream contained 7.5% of plant extract. The safety of this dose was obtained according to previous findings and studies [33]. The same base cream with green color was used to make the placebo. ...
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Background The pain and discomfort caused by episiotomy affect the quality of life of the mothers, so rapid and complete repair of the episiotomy is very important. Due to the effective ingredients of Verbascum Thapsus , it has been used since ancient times to treat wounds. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of Verbascum Thapsus on episiotomy wound healing. Methods The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Ninety-three primiparous women who were referred to Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Saveh in 2015 were randomly divided into two groups of intervention ( Verbascum Thapsus ) and control (placebo). Both groups covered the episiotomy wound twice a day for 10 days with 2 cm of prescribed creams. Wound healing was assessed using the REEDA scale before the intervention and on days 1,3 and 10 after the intervention. Results Before the intervention, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of demographic characteristics, obstetrics, and REEDA scores between the two groups ( p < 0.05). The mean scores of REEDA on days 1 and 3 in the intervention group were better than the control group but were not statistically significant. However, on the tenth day after the intervention, the mean scores of REEDA were significantly better in the Verbascum group than the placebo ( p = 0.01). Conclusions According to the results of this study, it seems that Verbascum Thapsus is effective in repairing episiotomy wounds. The researchers hope that the results of this study can provide clinical evidence for the use of this herbal medicine in the wound healing process. Trial registration This study was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) with the code “ IRCT201404073106N15 ” on 02/12/2015.
... Similar results were found by Marian et al. [41]. Contrary results were obtained by the authors of this work showing that Verbascum L. extracts exhibited good antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. faecalis [42], L. monocytogenes, B. anthracis, B. cereus, S. Typhimurium [16], S. pyogenes, and E. coli [43]. The results of this research showed that Astragalus extracts had moderate antibacterial activity. ...
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The aim of this study was to develop active packaging materials covered in active coatings (offering antibacterial and antiviral properties) that contain selected plant extracts. In addition, the synergistic effect of the active substances in these extracts was also analysed. The results of the study demonstrated that Scutellaria baicalensis and Glycyrrhiza L. extracts (two of six analysed plant extracts) were the most active agents against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Additionally, the synergistic effect of S. baicalensis and Glycyrrhiza L. extracts was noted, meaning that the effect of these two plant extract mixtures on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas syringae growth was higher than the activity of individual pure extracts. Mixtures of the extracts were introduced into the coating carrier. A polyethylene (PE) foil was then coated with active layers containing mixtures of S. baicalensis and Glycyrrhiza L. extracts as antimicrobial agents. The results of this research showed that all of the active coatings had a bacteriolytic effect on B. subtilis and a bacteriostatic effect on S. aureus cells. The coatings were found to be inactive against E. coli and P. syringae cells. This means that the coatings could be used as internal coatings to preserve food products against Gram-positive bacteria that may be responsible for food spoilage. The results of this study also demonstrated that the coatings were highly active against phage phi 6 phage particles, used as SARS-CoV-2 surrogate. This means that the coatings could be used as external coatings to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria via human hands.
... It can also result in sinusitis, otitis, mastoiditis, pneumonia with empyema, joint or bone infections, necrotizing fasciitis, or myositis, and, more infrequently, in meningitis or endocarditis. Streptococcus pyogenes infections of the skin can be superficial (impetigo) or deep (cellulitis) (Ghasemi et al. 2015).The pharyngeal infections are found to be more common or highest among children's older than three years mostly hazardous to school aged children. It has been studied that high rate of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infection occurs in men rather than women. ...
... antioxidant [49,50,56], antibacterial [39,[57][58][59], antiviral [60][61][62][63], anthelmintic [64,65], antihepatitis [66,67], anti-trichomonas [68,69], and anti-leishmanial effects [70]. [72], and the dimer amentoflavone (6) [73]. ...
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Traditional medicine is still widely practiced in Iraqi Kurdistan, especially by people living in villages on mountainous regions; medicinal plants are also sold in the markets of the large towns, such as at Erbil, the capital of the Kurdistan Autonomous Region. About a dozen of Verbascum species (Scrophulariaceae) are commonly employed in the Kurdish traditional medicine, especially for treating burns and other skin diseases. However, the isolation of bioactive secondary metabolites from these plants has not been the subject of intense scientific investigations in Iraq. Therefore, the information reported in the literature about the species growing in Kurdistan has been summarized in the first part of this paper, although investigations have been performed on vegetable samples collected in neighbouring countries, such as Turkey and Iran. In the second part of the work, we have investigated, for the first time, the contents of a methanol and a hydromethanol extract of V. calvum flowers. The extracts exhibited weak antimicrobial activities, whereas the methanol extract showed significant antiproliferative effects against an A549 lung cancer cell line. Moreover, both extracts exhibited a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging action against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, comparable to that of ascorbic acid. In the subsequent phytochemical study, a high phenolic content was determined in both extracts by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay and medium-pressure liquid chromatographic (MPLC) separation led to the isolation of iridoid glucosides ajugol and aucubin from the methanol extract. In conclusion, the high anti-inflammatory effects of aucubin and the remarkable antioxidant (antiradical) properties of the extracts give scientific support to the traditional use of V. calvum flowers for the preparation in Kurdistan of remedies to cure skin burns and inflammations.
... The ethanolic extract was obtained using the following method: 50g of Verbascum Thapsus L. powder was soaked in ethanol 80%, and shaken for 24h at room temperature. Then, this mixture was filtered and the ethanol was evaporated using rotary evaporator [10]. S. aureus PTCC 1112, B. cereus ATCC 11778, E. coli PTCC 1270 and S. enterica PTCC 1709 were used as the standard strains. ...
Article
Background The antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial activities of Verbascum thapsus L., known as great mullein, (an important medicinal plant containing different biochemical compounds including sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, saponins and lignins) were determined. There is not much data, to our knowledge, in this respect. Method The antioxidant activities of V. thapsus were investigated by the DPPH (2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. Using GC-MS the presence of different anticarcinogenic products including 1-hexzanol (2.11%), 2-hexene (1.95%), etc. was determined in the ethanolic extract of V. thapsus. The antimicrobial activities of V. thapsus were determined by the minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods using the Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains. Result The least concentration of V. thapsus L. ethanolic extract (50 mg/l) resulted in only 21.26% inhibition of DPPH free radicals, however, the concentrations of 300 mg/l resulted in almost the highest inhibition (91.31%) of DPPH free radicals. The antioxidant activities of synthesized antioxidant BHT at the concentration of 300 mg/l or higher was similar to the antioxidant activities of V. thapsus L. ethanolic extract. Both the isolated and the standard Gram-negative bacterial strains were more tolerant to the V. thapsus ethanolic extract, compared with the Gram-positive bacterial strains. Bacillus cereus was the most sensitive bacterial strain among the tested bacterial strains. Conclusion The medicinal plant V. thapsus L. can be used for the treatment of different diseases, such as cancer and infectious diseases.
... In similar study indicated that VT methanolic extract have strong antibacterial effects against E. coli, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus cereus, P. aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and SA 31 . In other study presented that MIC of VT ethanolic extract against SA was 0.125 g/ml 32 . ...
Article
Plants are common remedies applied by a majority of people. Ethnomedicinal plants are considered new resources for yielding components that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in cure of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Verbascum thapsus (VT) is a vernacular plant in Iran, which the plant has been used as an antioxidant, antiflammatory, tonic, indigestion, antipyretic, antiviral, and antifungal. In this study, authors describe properties of aqueous extract of VT against common pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC No. 25923 (SA)) with broth macro-dilution and agar well and disk diffusion methods. The antibacterial activities of the plant was assessed by macro-dilution method in Mueller-Hinton broth medium and agar well and disk diffusion methods. The results revealed that the aqueous extract of VT exhibited strong levels of antibacterial activities against SA. By increasing the concentration of the extract, the inhibition zone in many of samples augmented. Partially, in agar disk diffusion the widest inhibition zone of 15 mm occurred in 0.083 g/ml VT with no inhibition with distilled water. In agar well diffusion, the widest inhibition zone of 13 mm observed in 0.083 g/ml. MIC and MBC of VT were 0.01 and 0.02 g/ml, respectively. Find discrepancies in SA sensitivity to VT with greater inhibition in disk diffusion tests. Our findings indicated that VT aqueous extract had a potential to be applied as antibacterial agent.
... Verbascoside showed the highest antibacterial activity against all strains [33]. The methanol extract of V. thapsus aerial parts had growth inhibitory effects on E. coli and S. pyrogenes (MIC: 31.25 µg/ml) [34]. I.K.Ferguson had a strong antimicrobial activity against S. aureus ATCC 6538P [35]. ...
Article
Medicinal plants represent rich sources of traditional medicines and numerous currently used medicines are either directly or indirectly derived from plants. Verbascum thapsus L. (great mullein or common mullein), a medicinal herb indigenous to northern Africa, western and central Asia, and Europe, has been brought to the Americas and Australia. It has been used as a medicine for lung, skin and throat disorders and has a long history of therapeutic importance, particularly as an astringent and calming agent. Presently, the dried leaves, flowers, various plant extracts and flower oil are used in several formulations within Indian traditional medicine. An extract taken from the roots is useful in minimizing toothache, and it also relieves stiffness and seizures. V. thapsus contains a wide variety of phytoconstituents, such as flavonoids, iridoid, phenylethanoid and phenylpropanoid glycosides, saponins, as well as vitamin C and minerals. The most valuable constituents are coumarin and hesperidin, which possess healing properties. Emerging literature based on experimental studies on V. thapsus demonstrates various biological and pharmacological properties, including antiviral, antioxidant, analgesic, sedative, anti-inflammatory, hypnotic, antibacterial, antifungal, as well as anticancer activities. The present review provides an updated, comprehensive, and critical evaluation of various health-promoting and disease-mitigating properties of V. thapsus.
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Background: Domestic cultivation of medicinal plants is an important strategy for protecting these species from over harvesting. Some species of medicinal plants have been brought into cultivation for more than hundreds years. Concerns about severe loss of genetic diversity and sustainable cultivation can potentially limit future use of these valuable plants. Genetic studies with comprehensive sampling of multiple medicinal species by molecular markers will allow for assessment and management of these species. Here we examine the population genetic consequences of cultivation and domestication in Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. We used chloroplast DNA and genomic AFLP markers to clarify not only the effects of domestication on genetic diversity, but also determine the geographic origins of cultivars and their genetic divergence from native populations. These results will allow both better management of cultivated populations, but also provide insights for crop improvement. Results: Twenty-one cpDNA haplotypes of S. ningpoensis were identified. Wild populations contain all haplotypes, whereas only three haplotypes were found in cultivated populations with wild populations having twice the haplotype diversity of cultivated populations. Genetic differentiation between cultivated populations and wild populations was significant. Genomic AFLP markers revealed similar genetic diversity patterns. Furthermore, Structure analysis grouped all wild populations into two gene pools; two of which shared the same gene pool with cultivated S. ningpoensis. The result of Neighbor-Joining analysis was consistent with the structure analysis. In principal coordinate analysis, three cultivated populations from Zhejiang Province grouped together and were separated from other cultivated populations. Conclusions: These results suggest that cultivated S. ningpoensis has experienced dramatic loss of genetic diversity under anthropogenic influence. We postulate that strong artificial selection for medicinal quality has resulted in genetic differentiation between cultivated and wild populations. Furthermore, it appears that wild populations in Jiangxi-Hunan area were involved in the origin of cultivated S. ningpoensis.
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This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L.) under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows). This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.
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Methanol extracts obtained from endemic Verbascum pseudoholotrichum. Hub.-Mor., Verbascum cymigerum. Hub.-Mor., Verbascum cholorostegium. Bornm. & Murb., Verbascum linguifolium. Hub.-Mor., Verbascum pellitum. Hub.-Mor., Sideritis brevidens. P.H. Davis, Sideritis cilicica. Boiss. & Bal., Sideritis vuralii. H. Duman & Baser, Stachys aleurites. Boiss. & Heldr., and Stachys pinardii. Boiss. have been investigated for their antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity was determined with Escherichia coli. ATCC 11230, Staphylococcus aureus. ATCC 6538P, Klebsiella pneumoniae. UC57, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ATCC 27853, Proteus vulgaris. ATCC 8427, Bacillus cereus. ATCC 7064, Mycobacterium smegmatis. CCM 2067, Listeria monocytogenes. ATCC 15313, Micrococcus luteus. CCM 169, Candida albicans. ATCC 10231, Rhodotorula rubra. DSM 70403, and Kluyveromyces fragilis. ATCC 8608 by the disk diffusion method. Verbascum. L. extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast cultures. The extracts of Stachys. L. were effective only against bacteria. The extracts of Sideritis. L. demonstrated antimicrobial effects against the bacteria and the yeast cultures used in this study.
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The ethanolic extracts obtained from the leaves of Verbascum sinuatum L. (Scrophulariaceae) were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against the pathogens causing complicated urine tract infection (Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans) disk diffusion method and microdilution method. Some antibacterial and antifungal antibiotics were used as a positive reference standard to determine the sensitivity of the strains. The extracts showed strong antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans with inhibition zones of 20.0, 18.0 and 20.0 mm, with MIC's and MBC's of 4.0 (8.0), 8.0 (16.0) and 8.0 (16.0) µg/mL, respectively. Also, the extracts exhibited moderate activity against the other test microorganisms. The results demonstrate that the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Verbascum sinuatum L. has significant activity and suggest that it may be useful in the treatment of infections.
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The leaves, flowers, and whole aerial parts of Verbascum L. (Scrophulariaceae) species are used to treat eczema and other types of inflammatory skin conditions for desiccating wounds in traditional Turkish medicine.The methanolic extracts prepared with thirteen Verbascum species growing in Turkey, including V. chionophyllum Hub.-Mor., V. cilicicum Boiss., V. dudleyanum (Hub.-Mor.) Hub.-Mor., V. lasianthum Boiss., V. latisepalum Hub.-Mor., V. mucronatum Lam., V. olympicum Boiss., V. pterocalycinum var. mutense Hub.-Mor., V. pycnostachyum Boiss. & Heldr., V. salviifolium Boiss., V. splendidum Boiss., V. stachydifolium Boiss. & Heldr and V. uschackense (Murb.) Hub.-Mor. were assessed for their in vivo wound healing activity. In vivo wound healing activity of the plants were evaluated with linear incision and circular excision experimental models subsequently histopathological analysis. The healing potential was comparatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol®, which contains 1% extract of Centella asiatica. The methanolic extracts of V. olympicum (36.6%, 75.6%), V. stachydifolium (40.1%, 79.1%) and V. uschackense (37.4%, 70.5%) demonstrated the highest activities on the both wound models. Moreover, the methanolic extracts of V. latisepalum (32.7%, 40.3%), V. mucronatum (21.2%, 26.4%), and V. pterocalycinum var. mutense (26.7%, 56.6%) were found generally highly effective. On the other hand, the rest of the species did not show any remarkable wound healing effect. Results of the present study support the continued and expanded utilization of these plant species employed in Turkish folk medicine. The experimental study revealed that Verbascum species display remarkable wound healing activity.
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An ethnomedicinal study was conducted in the remote Hindukush-Himalayan valleys of Utror and Gabral, during which 36 common folk medicinal recipes of the area were documented. The indigenous methods of medicinal plants collection and their further processing were also explored. It was also observed that huge quantities of valuable medicinal plants are lost every year due to lack of proper collection, cleaning, packing and storage techniques on the part of local collectors. © Copyright 2006 - African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines.
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The composition of the essential oil obtained from the dried flowering aerial parts of Verbascum thapsus L. was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Ninety-two components were identified in the essential oil of V. thapsus. The major components of the essential oil were 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (14.3 %) and (E)-phytol (9.3 %). The antimicrobial activity of V. thapsus oil was studied using the disk diffusion method and determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The V. thapsus oil exhibited concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergilus niger. The essential oil did not show any antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.
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A novel macrocyclic dimer lactone, named verbalactone, was isolated from the roots of Verbascum undulatum and exhibited interesting antibacterial activity. It is the first time that 1,7-dioxacyclododecane is reported as the ring system of a natural product. The structure and the absolute stereochemistry of the new compound were determined by spectral methods and chemical correlation.
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Context: Verbascum phlomoides L. (Scrophulariaceae) (mullein) used in the European folk medicine due to its anti-inflammatory and soothing action on the respiratory tract is thoroughly documented in handbooks and scientific literature. Nevertheless, information regarding the influence of the polyphenol content on pharmacological activity is scarce. Objective: This study explored the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of V. phlomoides polyphenol-rich extract. Materials and methods: Dried mullein flowers (200 g) were subjected to water extraction (60 °C, 2 h, herb/solvent ratio = 1/10 m/v) and further to n-butanol partition. Total phenolics were spectrophotometrically determined and specific compounds were evaluated by HPLC. The antioxidant activity was assessed by the 2,2-di(4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The anti-inflammatory potential of the extract (50-200 μg/mL) was evaluated in vitro by ELISA measurement of ICAM-1 expression in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells and in vivo by the rat paw edema assay. Results: The mullein extract contained 4.18% total polyphenols expressed as gallic acid. The main components identified by HPLC were: rosmarinic acid (14.93 mg/g), caffeic acid (39.96 mg/g), ferulic acid (29.61 mg/g) and quercetin (17.29 mg/g). Acteoside was not detected; aucubin was detected in traces (0.028 mg/g). Depending on concentration, the extract exerted scavenging activity on DPPH radical (EC50 7.09 mg/mL), significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression by 55-58.8% on human umbilical vein endothelial cells at 100 and 200 μg/mL, but failed to reduce egg-white-induced rat paw edema. Discussion and conclusion: Mullein polyphenols play an important role in exerting the antioxidant effect but have a weak influence on anti-inflammatory activity that is correlated, probably, to a higher content of iridoids and phenylethanoids.