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Research Article Open Access
Setyawati and Shaw, J Mass Communicat Journalism 2015, 5:5
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2165-7912.1000258
Research Article Open Access
Mass Communication & Journalism
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ISSN: 2165-7912
Volume 5 • Issue 5 • 1000258
J Mass Communicat Journalism
ISSN: 2165-7912 JMCJ, an open access journal
The Media as Social Watch in Forest Management: Indonesia
Experience
Setyawati D* and Shaw R
Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan
Keywords: Media; Social Watch; Communities
Introduction
Saving the environment has been the common media discourse of
this decade. Scholars, movie stars and world leaders are calling out to
stop environmental destruction through popular media. Al Gore made
more famous for his documentary ‘An Inconvenient Truth’ on global
warming and its eects. e United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP) appointed actresses, models and athletes to attract attention
to their environmental campaigns. Sundance lm festivals have
become an important platform for environmental movies. e media
coverage on environmental changes is also expanding. Traditional
media and new media such as social media alike are campaigning for
environmental action.
Environmental communication has also become important
discourse in the public and private sphere. Environmental
communication has inuenced the government’s policy-making.
For instance, environmental activist joined with the public in the
UK has triggered opposition voices on the privatization proposals
to the management of the forest [1]. e online campaign set up a
petition that achieved 533,053 signatures. In addition, recognizing the
importance of communicating environmental problems, Universities
around the globe are launching environmental communication as a
formal education degree.
Despite the popular notion of saving the environment, deforestation
continues at alarming rate of 0.11% per year, between the year 2000 to
2011 [2]. e government and private sector claim that in their forest
mining activities, they are focusing on forest health, productivity
and socio-economic functions of forest, as well as forest certication
[3,4]. In reality, the current management of forest is being criticized
by Maser who argues that forest functions is being altered without
ideas of how these actions will aect the sustainability of the forest
[5]. Anthropogenic factors such as forest based industries, population
growth and agriculture continue to threaten the forest [6]. In addition,
natural disaster and climate change also inuence changes in forest
ecosystem and composition.
To overcome this situation, the media has the potential to play a
signicant educating role. Formal education can only reached out to
certain population and neglect the larger sphere where perpetrators
of forest degradation reside. e media as a communication actor can
provide informal education as well as monitor on-the-ground actions
of forest communities. is paper proposes such role of the media as
social watch in forest management. Functioning more as a monitoring
and documenting actor, the media can take the responsibility of
empowering and capacity building of the community. is informal
learning by the media can create domino eects which started from
individual level to the government.
is paper proposes the role of media as social watch by looking
into the case of Indonesia. e purpose of this paper is twofold. First is
to articulate the Indonesian media coverage on forest issues. Second is
to provide a framework in which the media can play a role to improve
the situation on forest management. To achieve its purposes, this paper
reviews media literature. en, this paper discusses brief history and
progress of media industry in Indonesia. Indonesia is selected because
the existing media industry reects hegemonic power of media as
discussed by Bainbridge [7]. ere are a few media networks owned
by political elites that dominate communication channels in the
country. ese communication channels are being consumed by 240
million population whose 21 percent watch television regularly [8].
Subsequently, media coverage on forest issues in Indonesia is analyzed
by discourse analysis to see the classication of coverage; whether the
article highlights problems or proposes solutions to certain issue. Next,
the paper designed a framework of actions with action plans where the
media can be used to improve eorts for sustainable forest management.
Sustainable forest management is dened as sound eorts that provide
*Corresponding author: Setyawati D, Graduate School of Global Environmental
Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501,
Japan, Tel: 81-75-753-7531; E-mail: s.dinita@gmail.com
Received April 21, 2015; Accepted May 19, 2015; Published May 29, 2015
Citation: Setyawati D, Shaw R (2015) The Media as Social Watch in Forest
Management: Indonesia Experience. J Mass Communicat Journalism 5: 258.
doi:10.4172/2165-7912.1000258
Copyright: © 2015 Setyawati D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Abstract
In the past decades, climate change and global warming issues have been recurring in the media and public
sphere. Despite the continuous calling to stop environmental destruction, deforestation continues at an alarming
rate. More than a medium to transmit information, the media can play important role to inuence decision making
of government and other stakeholders forest management. This paper studied the case in Indonesia where the
media industry is thriving and deforestation is growing. Discourse analysis on 150 forestry related articles from three
online media found that there is a difference in the focus of national and local media. The national media coverage
tends to discuss the problems of an issue while the local media provides solutions to those issues. To overcome this
mismatch, the local and social media can create trends that would be resonated by national media. Then, the role
of media as ‘social watch’ can be effective. In fullling such role, this paper proposes a framework of action plans in
which the media can act as social watch. Within this framework, the action plans include the role of media in agenda
setting, capacity building, bridging, monitoring assessment and reporting and documenting.
Citation: Setyawati D, Shaw R (2015) The Media as Social Watch in Forest Management: Indonesia Experience. J Mass Communicat Journalism
5: 258. doi:10.4172/2165-7912.1000258
Page 2 of 7
Volume 5 • Issue 5 • 1000258
J Mass Communicat Journalism
ISSN: 2165-7912 JMCJ, an open access journal
balance to the forest ecosystem’s productivity, resilience, biodiversity
and integrity [9]. Last, conclusion is discussed.
e Role and Inuence Factor of Media
e media, be it traditional media such as newspaper, mass media
such as television, social media such as internet social network and
informal such as university bulletin board as a common inuence
factors. ese are; 1) creating a perception of reality; 2) inuencing
the activities of audiences, advertisers as well as their own internal
organizational process and demand for engagement Cinzia, and
Kranenburg; and 3) setting the political agenda McCombs [10-14].
With almost one third of the world’s population is using the Internet
today, the number of social media user is increasing gradually [15].
And today, the more educated audience has more power to choose the
media, which t for his or her needs. e mass media might be able to
inuence larger audiences, but if it needs to tailor its communication
form in order to persuade a specic group.
Media is dened as “all those institutions of society that make use of
copying technologies to disseminate communication” [16]. Bainbridge
stated that media is anything in which something else can be transmitted
[7]. Mcluhan coined the term ‘the medium is the message’ meaning
that the form of a message (print, audio visual) determines the way in
which that message will be perceived [10]. McLuhan theory suggests
that audio-visual device such as television can create a perception of
reality for its viewers. is view is further endorsed by Gerbner who
hypothesized communication of culture (through media) is not merely
to entertain, but also to create publics; they do not only reect but also
shape attitude, tastes and preferences [11].
is is to say that the media is used as a tool that inuences
activities of society and demand for an engagement. As proposed by
Keefer and Khemani, media access can be the source of information
and persuasion for individuals directly through their own exposure
and indirectly through other institutions [12]. Continuous exposure
of media creates behavior change and brought impact in various
dimensions of the society. Scholars have researched the impact of
media on politics, disaster management and post disaster recovery and
public service [12,17-21]. is power aspect of the media brought what
Bainbridge describe as ‘hegemonic power’ where the elite dominant
group uses the media to persuade subordinate groups to accept the
leadership and ideas [7]. e dynamics of media also relates to dierent
dimensions of social, economic and politics [22].
e media itself can be dierentiated by its ownership, scope of
target audience, coverage and mode of communication. Private owned
media refers to broadcasting industry that owns a national and local
network of television, radio, online and targeting large number of
audience. Community based media is the media where the audience is
main agent of its operation, for example local television and community
radio. Private owned media has a larger scope of audience and coverage
than community based media. Both private and community based
media exist in dierent forms; radio, television, new media or social
media and informal media.
e early-developed media such as radio and television helped to
construct hegemony by producing the cultural identity for people; or
the way people should behave [7]. Television is portrayed as the media
that oer both recreational and educational functions, a tool useful for
classifying and acclimatizing the audience to the outside world and
important way to conserve the tradition of media and ways of being
[7]. Social media platform has risen for sharing various types of user
personalized content to generate relationships and social capital [23].
Khang also argues “with the rise of varied platforms of social media,
the online environment has become fully interactive and collaborative,
allowing individuals to actively engage in two-way communication,
post reviews of services and products, upload self-created videos, and
even engage in virtual lives”. e news spread through the internet
has named as a game changer in what was a fairly tame, safe media
instrument [7]. In addition, informal media for example bulletin board
is used in a smaller scope of audience. Nevertheless all the media above
have certain degree of inuence to its audiences.
Media and Forest Issue in Indonesia
Forest issues and media coverage
Indonesia has lost 8 percent of its total area to deforestation
between early 2000 and 2012, making it the highest level of tree cover
lost in Southeast Asia. In 2011, there are 130.68 million hectares of
forest in Indonesia, including marine conservation areas. e royalties
and other revenues from forest operations exceeded $1.1 billion per
annum and forest related employment amounted to about 800,000
jobs in the formal sector [24]. e 1945 Constitution mandate was
that the forest and all its contents is to be utilized to the maximum
benet of the people while maintaining sustainability. In response to
the climate change impact, the Government has also targeting a 26 per
cent emission reduction by 2020, with 14 per cent reduction coming
from the forestry sector. Indonesia is also one of the target countries for
REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation), a
climate change mitigation approach from various sectors.
Although the country is active in leading the eorts to engage
multi-stakeholders to improve the research and investments into
sustainable landscapes, but it faces challenges in implementing
sustainable forest management (SFM) at below the national level.
is is partly due to decentralization that has been taking place since
early 2000 and complicates policy integration in forest management.
e decentralization policy in the forestry sector was aimed at
handing over roles and authority for forest resource management
from central to local government. However, its implementation in
Indonesia is mired with complexity and conict due to dierences in
understanding of the forest management model in the eld [25]. e
main regulations in forestry sector are Law No. 19/2004 that regulates
the licensing for private companies and Law No. 18/2013 that sanctions
the measurement against forest destructors. In addition, each province
and district has its own regulations that do not necessarily follow the
national law.
Despite the fact that these existing law and regulations recognize
the role of community in forest management, however the local
ownership of forest is fairly weak because of government and private
sector domination. For example the community-based involvement of
Pembinaan Masyarakat Desa Hutan (PMDH) was mired with many
shortcomings and failure, resulting community based forestry area
only accounted to about 2% of total production areas, while private
companies manage 97.5% of total production forest. e involvement
of local community in forest management is vital given that the people
are dependent upon the forest for their livelihoods. Pulhin states that
people who live close to forests and may be dependent on them for
a variety of products and services have greater interest in the proper
management than distant authorities located hundreds of kilometers
away [26]. Although forest management is being regularized at the
national and local level, it has not reached the grass root level. e
problems surrounding Indonesia forest management and high rate
Citation: Setyawati D, Shaw R (2015) The Media as Social Watch in Forest Management: Indonesia Experience. J Mass Communicat Journalism
5: 258. doi:10.4172/2165-7912.1000258
Page 3 of 7
Volume 5 • Issue 5 • 1000258
J Mass Communicat Journalism
ISSN: 2165-7912 JMCJ, an open access journal
of deforestation demonstrate that forest in Indonesia has yet to be
managed in a sustainable way.
With complexity framing forest management in Indonesia, the
media exacerbated the issue by focusing on the problems rather than
solutions to forestry issues. Discourse analysis was conducted on 150
articles (2008-2014, time varied within the three media) from three
online news; Kompas, Vivanews and Tabloid Jubi, owned by dierent
companies. Discourse analysis stemmed from a social constructionist
view that pinpoint language at the centre of social construction
process [27]. Discourse analysis examines the use of language to create
meaning, images, stories or statements within particular social context.
e analysis classied newspaper articles on forest into 3 common
discourses: problems, travel and solution. e categorization of
‘problems’ is dened when the news is focusing on the issues related to
the forest, ranging from legal uncertainty, forest burning or corruption
case. Articles classied as ‘travel’ articles is classied in the human-
interest section and focused on the tourism aspects of forest. Lastly,
articles classied as ‘solution’ dene an answer to a problem.
Result of the analysis shows dierent discourse on national and local
news. On the national news, the articles covering forestry are mainly
focusing on the problems related to forestry and less on the solutions
to the issues (Figure 1). ese articles also have coverage on tourism
aspect of the forest. From 50 articles analysed on Kompas newspaper,
27 are focusing on the problems in forestry management, including
legal issue, forest destruction due to human made disaster, corruption
and how mismanagement of forest is causing poverty. Nineteen articles
portray the forest as travelling site and four articles propose solutions
to forestry problems. Solutions that these articles propose include the
use of indigenous knowledge in forest management and corporate
social responsibility programme in saving species of the forest.
Similarly, Viva news focused on the problems of the forestry
issue. Discourse analysis on Vivanews articles show that 34 articles
are focusing on the problems, 11 articles are illustrating the forest as
tourism site and ve articles emphasized on eorts to conserve the
forest through ecient use of technology, planting of useful forest
species, conservation actions initiated by blogger community and how
the government is using aid fund to protect the forest. ese articles
published on both online sites are also being broadcasted on social
media. Some of these articles is forwarded by active social media users
and become ‘trending topic’, or popular issue that triggers online
discussion.
On the other hand, the local media Tabloid Jubi concerns more
on the solutions to the forest management rather than the problems.
Discourse analysis from 50 news articles shows that the articles are
discussing about ways to save the forest or protect the people through
forest conservation, legal framework revision or local government eorts
for forest concession moratorium. ese articles are also lengthier and
use descriptive rather than aggressive words. For example, headline of
an article says ‘Merauke citizen is reminded over cutting down trees
near the coastal area’. In comparison, the headlines on national news
use words such as ‘threatened’ or ‘feudalism’. is is to say that the
sense of responsibility of local media is higher than national media to
certain issue and thus, proves the importance of involving these local
media in eorts for the environment.
Role of Media as Social Watch in Forest Management
is section provides assessment of the role and inuence of
media in forest management. is paper proposes the media can
act as ‘social watch’ in forest management. e term social watch is
generally associated with monitoring of justice within the aspects of
gender and poverty. e word ‘social’ in Merriam dictionary is dened
as “the interaction of the individual and the group, or the welfare of
human beings as members of society” [28]. Kuhn denes studies of
social as “the entire constellation of beliefs, values, techniques shared
by members of given community” [29]. From those denitions, here
social watch is dened as the role of media in mentoring the society
that includes monitoring, guiding, as well as capacity building.
Functioning of media as social watch using the study case in
Indonesia involves a number of interrelated internal and external
factors. e analysis in the previous section provides media context in
Indonesia where the press enjoys signicant freedom, private owned
media has strong networks and community based media continues
to thrive. is condition paired with a number of forest management
problems, including decentralization, competing framework of
regulations and laws, lack of local ownership to the forest and corruption
prone system of conservation and reforestation signify the specic
engagement of media as social watch. First, it is vital to consider the
push and factor of the media that involve both private and community
based media. Second, the media can increase engagement in capacity
building of the community with support from government at national
and local levels. Last, the media can provide bridging between private
sector, government and the community.
e push and pull factor of media
As proven by the discourse analysis, there is a mismatch on
the focus of news coverage between national and local media. To
overcome this mismatch, this paper proposes a strategy of the ‘push
and pull factor’. e push and pull factor is dened as incentive to
set the national media agenda towards environmental sustainability.
Although commercial media still has hegemonic power in inuencing
its audience, but the growth of Internet has changed the dynamics in a
sense that the media is also picking up what is trending in the society.
Indonesia is ranked 13th in terms of global internet population, with
more than 42 million internet users [30]. Social media has become
important campaigning tools for national and local elections. As Rosen
suggested, the media hegemony (or monopoly) as gatekeeper of the
news is threatened by not just new technology and competitors, but
potentially by the audience it serves [31]. Commercial media broadcast
the news based on trends on the internet. As such, community based
media, including local newspaper, television and social media can act
as the push factor that sparks sustainable forest management trends. In
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Number of Arcles
Problems,
2
T
Kompa
s
2
7
T
ravel, 19
4
s
News
Pro
b
Tra
Vivanews
Online Me
d
b
lems, 34
Proble
v
el, 11
5
T
d
ia
ms, 21
Travel, 1
28
T
ablod Jubi
Prob
Trav
e
Solu
t
lems
e
l
t
ion
Figure 1: Result of Discourse Analysis on Forestry Articles in Online Media
(2008-2014).
Citation: Setyawati D, Shaw R (2015) The Media as Social Watch in Forest Management: Indonesia Experience. J Mass Communicat Journalism
5: 258. doi:10.4172/2165-7912.1000258
Page 4 of 7
Volume 5 • Issue 5 • 1000258
J Mass Communicat Journalism
ISSN: 2165-7912 JMCJ, an open access journal
correspondence, private media can act as the pull factor that pressure
stakeholders of SFM to act.
e previous discussion presented that community based media
is the media where community or individuals are the main operating
agent, such as community radio, social media or local television.
Although social media is associated with large social capital and
may have the traits of private owned media, but this paper takes the
view that it is a community driven media. e reason being is that
trending topics in social media originate from individual users and
personalization of social media depends much on the user. If popular
social media personality can be inuenced to discuss the solutions to
forest management, then it will derive a bottom up trend. In Indonesia
where social media is popular, information can be spread quickly and
reach a large number of audience.
With decentralization, it is imperative to inuence decision making
of the local government through the local media. e programme of
local television and community radio can be tailored to t the local
audience’s need and educate them in forestry issues. Examining the
role of community radio in post disaster management, Hibino and
Shaw demonstrated that its role is vital since existing mass media has
not been able to respond to the needs of communities at the local level
[19]. Hence this type of media can be the main agent and important
tool for ensuring the sustainability in forest management.
Correspondingly the private media can stimulate pressure to
the government on the issue of forest management. Here private
media refers to large media network encompasses national and local
television, pay per view television, radio stations, newspaper and online
news channels. e downward arrow expressed how the private media
can stimulate policy improvement especially since the media owner in
Indonesia is inuential. e strong domino eect of media would incite
forest management discussion at the policy level. Given that the media
is not a neutral device, deliberately used to inuence the government’s
decision making (Stromberg, 2005:189), it can be inuential in exerting
social pressure to the government.
e media in capacity building
ere is little understanding of cause and eects related
to environmental degradation, socio-economic impacts and
environmentally-induced migration [32]. Although both Indonesian
national government has provided guidelines on forest management,
conduct seminars and workshop on regularly basis, but the
understanding of forest management at local level is limited. Study
from CIFOR on forestry sector decentralization in South Sulawesi
shows that the main challenge is local level understanding of forest
management [25]. e current understanding of forest management
is not sucient to provide tangible action both at the community and
policy level. is situation creates an opportunity to be lled by the
media to act as capacity building for the community. Goldstein may
suggest that the prestige press in particular has contributed to the
poor understanding of particular environmental issue [33]. However,
community based media with its operation supervised by volunteered
or paid environmental professionals can ensure the data and facts on
environmental issues are accurate.
In the present situation where the audience is getting too much
information, the ‘balance’ role of media is important. Balance means
that the media provide unbias information on certain issue. ere is
some truth to the argument of Goldstein that says the present society
is no longer seem to care very much about making a discretion [33].
However, the present society is better equipped with information and
thus, capable of retrieve information on certain issue from various
sources, for example through online or traditional media. What
matters more are how to keep the audience interested. To educate the
audience and to make the message absorbed, the media can utilize
innovative ways in its programming. For example information on
harvesting guidelines, dangers of illegal logging and indigenous forest
management can be packaged into an lively documentary or live
broadcast that would inuence the behavior change of community
towards sustainability. e media can provide educational information
as well as collecting feedback from the community on the most suitable
ways of managing the forest.
More than data and facts on environmental issue, receiving
feedback from the audience, information sharing and dissemination
of knowledge among community and individuals are equally
important. e reason being is that environmental discourse in the
media has been mainly focused on the event and damage rather than
the solutions. Allan argues that there is a tendency from the media to
represent environmental issue as specic event-oriented disaster rather
than recognizing it as event in need of bureaucratic calculation and
discussion [34]. Critics against the media said that the environmental
discourse on the media tend to emphasis on the perpetrator and the
problems without focusing on the solutions [35]. Discourse analysis
from national media articles has also proved this argument. If the
community and individuals provide feedback on what information is
needed, this lack of information can be avoided.
Important note is also to provide more than brief news to the
audience, but creating programming that has signicant impact and
initiate behavior change both from below and above. Grafstorm and
Windel argue that the media coverage is limited to discussing an issue
on the surface without oering reective and in-depth discussion
about the broader context. is phenomenon could be explained
by the assumption that media is limited in their capacity to provide
neutral coverage due to the interest value of the news. For them,‘bad
news’ is ‘good news’. e challenge is to alter this perspective into
‘environmental awareness’ is ‘good news’.
e media as bridge
Focusing the discussion on forest management in the case of
Indonesia, the issue mainly lies on the decentralization that create
complexity in information sharing between national and local levels.
Diering views exist between the national and local government. e
national government transferred the authority of forest management
to the local government, who then extract the forest resources to
gain more local income. In the midst of this debate, media can play
bridging roles between individuals and government, private sectors
and international organisations to encourage communications within
all stakeholders, with the purpose of identifying problems and nding
common solutions. e realization of SFM requires intentional
measures from all direct and indirect stakeholders, although their
degree of involvement might dier. is is where the role of media is
vital in convincing those actors to maintain the sustainability of the
forest.
e view taken is that the media could become an additional agent
of linking and monitoring sustainable development. Decentralization
that took place in Indonesia since early 2000 has fractioned the
national and local government, creating complexity in legal framework
for sustainable forest management. Identication of media is part
of reconnecting process. In practice, although the media has been
Citation: Setyawati D, Shaw R (2015) The Media as Social Watch in Forest Management: Indonesia Experience. J Mass Communicat Journalism
5: 258. doi:10.4172/2165-7912.1000258
Page 5 of 7
Volume 5 • Issue 5 • 1000258
J Mass Communicat Journalism
ISSN: 2165-7912 JMCJ, an open access journal
successful in inuencing daily lives of an audience, for example political
views of the public or alternative ways to work due to heavy trac
on live broadcast, it has less success in contributing to the behavior
change of community towards the forest and environment. First, the
perspective of media on environmental issue needs to be changed, from
an agent of news to an educator. Once the media perceive itself as an
educator, then it can be eective in creating a bond among stakeholders
of forest management.
Other roles of media
e hegemonic power of media allows it to set the agenda of the
public. Along with agenda setting, the function of media in monitoring,
assessment and reporting, as well documenting is also vital given the
need for assessments in environmental issue taken from perspective
other than the government’s. Here the media can provide alternative
ways to manage the forest, for example encouraging community
ownership of the forest will ensure better forest management. e
media can also maintain historical records of forest ownership and
management, which then maintain common identity among forest
stakeholders. ese actions plans of the media are summarized in
Figure 2. Figure 2 proposes framework of action plans in which the
media can a role as social watch of forest management. ese indicators
are derived from the role and inuence factor of media. is paper
set 5 actions for media: agenda setting, capacity building, bridging,
monitoring assessment and reporting, as well as documenting. To
maximize the eort, private media and community based media need
to work closely together and have the common understanding of the
issue on focus.
Awareness raising on sustainable
forest management to
communities, for example on
forest conservation or update on
regulation.
Actively pursue feedback from
national and local government on
media coverage related to forest
management, broadcast result of
feedback.
Live broadcast of emergencies
related to forest disaster, for
example during forest fire.
Regular monitoring of
forest management, for
example through weekly
documentaries on the state
of forest.
Regular assessment of
forest health, for example
through publishing of state
of t he forest assessment by
experts.
Irregularities found in
forest management reported
to authorities.
Record of forest
resources
maintained, for
example in
television
documentary,
newspaper
article.
Records of fauna,
flora and
ecosystem
diversity is
maintained, for
example in
newspaper
articles.
Media as
Social
Watch
Agenda
Setting
Capacity
Building
Bridging
Monitoring
assessmentre
porting
Documenting
Initiate
discussion on the
loss of biological
diversity, for
example through
radio, television
or social media.
Focusing media
coverage on the
solutions of
forest related
problems.
Emphasizing on
lesson learnt and
best practices on
forest
management.
Prioritized sustainable
forest management,
environmental conservation
and forestry issues.
Support community
participation in forest
management.
Encourage transparent
system of conservation and
reforestation fee.
Figure 2: Framework of Action Plans for Media as Social Watch in Forest Management.
Citation: Setyawati D, Shaw R (2015) The Media as Social Watch in Forest Management: Indonesia Experience. J Mass Communicat Journalism
5: 258. doi:10.4172/2165-7912.1000258
Page 6 of 7
Volume 5 • Issue 5 • 1000258
J Mass Communicat Journalism
ISSN: 2165-7912 JMCJ, an open access journal
Conclusion
In the past decades, climate change and global warming issues have
received more coverage in mass media and the public sphere. e form
of coverage varied from news reporting or documentaries. However,
the coverage on news are mostly focused on the sensational factor of a
particular environmental issue. Even though media coverage has been
focused on environmental problems, one of them being deforestation,
that provide obstacle to future sustainable development of society, yet
not all people are educated to act against it. Despite the media is being
considered as the main actor in environmental communication, it has
yet to play constructive role in the society.
is paper categorized the media into two types, that is private
media and community based media. Private media is the one that
owned by media network. Community based media including
community radio, local television and social media. Given the media
is commonly owned by corporation giant, it needs a strong incentive
to promote forest management that is sustainable. Commercial media
may have diculties in terms of setting the goals, which is right for
the public (not for the owner). However involving community based
media such as community radio, local television and social media, can
overcome these diculties. Community based media is able to create a
trend that can be resonated by the private media.
Media that exists on the public space and sphere is a prominent
tool to inuence decision-making. e media is where all stakeholders
can gather and exchange information. Agenda setting and hegemonic
power of the media can inuence government’s decision-making and
policies to foster sustainable forest management. A joint eort between
mass media and community based media is vital to obtain roots in
both government and community, build bonds among all stakeholders
and maintain a common identity. Discourse analysis of forestry
articles in Indonesian media shows that the coverage on national
media is focusing on the problems of forest management, while the
local media is focusing on the solutions to forest management. is
demonstrates the sense of responsibility of national and local media
diers. us, engagement of local media in encouraging sustainable
forest management is vital.
e eectiveness of the media as social watch is rened into
several factors and action plans, including the push and pull factors,
the media as capacity builder, the media as the bridge between existing
sustainable forest management stakeholders exist on the national
and local level, how the media set the agenda for sustainable forest
management, the media in monitoring, assessment and reporting
and lastly, how it document forest histories. e push and pull factors
relate to how private and community based media work together to
create strong incentive for coverage of sustainable forest management.
e media is an eective educator since the public consumes media
on a daily basis. Moreover, the media can transmit and act as site for
information sharing between national and local level stakeholders in
forest management.
Acknowledgement
The rst author acknowledges the MEXT (MONBUKAGAKUSHO) scholarship
provided by the Japanese Government for performing this research at the
Environmental Education Lab, the Graduate School of Global Environmental
Studies of Kyoto University.
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doi:10.4172/2165-7912.1000258
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Book
Unfortunately, I do not have an electronic file for Setting the Agenda. Best wishes for your research, Max McCombs
Chapter
When a major disaster occur in Japan, community radios play the role of disaster radios, or emergency disaster radios are set up in the affected area. In this way, victims can obtain the information they need to overcome the disaster. What’s more, besides what has already been said, the role of community radios in disaster management is not confined to providing disaster information only. The presence of the community radio in every phase of a disaster; ‘disaster mitigation’, ‘preparation’, ‘early warning’, ‘response’, ‘recovery and revitalization’, is essential for the exchange and sharing of information and dialogue among residents, as well as the enhancement the community’s capability and of self-government ability. That is, the community radio is the ideal tool because it has deep roots in the community, has built bonds among the people, and maintains a community identity.
Chapter
In the event that communications infrastructure and disaster wireless systems are severely damaged during a natural disaster, the means to pass information on to disaster victims is lost. Furthermore, it is quite common for large scale blackouts to occur during such natural disasters. In such disaster situations, radio acts as a resilient medium of communication that is not influenced by blackouts, and even in cases where broadcasting equipment is damaged it is a medium for which operation can be restored relatively easily. In such situations it is not radio stations that cover a wide broadcast area, but rather low output radio stations (community radio stations being one such example) located in local communities that are capable of playing a major role in collecting, transmitting, and sharing detailed disaster related information specific to these individual communities and the unique needs of disaster victims living in such communities. This chapter provides a comparative analysis of role of community radio in Japan and Indonesia and exemplifies the future role, the community radio should play for effective risk reduction.
Book
NB the third edition of this text will be out in October 2015 An introductory text that provides an overview of the ‘mediasphere’ to demonstrate how a knowledge of media can inform a knowledge of journalism and vice versa; and to show how such knowledge is best acquired through a combination of theory and practice. It integrates media theory with journalistic practice by drawing on current theories of the media as well as providing practical instruction on how to write journalistic pieces that put these theories into practice. This book is divided into five parts, with the focus becoming progressively broader – from journalism and news writing, to the contexts in which they operate, to the larger mediasphere, to the media industries themselves, to the contexts in which these industries function. This encourages students to follow the flow of information and ideas from news production through to dissemination and negotiation, revealing how important journalism and media studies are to each other.
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The book is a discussion of scientific and philosophical underpinnings of novels planning design and management in forestry. It explains the deviation of human forest management from natural forests, and the economic rationale for this interventionist management. A section focuses on land use planning as the vehicle to enable conflict resolution in forestry management disputes and to envisioning future desirable states. The last part of the book suggests a new paradigm for forestry integrating natural forests with social and cultural necessities. Examples are primarily temperate forestry and North American. -N.Adger
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Prior research on mass media and government accountability has not examined the effects of citizen media access on broad public services, such as education. At the same time, research has abstracted from the potentially influential role of mass media on parental investments in children’s education. We address both issues using a “natural experiment” in radio access in Benin and find that school children’s literacy rates are higher in villages exposed to a larger number of community radio stations. There is no evidence that this effect operates through greater government responsiveness. Instead, households with greater media access make larger private investments in their children’s education.