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Biofield Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modification of Physical and Thermal Properties of Indole

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Indole compounds are important class of therapeutic molecules, which have excellent pharmaceutical applications. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of indole. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD study demonstrated the increase in crystalline nature of treated indole as compared to control. Additionally, the treated indole showed increase in crystallite size by 2.53% as compared to control. DSC analysis of treated indole (54.45ºC) showed no significant change in melting temperature (Tm) in comparison with control sample (54.76ºC). A significant increase in latent heat of fusion (ΔH) by 30.86% was observed in treated indole with respect to control. Derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) of treated indole showed elevation in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) 166.49ºC as compared to control (163.37ºC). This was due to increase in thermal stability of indole after biofield treatment. FT-IR analysis of treated indole showed increase in frequency of N-H stretching vibrational peak by 6 cm-1 as compared to control sample. UV spectroscopy analysis showed no alteration in absorption wavelength (λmax) of treated indole with respect to control. The present study showed that biofield has substantially affected the physical and thermal nature of indole.
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Environmental Analytical Chemistry
Mahendra Kumar et al., J Environ Anal Chem 2015, 2:4
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2380-2391.1000152
Research article Open Access
Volume 2 • Issue 4 • 1000152
J Environ Anal Chem
ISSN: 2380-2391 JREAC, an open access journal
Keywords: Indole; X-ray diraction; ermal analysis; Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy; UV-Vis spectroscopy
Abbreviations
XRD: X-ray diraction; DSC: Dierential scanning calorimetry;
TGA: ermogravimetric analysis; DTA: Dierential thermal analyzer;
DTG: Derivative thermogravimetry; FT-IR: Fourier transform infrared;
UV-Vis: Ultraviolet-visible
Introduction
e theoretical basis of medicinal chemistry has become much
more sophisticated, but is naive to suppose that the discovery of drugs
is merely a matter of structure-activity relationships. Indole is organic
compound which is parent substance for a large number of important
molecules occurring in nature [1]. e indole based compounds are
important class of therapeutic molecules which can replace many
existing pharmaceuticals in near future. Indole is colourless crystalline
solid with a range of odours; naphthalene like in case of indole to fecal
in case of skatole (3-methylindole). Tryptophan is an indole derivative
which is one of the important amino acids. Especially, serotonin an
important indole derivative which is a vasoconstrictor hormone plays
an interesting role in conducting impulses to brain [2]. Moreover, some
indole alkaloids show signicant impact on muscle contraction while
toxiferenes act as muscle relaxants. Additionally, 5-hydroxytryptamine
receptors an derivative of indole have been used for synthesis of
sumatriptan [3] for the treatment of migraine, ondasetran [4] used in
chemotherapy, and alosetron [5] for the treatment of irritable bowel
syndrome. Delavirdine and inhibitor of cytochrome P450 isozyme
CYP3A4, is a drug which has been designed for HIV treatment [6].
Further, indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a natural indole derivative found
commonly in cruciferous vegetables which has been indicated as
a promising agent in preventing breast cancer development and
progression [7].
Since, indole is used as an intermediate for synthesis of these
pharmaceutical compounds, where its rate of reaction plays a pivotal
role. In a previous research study it was shown that rate of reaction of
an organic compound can be accelerated by increasing its crystallite
Biofield Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modification of Physical and
Thermal Properties of Indole
Mahendra Kumar T1, Rama Mohan T1, Alice Branton1, Dahryn Trivedi1, Gopal Nayak1, Rakesh K Mishra2, and Snehasis Jana2*
1Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA
2
Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal- 462026, Madhya Pradesh, India
size [8]. Hence, by considering the above excellent applications of
indole, herein an attempt was made to use an approach that could be
benecial in order to modify the physical and thermal properties of
indole.
A physicist, William Tiller proposed the existence of a new force
related to human body, in addition to four well known fundamental
forces of physics: gravitational force, strong force, weak force, and
electromagnetic force. Fritz-Albert, a biophysicist proposed that
human physiology shows a high degree of order and stability due to
their coherent dynamic states [9-12]. us, the human body emits
the electromagnetic waves in form of bio-photons, which surrounds
the body and it is commonly known as bioeld. erefore, the
bioeld consists of electromagnetic eld, being generated by moving
electrically charged particles (ions, cell, molecule etc.) inside the human
body. Furthermore, a human has ability to harness the energy from
environment/universe and can transmit into any object (living or non-
living) around the Globe. e object(s) always receive the energy and
respond into useful way that is called bioeld energy and this process is
known as bioeld treatment (e Trivedi Eect®).
Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld treatment is known to alter the characteristics
of many things in several research elds such as, material science [13-
17], agriculture [18-20] and biotechnology [21]. Bioeld treatment has
shown excellent results in improving the antimicrobial susceptibility
pattern, and alteration of biochemical reactions, as well as induced
alterations in characteristics of pathogenic microbes [22,23]. Exposure
Abstract
Indole compounds are important class of therapeutic molecules, which have excellent pharmaceutical applications.
The objective of present research was to investigate the inuence of bioeld treatment on physical and thermal
properties of indole. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as
untreated, and bioeld treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated samples were characterized by
X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform
infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD study demonstrated the increase
in crystalline nature of treated indole as compared to control. Additionally, the treated indole showed increase in
crystallite size by 2.53% as compared to control. DSC analysis of treated indole (54.45ºC) showed no signicant
change in melting temperature (Tm) in comparison with control sample (54.76ºC). A signicant increase in latent heat
of fusion (ΔH) by 30.86% was observed in treated indole with respect to control. Derivative thermogravimetry (DTG)
of treated indole showed elevation in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) 166.49ºC as compared
to control (163.37ºC). This was due to increase in thermal stability of indole after bioeld treatment. FT-IR analysis
of treated indole showed increase in frequency of N-H stretching vibrational peak by 6 cm-1 as compared to control
sample. UV spectroscopy analysis showed no alteration in absorption wavelength (λmax) of treated indole with respect
to control. The present study showed that bioeld has substantially affected the physical and thermal nature of indole.
*Corresponding author: Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory
Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad, India, Tel:
91-755-6660006; E-mail: publication@trivedisrl.com
Received July 18, 2015; Accepted August 03, 2015; Published August 10, 2015
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015)
Bioeld Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modication of Physical and Thermal
Properties of Indole. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 152. doi:10.4172/2380-2391.1000152
Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Volume 2 • Issue 4 • 1000152
J Environ Anal Chem
ISSN: 2380-2391 JREAC, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Bioeld Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modication of
Physical and Thermal Properties of Indole. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 152. doi:10.4172/2380-2391.1000152
Page 2 of 8
and treated samples, respectively.
ermogravimetric analysis-dierential thermal analysis
(TGA-DTA)
ermal stability of control and treated indole were analyzed by
using Metller Toledo simultaneous TGA and Dierential thermal
analyzer (DTA). e samples were heated from room temperature to
400ºC with a heating rate of 5ºC/min under air atmosphere.
Percent change in temperature at which maximum weight loss
occur in sample was calculated using following equation:
( )
, , ,
% / 100
max max treated max control max control
change in T T T T
×
=
Where, Tmax, control and Tmax, treated are the maximum thermal
decomposition temperature in control and treated sample, respectively.
FT-IR spectroscopy
FT-IR spectra were recorded on Shimadzu’s Fourier transform
infrared spectrometer (Japan) with frequency range of 4000-500 cm-1. e
treated sample was divided in two parts T1 and T2 for FTIR analysis.
Uv-Vis spectroscopic analysis: UV spectra of control and
treated indole were recorded on Shimadzu UV-2400 PC series
spectrophotometer with 1 cm quartz cell and a slit width of 2.0 nm. e
analysis was carried out using wavelength in the range of 200-400 nm.
e treated sample was divided in two parts T1 and T2 for the analysis.
Results and Discussion
XRD characterization
XRD of control and treated indole are presented in Figure 1. e
control indole showed the XRD peaks at 2θ equals to 11.42º, 11.55º,
11.81º, 11.99º, 12.19º, 23.55º, 23.78º, 24.15º and 49.23º. Whereas the
treated indole XRD diractogram showed increase in intensity of the
peaks. e XRD showed peaks at 2θ equals to 10.76º, 11.59º, 11.93º,
12.20º, 20.31º, 21.68º, 24.03º, 36.41º, 36.52º, 47.24º, 47.40º, and 49.26º.
e increase in intensity of the bioeld treated indole may be attributed
to increase in long range order of the atoms. e crystallite size was
calculated using Scherrer formula (crystallite size = kλ /b cos θ) and the
result are presented in Figure 2. e control indole showed a crystallite
size 110.65 nm; however, the treated showed increase in crystallite size
(113.46 nm). e crystallite size was increased by 2.53% as compared
to control indole. Caruntu et al., showed uniform increase in crystallite
size with increasing sintering temperature [25]. Gaber et al., showed
that elevation in processing temperature caused decrease in dislocation
density and increase in number of unit cell which ultimately increased
the crystal growth [26]. Additionally, Raj et al., also suggested that increase
in temperature causes drastic increase in particle size due to aggregation
followed by increase in crystallite size [27]. ey suggested that increase
in temperature caused depression in the thermodynamically driven force
which led to decrease in nuclear densities and thus increase in crystallite
size [28-29]. Hence, it is assumed that bioeld treatment may cause
decrease in nuclear density that led to increase in crystallite size. Carballo et
al., reported that rate of reaction can be signicantly improved by increase
in crystallite size [8]. Hence, treated indole due to high crystallite size
may improve the reaction rate and percentage yield during synthesis of
pharmaceutical compounds.
DSC Characterization
DSC was used to investigate the melting temperature and latent
heat of fusion of control and treated indole. DSC thermogram of
control indole showed melting temperature peak at 54.76ºC (Figure
to bioeld treatment caused paramount increase in medicinal property,
growth, and anatomical characteristics of ashwagandha [24].
By considering the above mentioned excellent outcome from
bioeld treatment and pharmaceutical signicance of indole, this study
was undertaken to investigate the impact of bioeld on its physical and
thermal properties.
Materials and Methods
e indole was procured from S D Fine Chem Pvt. Ltd., India. e
control and treated samples were characterized by XRD, DSC, TGA,
FT-IR and UV visible analysis.
Bioeld treatment
Indole was divided into two parts; one was kept as a control sample,
while the other was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld treatment and
coded as treated sample. e treatment group was in sealed pack and
handed over to Mr. Trivedi for bioeld treatment under laboratory
condition. Mr. Trivedi provided the treatment through his energy
transmission process to the treated group without touching the sample.
Aer bioeld treatment the control and treated group was subjected
to physicochemical characterization under standard laboratory
conditions.
Characterization
X-ray diraction (XRD) study: XRD analysis of indole was carried
out on Phillips, Holland PW 1710 X-ray diractometer system, which
had a copper anode with nickel lter. e radiation of wavelength
used by the XRD system was 1.54056 Å. e data obtained from this
XRD were in the form of a chart of 2θ vs. intensity and a detailed
table containing peak intensity counts, d value (Å), peak width (θ0),
relative intensity (%) etc. e crystallite size (G) was calculated by using
formula:
G = kλ/(bCosθ)
Here, λ is the wavelength of radiation used, b is full width half
maximum (FWHM) of peaks and k is the equipment constant (=0.94).
However, percent change in crystallite size was calculated using the
following equation:
Percent change in crystallite size = [(Gt-Gc)/Gc] ×100
Where, Gc and Gt are crystallite size of control and treated powder
samples respectively.
Dierential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study
e control and treated indole were analyzed by using a Pyris-6
Perkin Elmer DSC on a heating rate of 10ºC/min under air atmosphere
and air was ushed at a ow rate of 5 mL/min.
Percent change in melting point was calculated using following
equations:
[ ]
_T
% 100
T
Treated control
control
T
change in Melting point = ×
Where, T Control and T Treated are the melting point of control and
treated samples, respectively.
Percent change in latent heat of fusion was calculated using
following equations:
[ ]
_T
% 100
T
Treated control
control
T
change in Latent heat of fusion
∆∆
= ×
Where, ΔH Control and ΔH Treated are the latent heat of fusion of control
Volume 2 • Issue 4 • 1000152
J Environ Anal Chem
ISSN: 2380-2391 JREAC, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Bioeld Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modication of
Physical and Thermal Properties of Indole. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 152. doi:10.4172/2380-2391.1000152
Page 3 of 8
3). However, the DSC of treated indole showed a melting temperature
peak at 54.45ºC. e change in melting temperature of treated indole
as compared to control was 0.56%. e result showed that there was
no signicant change in melting temperature of treated indole as
compared to control. It may be inferred that bioeld did not inuence
the melting process of the treated indole. e latent heat of fusion
of control indole was 92.41 J/g; however, the treated sample showed
increase in latent heat of fusion (120.93 J/g) (Table 1). e increase
in latent heat of fusion was 30.86% in treated indole as compared to
control. In a solid, substantial amount of interaction force exists in
atomic bonds to hold the atoms at their positions, thus a sucient
amount of energy is required to change the phase from solid to liquid,
known as latent heat of fusion (ΔH). Further, the energy supplied
during phase change i.e. ΔH is stored as potential energy of atoms [30].
Hence, it is assumed that bioeld treatment may altered the potential
energy of treated indole as compared to control that led to increase in
latent heat of fusion.
TGA analysis
TGA thermogram of control and treated Indole are presented in
Figures 4 and 5, respectively. e thermogram of control indole showed
one step thermal degradation pattern. e sample started to thermally
degrade at around 147ºC and this process terminated at around 185ºC.
e control sample lost 46.52% of its weight during this step. Whereas
the treated indole also showed one step thermal degradation. e
thermal degradation commenced at around 150ºC and degradation
terminated at around 189ºC. During this step the treated indole lost
55.53% of its weight.
DTA thermograms of control and treated indole are shown in
Figures 4 and 5, respectively. e control sample showed a broad
endothermic peak at 174.12ºC may be due to decomposition of the
sample. However, the treated indole showed slight elevation in this
temperature and it was observed at 176.97ºC. e DTG thermogram
of control indole showed (Table 1) Tmax value at 163.37ºC; however,
it was increased to 166.49ºC in treated indole. e Tmax was increased
by 1.90% in treated indole as compared to control. is increase
in Tmax of treated indole showed the higher thermal stability as
compared to control. Szabo et al., showed that thermal stability of
poly (hexadecylthiophene) increased aer radiation treatment. ey
suggested that conformational changes in side alkyl and crosslinking
causes elevation in thermal stability [31]. Hence, it is presumed that
bioeld treatment may induce crosslinking in treated indole molecules
which lead to increase in thermal stability.
FT-IR Spectroscopy
FT-IR spectrum of control indole is presented in Figure 6. e
typical FT-IR of control indole showed stretching vibration band at
3406 cm-1 which was attributed to the N-H peak. e peak at 3022 cm-1
and 3049 cm-1 can be attributed to symmetric and asymmetric C-H
stretching vibration peaks. e characteristic aromatic C=C strong
stretching were appeared at 1508 cm-1, and 1577 cm-1 in the sample.
Vibrations peaks at 1616 cm-1, and 1456 cm-1 were due to C-C (in ring)
stretching in the sample. Other important peaks were observed at 1336
cm-1 and, 1352 cm-1 due to C-H bending modes of symmetric and
asymmetric methyl groups. Vibration peaks at 609 cm-1, 731 cm-1
and 744 cm-1 appeared due =C-H bending peaks in control. The FT-
IR region below 1000 cm-1 exhibits the out of plane bending of C-H
bond vibrations of aromatic carbon double bonds. The observed
FT-IR data is well supported from reported literature [32].
FT-IR spectrum of treated indole (T1 and T2) are presented
in Figure 7. e FT-IR spectrum of T1 showed important peaks at
3404 cm-1 and 3049 cm-1 which were due to N-H and C-H stretching
vibration peaks. e C=C aromatic stretching vibration peaks were
observed at 1504 cm-1 and 1577 cm-1. e stretching vibration bands for
C-C peak appeared at 1413 cm-1, 1477 cm-1 and 1614 cm-1. Vibrations
bands at 1336 cm-1 and 1352 cm-1 were due to C-H bending modes
of symmetric and asymmetric methyl groups. e T1 showed another
stretching peaks at 611 cm-1, 729 cm-1, and 746 cm-1 which were mainly
due to =C-H bending vibrations.
Figure 1: XRD diffractogram of control and treated indole.
Control Indole Treated Indole
Figure 2: Percentage change in crystallite size in treated indole.
Volume 2 • Issue 4 • 1000152
J Environ Anal Chem
ISSN: 2380-2391 JREAC, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Bioeld Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modication of
Physical and Thermal Properties of Indole. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 152. doi:10.4172/2380-2391.1000152
Page 4 of 8
Figure 3: DSC thermogram of control and treated indole.
Figure 4: TGA thermogram of control indole.
Sample Tm (ºC;
control)
Tm
( ºC; treated)
% Change in
Tm (ºC)
Control
(∆H J/g)
Treated
(∆H J/g)
% Change
in ∆H
Tmax (ºC;
control)
Tmax (ºC;
treated)
% Change in
Tmax
Indole 54.76 54.45 -0.56 -92.41 -120.93 30.86 163.37 166.49 1.90
Table 1: Thermal analysis data of control and treated indole.
Volume 2 • Issue 4 • 1000152
J Environ Anal Chem
ISSN: 2380-2391 JREAC, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Bioeld Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modication of
Physical and Thermal Properties of Indole. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 152. doi:10.4172/2380-2391.1000152
Page 5 of 8
Figure 5: TGA thermogram of treated indole.
Figure 6: FT-IR spectrum of control indole.
Volume 2 • Issue 4 • 1000152
J Environ Anal Chem
ISSN: 2380-2391 JREAC, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Bioeld Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modication of
Physical and Thermal Properties of Indole. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 152. doi:10.4172/2380-2391.1000152
Page 6 of 8
Figure 7: FT-IR spectra of treated indole.
e FTIR spectrum of T2 showed stretching vibration peaks for
C-H aromatics at 3099 cm-1. e C=C stretching peaks were appeared
at 1506 cm-1 and 1577 cm-1. Vibrations bands at 1338 cm-1 and 1354
cm-1 were due to C-H bending modes of symmetric and asymmetric
methyl groups. Vibration bands at 1489 cm-1 and 1616 cm-1 were due
to C-C (in ring) stretching in the sample. Other important peaks were
appeared at 609 cm-1, 734 cm-1 and 761 cm-1 due to =C-H bending
vibration peaks. Whereas, the FT-IR spectrum of T2 showed increase
in N-H stretching vibration peak at 3412 cm-1 which may be due to
increase force constant and stability of the bond. It was previously
suggested that increase in frequency of any bond causes possible
enhancement in force constant of respective bond [33].
UV visible spectroscopy
e UV spectra of control and treated indole (T1 and T2) are shown in
Figures 8 and 9, respectively. e UV spectrum of control indole showed
two main absorption peaks i.e. at 217 and 287 nm (λmax) and the spectrum
is well supported with the literature [34]. Similarly, the treated indole (T1)
also showed absorption peaks at 216 and 287 nm. Whereas the treated
indole (T2) also showed absorption peaks at 216 and 287 nm. It suggests
Volume 2 • Issue 4 • 1000152
J Environ Anal Chem
ISSN: 2380-2391 JREAC, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Bioeld Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modication of
Physical and Thermal Properties of Indole. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 152. doi:10.4172/2380-2391.1000152
Page 7 of 8
Figure 8: UV spectrum of control indole.
Figure 9: UV spectra of treated indole).
2
1
2
1
(1) 287 nm
(2) 216 nm
(1) 287 nm
(2) 216 nm
that bioeld treatment did not make any alteration in chromophore
groups of treated indole sample as compared to control.
Conclusion
The study results showed the significant impact of biofield
treatment on physical and thermal properties of indole. XRD data
on treated indole showed an increase in crystallite size with respect
to control sample. It is presumed that decrease in nuclear density
may cause increase in crystallite size. DSC analysis of treated indole
showed no change in melting temperature as compared to control.
Additionally, latent heat of fusion was substantially increased by
30.86% in treated indole as compared to control. TGA analysis of
treated indole showed enhanced thermal stability as compared to
control sample. FTIR data showed increase in force constant and
stability of the N-H bond of treated indole as compared to control.
The enhanced crystallite size and high thermal stability of treated
indole may improve the reaction rate. Hence, it is assumed that
biofield treated indole could be used as intermediate for synthesis
of pharmaceutical compounds.
Volume 2 • Issue 4 • 1000152
J Environ Anal Chem
ISSN: 2380-2391 JREAC, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al. (2015) Bioeld Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modication of
Physical and Thermal Properties of Indole. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 152. doi:10.4172/2380-2391.1000152
Page 8 of 8
Acknowledgement
The authors would like to thank Trivedi Science, Trivedi Master Wellness
and Trivedi Testimonials for their support during the work. The authors would like
to also thank all the laboratory staff of MGV Pharmacy College, Nashik for their
assistance during the various instrument characterizations.
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Citation: Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RM, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, et al.
(2015) Bioeld Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modication of Physical and
Thermal Properties of Indole. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 152. doi:10.4172/2380-
2391.1000152
... The experimental rotational constants reported by Suenam et al. [11], Caminati and Bernardo [12], Gruet et al. [13], Nesvadba et al. [14], and by Vavra et al. [15] are more useful for the present study in guiding our choice of method of geometry optimization. The published data of UV absorption spectra [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] often covered different excited states. Serrano-Andres and Roos [22] used results from multi-configuration second-order perturbation theory for complete active space (CASPT2) to compare with the various observations. ...
... g Livingston et al. [24]. h Kumar et al. [25]. i Borin and Serrano-Andres [26,27]. ...
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... (1) Fig. 4. These results are supported by Trivedi et al., [34]. The benzene ring (C-C, C = C) of indole has not been affected [35,36] suggesting the formation of a hybrid via C 2 and C 3 of the pyrrole ring of indole. ...
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